September 2013 - The Arctic and the North Pacific with an Emphasis on British Columbia


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1. [ALASKA, PHOTOGRAPHS]
[Album with 99 Original Photographs from a Voyage Including 72 Photos of Alaska and the Yukon, and 27 Studio images from Travels to Italy, Austria, USSR, Germany, France, Spain and Lebanon; With Two Colour Printed Postcards of Alaskan Views].

Alaska etc., ca. 1920. Quarto (ca. 27x19 cm). 26 stiff card leaves. Images ca. 9,5x12 cm (3 ¾ x 4 ¾ in), all with custom made paper labels with manuscript ink captions mounted on the left lower corners of the photos numbered ‘6100’-‘6198’. Period style black half straight-grained morocco with gilt tooled spine and cloth boards. Some leaves are separating on margins, a few with minor cracks at hinges, but overall a very good album.
Interesting collection of Alaskan travel photos including Alaskan scenery, panoramas and street views of Alaskan cities, several images of the White Pass and Yukon Route Railway, steamers on the Yukon river, portraits of native people, totem poles in Alert Bay et al. The Alaskan scenery is shown in a series of glacier views in the vicinity of Juneau: Taku Inlet, Taku River and Taku Glacier, Twin Glacier (with nice bird-eyes view), Mendenhall River and Glacier, two images of Alaskan volcanoes - Vent Mountain and "Active volcano packed in ice" and others. Another group of images shows the pristine nature of Cook Inlet and Prince William Sound: Cape Resurrection, Turnagain Arm, Columbia Glacier and Mt. McKinley. There are also images of Lynn Canal near Skagway, Stikine River, Atlin Lake and Atlin Mountain with a nice view of Atlin Inn on the lake’s shore; Seal Rocks and Spencer Glacier near Dawson et al.
The urban photos include panoramas of Dawson, Seward, Wrangell, White Horse, Anchorage and Skagway; and nice street scenes of Wrangell, Nenana, Anchorage (government hospital), Fort Yukon (the hotel), Skagway (sightseeing bus, dog team in the street in summer) and Dawson (main street, "Robert Service Cabin"). Several spectacular images of the White Pass and Yukon Route Railway show the White Pass, Sawtooth Mountains and the Loop. There are images of the Yukon River, with a cantilever bridge, Five Finger rapids, Miles Canyon (Yukon); several river steamers are also shown - "Casca." SS "Yukon" in Seward, "Tutshi," and several vessels in a steamer dock in Nenana.
The album has some nice images of Alaskan native people, including a family drying fish in the background, images of dog teams, children, totem poles in Alert Bay, "prehistoric rock carving, Alaska," "Tongas deserted village," "Black dog ready for trail" et al. There is also a good image of American fishermen loading fish on a vessel "Shipload of fish," and a portrait of a hiker having a rest on "the great rock" - likely, the portrait of the author of the album or a friend of his.
Several studio shots include a portrait of President Harding (1865-1923), images of kayaks in Greenland, Alaskan pilots "getting ready for flight," "The Trail of 1890" and others. The collection from the travels to Europe contains images of Renaissance paintings taken in Italy, views of Vienna, Moscow (Central Telegraph, Kremlin), Leningrad (Government Department store, Lenin Institute), Kiev (City Museum, Convent), Jena (glass factory), Versailles, Heidelberg (student procession), Sorbonne, Berlin, Baalbec and Alhambra.


2. [ALEUTS, COSTUMES]
[Chromolithograph Plate with a Colourful Image of an Aleutian Couple]: Aléoutes/ Алеуты.

Paris: Imp. Lemercier, [1862]. Chromolithograph plate ca. 32,5x22 cm (12 ¾ x 8 ¾ in). From the drawing by Ch. Huhn, lithographed by Thurvanger. Minor foxing on the margins, right lower corner creased, not affecting image, otherwise a very good print with wide margins.
The beautiful bright chromolithograph shows an Aleutian couple in native costumes standing on the ocean shore. The woman carries a hand-woven basket, the man is depicted with a paddle; the elaborate ornaments of the clothes and headdresses decorated with feathers are shown in precise details. Shore cliffs and kayaks in the water are seen in the background.
A plate from Theodore de Pauly’s “Description ethnographique des peuples de la Russie” (Saint Petersburg, 1862; included 62 chromolithographs, 1 map, 1 table, and 1 partly photograph plate). The edition was published to commemorate “the millennium jubilee of the Russian Empire” (862 – the beginning of reign of the first Russian prince, the legendary Rurik). It was prepared with the active participation of the Russian Geographical Society – e.g. The Aleutian costumes, as says the caption underneath, were depicted after the originals from the Society’s collection. The author, Gustave Theodeore de Pauly (1817-1867) was a Russian statesman of Prussian origin, a member of the RGS from 1857, and one of the founders of the Russian Animal Protection Society (1864).


3. [ALEXANDER VON BUNGE EXPEDITION 1889]
[Unique Collection of 23 Original Photographs Documenting the Investigation of the Wreck of the Russian Coast Guard Ship Kreiserok in the Vicinity of Cape Soya, Northwestern Hokkaido].

Ca. 1889. One photograph ca. 16.5 x 22cm (6 ½ x 8 ½ in), eighteen photographs, ca. 12x17 cm (4 ¾ x 6 ¾ in) and four smaller photographic portraits of the Kreiser’s crew, ca. 11x8 cm (4 ¼ x 3 ¼ in) mounted on card leaves of different sizes. The majority of photographs with pencil captions in Danish on the lower margins of the mounts. Minor foxing of the mounts, but overall a very good collection.
This important photographic collection documents the search expedition of the Russian Navy to the northwestern Hokkaido in November 1889 - January 1890. The purpose was to investigate the fate of the shipwreck of the Russian coast guard schooner Kreiserok ("Little Cruiser") which was in service on the coast of Tyuleniy Island (in the Sea of Okhotsk, 19 km to the south of Cape Patience (Mys Terpeniya), on the eastern Sakhalin coast) protecting against poachers and disappeared in a storm on the 26th of October, 1889.
The wreck of Kreiserok was discovered by Japanese on the shore next to village Wakkanai, in the vicinity of Cape Soya, the northernmost point of Hokkaido, 43 km away across the Laperouse Strait from Sakhalin Island. The Russian consulate informed the Pacific Squadron of the Russian Navy which wintered in Nagasaki, and the Squadron Commander rear admiral Vladimir Schmidt sent the investigation expedition on clipper Kreiser ("Cruiser") to ascertain whether the wreck was indeed the Kreiserok.
The expedition under the leadership of renowned Russian Polar explorer, doctor Alexander von Bunge (1851-1930) included Lt. V.N. Bukharin and other Russian mariners, as well as Japanese officials and translators. The party reached the place of the wreck with great difficulties because of heavy snowfalls and strong winds. They examined what left of the schooner - a part of stern with steering wheel and the right side with both masts. Two ship’s boats, the flag and the board with the ship’s name were discovered, as well as a body of a sailor (Fedor Ivanov). None of the crew members was rescued, obviously there were no survivors. The cause of the disaster wasn’t determined, but it was assumed that the ship wrecked because of the ice formation on Kreiserok’s hull and rigging during strong storm, winds and low temperatures.
This photograph collection, assembled by the Danish member of Kreiser’s crew, Lt. C.M.T. Cold (who also captioned most of the images), includes eleven images of the Kreiserok wreck on shore with all parts of the schooner's remains clearly visible. Five images show the surrounding coast and a Japanese settlement, covered with deep snow. The majority of the pictures from the wreckage also show the expedition members, with Alexander Bunge present on five pictures, and possibly V. Bukharin and Lt. Cold present at least on six pictures; several pictures show the Japanese members, and two images are group portraits of all expedition members. Five pictures are dedicated to the clipper Kreiser including four portraits of its crew members, and a view of Kreiser in the harbour of Nagasaki, the latter was reproduced in: Krestianinov, V.I. Cruisers of the Russian Imperial Navy, 1856-1917. Part 1. SPb., 2003 (Крестьянинов, В.Я. Крейсера Российского Императорского флота, 1856-1917. Ч. I. СПб, 2003).
The monument erected in 1897 in Vladivostok in memory of Kreiserok and its crew became the first monument of Vladivostok and the first official memorial on the Pacific to Russian naval mariners who perished on duty.
Kreiserok ("Little Cruiser") was a coast guard schooner of the Russian Imperial Navy. Tonnage 15 t., length 24 m., width 8 m., draught 2.13 m. Built in 1884 in Seattle, before 1886 - American schooner "Henrietta." In 1886 it was confiscated by the Russian clipper "Kreiser" for poaching in the Russian waters of the Bering Sea. In 1887 under command of lieutenant Tsvangman it carried out hydrographical survey of the Amur estuary. On the 14th of May 1888 it was renamed after the clipper "Kreiser" and became a coast guard vessel of the Tyuleniy Island (the Sea of Okhotsk). In October 1889 during its service on the island’s coast it captured American poaching schooner Rose and prepared to escort it to Vladivostok, but instead wrecked in a storm with the entire crew perishing. A cape and a bay in the Possiet Gulf (Peter the Great Gulf of the Sea of Japan) were named after it.
Alexander von Bunge was a renowned Russian Polar explorer, doctor of medicine and zoologist, a son of famous botanist Alexander von Bunge (1803-1890). He participated in the expeditions to the mouth of the River Lena (1882-84), Yenisey River (1892-95), Spitsbergen (1900) et al; he headed the expedition to the New Siberian Islands (1885-86). Von Bunge’s meteorological observations were used by F. Nansen during his famous Fram expedition. An island in the Arctic Ocean (Bunge Land), a peninsula on the Russky Island (Nordenskiöld Archipelago), glaciers on Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya, and a mountain on Spitsbergen were named after him.


4. [ARCTIC COMPASS]
[OLIVE OF CUMBERLAND, PRINCESS], SERRES [née WILMOT] Olivia (1772–1834)
[Official Printed Letter to the “President of Trinity College &c, &c, &c, Cambridge” Regarding the Princess’ Invention – “North and South Compass”]: To the Naval and Maritime Officers of Great Britain.., to ascertain the cause of the Mariner’s Compasses in modern use having so greatly vacillated in the Arctic regions..,

[London], [August 29 1828]. On a folded leaf, size when folded: Quarto (ca. 24x19 cm). 1 p. With a hand written address, postal stamps and the princess’ wax seal on the last page. Manuscript text on the same page (probably written by the princess): “With the Princess Olive’s respects for the Knowledge of the University of Oxford”. Fold marks, paper aged, minor chip on the last page caused by opening, otherwise a very good document.
The letter addressed to all naval and maritime officers of Great Britain presents Princess Olive’s invention – North and South Compass “adapted for each side of the Equator; such being upon an entire new principle, and different to any compasses hitherto made, have been appointed of by the highest scientific and naval characters”. She “has been enabled, through her philosophical researches, to ascertain the cause of the Mariner’s Compasses in modern use having so greatly vacillated in the Arctic regions. The Princess Olive also has discovered, that a distinct and separate Mariner’s Compass is required in the North West and South East passages of the Ocean”. The Princess expresses hope that her inventions “which, in all their bearings, will be found so importantly useful to Mariners in general, will experience the patronage of the naval world”. At the end follows the schedule of public presentation of the models which will take place at the Princess’ residence, “No. 2, Park Row, Mills Buildings, Knightsbridge”.
Not much is known about this “invention” which most likely was a way to establish the Princess’ social status or to pay off some debts. An article with similar content has been published in the Morning Herald (1 August 1828). Although our letter is addressed to the President of the Cambridge Trinity College, the handwritten text expresses “Princess Olive’s respects for the knowledge of the University of Oxford” [sic!].
Olivia Serres, a British painter and writer, was also known as an impostor, who claimed the title of Princess Olive of Cumberland. “Born Olivia Wilmot, a daughter of a house painter Robert Wilmot, she married John Thomas Serres (1759-1825), marine painter to George III, in 1791. Financially reckless, she was several times imprisoned for debt. In 1817 she wrote a letter to the Prince Regent, claiming that she was the natural daughter of Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland by Mrs. Olive Payne (who was her actual aunt). In 1821, she had herself rebaptized as the daughter of the Duke of Cumberland at Islington Church, and "announced" her parentage in several letters to the newspapers and in pamphlets. The same year, however, she was arrested again for debt and placed in the King's Bench Prison. She appealed to the public for contributions, placing posters reading "The Princess of Cumberland in Captivity!" all over London, and publishing, in 1822, further details of her claims.
Olive managed to persuade Sir Gerard Noel, a Member of Parliament, to make inquiry into her claims, but by this time the royal family was fighting back. In 1823 Sir Robert Peel, then Home Secretary, speaking in parliament, responded to Noel's speech in Olive's favour with a denunciation of her documents as forgeries and her story as a fabrication. It was concluded that her claims were false, but Olive escaped prosecution for forgery. Olive continued to have economical problems and was for the rest of her life in and out of debtors' prisons” (Wikipedia).


5. [ARCTIC EXPLORERS]
[Album Sheet with the Signatures of Naval Commander Admiral Northesk, and the Arctic Explorers: James Clark Ross, his Uncle John Ross, and William Parry]. "Northesk Admiral; Left London on the 23 May 1829 and returned from the Arctic Regions on the 19th Oct 1833 Ja. Clark.Ross; John Ross; W. Parry, hydrographer."

[London?], ca. 1833. Album sheet, Quarto ca. 27x22 cm (ca. 10½ x 8¾ in) The signatures on paper mounted on a light blue album leaf. Signatures and album leaf in fine condition.
"Admiral William Carnegie GCB, 7th Earl of Northesk (1756-1831) was born in Hampshire to Admiral George Carnegie, 6th Earl of Northesk and Anne Melville..,
Sir James Clark Ross (1800-1862), was a British naval officer and explorer. He explored the Arctic with his uncle Sir John Ross and Sir William Parry, and later led his own expedition to Antarctica..,
Sir John Ross, CB, (1777-1856) was a Scottish rear admiral and Arctic explorer..,
Sir William Edward Parry (1790-1855) was an English rear-admiral and Arctic explorer, who in 1827 attempted one of the earliest expeditions to the North Pole. He reached 82°45′ North latitude, setting the record for human exploration farthest North that stood for nearly five decades before being surpassed at 83°20′26″ by Albert Hastings Markham in 1875-1876" (Wikipedia).


6. [ARCTIC MEDAL, TRIAL STRIKINGS]
[Early Bronze and Aluminium Trial Strikings for the Arctic Medal].

[London], ca. 1857. Diameter ca. 32 mm (bronze) and 33 mm (aluminium). Trial striking in bronze as a circular medal, in aluminium – as an octagonal medal, both unnamed as issued, and without suspension. Both with the following engravings: Recto with profile of Queen Victoria wearing a tiara and facing left with words "VICTORIA REGINA" to rim. Reverse with sailing ship and icebergs in the background and a sledge party in the foreground; with the dates "1818-1855" under, and the words "FOR ARCTIC DISCOVERIES" above the scene. The inner edge of the rim on both faces is smooth for bronze striking and beaded for aluminium. Last figure in “1855” of the bronze striking is unclear, otherwise a very good pair.
Early rare trial strikings for the Arctic Medal executed in bronze and aluminium.
In May 1857, the London Gazette announced the inception of a new medal awarded for Arctic discoveries. Claimants, who could include those participating in expeditions of discovery and those who had participated in the search for Sir John Franklin, were invited to apply to the Accountant-General of the Navy, Admiralty, Somerset House in London. A list of expeditions for which claims were eligible was also printed, and this list was extended to at later dates (to include, for instance, the Nares Arctic Expedition of 1875-6). See: Poulsom & Myres. British Polar Exploration and Research: A Historical and medallic record with biographies 1818–1999 p.207.
The Arctic Medal (1818-1855) was issued in 1857 with the obverse being a cameo of Queen Victoria and the verso showing a three-masted ship surrounded by ice floes. The obverse was engraved by Leonard Charles Wyon (1826-1891).
The Aluminum striking is unusual as "prior to commercial electrical generation in the early 1880s, and the Hall-Héroult process in the mid 1880s, aluminium was exceedingly difficult to extract from its various ores. This made pure aluminium more valuable than gold. Bars of aluminium were exhibited at the Exposition Universelle of 1855. Napoleon III of France is reputed to have given a banquet where the most honoured guests were given aluminium utensils, while the others made do with gold" (Wikipedia).


7. [ARKHANGELSK]
LEYTSINGER, Yakov Ivanovich (1855-1914)
[Collection of Six Original Photograph Views of Arkhangelsk, Solovetsky Monastery and Mezen City on the White Sea].

Ca. 1890. Six albumen prints ca. 13,5x21,5 cm (ca. 5 ¼ x 8 ¼ in). All mounted on original card within gilt printed decorative borders; all with period ink captions in Russian on verso. Mounts slightly warped, otherwise a very good collection.
A very good collection of pre-revolutionary views of Arkhangelsk, and two other interesting places on the White Sea – the town of Mezen and Solovetsky Monastery. The photographs were taken by Yakov Ivanovich Leytsinger, Russian statesman and philanthropist of Swiss origin, a member of Arkhangelsk City Council (1897), Mayor of Arkhangelsk (1903-1914). He opened his photography studio in Arkhangelsk in the 1880s and was known for high quality of his work. Leitsinger was the official photographer of the official tours across the Russian North of the Governors of Arkhangelsk province – Alexander Engelgardt (1895, his book “The Russian North” was illustrated with Leytsinger’s photos), and I. Sosnovsky (1911). Leitsinger took official photographs in Arkhangelsk of the start of the Arctic expeditions led by Vladimir Rusanov and Georgiy Sedov; his series of views of Solovetsky monastery was acquired for the collection of the Imperial House of Romanovs.
The four views of Arkhangelsk show the city embankment and the city’s main street – Troitskaya (now Troitsky prospect). Two images of the Northern Dvina embankment show the Arkhangelsk Holy Trinity Cathedral with the bell tower (1765), Church of Archangel Mikhail (1742-43) and the Annunciation Church (1763) – all of them, together with five other Arkhangelsk churches were demolished in the late 1920s. The photos of Troitskaya Street show the governor’s office with the monument to Mikhail Lomonosov (the monument survived but was relocated in 1930), with the Holy Trinity Cathedral in the background; and central part of the street, with the Chief Auditor’s office in the foreground.
The panorama of the Solovetsky Monastery erroneously captioned as “Arkhangelsk” was taken from the Prosperity Bay and shows the Dormition Cathedral (1552-57), Church of Saint Nicholas (1834) with the bell tower, St. Trinity Church (1856-59), the main Cathedral of the Monastery - Preobrazhensky Cathedral (1556–1564), administrative buildings and massive monastery walls and towers with the Saint Gates.
Very interesting is a photograph of Mezen, a town in the modern Arkhangelsk oblast “located on the right bank of the Mezen River close to the point where it flows into the White Sea. The settlement at the location of the present-day Mezen was founded in the 16th century” (Wikipedia). Mezen has a well preserved historical centre mostly represented with traditional Russian wooden architecture – as seen on the photo. Today it is included in a security zone of Russian Federation, and the access to the town is restricted.
All photographs bear the printed stamp of the 10th Jubilee photograph exhibition in Moscow, where Yakov Leitsinger was awarded with the Grand Dager Medal for his works.


8. [AROUND THE WORLD IN EIGHTY DAYS]
[French Folding Board Game Based on Jules Verne’s Novel “Around the World in Eighty Days”].

[France], ca. 1880. Colour lithograph ca. 48x54 cm, dissected into four parts and mounted on linen and pink papered cardboard. The playing surface with minor stains on extremities, otherwise a very good game.
This is a rare children’s board game based on the famous novel by Jules Verne “Around the World in 80 Days”. Published at the time of the novel’s height of fame in the last quarter of the 19th century, it beautifully depicts the adventurous story of Mr. Phileas Phogg’s renowned fictitious circumnavigation. The game consists of 80 fields illustrating each day of his journey. A globe lies in the center of the board to symbolize the fact that the game takes the participants around the world. A jungle scene surrounds the center globe and illuminates just a few of the wild and rare animals that Phileas would have encountered.
Exotic destinations such as the Suez Canal, “Pagode a Bombay”, Calcutta, Ganges, “Le Paquebot, Rangoom”, Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan, San Francisco, Chicago, and New York are only a few of the places traveled to within the course of the game. Scenes of many different kinds of people are also incorporated into the marvelous artwork of the game, i.e. Bedouins, Indian Raja, Brahman, “Procession de la Deesse Kali”, “Les Femmes Mormons”, attack of the train by Sioux, and even a Japanese antique dealer (“Chez le Brocanteur Japonais”).
Jules Verne’s novel has inspired many games such as this. Even modern board games, to which this would be a predecessor, such as Ticket to Ride Europe, and the 2004 board game 80 Days Around the World which won the 2005 German Game of the Year award.


9. [B.C. GOLD RUSH WEEKLY NEWSPAPER]
The Cariboo Sentinel: Vol. 1. No. 12.

Barkerville, Williams Creek, British Columbia: Saturday, August 19, 1865. On a double Elephant Folio leaf (ca. 40,5x29,5 cm or 16 x 11 ½ in). Four pages. With two page Supplement laid in. Period pencil note "30 cops. Exp. Acc. F.J. Barnard" in the right upper corner; blue stamp "M.W. WAITT & Co. Govt. St. VICTORIA" in the left upper corner. Light staining along fold lines, chipping on the upper edge, but overall a very good copy.
Very rare as only four runs of the newspaper located in Worldcat.
One of the first issues of this almost legendary goldfields newspaper inscribed by a prominent BC businessman and politician, the founder of famous Barnard’s Express: Francis Jones Barnard (1829-1889).
The inscription ordered to send 30 copies of the newspaper to the office of a Victoria bookseller, publisher and news agent M.W. Waitt & Co. (probably, on Barnard’s personal account). The reason for this was most likely the article letter from Victoria written anonymously by a member of the Legislature, which presented a lengthy defense of Union of the Colonies of BC and Vancouver Island, based partly on the value of the Cariboo miners to the Island economy and, reciprocally, the value of free trade to the miners (the union was concluded in 1866).
"The Cariboo Sentinel was published in Barkerville, in the Cariboo region of central British Columbia, and ran from June 1865 to October 1875. At the time, Barkerville was home to a fast-growing community of miners who had been attracted to the Cariboo region by the discovery of gold. The Sentinel was published by George Wallace, and its stated objective was not only to disseminate "mining intelligence," but also to eradicate "official abuse[s]" of power, both within the Cariboo region and beyond (vol. 1, no. 1, p. 2)" (UBC Library Catalogue).
"Francis Jones Barnard, often known as Frank Barnard Sr., was a prominent British Columbia businessman and Member of Parliament in Canada from 1879 to 1887. Most famously, Barnard was the founder of the B.X. Express freighting company ("Barnard's Express"), which was the main cartage and passenger services company on the Cariboo Road. His son, Sir Francis Stillman Barnard, often known as Frank Barnard Jr., later became the Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
It was his next enterprise, begun in the fall of 1860, that would grow to become the B.X. Express one of the most important companies in the early history of the Colony, and which would remain in business for decades. He began by carrying mail and newspapers, on foot, all the way from Yale to the goldfield towns of the Cariboo, a 760-mile roundtrip journey, charging $2 per letter and selling newspapers in the goldfields for $1 a copy. In 1861 and 1862 he also carried packages between Yale and New Westminster, a distance of 200 miles, and in 1862 established a one-horse pony express, with himself as sole rider, serving the Cariboo from Yale, where he met with services from New Westminster and Yale provided by Dietz & Nelson (one of the partners in which was the later Lieutenant-Governor Hugh Nelson) and couriered reliably from there to Barkerville. On his return journeys, he became entrusted with shipments of gold dust, and managed to reliably and safely convey earnings from the goldfields to Yale despite the ever-present risk of robbery, in addition to the difficulties posed by distance, climate, and the difficult canyon and plateau trails.
With the completion of the first section of the Old Cariboo Road to Soda Creek in 1862, Barnard used his own acquired capital and found a backer to launch Barnard's Express and Stage Line with fourteen six-horse coaches and a famous team of "crack whips" to drive them, including legendary drivers Steve Tingley and Billy Ballou. The onset of the busiest phase of movement of miners and goods to and from the Cariboo Gold Rush began that year, and Barnard's new company prospered from a buys trade in services for passengers, freight, letters, newspapers and gold dust, and in 1864 was able to expand his business further with the purchase of more rolling stock and also in winning the government contract to carry the mail. Barnard was also able to encourage the government to end the gold escort with the result that his company's coaches, equipped with armed guardsmen, would be fully in charge of the movement of gold from the Cariboo to the Coast. In 1866 Barnard bought out Dietz and Nelson and so came into control of the bulk of business connecting Victoria to Barkerville, as he was now in control of shipments between Victoria and Yale as well as from Yale northwards" (Wikipedia).


10. [BERING VITUS, MONUMENT IN PETROPAVLOVSK]
[Lithograph Plate]: Monument élevé á la mémoire du Capitaine Béring au Kamchatka. [Monument Erected in Memory of Captain Bering in Kamchatka].

Paris: Lith. De Thierry fréres, [1841]. Lithograph plate ca. 20,5x26 cm (8 x 10 ¼ in) with very wide margins. From the drawing by Masselot, lithographed by Blanchard. A near fine lithograph.
A plate from the “Atlas Pittoresque” to the official account of Abel Aubert Dupetit-Thouars circumnavigation in 1836-39 “Voyage autour du Monde sur la fregate La Vénus” (Paris, 1841-46). The plate shows French mariners at the monument to Vitus Bering erected in the city garden of Petropavlovsk.
The expedition of Dupetit-Thouars visited Kamchatka on August 30 – September 15, 1837. Dupetit-Thouars writes about it in the travel account (in translation):
“In the lower part of the garden, on the northern side, we also noticed a small monument erected in the memory of Bering: it is a single column, surmounted by a globe, the lattice fence carries a tablet on which we read KAПИTAHУ BИTУCУ БEPИНГУ (“To Capitan Vitus Bering”). Next to the monument in the middle of a clump of trees and flowers, stood a small very elegant kiosk. The plan of the city also showed on the other side of the creek, a monument to the memory of Clerke and Father de Croyère; but in vain we endeavored to find it – nobody could satisfy our curiosity in this regard, which gave us reason to believe, that the monument, which many travelers have spoken about, existed only as a project, or that time has erased the last traces of it even in the memory of the people…” (Voyage autour du Monde, vol. 2, chapter 4). NB: the monument to Charles Clerke in Petropavlovsk survives even today. It was erected in 1804 by the members of the first Russian circumnavigation under command of Adam Krusenstern, the monument was relocated in 1818, and reconstructed in 1914 and 2002. Nowadays it is situated in the centre of Petropavlovsk, on Leninskaya Street.
This monument to Vitus Bering, made in Saint Petersburg in 1823-1826, was erected in Petropavlovsk after 1827. At first next to the governor’s house, it was eventually moved several times, and is now “located near the harbor from which the navigator had started his expedition to America” (see: BaikalNature on-line).
"The voyage, ostensibly to report on the whale fisheries in the Pacific was political in nature. The presence of the frigate Venus in ports around the world would be of value to French commerce and diplomacy. After rounding Cape Horn, the expedition made calls up the coast of South America, to Hawaii, Kamchatka, and to California, in order to assist French traders who had been clamoring for support for some time… In 1838, the Venus made a run for Easter Island, further investigated the coast of South America, then sailed for the Galapagos and Marquesas Islands, Tahiti, and New Zealand" (Hill, p.91).


11. [BIRCH, Arthur Nonos, Sir] (1837-1914)
Speech of His Honor the Officer Administering the Government at the Opening of the Legislative Council, on Thursday the 18th January, 1866.

[New Westminster], [1866]. Folio (ca. 33x20,5 cm), 3 pp. Near fine copy.
This rare very early New Westminster imprint is a speech by Arthur Birch, Colonial Secretary of the Colony of British Columbia (1864-1866) read by him in front of the Third Legislative Council of the colony during Governor Seymour’s absence in England.
The speech summarizes the state of the Colony, noting that “the Revenue falls short of the Estimate by a considerable amount”, which was caused by a fall of immigration; and reporting of considerable growth of expenditure caused by an extensive road construction: a number of waggon roads in the Cariboo district were completed, as well as a road between New Westminster and Yale, and others; construction of a road network to the Columbia district has been started. “With great reluctance” Birch proposed to abolish the duty of the export of gold and to introduce additional taxation, namely compulsory mining licences. “It is therefore only by this measure that our large Chinese population can be made to contribute to the Revenue in equal proportion to the white race. Few Chinamen now take out a Mining Licence, whereas on the other hand few white miners are to be found without one”. The other subjects touched include the colony’s postal service, “fostering the immigration of a class of Settlers likely to make this country their home”, petitions to alter the Mining Laws and the Pilotage of Vessels et al.
The Third Legislative Council turned out to be the last one in the history of the colony of British Columbia: as it was unified with the Colony of Vancouver Island (2 August, 1866).
The text of the speech was reproduced in: Journals of the Colonial Legislatures of the Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia, 1851-1871/ Ed. By James E. Hendrickson. Vol. 4. Journals of the Executive Council, 1864-1871, and of the Legislative Council, 1864-1866, of British Columbia. P. 330-332.


12. [BRAMBILA, Fernando] (1763-1832)
[Malaspina Expedition]: Vista de una Galeria natural de cien pies de largo y diez de ancho, en la inmediacion del Puerto del Decanso, en el Estrecho de Juan de Fuca [View of a Natural Gallery of one Hundred feet long and ten wide, in the Proximity of the Port of Decanso [Gabriola Island B.C., in the Strait of Juan de Fuca; Artist Proof Plate Meant for a Seven Volume Work Which was Suppressed and Remained Unpublished].

[Madrid?], [1798?]. Uncoloured aquatint, printed image ca. 26x49 cm (10 ½ x 19 ½ in). A near fine wide margined aquatint.
Extremely Rare artist's proof aquatint produced for a work which was never published. Worldcat only locates one copy of this print. This aquatint show the natural gallery on Gabriola Island. The artist of this aquatint, Brambila, joined as a painter the scientific expedition of Alejandro Malaspina (1789-1794), which explored and mapped much of the west coast of the Americas from Cape Horn to the Gulf of Alaska. Brambila painted several landscapes of Guam, the Philippines, Australia (Sydney), Macao, Peru, Chile and Argentina and the Pacific Northwest. After returning to Spain, he worked on producing prints based on his paintings and drawings made on the voyage, in preparation for the publication of the account of the Malaspina Expedition. Unfortunately, Malaspina's political judgment lead him to take part in a failed conspiracy to overthrow Spain's Prime Minister Godoy, and he was arrested on charges of plotting against the state. After an inconclusive trial on April 20, 1796, Charles IV decreed that Malaspina be stripped of rank and imprisoned in the isolated fortress of San Antón in La Coruña, Galicia (Spain), where he remained from 1796 to 1802.
As a result, his seven-volume account of the Expedition was suppressed and remained unpublished until the late 19th century. Thus, this aquatint is a very rare contemporary pictorial survivor of the expedition. Hakluyt Society, The Malaspina Expedition; Howgego M26; Humphrey, Malaspina's Lost Gallery; Wikipedia.


13. [CANADIAN WINTER]
[Two Unsigned Watercolour and Ink Drawings Titled:] Canadian Sledge and Canadian Gentleman Sledge.

[Quebec?], ca. 1840. Watercolour and ink drawings (7.5 x 16,5 cm) & (11.5 x 22,5 cm) titled in ink and mounted on a larger period leaf. Watercolours and mount in very good condition.
Two charming and naive watercolours showing typical Canadian sledges very similar in style to those often seen in the mid 19th century Quebec winter landscape scenes painted by Cornelius Krieghoff.


14. [CAPTAIN COOK'S DEATH]
FORSTER, Johann Georg Adam (1754-1794) & SPARRMAN, Anders (1748-1820)
Professor Georg Forsters Strodde Underrattelser om Capitaine Cooks Sista Resa och Olyckeliga dod i Soderhafwet. Ofwersattning utur Gothingisches Magazin af Andreas Sparrman, Hwilken bifogat en Kungorelse om dess egen nu for Trycket fardige Rese-Beskrifning jamte et kort innehall deraf [Professor Georg Forster's Account of Captain Cook's Last Voyage..,].

Stockholm: P.A. Brodin, 1781. First Edition. Small Octavo. 47 pp. With a folding map of the Pacific Ocean. Period style (Swedish) light brown gilt tooled half calf with a red gilt morocco label and speckled papered boards. Map and a couple of page edges with very minor expert repair, otherwise a very good copy.
This very rare important work, with only five copies found in Worldcat, is one of the first descriptions of the Hawaiian Islands and the Death of Captain Cook and includes Sparrman's important map of the Pacific Ocean which was one of the very first to show the Hawaiian Islands. "Forster’s account of Cook’s third voyage, including his death at the hands of the Sandwich Islands natives, first appeared in German in the Göttingisches Magazin der Wissenschaften und Literatur in 1780, Volume II, pages 387--429. It was translated into Swedish by Andreas Sparrman, a former pupil of Linnaeus and scientist of note, and close friend of Forster from their association as members of Cook’s second expedition. It is the only separate printing in any language of the Forster article, which was derived from information obtained from Heinrich Zimmerman and Barthold Lohmann, both of whom were members of the crew (Zimmerman published his own account of the voyage also in 1781). The folding map, prepared by Sparrman, shows the coasts and islands discovered and explored by Cook and his successors on the third voyage.
In addition to the Forster article, Sparrman included several pages of his own reflections on Cook’s death, a brief account of the second voyage, and a resume of his own travels in South Africa, as well as bibliographical information concerning the forthcoming publication of his own narrative of the second voyage" (Howell); Copies of this work are "excessivement rare" (Kropelien 44); Sparrman "added (pp. 37-47) a personal commentary on Cook's death and some other notes on his own travels.., the map at the end depicting the North Pacific Ocean was drawn and engraved by Sparrman himself" (Hawaiian National Bibliography 30); Beddie 1639; Du Rietz (Captain James Cook) 8.


15. [COOK, James, Captain] (1728-1779)
[All Three of Cook's Voyages in Swedish]
De Freville (A.F.J. De) Berattteles Om de nya Uptackter, som bliswit gjorde i Soderhafwet Aren 1767-1770, &c., [With] Sammandrag af Capitain Jacob Cooks Åren 1772, 73, 74 och 1775, Omkring Södra Polen [With] Sammandrag of Captain Jacob Cooks Tredje Resa, i Soderhafwet och emot Norra Polen.

Upsala: Johan Edman, 1776-1787. First Swedish Editions. Octavo, 3 vols. [xxviii], 308, [2], [ii], 326, [6]; [xx], 366, [10]; [xii], 618, [12], [2] pp. With two copper engraved folding maps Handsome period style matching brown gilt tooled half sheep with speckled papered boards and brown gilt labels housed in a matching slipcase. A fine set.
Very Rare complete set of all three of Cook's Voyages in Swedish. The First Voyage is a translation from Freville's compilation. The Second and Third Voyages were translated from the official accounts but with editorial notes by an anonymous Finnish editor (Second Voyage) and Oedmann (Third Voyage). The second voyage caused animosity between the editor and Sparrman who condemned the work and is ironically also listed as an author in the book. Du Rietz 1, 9, 12; Forbes 126 (Third Voyage).


16. [COURT OF BRITISH COLUMBIA]
BEGBIE, Matthew Baillie, Sir (1819-1894)
[Leaflet Titled]: Court of British Columbia. Order of Court. Whereas, by a Proclamation under the public seal of the said Colony, issued at Victoria, V.I., the 24th day of December, I, Matthew Baillie Begbie, Judge in the said Court, am authorised, while resident in Victoria, Vancouver Island, to make general Rules and Orders of Court in the same manner and of the same force and validity as if I were resident in British Columbia...

[Victoria B.C.]: 24 December, [1858]. On a folded double folio leaf (ca. 28x39,5 cm or 11 x 15 ½ in) with the Royal Arms of the British Empire. 4 pp. The leaflet has a mild stain on the first page, minor creases on corners, otherwise a very good copy.
Rare B.C. Incunabula with only thirteen copies found in Worldcat.
Matthew Begbie’s establishment of the Court of the newly formed Colony of British Columbia (since August 2, 1858). The document contains 14 paragraphs and three forms of declarations by barristers, attorneys or solicitors, and attorneys on temporary rolls.
"Begbie reached Fort Victoria on November 16, 1858. He was sworn into office in Fort Langley on November 19, as the new Colony of British Columbia was proclaimed. Given the influx of prospectors and others during Fraser Canyon Gold Rush and the following Cariboo Gold Rush of 1861, Begbie played a crucial role in the establishment of law and order throughout the new colony" (Wikipedia).
"Sir Matthew Baillie Begbie was the first Chief Justice of the Crown Colony of British Columbia in colonial times and in the first decades after confederation of Canada. Begbie served as the first Judge of the Supreme Court, Colony of British Columbia 1858 to 1866 and then, in the same capacity in the Supreme Court, the United Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia from 1866 to 1870. He was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United Colonies from 1870 to 1871 and, following British Columbia joining confederation in 1871, he served as the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the new Province of British Columbia until his death on June 11, 1894. In the years after his death, Begbie came to be known as the Hanging Judge. However, it appears that he does not deserve this reputation. The death penalty was mandatory in murder cases in those days unless the government approved a judge's recommendation for clemency. Indeed, Begbie successfully argued for clemency in several cases" (Wikipedia).


17. [CPR IN THE EASTERN BC]
CLARKE, John Henry (1860-1923)
[Five Original Photographs of Canadian Pacific Railway near Glacier, British Columbia].

Ca. 1905. Gelatin silver prints, each ca. 9x11,5 cm (3 ½ x 4 ½ in). Photographer’s ink stamps “J.H. Clarke, Photographer, West Selkirk Manitoba”, and ink stamped captions on verso. One photo with a mild crease, otherwise a very good collection.
Early interesting images of the Canadian Pacific Railway in the Selkirk Mountains of eastern B.C. The collection includes a close-up image of a C.P.R. Locomotive at Field station (the train number “466” is clearly visible), three photos of the C.P.R. Trestle bridge in the “Loop” near Glacier; a scene of filling the trestle in Fraser Canyon, and “Track of a snow slide, Glacier, B.C.”
The photographer, John Henry Clarke “immigrated to Canada in 1894. In Winnipeg, Clarke became employed as a photographer with Duffin & Company. He accompanied a group of Manitobans going to find their fortunes in the Klondike Gold Rush as far as Victoria, BC, returning to Winnipeg afterwards. In 1903, Clarke moved to Selkirk where he appears to have remained for the rest of his photography career. He returned to Winnipeg after retirement, where he died in 1923” (The Manitoba Historical Society on-line).
“Glacier is a railway whistlestop and locality near the summit of the Rogers Pass in Glacier National Park in British Columbia, Canada. Just east of the still-existing Canadian Pacific Railway station building at Glacier (and just inside the western portal of the Connaught Tunnel completed in 1916) is the current summit of the railway. There are a hotel, restaurant and service station nearby at the summit of the Trans-Canada highway, just east of Glacier. There are no permanent residents” (Wikipedia).
“Field is an unincorporated community of approximately 300 people located in the Kicking Horse River valley of southeastern British Columbia, Canada, within the confines of Yoho National Park. Field was established during the building of the Canadian Pacific Railway (CPR) as a locomotive depot for pusher engines required to help trains over the nearby Field Hill and Big Hill. The town was given its name by the CPR in December 1884 to honour American businessman Cyrus West Field, who was instrumental in establishing trans-Atlantic telegraph service” (Wikipedia).


18. [EARLY B.C. CUSTOM REGULATIONS]
Comparative Statement of the Duties of Customs Levied on Certain Staple Articles in British Columbia, United Kingdom, United States of America, Canada, and Other Principal British Colonies.

New Westminster, B.C.: Government Printing Office, 17th March, 1868. Four Elephant Folio broadsides ca. 43x68,5 cm. Folded twice, with visible fold marks, otherwise near fine documents.
Rare early large format BC imprints. A detailed comparative statement listing customs duties for over 200 items, from Ale to Yeast, arriving in British Columbia and seventeen other countries and colonies, including the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Prince Edward Island, several British colonies in the Caribbean (Bermuda, Jamaica, Bahamas) and Australia (New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania, Queensland etc.), as well as New Zealand, Ceylon, and Natal. The statement was apparently prepared in order to find possible sources of income for the Colony struggling with the overwhelming debt inherited from the initial Colonies of British Columbia and Vancouver Island, as well as with the economic depression caused by the end of the gold rush. The other reason could be a necessity to work out the finances involved in the contemplated confederation with Canada.
See the note from the meeting of the 5th Session of the Legislative Council of BC, 21 April 1868: “Frederick Seymour. Message No. 6. The Governor lays before the Legislative Council a Return that he has caused to be prepared, showing the Duties of Customs levied on certain staple articles in British Columbia, Great Britain, the United States, Canada, and other principal British Colonies. The Return will be interesting to the Honorable Council. It is not, however, the Governor’s intention to introduce any measure for altering the Duties of Customs during the present Session” (Journals of the Colonial Legislatures of the Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia, 1851-1871/ Ed. By James E. Hendrickson. Vol. 5. Journals of the Legislative Council of British Columbia, 1867-1871, p. 136).
It is interesting to compare custom duties for the import of books and manuscripts in all 17 listed regions: There was no duty on books in eleven of them, including British Columbia. Customs applied for reprints of British authors in Prince Edward Island, and foreign reprints in the Bahamas and Natal. The customs duties in the UK give an early example of regulations based on the age of books, with books printed prior 1801 being free of customs, and books printed later having a levy of – from 15 to 30 s. Per cwt. US customs applied to all books at “25 per cent generally.”


19. [EARLY RUSSIAN TRADE WITH FORT VICTORIA]
DOUGLAS, James, Sir (1803-1877)
[TRADE BETWEEN RUSSIAN AMERICAN COMPANY & HUDSON’S BAY COMPANY]
[Original Manuscript Account of Transactions between the Hudson’s Bay Company in Fort Victoria and Fort Vancouver, and the Russian American Company in “Sitika”, titled]: Russian Amern. Fur Company. Outfit 1843.

1844. Brown ink on single Elephant Folio sheet (ca. 36,5x45 cm). 2 pp. Watermarked lined paper Ruse & Turners 1842”. Handwriting apparently in James Douglas’ hand, docketed and signed on verso “Russn. Am. Fur Compy. Ot. 1843, James Douglas”. Fold marks, otherwise a very good manuscript.
This historically important foundation document for BC and one of the first to mention Fort Victoria, details the trade and transactions between the largest fur companies in the Northwest Coast of America – the Russian American Company and the Hudson’s Bay Company. These companies were the main rivals for influence and trade in the region during most of the 19th century. A commercial treaty was made in 1839 with the active participation of James Douglas, then the head of the HBC’s Columbia District. “In return for the leasing of fur trading territory on the northern coast from Mount Fairweather south to 54°40′, the Russian-American Company received 2000 otter pelts and a number of other supplies” (Wikipedia).
The document compiled in May 1844 – apparently by Douglas himself – summarizes the transactions between the companies in 1843, an important year for BC as Fort Victoria was founded. The “Debit” page lists the amount of income for the freight on HBC’s barques Columbia and Diamond, maps of British North America sent to Nicholas von Freymann from London, and for the 1843 land otter returns – “East Side 3000, West Side 1408”. The “Credit” page contains entries on the bills receivable, drawn “on the Directors of the Russian American Fur Company by A. Etholene” [A.A. Etholen (1799-1876) – Chief Manager of the Russian American Company in 1840-1845]; supplies landed at “Sitika” [sic] for Ft. Victoria (28 pairs of Russian boots) and Ft. Vancouver, freight on Beaver and Cadboro (boots, a rudder, nails, iron, wood, fish and deer), as well as payment for Indians. The final balance of accounts is £13,789. 2s. 10d.


20. [ESQUIMALT LAND TRANSACTION]
[Original Receipt of Land Purchase in the Esquimalt District, Signed by Colonial Surveyor J.D. Pemberton]: VANCOUVER’S ISLAND COLONY. ESQUIMALT DISTRICT. Received, this 9th day of August 1859, from John Matthias Ollis…

9 August 1859. Folio (ca. 33x19,5 cm). Printed document on blue paper, completed in brown ink. Signed “Joseph Pemberton”, docketed in brown ink on verso and signed “Graham Elson, [1865]”. Fold marks, slightly browned at extremities, otherwise a very good document.
Very early original receipt of a land transaction on Vancouver Island given to John Matthias Ollis who bought a parcel of land in the Esquimalt District, lots LXI-LXII, for $196.00. The form is signed by Joseph Despard Pemberton (1821-1893), Surveyor General of the Colony of Vancouver Island, and docketed on verso by Graham Alston in 1865 registering the land in Absolute [Fees Book?].
J.M. Ollis was an Engineer in the Royal Navy, apparently stationed in Esquimalt; the “First Victoria Directory” (Victoria: E. Mallandaine, 1869, 3rd issue), listed a certain “Ollis John R. No fixed residence, freehold, Esquimalt district” in the district’s list of voters (p. 68).


21. [ESQUIMALT, PORT ALBERNI & HONOLULU ETC.]
CHEVALLIER, Barrington Henry (1851-1930)
[Historically Interesting Manuscript British Navy Logbook, Containing the Logs of Eight Separate Voyages, Including Voyages in the North Pacific, with Stops at Esquimalt and Port Alberni on Vancouver Island and Honolulu, Hawaii].

[Various places at sea], 1865-1870. Folio (33x21.5 cm). Ca. 500 pp. Logbook in English, with twenty manuscript charts and four watercolours tipped in, five of the logs have manuscript title-pages, two in colour, four with flags and one with a printed picture of the ship pasted on the leaf. Period black blind-tooled half sheep, brown cloth boards, gilt-tooled morocco title-label on front cover. Housed in a modern cloth clamshell box with a black gilt morocco label. Extremities rubbed, front upper hinge with a crack but overall in very good condition.
Manuscript logs of eight ships: HMS Victory, Terrible, Victoria, Urgent, Malacca, Scout, Duke of Wellington and Bellerophon. The logs were kept by midshipman Barrington Henry Chevallier (1851-1930) from what was probably his first tour of duty in 1865 (after joining the navy in 1864 and training on HMS Britannia) to 1870, when he was promoted to sub-Lieutenant.
For the most part, the logs record the typical duties of a seaman of his rank. The numerous folding charts are excellent, as are the four watercolours. On his first two voyages, on board the Victory and then the Terrible, he sailed in the Mediterranean, with stops at Malta, Corinth, Patras, Cephalonia and Gibraltar. He then made a longer voyage on board the Urgent to the West Indies, with an initial stop at Bermuda and visits to Jamaica and Colombia. Chevallier then transferred to the Malacca, which was at anchor off Panama. After a brief trip to the Pearl Islands in April 1868, Chevallier was sent aboard HMS Scout, commanded by J.A.P. Price. It was aboard this ship that he undertook his first Pacific voyage, which took him from Panama to Esquimalt on Vancouver Island. On Vancouver Island the crew of the Scout met with the USS Pensacola. The voyage continued from Esquimalt to Honolulu, where the ship arrived in September. A second log for the Scout records a voyage from Honolulu to Tahiti, then to Valparaiso, through Tierra del Fuego, on to the Falkland Islands and then the return home to Spithead (15 October 1868 - 5 May 1869). The final two logs, of the Duke of Wellington and the Bellerophon, record coastal trips around Portsmouth and further Mediterranean travels. Chevallier rose through the ranks, moved to an office job in Naval Ordinance in 1887, married and settled in Kent, eventually becoming a Captain.
A very interesting well illustrated volume of ships' logs, including carefully plotted voyages with nice watercolours of Esquimalt and Kingston and interesting charts of the Pacific including the Galapagos Islands and a plan of Honolulu Harbour. Additionally, Chevallier describes communications with three Indian Canoes, the visit of an American Minister and British Consul to the ship, a 21-gun salute of the Tahitian Flag, the sighting of a Chilean Men of War (one bearing the flag of Adl. Blanca) and a Peruvian iron clad, etc.


22. [EXPEDITION TO POINT BARROW, ALASKA 1881-1883]
RAY, P.H., First Lieutenant 8th US Infantry. Report of the International Polar Expedition to Point Barrow, Alaska, in Response to the Resolution of the House of Representatives of December 11, 1884.
[With]: [Autograph Letter Signed from Adolphus Washington Greely to Henry Seebohm, Esq. Regarding the Present Edition of Ray’s Report and Colour Plates Presenting Ross’ Gull].

Washington, 16 January 1886. Quarto. 2 pp. Brown ink on laid paper with the official heading "Signal Office, War Department, Washington City." Old fold marks, paper soiled, lower margin browned and with glue residue, tears neatly repaired; overall a good letter.
Washington: Government Printing Office, 1885. First Edition With a Signed Letter by Greely. Folio. [2 - title page], 695 pp. With a chromolithographed frontispiece, 2 chromolithographed plates, 19 phototype plates with tissue guards; a folding map, three charts, and 9 smaller woodcuts and charts in text. Manuscript list of plates added in the end of the Index (p. 695). Lacks one phototype plate facing p. 49. Book plate of Henry D. & Mary F. Couchman on the first paste-down endpaper, later book dealer’s and auction house’s labels and remarks on the first endpaper. Original publisher’s cloth with blind stamped ornamental borders on the boards and lettering on the spine. Cloth rubbed and worn, binding weak on hinges, but overall a good copy.

A unique copy of the Report, supplemented with the letter from a renowned American explorer and army officer A.W. Greely (1844-1935) to a British traveller and amateur ornithologist Henry Seebohm (1832-1895) regarding two coloured plates from the book which showed Ross’ Gull and in fact became the first definitive depiction of this Arctic bird. Greely sent the present copy of the book to Seebohm with his letter and pointed his attention to the plates. As noted John Murdoch, the author of the "Natural History" part of the Report, "our expedition succeeded in obtaining a large series of the rare and beautiful bird - more, in fact, than there were before in all the museums of the world put together" (p. 123).
In the second part of the letter Greely talks about the report of his own expedition - a notorious Lady Franklin Bay Expedition (1881-84) which was undertaken, as well as Lieut. Ray’s, during the First International Polar Year (1882-83). Due to severe weather conditions and cold winters the US Navy vessels failed to supply the expedition with food for two years, which led to death of the most of its members. Only 7 people including Greely survived, "the rest had succumbed to starvation, hypothermia, and drowning, and one man, Private Henry, had been shot on Greely's order for repeated theft of food rations <..,> The returning survivors were venerated as heroes, though the heroism was tainted by sensational accusations of cannibalism during the remaining days of low food" (Wikipedia). Greely’s account of the expedition, which he talks about the letter, was published later the same year (Greely, A. Three Years of Arctic Service... New York, 1886. 2 vols.).
"The first station for Arctic research in Barrow was established for two years of observation during the First International polar Year in 1881-1883. In transmitting his report to General Hazen at the close of the mission, Lieutenant (Signal Corps) P.H. Ray (1885) respectfully suggested that in future expedition it should be desirable to give the leader time in advance to become acquainted with his crew and their project. In addition to valuable geophysical records, Ray prepared a penetrating description of the ways and culture of the Eskimo people whom he saw before their habits had been affected by white contact. He made a winter journey of reconnaissance half way to the head of Meade River. Sergeant Murdoch prepared the first comprehensive report on the birds of the Arctic coast. Both reports remain interesting reading for their information and literary quality" (Irving, L. Progress of research in Zoology through the Naval arctic Research Laboratory// Proceedings of the U.S. Naval Arctic Research Laboratory. Dedication Symposium. Vol. 22, No. 3, Sep., 1969. P. 327).
"The U.S. Army Signal Corps, on one of 15 expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctic during the First International Polar Year in 1881, began the long research tradition at Barrow when they encamped at what is now the location of the Cape Smythe Whaling and Trading Company in Browerville. Led by Lt. P. H. Ray and documented extensively by Sgt. John Murdoch, the expedition spent two years investigating the northernmost point of U.S. Territory. Ray led geographic explorations. Murdoch conducted ethnological studies, which resulted in a publication (Murdoch, 1892) that is still a standard reference guide. The enlisted men tried to dig a hole to find the bottom of the permafrost. This excavation continued until the Army decamped and resulted in one of the largest ice cellars in Barrow, which is still in use. Later investigators discovered that the permafrost is more than a thousand feet thick at Barrow" (History of Research Based in Barrow Region// The Future of an Arctic Resource: Recommendations from the Barrow Area Research Support Workshop. 1999. P. 3).
Arctic Bibliography 14292. Henze IV, 554.


23. [FIRST LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA]
SHAKESPEARE, Noah (1839-1921)
[Historically Important Original Photograph Group Portrait of the Members of the First BC Legislative Assembly at the Legislature, or “Birdcages”].

Victoria, ca. 1874. Albumen print ca. 14,5x19,5 cm (5 ¾ x 7 ¾ in), mounted on original card; matted in a recent mat. Ink photographer’s stamp “N. Shakespeare” on verso. Photo slightly faded, with minor foxing, but overall a very good strong image of this important photo.
Historically important early group portrait of the members of the first Legislative Assembly of British Columbia – after BC's unification with the Dominion of Canada in 1871. The first Legislative Assembly acted from 20 November 1871 to 30 August 1875 and included 25 members. This photo shows 20 members of the Assembly (from left to right): Robert Beaven (1836-1920), John Ash (ca. 1821-1886), A. Rocke Robertson (1841-1881), John Paton Booth (ca. 1838-1902), James Robinson; Josiah Charles Hudges (1843-1886); Robert Smith; Charles Todd; John Robson (1824-1892); William Fraser Tolmie (1812-1886); William M. Brown (1838-1882); John Foster McCreight (1827-1913); George Anthony Walkem (1834-1908); William Smithe (1842-1887); John George Barnston (ca. 1838-1883); Charles Augustus Semlin (1836-1927); William Archibald Robertson (1832-1926); William James Armstrong (1826-1915); Simeon Duck (1834-1905), and James Trimble (ca. 1817-1885). The person in the background standing on the veranda is Legislature janitor George Williams (from the attribution on the base of an identical photo from UBC Special Collections).
The photo includes six Premiers of BC: John Foster McCreight (1st), John Anthony Walkem (3rd and 5th), Robert Beaven (6th), William Smithe (7th), John Robson (9th), Charles A. Semlin (12th); the first Speaker of the Legislative Assembly – James Trimble, the Mayor of Victoria – A. Rocke Robertson (1870) and others.
The photo is dated 1874, as some of the initially elected Legislature members had already been replaced by new ones: A. Bunster and A. De Cosmos (Victoria District) had been replaced with W.A. Robertson and W.F. Tolmie (Feb. 1874); T.B. Humphreys (Lillooet District) had been replaced with W.M. Brown, et al.
The BC politicians are shown in front of the Legislature, the so called “Birdcages”. Built in 1859 on the south side of James Bay, across downtown Victoria, it was replaced with the current Legislature in 1894. The answer to the question about the origin of the name of the first Legislature buildings can be found in the Victoria Gazette, which in the issue from 23 October 1859 wrote: "The first of the series of these structures, which resembles in its mixed style of architecture, the latest fashion of Chinese pagoda, Swiss-cottage and Italian Villa fancy birdcages" (see: Heritage BC Stops on-line).
The photographer, Noah Shakespeare arrived to Victoria in 1863, until the late 1870s he ran his own photo gallery and worked for Amor de Cosmos at the Victoria Daily Standard. In 1875 he entered politics and in 1882 he became Mayor of Victoria and also a conservative member of the Canadian Parliament the same year (see: Canadian Dictionary of Biography in-line).


24. [FRANKLIN MEDAL]
STOTHARD, Thomas (1755-1834)
[Silver Commemorative John Franklin Arctic Medal].

[London], ca. 1830. Diameter ca. 27 mm. Recto with profile bust of Franklin facing right within the words "Sir John Franklin. R.N.", beneath the bust the artist’s signature "Stothard T.". Reverse with the phrase “To Great Men” within a wreath and “Royal Polytechnic Institution London” on circumference. Medal in near fine condition.
This medal portrait is by eminent English artist Thomas Stothard (1755-1834). This rare medal was most likely produced after Franklin was knighted on 29 April 1829 by George IV.


25. [GROTEWAHL, Max] (1894-1958)
[FIRST GERMAN SPITSBERGEN EXPEDITION 1925]
[A Unique Collection of Fifty-One Photographs Taken by the Official Expedition Photographer Walter Ankersen].

Spitsbergen, Ca. 1925. 51 photographs, image size ca. 8,5x11 cm (3 ½ x4 ¼ in). All ink stamped on verso "Deutsche Spitsbergen Expedition 1925," and Ankersen’s stamp "Dr. W. Ankersen, Nürnberg"; twenty six with the stamp "Archiv für Polarforschung"; thirty three with the stamp of the expedition leader "Max Grotewahl, Kiel." Ten photos with period pencil or ink captions in German. All pictures numbered variously several times (stamped or by hand). Overall a very good collection.
The German Spitsbergen Expedition (July - September 1925) under command of Max Grotewahl was stationed in the Magdalena Bay region in northwestern Spitsbergen and included Walter Ankersen (photographer), Fritz Biller (cinematographer), and Rudolf Jupitz (geologist and biologist). The expedition's purpose was to conduct geophysical and meteorological research (including measurements of the glaciers, ocean depths and tides), and conduct a cartographic survey of Spitsbergen's northwestern coast, to collect plants, birds and insects for the Munich state collection and to test new polar equipment.
The expedition members traversed northwestern Spitsbergen, travelling from the Magdalena Bay to the Liefde Bay through the Waggonway, Grand and Ida glaciers. On the way they made first ascents of six Spitsbergen peaks and became the first to cross three new passes; conducted an accurate topographic survey of the area and discovered evidence of ice decline in Spitsbergen. Using folding boats they executed sea trip to the Smeerenburg Sound, and to the Danes and Amsterdam Islands ("Dänen-Insel"). The expedition travelled back from Spitsbergen aboard the S.M.S. Zieten, under command of the noted German polar explorer Alfred Ritscher (1879-1963).
On his return, Grotewahl wrote a single paper with results from the expedition, and drew criticism for squandering resources and producing a small amount of significant results. However, his experiences in planning and running the expedition led him to look into the possibility of establishing a research center that would support future polar expeditions. This led to his foundation in July 1926 of the Archiv für Polarforschung at Kiel (today the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Polarforschung).
The present images were taken by expedition photographer Walter Ankersen, but the collection seems to come from Grotewahl’s archives in Kiel. The photographs are professional field shots and include vivid images of the expedition’s camps and equipment; portraits of the members while conducting research or having a meal. A series of images documents the trip across northwestern Spitsbergen - with the images of climbing, cross-country skiing, traversing crevasses, beautiful mountain scenery etc. There are also numerous images of their sea trips in kayaks and a small sailing yacht, with nice views of coastal mountains and icebergs, and scenes of seal hunting. There are also photos of the cruise ship "München" (of Vergnugungs- und Erholungsreisen des Norddeutschen Lloyd) that carried the expedition to Spitsbergen, and of the SMS Zieten which brought it back. One photo shows a map of the expedition’s routes. Two photographs from the collection were published in Cornelia Lüdeke’s article about Max Grotewahl (see below), but the majority appears to never have been published.
Lüdeke, C. Zum 100. Geburtstag von Max Grotewahl (1894-1958), Gründer des Archivs für Polarforschung // Polarforschung. 1995. # 65 (2). P. 93-105.
See also:
Grotewahl, M. Über eine Expedition nach Spitzbergen// Zeitschrift von Geschichte Erdkunde. 1925. Bln. 381-382;
Grotewahl, M. Die Deutsche Spitzbergen Expedition 1925 // Das Weltall. 1928. 27 (7). S. 93-98;
Dominik, H. Dr. Max Grotewahl, seine Spitzbergen-Expedition 1925 und die Deutsche Polarjahr-Kommission // Zeitschrift von Geschichte Erdkunde. 1933. Bln. 221-222.


26. [HUDSON’S BAY COMPANY IN VICTORIA]
[Two receipts issued by the HBC to Mr. W. Wootton [?] for Rum, Sherry and Ale bought in the Victoria Store]: Bought of the Hudson’s Bay Co...

Victoria, V.I. 21 and 28 October 1859. Printed receipts on pale blue lined paper completed in brown ink. First receipt ca. 17x20 cm (half legal size), signed by C. Thorne and J.W. McKay; second receipt ca. 33,5x20 cm (full legal size), signed by J.W. McKay. Fold marks, otherwise the receipts are in very good condition.
Rare Hudson’s Bay Company receipts on the forms of its Victoria store. The receipt from 21 October is for Sherry and Ale, and is signed by famous fur trader and HBC associate Joseph William McKay (1829-1900); with manuscript text on verso: “David Cameron, Receipt HBC $ 30.50, 21st October 1859”. The receipt from 28 October lists two gallons of rum, signed by the store associate Cornelius Thorne; and two gallons of sherry - signed by Joseph McKay; with manuscript text on verso “David Cameron HBC $ 10.40, Oct 28th 1859”.
McKAY JOSEPH WILLIAM, fur trader, explorer, businessman, politician, jp, and office holder; he worked for the Hudson’s Bay Company for over 30 years (1844-1878). Mackay took part in negotiations with Indians near Fort Victoria, explored the Cowichan and Comox valleys, took possession of the coalfields of Nanaimo for the HBC; established sawmills; administered auriferous Thompson’s river district, Fort Yale, managed a salmon cannery et al. In 1856-59 he was a representative of the Victoria District in the First House of Assembly of Vancouver Island (see more: Dictionary of Canadian Biography on-line).


27. [HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY]
Report from the Select Committee on the Hudson's Bay Company; together with the Proceedings of the Committee, Minutes of Evidence, Appendix and Index. [With the 'Plans referred to in the Report'.] Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 31 July and 11 August 1857. [Plans by 'Henry Hansard, Printer'.] Two items bound together.

London: House of Commons, 1857. First Edition. Folio. [iv], xviii, 547, [1] pp. With three large hand colored folding lithographed maps. Recent navy quarter cloth with blue papered boards and a beige paper label. A very good copy.
"An important document containing the evidence of many witnesses on the suitability of Rupert's Land for agricultural settlement" (Peel 188).The Committee was convened to consider 'the State of those British Possessions in North America which are under the Administration of the Hudson's Bay Company, or over which they possess a License to Trade', at the 'near approach of the period when the license of exclusive trade, granted in 1838 for 21 years, to the Hudson's Bay Company over that north-western portion of British America which goes by the name of the Indian Territories, must expire'. Highly detailed, and containing much first-hand testimony from notable figures (J. H. Lefroy; John Rae; Sir George Simpson; William Kernaghan; Sir John Richardson; Rear-Admiral Sir George Back; Edward Ellice). Nineteen appendices, containing transcripts of documents and other material. The HBC's 21-year monopoly, granted in 1838, was running out and pressure for opening its lands to settlement was growing. This report urges restraint in opening up the lands, warning of corruption of the Indians and overhunting of the fur supply. TPL 3729.


28. [LA PEROUSE EXPEDITION, SECOND IN COMMAND]
CLONARD, Robert Sutton de (1751-1788)
[Autograph Letter Signed to “Madame” Regarding the Mining Enterprise in Guadalcanal, Spain].

Paris, 24 November 1774. Quarto (ca. 23,5x18,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper, period ink inscription in another hand on the first page. Fold marks, slightly worn, overall a very good letter.
Early letter by a prominent member the ill-fated expedition of La Perouse to the Pacific (1785-1788). Clonard served as a second-in-command on board the “Boussole” and apparently died after both expedition ships wrecked near Vanikoro in 1788.
The letter is dedicated to the Guadalcanal mining enterprise which was founded and administered by Clonard in the 1760-1770s and involved investments from a number of French aristocrats and high ranking officials. The mine turned to be unproductive, and the company declared bankruptcy. Our letter is addressed to one of the shareholders, a French noble woman, and relates to the last phase of the company’s existence. Clonard informs the lady that he has just returned from the mines, supposes that she is already aware of the abuses of the administration and tells her about the measures he undertook to fix the situation: “M. Le Camus resigned the next day after my arrival to Guadalcanal, and M. Besnier resigned the day before my departure”. M. Geffrier was appointed the new general director of the mines. He proceeds: “After careful examination of all the circumstances of our enterprise, I assure you on my honour that my hopes are very strong and even beyond what they were before my departure from Paris. I can boast that they will fulfil in the course of the next month by the certainty of rich and abundant mineral. At least it is my opinion and that of our two engineers”.
“The Guadalcanal Company was run by the comte de Clonard, a naturalised Irish Jacobite, and brought together a range of ducs (Harcourt, du Châtelet, La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt), numerous great lords (the marquis de Bussy, de Lévis, des Réaux, d`Houdetot, d’Hérissy), aristocratic ladies of the industry (the marquises de Marboeuf, de Cambot, de Boursonne), comtes de Blagny, de Payre, de Custinem du Hautoy, a foreign noble Count Doria, the comtesses de Ruffey, de la Suze, de Coustin, the vicomte de La Rouchefoucald and president de Vaudreuil. In 1778 the Guadalcanal Company had absorbed over three million livres” (Chaussinand-Nogaret. The French Nobility in the Eighteenth Century. 1995. p. 108)
“In 1768 <…> Thomas Sutton, comte de Clonard, a member of the Jacobite trading aristocracy and a syndic of the Indies Company, secured a silver mining concession from the king of Spain at Guadalcanal in the Sierra Morena mountains. Among the shareholders of the new company, capitalized at three million livres, were the duc d’Harcourt, the duc de Châtelet, the duc de Liancourt, and the marquise de Marboeuf. When the company broke up a few years later, Sutton, who speculated on his shares, seems to have been the only shareholder to turn a profit” (Shovlin, J. The political economy of virtue: luxury, patriotism, and the origins of the French revolution. New York, 2006. p. 158).


29. [LOWER MAINLAND]
DOUGLAS, James, Sir (1803-1877)
Reduced Map of a Portion of British Columbia Compiled from the Surveys & Explorations of the Royal Navy & Royal Engineers at the Camp New Westminster Nov. 24th 1859. (Map Illustrating the route persued by Governor Douglas in late of British Columbia).

London: John Arrowsmith, 1861. Outline hand coloured lithographed map ca. 29x43,5 cm (11 ½ x 17 in). This recently matted map is in near fine condition.
This early and historically interesting map of the southern part of British Columbia shows the part of the mainland of the province north to Lillooet and east to Trail. One of the first maps to show details of the Lower Mainland. This map was published in Further Papers Relative to the Affairs of British Columbia. Part IV. London, HMSO, 1862.


30. [MILLER, N.B.]
[Original Albumen Panoramic Photograph of Sitka with the Governor's Mansion and Russian Orthodox Church].

[Sitka], [ca. 1896]. Photograph 18x48 cm (7 ½ x 19 in). Photograph bisected vertically and mounted on two slightly larger contemporary mounts. Mounts slightly edge worn. Photograph a bit faded, but in very good condition.
An attractive, early panoramic photograph of Sitka, Alaska, showing the waterfront including the Governor's Mansion and St. Michael's Russian Orthodox Church, with mountains in the background. A young fisherman sits in a small boat in the bottom foreground of the image. The Russian Orthodox Cathedral of St. Michael, visible in the right side of the picture, was founded in 1848. The three-story governor's residence sits on a hilltop overlooking the harbor, and an American flag flies near it. Smaller one- and two-story structures, including warehouses and homes, are seen along the entire length of the waterfront. The photograph is unsigned, but is attributed to N.B. Miller. Carl Mautz notes only that N.B. Miller was a (possibly amateur) photographer active in Alert Bay on Vancouver Island, circa 1888-89. However, Miller served as the assistant naturalist for the United States Treasury Department Fur Seals Investigations in 1896 in the Pribilof Islands (an island group in the Bering Sea). Not simply an amateur, he was a talented photographer, and it seems likely that this photograph was taken while he was doing his work with the fur seals commission in 1896. Sitka was made the capital of Russian America in 1808, and it was the seat of the American territorial government after the transfer of power from Russia to the United States in October, 1867. Sitka remained the capital of the Alaska Territory until 1908, when the capital was moved to Juneau.
See the website of the Univ. Of Washington Library, Special Collections "Guide to the Alaska Marine Resources and Pribilof Islands Photograph Collection ca. 1896-1909" for further examples of Miller's work. Mautz, p.67 (ref).


31. [NANAIMO INCORPORATION ACT, 1866]
A Bill to Incorporate the Town of Nanaimo.

[1866]. Folio (ca. 32,5x20,5 cm), 4 pp. Light blue paper with minor creases on extremities, overall a very good copy.
Rare bill representing an early attempt of incorporation of Nanaimo; the attempt was unsuccessful, and the city of Nanaimo was incorporated only on 26 December 1874.
The bill was brought into the Assembly of Vancouver Island (Third House, Third Session, 1865-66) by the Nanaimo representative Hon. Mr. Cunningham on January 26, 1866, passed three readings there and was transmitted to the Legislative Council of Vancouver Island on 28 March, 1866 (Journals of the Colonial Legislatures of the Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia, 1851-1871/ Ed. By James E. Hendrickson. Vol. 3. Journals of the House of Assembly, Vancouver Island, 1863-1866, p. 594). The Council received the bill and let it pass a 1st reading, but already on 4 April the Colonial Secretary sent to the Council “a Communication he had received from Mr. Thomas Parker requesting him to lay before the Legislative Council A Petition from the Residents of Nanaimo praying the Council not to pass A Bill Entitled An Act to incorporate the Town of Nanaimo” (Henderson, Vol. 1. Journals of the Council, Executive Council and Legislative Council of Vancouver Island, 1851-1866. p. 346).
After much controversy, with a communication from the specially organized Committee “to assist Mr. Cunningham” which stated that the signatures to the petition against the bill “had been obtained by fraud misinterpretation and undue influence” (10 April, Henderson, Vol. 1, p. 347), the bill was referred to a “Select Committee” for a further investigation on 17 April. The Legislative Council finally postponed the second reading of the bill for six months on May 28, and that was the end of the story (Henderson, Vol. 1, p. 356).


32. [PENDRAY, Phyllis Manning?]
[Unsigned Original Oil Painting of West Coast Totem Poles and a Native Village (Queen Charlotte Islands?)].

Ca. 1930. Oil on canvas board ca. 49x39 cm (20 x 16 in). Reeves & Sons (established 1927) (Canada) Superior Canvas Board). Painting in very good condition and framed in the original period white with light brown trim frame.
Annotated on the reverse of the frame: "Painted by Pendray - Bought from Son Directly (early Pioneer family)." Although no location is specified, the landscape looks very much like the Queen Charlotte Islands. Victoria’s founding Pendray family has produced many painters since the late 1800s. According to the person who originally bought this painting from the Pendray family, the artist was one of the granddaughters (perhaps Phyllis Manning?) of William Joseph Pendray, the patriarch of the family who started a soap factory in Victoria in 1875. This attractive and skillfully executed painting is definitely influenced by the work of Emily Carr and so one could say that the artist was a follower and admirer of Emily Carr's work. Emily Carr is also known to have painted on the grounds of the Pendray family home. Additionally, the fact that the artist and Carr were Victoria contemporaries means that they almost certainly knew each other personally.
Victoriahistoricalsociety.bc.ca/newsletter09.pdf; winchestergalleriesltd.com/artists.


33. [PHOTOGRAPHS OF TRAVELS AROUND THE WORLD]
[Album of 156 Photographs of Travels Around the World ca. 1890 with 27 Photographs of British Columbia].

Ca. 1890. Oblong Quarto. 32 leaves. With 156 photographs with descriptions, most ca. 7x10 cm (3 x 4 in) but several larger. Period dark brown gilt tooled half morocco with brown cloth boards. Rebacked in style, otherwise, a very good album.
The strong images show: Liverpool, Quebec, Ottawa, Victoria, Calgary, Crossing the Rockies, Kootenay Lake, Aden, Alexandria, Bombay, Delhi, Agra, Cairo, Benares, Colombo, Madras, Calcutta, Madura, Kandi, Taj Mahal, Honolulu, Fiji, Melbourne and Hobart.


34. [PORTLAND]
[Large Colour Printed Postcard Like Panorama of Portland]: Panorama View of Portland, ORE. Showing Mount St. Helens, Mount Adams and Mount Hood in the Distance.

Portland: Louis Scheiner, [1913]. Large colour printed panorama ca. 18x83,5 cm (ca. 7x33 in). Blank on verso. Panorama soiled on verso and rubbed on extremities, with creases and a small hole in the right lower corner, but overall good.
An unusually large postcard like panorama.


35. [RUSSIAN RELIGIOUS SECTS IN AMERICA]
Collection of Five Volumes from the Library of A.K. Dubovoy, a Member of the Religious Sect of Shtundists who Immigrated to the United States, including:
Missionerskoe Obozrenie [Missionary Review]: By-weekly Polemical and Apologetico Magazine (1903), Spiritual Polemical and Apologetico Magazine (1904).

1903-1904. 4 vols. Octavo. Period brown quarter calf with marbled and cloth boards; one original publisher’s wrapper and two title pages bound in. Several ink stamps of a Russian Orthodox priest Mitrofan Alexandrovich Schenonovich in text, bookplates of A.K. Dubovoy on front pastedowns. Overall a very good set.
1903. # 7 (April) - 16 (October). 895-1528 (= 632), xv [contents], 158, [2]; 161-664 (= 504), iv, 665-824 (= 160), xi-xiv pp. With three special supplements bound in the text: 8 (Common Missionary Library, # 5), 165-180 (= 16), viii pp.
1904. # 7 (April) – 16 (October). 769-1342 (= 604), xv [contents]; 1199-1342 (2nd copy of issue # 10), 936 pp. With 5 special supplements ‘Missionary Sermons’ (to issues 7 and 10), total number of pages: 49-144 (= 96), and four special supplements regarding Russian-Japanese War (to issues # 7, 8, 9 and 10), total number of pages: 51-128 (=78).
With a custom made sammelband:
ROZHDESTVENSKIY, A. Yuzhnorusskiy Shtundizm [Southern Russian Shtundism]
. Saint Petersburg: Typ. Departmenta Udelov, 1889. [2], iv, [2], 295 pp.
MOLOSTVOVA, E.V. Iegovisty. Zhizn I sochineniya kap. N.S. Ilyina. Vozniknovenie sekty i ee razvitie [Yehowists-Ilyinites. Life and works of Captain Nikolai Ilyin]. Saint Petersburg: Typ. M.M. Stasiulevich, 1914. xii, 298, [1] p.
BUTKEVICH, T.I. Obzor Russkikh sekt i ikh tolkov [An Overview of Russian Religious Sects and their Persuasions]. Saint Petersburg: Tuzov, 1915. 2nd ed. 566, x pp.
Three works bound together. Octavo. Original publisher’s wrappers of all three books bound in (second book with only front wrapper). 20th century custom made cloth binding. Bookplate of A.K. Dubovoy on front pastedown. Overall a very good copy.
An important collection of works regarding Russian religious sects from the library of Andrey Karpovich Dubovoy (1883-1968), a member of the Church of Evangelical Christians-Baptists, a Shtundist. He immigrated to Minot, North Dakota at the end of the 19th century and in the 1950-es he wrote a series of articles about the history of the settlement of Ukrainian Shtundists in the US. A bright description of him can be found in Stephen Graham’s book “With poor immigrants to America” (New York, 1914) where he is described as a ‘wonderfully keen and happy Russian, full of ideas about the future and stories of the settlement where he lived’ (p. 396). All the volumes from the collection are with Dubovoy’s bookplate mounted on the front pastedowns; his pencil notes and commentaries can be found on the endpapers of most volumes. Another important documentary evidence regarding the history of Shtundists is a small pen note inserted in Rozhdestvensky’s book between pages 106 and 107. Written in Russian, with several mistakes, it says: “I am Eudokia Dubovoy. Here [in the marked text of the book] is written about my father, Korniliy Kabanuk, Chaplinki village”.
The books from Dubovoy’s collection include special research works of such major Russian religious sects as Shtundists (by Rozhdestvensky) and Yehowists-Ilyinites (by Molostvova); and a fundamental historical overview of all Russian sects (by T. Butkevich), including chapters about Khlysts, Skoptsy, Doukhobors, Molokans, members of Tolstoyan movement etc.
The issues of the ‘Missionary Review’ – a special magazine of the Russian Orthodox Church (Kiev-SPb., 1896-1916) – contain a wide range or polemical articles regarding Russian religious sects and philosophical movements, with an interesting series of analytical materials about the Doukhobors (1904, #12-14); comments of Saint John of Kronstadt on the ideas of Leo Tolstoy (1904, # 7,8, 10); articles about Russian poets-Symbolists (1903, #7-8), reports on the missionary activity of the Russian Church amidst the sectarians, bibliographical reviews of new books, latest news et al. Interesting are brief notes about the life of Doukhobor immigrants in Canada (1903, # 7), North-American Mormons, religion of Tibet (with pictures) or Japan (1903, # 7, 10) et al. The issues are bound together with ten supplements, including four rare imprints about the Russian-Japanese War (1904-1905).
Overall an important collection of history of Russian Religious immigrants to America.


36. [SEATTLE]
[Large Colour Printed Postcard like Panorama of Seattle]: Panorama View of the Seattle Waterfront.

Seattle: Lowman & Hanford Co., [1917]. Large colour printed panorama ca. 14x89 cm (ca. 5 ½ x 35 in). Printed postcard form and text describing the port of Seattle on verso. The postcard form with the postal stamp and ink stamp of Seattle office; handwritten address to “Mr. Harry Heath, Seguim, Washington”. Panorama soiled on verso and rubbed on extremities, with creases on the lower margin, but overall very good.
An unusually large postcard like panorama. The manuscript note on verso says: “I made my boat alright for Japan”.


37. [SEATTLE]
PEISER, Theodore (1853-after 1907)
[Original Photograph Panorama of Seattle, most likely a later re-working of an slightly earlier produced negative].

Seattle, ca. 1880. Gelatin silver print panorama ca. 10,5x39,5 cm (4 ¼ x 15 ½ in), dissected in two parts and mounted on original card. With the photographer’s name and numbers (107, 108) written in negative on the lower margin. White ink caption “Seattle in 1878” on the mount. Ink stamp “Theodore Peiser” on verso. Mount cracked in the center, but neatly repaired. Overall a very good panorama.
Very early photo panorama of Seattle, one of the first images by a renowned local photographer Theodore Peiser who worked there in 1880s-1907, who might have re-worked a slightly earlier negative to produce this image. The image shows the Seattle downtown waterfront looking southwest from around Denny Hill, with the Seattle wharf, and First and Second Avenues. This image isn't in the Theodore Peiser Collection of the Washington University Library, the main depository of the photographer’s work.
“Theodore E. Peiser, an early pioneer photographer, was active in Washington State from the 1880s to 1907. He documented early scenes in Seattle including pioneers, 1900 military expedition to China and the Territorial University. Unfortunately, early during his stay in Seattle, he experienced the loss of his photographic studio and equipment in the Great Fire that swept the city in June of 1889. However, some of his photographic images did survive. These and others are presented as part of the Theodore E. Peiser Photograph Collection” (Libraries of the University of Washington/ Digital Collections).


38. [SEYMOUR, Frederick] (1820-1869)
Prorogation of the Legislative Council, New Westminster, 2nd April, 1867. The Governor’s Speech.

[New Westminster, 1867].Broadside, Folio (ca. 32,5x20 cm), 1 p. Text printed in two columns on watermarked laid paper “A. Cowan & Sons, 1865”. Paper aged, with minor chip on the left upper corner, otherwise a very good copy.
[With (pasted to): KER, Robert, Auditor General of British Columbia (1824-1879)
Abstract of the Revenue and Expenditure of the Colony of British Columbia, for the Year 1867 (approximate)
. Audit Office, 21 April, 1868. Folio (ca. 32,5x18,5 cm), 1 p. Pale blue paper. Creases, two small holes on the upper margin not affecting the text, minor tears on top, otherwise a very good copy.
Early rare New Westminster imprint containing the speech of the Governor of the recently united colony of British Columbia and Vancouver Island which summarizes the work of the 4th Session of the Legislative Council of colony. Frederick Seymour lists all newly allowed ordinances and those still in work, reassures the Council that he will be “glad to co-operate with you in any means for the promotion of Immigration and the occupation of the Crown Lands”, informs that the establishment of the principal Custom House will take place soon et al.
At the end of the speech Seymour says – most likely, for the first time publicly: “I am about to communicate with the Secretary of State and the Governors of Canada and of the Hudson’s Bay Company, respecting the wish you have expressed to enter into a confederation with the Eastern Provinces of British North America”. Interesting broadside announcing the first time a Governor of the newly-amalgamated Colonies was officially communicating speculations about joining Canada.
The text of the speech was reproduced in: Journals of the Colonial Legislatures of the Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia, 1851-1871/ Ed. By James E. Hendrickson. Vol. 5. Journals of the Legislative Council of British Columbia, 1867-1871. P. 103-104).


39. [STANLEY PARK, VANCOUVER]
C.S. BAILEY & CO.
[Two Original Photograph Views of Stanley Part in Vancouver, British Columbia].

Ca. 1890. Two albumen prints ca. 11x18,5 and 19 cm (ca. 4 ¼ x 7 ¼ and 7 ½ in). Both numbered and captioned in negative and mounted on original cherry coloured card. The larger image with the gold stamp of “C.S. Bayley and Co., Vancouver, B.C.” on the mount. Images slightly faded, otherwise a very good pair of images.
Two photo views of Stanley Park in Vancouver:
546. Cedar tree, 50 ft. In circumference, on Park Road, Vancouver.
573. Part of Stanley Park Road on Brocton Point. The outline of the north shore is seen in the background.
Charles S. Bailey “arrived in Vancouver, winter of 1887-1888; operated as C. S. Bailey & Co. With F. V. Bingham and E. Straube, until 1889, then formed a partnership with H.G. Neelands lasting for about a year. Bailey Brothers was formed with brother William, 1890. C. S. Bailey visited Hawaii, January-May 1895, with E.A. Hegg, the photographer of the Klondike gold rush, and they photographed Oahu together” (Mautz, C. Biographies of Western Photographers, 1997, p. 56).


40. [THE COLONY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA]
[SEYMOUR, Frederick, Governor] (1820-1869)
Speech of His Excellency the Governor at the Opening of the Legislative Council, 12th January, 1865.

[New Westminster, B.C.], [1865]. Broadside, ca. 40,5x25 cm, text printed in two columns. Period ink inscriptions on recto "Frederick Seymour 12 Jan 1865 Governor BC" and on verso “1865 Govr’s Speech”. Old fold marks, minor creases and tears on margins, a tear on the centrefold with old tape repair, but overall a very good copy.
This Incunabula of New Westminster B.C. Printing is a welcome speech by Frederick Seymour, the Governor of the Colony of British Columbia, which was read in front of the second Legislative Council of the colony (1864-65). The speech relates to the main agenda of the current Council and the most significant events in the life of the colony, i.e. Financial crisis and BC’s big debt, ways of fixing it – “impose a duty on the export of Gold”; prospective construction of roads in the Kootenay and Cariboo, erection of “Public Buildings” (hospitals, libraries); new tariff duties; protection of the Russian-American Telegraph “which will bring New Westminster into immediate communication with the electric systems of Asia, Europe and North Africa” etc.
Although it was about a year until the unification of the Colony of BC and the Colony of Vancouver Island; Seymour "shall omit the promised communication respecting Union with Vancouver Island <…> I regret that the interests of two Colonies so near each other, and so remote from the Mother Country, should be in some respects antagonistic, but my duty to British Columbia is paramount, and I accept your decision. I trust that the entire separation which now takes place may ultimate relations and probably for an Union which, in some respects I cannot but consider to be desirable."
Text reproduced in: Journals of the Legislative Council of British Columbia, from the 12th December 1864, to the 11th April 1865 <…> Being the Second Session of the Legislative Council of British Columbia. New Westminster: Government Printing Office, 1865, p. 10-13.
Not in Lowther.


41. [UNION OF VANCOUVER ISLAND AND B.C., 1866]
[Leaflet Titled]: Despatches [A letter dated 12 December 1865 from Governor Kennedy to the Legislative Assembly enclosing despatches concerning crown lands].

[Victoria B.C], [1865]. 4 pp. On a folded folio leaf (ca. 27,5x35,5 cm or 10 ½ x 13 ¾ in). Printed in double-columns. Signed by J.D. Pemberton (brown ink, in the right upper corner). Near fine, clean copy.
A very rare leaflet as no copies located in Worldcat. Most likely the copy which belonged to Joseph Despard Pemberton (1821-1893), Surveyor General of the Colony of Vancouver Island at the time. The document contains several despatches from the Governor of Vancouver Island Arthur Edward Kennedy (1809-1883), J.D. Pemberton himself, attorney general of the Vancouver Island George Hunter Cary (1832-1866), and acting surveyor general of Vancouver Island Benjamin William Pearse (1832-1902) regarding surveys of the lands of the Hudson’s Bay Company and other proprietors, in order to facilitate terms of the Union of the colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. Lowther 261.


42. [VANCOUVER BEFORE THE FIRE]
[Two Very Early Dated Original Photographs of the Vancouver Waterfront Taken Before the Incorporation of Vancouver and the Great Fire of 13 June 1886].

3 June 1885. Two gelatin silver prints, each ca. 11,5x18 cm (ca. 4 ½ x 7 in). Pencil captions on verso, mounted in a recent mat. Both images with tears on the upper margins; one with the old tape stain and upper left corner broken, but the contrast and clarity are still very good. Overall good photos.
Very early photos of Vancouver, taken before the city incorporation (6 April 1886) or the Great Vancouver Fire (13 June 1886). The upper photo shows “Burrard Inlet & Moodyville from Granville” with the North Shore mountains in the background, the lower one – “Burrard Inlet from Granville” looking east toward the Hastings mill and town site.


43. [VANCOUVER BEGINNINGS]
[Early Post Fire Vancouver Imprint Listing Properties and Prices in the West End]: Price List of Lots for Sale of Subdivision of Lot 185 City of Vancouver.

[Vancouver, ca. 1886]. Broadside, Folio, ca. 33,5x21,5 cm. Centrefold, paper slightly browned around edges with some very minor marginal tears, otherwise a very good copy.
With: [Cheque of the Corporation of Vancouver for $15.00 Payable to the Union Steam Ship Co. Of B.C., signed by D[avid] Oppenheimer as Mayor]. Vancouver, Bank of British Columbia, 21 April, 1891. Ca. 23x11 cm. Printed and finished in brown ink, with paid stamps on recto and endorsement by Wm. Cargill on verso. Two short minor marginal tears at bottom and left margin, creased at lower left corner, otherwise a very good copy.
Very rare early Vancouver broadside. Early post-fire Vancouver imprint listing properties and prices in the district lot 185, now the Downtown West End. The lot stretches from Seaton to Pacific street, affecting fourteen streets in total: Seaton (after 1915 – West Hastings, continuation of Hastings west of Burrard), Melville, Georgia, Alberni, Robson, Hara, Barclay, Nelson, Comox, Pendrell, Davie, Burnaby, Harwood, and Pacific. The prices for 33’x132’ blocks differ from $225 (Harwood, Burnaby streets) to $600 for the lots on Seaton Street – a residence of local rich people called “Blueblood Alley”.
David Oppenheimer (1834–1897) was a successful entrepreneur and the second mayor of Vancouver (1888-1891). He “did extensive business with the Canadian Pacific Railway during its construction through the mountains of British Columbia in the 1880s <…>. Realizing the railway's importance, the Oppenheimer Brothers firm had joined the Vancouver Land and Improvement Company in 1878 to purchase land near its western terminus” (Wikipedia).
“Although the brothers did not move to the fledgling community of Granville (Vancouver) until late 1885 or early 1886, David had begun to acquire prime land there as early as 1878, when he persuaded several partners to join him in buying 300 acres on Burrard Inlet. In the summer of 1884 he and other Victoria capitalists bought more land at Coal Harbour and English Bay, lobbied the provincial government to assist the CPR in extending its line westward from Port Moody, and encouraged other landowners to join them in donating about 175 acres to the railway. After the CPR officially announced the extension of its line to Granville, Oppenheimer continued, at least until 1886, to buy more land at government auction. At the beginning of 1887 the assessed value the Oppenheimer Brothers’ holdings, through their Vancouver Improvement Company, was $125,000, the largest after the CPR ($1,000,000) and the Hastings Saw Mill ($250,000)” (Dictionary of Canadian Biography on-line).


44. [VANCOUVER FIREHALL No 6]
FRESHWATER, Harry
[Original Photograph Group Portrait of the Officers of the Vancouver Firehall No 6].

Ca. 1907. Gelatin silver print ca. 19,5x24 cm (7 ¾ x 9 ½ in), mounted on original card mount. Blind photographer’s blind stamp “Freshwater” on the right lower corner. Overall a very good bright photograph.
Interesting early image of the Vancouver Fire Hall No 6; the building is extant and located at 1001 Nicola St. (southwest corner of Nelson and Nicola Streets), West End. The photo shows fire fighters posing in the new motorized fire trucks – auto hose wagon and auto chemical engine produced by Seagrave Co. Of Columbus, Ohio.
Vancouver became one of the first cities in North America with motorized fire departments. The first free motorized vehicles were bought by the chief of the fire department John Howe Carlisle in 1907. “In 1911, the Vancouver department was ranked, by a committee of international experts, as among the “world's best in efficiency and equipment,” and in 1917 became Canada's first completely motorized department” (Vancouver Fire and Rescue: Early Days/ The History of Metropolitan Vancouver on-line).
Harry Freshwater worked in Vancouver in 1907-1909 (Phillips, G.C. The Western Canada Photographers: List (1860-1925). London, Ontario, 1997, p. 57).


45. [VANCOUVER PHOTOGRAPHS]
GOWEN, Frank (1878-1946)
[Album with Thirty Original Panoramic Photo Postcards Showing Vancouver and the Canadian Rockies near Banff].

Vancouver: F. Gowen Co. Ltd., ca. 1917-1919. Oblong Octavo (ca. 17,5x28 cm). 30 stiff card leaves pp. Panoramic photo postcards mounted on stiff card leaves each ca. 9x22,5 cm (3 ½ x 8 ¾ in). All images captioned in negative on the lower margins, and with the ink stamps of F. Gowen & Co on verso. Period brown full sheep album, stitched through on top and bottom, with moire endpapers and gilt lettered dedication on the front cover: "With compliments. Robt. McNair Shingle Co. Vancouver, B.C." Overall a very good album with bright and strong images.
An interesting collection of scenic views of Vancouver landmarks and the Canadian Rockies taken by Frank Gowen, official Stanley Park photographer from 1916. Our copy with a gilt tooled presentation from the "Robert McNair Shingle Company,' which was active in 1891-1954 in logging, lumber and shingle production in the Greater Vancouver area and the Gulf Islands.
The photographs include six views of Stanley Park showing Siwash Rock, Brockton point with RMS Empress of Japan leaving Burrard Inlet, "Sunset from the shores of Stanley Park" and a panorama of the mountains on the North Shore; two images depict the park’s main road, including "A Driveway through the forest giants." Historically interesting are six different views of the Capilano River and Canyon taken before the area was flooded in 1954 after the construction of the Cleveland Dam. The images show a nine-mile-long wooden flume constructed along the Canyon cliffs in 1906 by logging companies, a footbridge and the Capilano Suspension Bridge; another stunning image is "The Lions. The Guardians of Vancouver, B.C." was also taken from the area currently under Capilano lake (Anderson’s observation tower in Tipperary Tea Gardens, Second Canyon on Capilano River).
Other Vancouver views include images of Hastings and Georgia Streets (the latter showing the Court House and Hotel Vancouver), a waterfront panorama, and two views of English Bay showing its "bathing beach" and famous pier (dismantled in 1939).
The album also contains twelve Gowen photographs of the Canadian Rockies - images of Mt. Burgess with Emerald Lake, Mt. Rundle, Three Sisters Peaks, Lakes Louise and Agnes, Twin and Takkanan Falls in the Yoho Valley, a view of the Bow river from C.P.R. Hotel, Base of the Great Glacier and Sir Donald Peak, Kicking Horse River and Mt. Stephen (two identical images).
English-born Frank Gowen first immigrated to Manitoba and then moved to Vancouver in 1913. His first postcards featuring local scenes appeared in 1914. In 1916 Frank "won the exclusive right to take pictures to be sold commercially at the Big Tree and at Prospect Point in Stanley Park. The contract ran for two years, and he had to pay the Park Boards $40 in 1916 and $50 in 1917 for the concession, which also gave him the right to call himself "The Official Stanley Park Photographer." Following the initial signing, the Parks Board lease generally came up for renewal every two years, with terms and conditions varying slightly" (See: Frank Gowen’s Vancouver, p. 9). Gowen’s goal was to produce good black-and-white photographs to be printed as postcards that would sell well (Idem, p. 13); he "possibly brought art photography’ into a number of homes for the first time" (Idem, p. 14).
Robert McNair and his brother opened a shingle mill and logging camp at Hastings, B.C. In 1891. The Robert McNair Shingle Company was opened in 1904 and incorporated in 1918. By 1914, the company had built a second mill in Port Moody and was logging on Coquitlam Mountain and at Deep Cove. It later purchased timber rights around Howe Sound and the Gulf Islands. In 1937 the company purchased Stave Falls Lumber Company Limited, primarily for the timber the latter company owned. In 1954, the company was closed down (memorybc.ca).
Thirkell F., Scullion B. Frank Gowen’s Vancouver, 1914-1931. Vancouver, 2001.


46. [VICTORIA AND ESQUIMALT RAILWAY COMPANY]
[Broadside Titled]: An Act to Authorize the Victoria and Esquimalt Railway Company Limited to Make a Railway from Esquimalt to Victoria.

[Victoria B.C.], 1862. One page on a folded double folio leaf (ca. 35,5x42,5 cm or 14x17 in). Pale blue paper. A fine copy.
Very rare broadside with Worldcat only locating a copy at UBC. This is a draft of an act for a railway between Victoria and Esquimalt which most likely hadn’t been accepted; unlisted in the official set of Acts. According to the document, "the Victoria and Esquimalt Railway Company Limited was duly registered on the 21st day of November, 1862" with the goal of "making of a Line of Railway between Victoria and Esquimalt, and the conveyance of passengers and goods between Esquimalt and Victoria." The Company will commit to "make and complete the permanent way of the said line <..,> within two years from the passage of this Act, unless hindered by the dangers of the sea or other unavoidable casualty." In case of approval, the Act "may be sited as the Victoria and Esquimalt Railway Act, 1862."


47. [VICTORIA, B.C.]
[Two Lithographs Views of Victoria B.C.]: "View of Victoria" & "A Street in Victoria."

London: Clayton & Co., 1865. Printed images ca. 11x18 cm (4 ½ x 7 in). Two lithographs matted in one, both lithographs in fine condition.
The two lithographs are from: Thomas Rawlings: "The Confederation of the British North American Provinces; Their Past History and Future Prospects; including also British Columbia & Hudson's Bay Territory; with a Map and Suggestions in Reference to the True and Only Practicable Route from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean," London: Sampson, Low, Son, and Marston, 1865. The view of "A Street in Victoria" is of Wharf Street. "With the discovery of gold on the British Columbia mainland in 1855, Victoria became the port, supply base, and outfitting centre for miners on their way to the Fraser Canyon gold fields, mushrooming from a population of 300 to over 5000 literally within a few days. Victoria was incorporated as a city in 1862. In 1865, Esquimalt was made the North Pacific home of the Royal Navy, and remains Canada's west coast naval base" (Wikipedia).


48. [VICTORIA]
THOMPSON, Stephen Joseph (1864-1929)
[Original Photograph]: Point Ellice Bridge Disaster, Victoria 1896.

[Victoria B.C.], 1896. Gelatin silver print ca. 18,5x23,5 cm (ca. 7 ¼ x 9 ¼ in). Signed, numbered and captioned in negative and mounted on original card. Pencil inscription on verso “Return to H.A. Goward, BC Eletcric Ry Co”. Minor chip on the lower margin not affecting the image, corners bumped, otherwise a very good photograph.
Early photograph by S.J. Thompson. “Arriving in New Westminster from, it is believed, New York City, he set up a partnership with one or both of the Bovill brothers as Thompson & Bovill late in October 1886. By 1889 he was operating on his own. He established a branch studio in Vancouver in December 1897. For a while after the New Westminster studio had been destroyed by fire on September 11, 1898, he maintained a Vancouver and a New Westminster studio” (Mattison, D. Camera Workers: The British Columbia Photographic Directory, 1858-1950, on-line).
“On May 26, 1896 in Victoria, British Columbia, a streetcar crowded with 143 holidaymakers on their way to attend celebrations of Queen Victoria’s birthday, crashed through Point Ellice Bridge into the Upper Harbour. 55 men, women and children were killed in the accident, making this one of the worst disasters in British Columbia history and the worst accident in Canadian transit history. Only those passengers on the left side of the streetcar were able to escape.
On June 12, 1896, a coroner’s jury concluded that the tramway operator, the Consolidated Electric Railway Company, was responsible for the disaster because it allowed its streetcar to be loaded with a much greater weight of passengers than the bridge was designed to support. The city council of Victoria was found to be guilty of contributory negligence because the bridge had not been well maintained, and because council failed to take steps to restrict the traffic on the bridge to within safe limits. The design and construction of the bridge was also found to have been poor, especially in that the specifications called for weld less iron to be used but that the ironwork was almost all welded.
The Consolidated Electric Railway Company was forced into receivership by the disaster and emerged reorganized as the British Columbia Electric Railway on April 15, 1897” (Wikipedia).


49. [VLADIVOSTOK]
[Anonymous Large Photograph Panorama of Vladivostok].

Ca. 1890s. Large folding albumen print panorama ca. 24x74 cm (9 ½ x 29 ¼ in), dissected in two parts and mounted on original card. Unsigned. Beautiful sharp strong image, this panorama is in near fine condition.
Beautiful panorama of downtown Vladivostok looking east, with the Golden Horn Bay and numerous naval and commercial ships on the right, and Eagle’s Nest Hill on the left. The central part of the panorama shows a perfect overview of the city’s downtown core – the conjunction of Svetlanskaya and Aleutskaya Streets, with busy commercial and residential developments. Among the buildings shown are: Vladivostok Dormition Cathedral (completed in 1899, destroyed by Soviet government in 1938); rails and cars of the Trans-Siberian Railroad in the foreground; newly built bank offices; city wharfs with administrative buildings et al.


50. [VLADIVOSTOK]
[Two Original Photograph Views of Vladivostok].

Ca. 1899. Two gelatin silver prints ca. 10 and 11,5 x 16,5 cm (ca. 4 and 4 ½ x 6 ½ in). One image with ink stamp of “The Gilliams press Syndicate” and old label with type-written text “Panorama of Vladivostok and Harbour” on verso. One image strengthened with paper and with remnants of the old mount on verso. The images are bright and clear, overall a very good pair.
Two sharp views of downtown Vladivostok. One is taken looking east, with the Golden Horn Bay and numerous naval and commercial ships on the right, and the conjunction of Svetlanskaya and Aleutskaya Streets on the left. The locomotive moving on the Trans-Siberian Railroad is seen in the foreground, and the busy commercial and residential development of Svetlanskaya Street is in the background, with the recently completed Vladivostok Dormition Cathedral (1899).
The smaller image is taken on Svetlanovskaya street and is looking west, to the Vladivostok Railway station and Tiger Sopka (left, in the background); the city wharf is seen on the left. Detailed view of part of Svetlanskaya Street is seen in the foreground.


51. [VUE D’OPTIQUE, OR PERSPECTIVE VIEW]
Vue des Côtes de Siberie [View of the Coasts of Siberia].

Paris: Laurent Pierre La Chaussée, ca. 1780. Hand coloured copper engraving ca. 27x39 cm (10 ¾ x 15 ¼ in). “Sarasin P.[inxit], la Chaussee Sculp.” Additional manuscript caption “Cote de Siberie” in inverted on the upper margin. Paper lightly soiled and creased, minor tear on the lower margin neatly repaired, otherwise a very good engraving.
This interesting prospective view of the Siberian coast prepared for a peep box represents a mountainous sea shore in apparently, North-Eastern Siberia or Kamchatka. A small settlement is shown on the shore, with fishing boats and nets in the sea. This is an early example of graphical representation of this remote region. The reason why it was published might have been the first European editions of Stepan Krasheninnikov’s “Description of Kamchatka” which was first translated and published in English in 1764, and in French in 1767, and as a part of Chappe d’Auteroche’s “Voyage en Sibérie” in 1768.
“Vue d'optique (French), vue perspective or perspective view refers to a genre of etching popular during the second half of the 18th century and into the 19th. Vues d'optique were specifically developed to provide the illusion of depth when viewed through a zograscope, also known as an "optical diagonal machine" or viewers with similar functions. Optical viewers were generally popular with well-to-do European families in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Perspective views were produced in London, Paris, Augsburg and several other cities” (Wikipedia).


52. AMERICAN-HAWAIIAN STEAMSHIP COMPANY
PANSING, Fred (1844-1912)
AMERICAN-HAWAIIAN STEAMSHIP COMPANY. TEHUANTEPEC ROUTE. Service Between New York, San Diego, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Puget Sound and Hawaii.

Ca. 1907. Mounted sepia toned lithograph ca 59x86 cm (23 ½ x 34 in). Lithograph with a couple of very minor surface scratches, otherwise in very good condition.
This attractive sepia toned lithograph is by Fred Pansing, a German-American maritime artist who specialized in oil paintings and lithographs of ocean liners, with regular commissions from Cunard and White Star Lines. The lithograph is of the Alaska which "was built in 1902 at San Francisco, California, by the Union Iron Works as the commercial cargo ship SS Alaskan for the American-Hawaiian Steamship Company, which employed her on the New York City-to-San Francisco-to-Honolulu, Hawaii, trade." (Wikipedia).
"The American-Hawaiian Steamship Company was founded in 1899 to carry cargos of sugar from Hawaii to the United States and manufactured goods back to Hawaii. Brothers-in-law George Dearborn and Lewis Henry Lapham were the key players in the founding of the company. At the time of the company's founding, its steamships sailed around South America via the Straits of Magellan to reach the East Coast ports. By 1907, the company began using the Isthmus of Tehuantepec Route. Shipments on the Tehuantepec Route would arrive at Mexican ports - Salina Cruz, Oaxaca, for eastbound cargo, and Coatzacoalcos, Veracruz for westbound cargo - and would traverse the Isthmus of Tehuantepec on the Tehuantepec National Railway. When American political troubles with Mexico closed that route, American-Hawaiian returned to the Straits of Magellan route" (Wikipedia).
The text beneath the image lists the cities served by the company and the vessels comprising its fleet.


53. BARNES, Albert Henry (1876-1920)
[Album of Twenty-four Original Photographs of Mount Rainier National Park, Titled]: Sights and Scenes.

Ca. 1910. Oblong Quarto (21x28,5 cm), 12 stiff card leaves with tissue guards. Large mounted silver gelatin prints, the majority ca. 14x20 cm (5 ½ x 7 ¾ in), with a few smaller ones ca. 12x17 cm (4 ¾ x 6 ¾ in). Most images with period ink captions, some inscribed in negative on the lower margins. Period black quarter cloth album with dark grey papered boards and a paper title on the front cover. Album slightly soiled and rubbed, but overall a very good album with strong clear images.
This photo album contains photos of the famous park’s landmarks, including distance and close up views of Mt. Rainier, Tatoosh Mountains and Paradise Valley, Mt. Adams, mountainous scenery taken from Beljica Peak and the Saw Tooth Range, views of Nisqually, Paradise and Mashel Rivers, Rainier Fork (a tributary of the American River), Narada Falls of the Paradise River et al; photos of Reflection, Mineral and Clear Lakes; forest sceneries include a picture of a road “3 miles above Elbe,” two portraits of a ranger with a gun posing in front of a large “Fir tree on Roundtop Creek, Lewis Co. Wn. Diam. Over 13 Ft”, and a photo of two hunters carrying a deer.
“Both a photographer and a painter, Albert Henry Barnes photographed the people, the cities and the landscapes of the Pacific Northwest. Well known as both a photographer and an oil painter, he documented images of the landscape, people, and cities and towns of Western Washington around the turn of the 20th century. However, little is known about his life. He apparently operated out of studios both in Parkland and Tacoma. His images appeared in some local newspapers from 1905-1915. He also wrote descriptive articles for photography magazines, railroad publications, and travel books. In 1909, he photographed, wrote and published a work entitled: Sights and scenes from Tacoma to Paradise Park: forty-eight views. In 1911, in collaboration with his friend A.H. Denman, he published his best-known work: "Our Greatest Mountain and Alpine Regions of Wonder". The work contained a number of Barnes landscape photographs, as well as a color reproduction of his painting entitled "Mount Tacoma".
In addition to his publication work, he provided services for the Washington State Historical Society such as documenting commemorative services for some of the historical markers erected by the society. Among the photographs in this collection are images of unidentified homesteaders, early scenes in Mount Rainier National Park, the Columbia River Gorge, hotels and lodges in Western Washington, and scenes of Tacoma” (Albert Henry Barnes Photographs/ Washington University Libraries on-line).


54. BLAEU, Joan (1596-1673)
Fretum Nassovium vulgo de Straet Nassou [Map of Nassau Strait, modern Yugorsky Strait, Arctic Russia].

Amsterdam: Joan Blaeu, [1664]. Copper engraved map ca. 24,5x54 cm (9 ½ x 21 ¼ in). Original centerfold, blank on verso. Paper age toned and lightly creased, minor tear on the left margin, and repaired centrefold tear. Overall a good map with wide margins.
A map from “Blaeu's Grooten Atlas” (Dutch version of the Atlas Maior, 1662-1665) which shows the Strait of Nassau, modern Yugorsky Strait, a narrow sound between the Kara Sea and the Pechora Sea in the Artic. The map shows the Vaygach Island and the Russian Arctic mainland with detailed coastlines including sea depths and islands in the strait and Samoyed settlements on the mainland. The map is supplemented with two compass roses, rhumb lines and seven ships entering the strait from the west. Two pictorial cartouches show figures of Arctic dogs, a dear, a polar bear, a bear skin and sea deities.
“The earliest recorded voyage through the Yugorsky Shar, traditionally known as the Arctic "Iron Gateway", into the Kara Sea was made from Nizhny Novgorod by early Russian explorer Uleb in 1032. Russian "Pomors", the coastal dwellers of the White Sea shores, had been exploring this strait since the 11th century. The Arctic's first shipping line, the Great Mangazea Route, from the White Sea to the Ob River and the Yenisei Gulf began operating in the latter part of the 16th century. This line opened up the way to Siberia's riches and worked until 1619, when it was closed for military and political reasons, for fear of possible penetration by Europeans into Siberia” (Wikipedia). The first Western European navigators who went through the Yugorsky Shar were the Englishmen Arthur Pet and Charles Jackman: they explored the strait in 1580 and named it the Nassau Strait. Blaeu's Grooten Atlas, oft Werelt- Beschryving, in welcke't Aerdryck, de Zee, en Hemel, wort vertoont en beschreven. Amsterdam, J. Blaeu, 1664; Van der Krogt, Koeman’s Atlas Neerlandici, vol. 2, 1272:2.


55. BROWN, Andrew, Captain (1879-1962)
[An Unsigned Carved Argillite Pole Showing Frog, Eagle, Female Figure, Bear and Eagle but in Brown very Distinctive Style].

Ca. 1920. Totem pole is ca. 26 cm (10 ½ in) high. Attractive argillite carving. With a couple of minute chips but otherwise in very good condition.
"In Haida Captain Andrew Brown's name "was Owt'iwans, meant 'big eagle', which was inherited from his grandfather of small Hippa Island. Andrew himself came from Yan. He carved many great canoes, and totems earning him a nickname 'Captain' which he put in front of his English given name Andrew Brown" (pegasusgallery.ca).


56. BROWNE, W. H.
Two Tinted Lithographs: "The Bivouac (Cape Seppings)," & "The Sledges Arriving at the Southern Depot" Taken from: [Ten Coloured Views taken during the Arctic Expedition of Her Majesty's Ships "Enterprise" and "Investigator," under the command of Captain Sir James C. Ross. With a summary of the various Arctic Expeditions in Search of Captain Sir John Franklin, and his Companions in H.M. Ships "Erebus" and "Terror"].

London: Ackermann & Co., 1850. Two tinted lithographs ca. 19x24 cm (7 ½ x 9 ½ in) & 27x18 cm (10 ½ x 7 in). Recently matted very good tinted lithographs.
Two tinted lithographs from the account of one of the first Franklin search expeditions. "The principal of these expeditions was that under Sir James Clark Ross, and was commissioned to follow as closely as possible the supposed track of Sir John Franklin. It consisted of H.M.S. Enterprise ... and H.M.S. Investigator." (Browne: Summary, p. 6) Browne served on board the Enterprise and, in addition to producing these views, led one of the four search parties during the spring of 1849. Beset by ice off Somerset Island, Browne made an eight day sledge journey in search of clues to Franklin's disappearance. Abbey Travel 637: Plates #'s 3 & 5.


57. CHAPPE D'AUTEROCHE, l'Abbe Jean (1722-1769)
Voyage en Sibérie, fait par ordre du roi en 1761; contenant les moeurs, les usages des Russes, et l'etat actuel de cette puissance; la description géographique & le nivellement de la route de Paris à Tobolsk; l'histoire naturelle de la même route; des observations astronomiques, & des expériences sur l'électricité naturelle: enrichi de cartes géographiques, de plans, de profils du terrein; de gravures qui représentent les usages des Russes, leurs moeurs, leurs habillements, les divinités des Calmouks, & plusieurs morceaux d'histoire naturelle. Par M. l'abbé Chappe d'Auteroche.
[A Journey into Siberia, made by order of the King of France... containing an Account of the Manners and Customs of the Russians, the Present State of Their Empire: with the Natural History, and Geographical Description of Their Country, the Level of the Road from Paris to Tobolsky]; [With]: Contenant la Description du Kamtchatka ... Par M. Kracheninnikov [The History of Kamtschatka, and the Kurilski Islands, with the countries adjacent].

Paris: Debure, 1768. First Edition. Text: 2 vols. in 3 Small Folio & Elephant Folio Atlas. [iv], xxx, [ii], 347; [iv], 347-777; xvi, 627, [i], [ii], [ii]. Engraved frontispiece, 3 engraved maps, 53 engraved plates, some folding, 1 engraved table, and engraved title vignettes, after Moreau le Jeune and Le Prince; atlas volume with engraved frontispiece index and 30 engraved maps, many folding, some hand-coloured in outline. The text volume in period brown elaborately gilt tooled mottled full calf with maroon gilt morocco labels and atlas in period green gilt titled full vellum. Atlas with some mild foxing, otherwise a very good set in very original condition.
This work has "splendid and accurate engravings and.., [gives a] powerful description of manners and character" (Cox I p.352). "This work deserves attention for its attractive and accurate engravings, and for its forthright and sometimes provocative descriptions of Russian manners and character. Certain of these descriptions inspired the publication of an indignant rebuttal, sometimes attributed to Catherine the Great. Chappe d'Auteroche was a French priest and astronomer, who travelled to Siberia to observe the transit of Venus in 1761. The present work includes meteorological observations, descriptions of the climate, animals, birds, and insects, notes on the iron ore, copper, and gold mines, etc. Chappe d'Auteroche's translation of Stepan Petrovich Krasheninnikov's description of Kamchatka from the first Russian edition of 1755.., His translation of Krasheninnikov's Kamchatka contains considerable material on Alaska and the northwest coast of America" (Hill 277). "In 1761, by the order of the king of France, and by arrangement with Catherine II, he undertook an expedition into Siberia to observe the transit of Venus. From Paris he reached St. Petersburg, then sledged to Tobolsk, where in June 1761 the transit was duly observed. The expedition carried out a large number of scientific measurements en route, and reported on the geography of the region and the customs of its inhabitants" (Howgego C101).


58. CHARCOT, Jean-Baptiste (1867-1936)
[A SMALL COLLECTION OF ITEMS RELATED TO CHARCOT’S LAST EXPEDITION 1934-1936]

Autograph Letter Signed ‘J. Charcot’ to ‘Un Monsieur’ About Latter’s Son’s Desire to Join the ‘Pourquoi-Pas?’ Crew. Neuilly-s-Seine, 5 May 1933. Quarto ca. 27 x 21 cm (10 ½ x 8 ¼ in). One page. Laid paper, folded twice, the text is written in ink in a legible hand, with the address printed on top. Very minor tear on fold, otherwise in very good condition.
With: A Commemorative Silver Medal, by P. Richter and E. Lindauer. N.d., ca. 1936. Diam. Ca. 68 mm., obverse showing a bust of Charcot in high relief, reverse with view of Charcot’s ship the ‘Pourquoi-Pas?’ surmounted by caption ‘Expéditions Polaires Françaises’. Original felt-lined crimson leather case with clasp. A very good set.
With: [An Original Press Photograph Showing "Polar Explorer Honoured O.P.S.: Dr. Charcot, the famous French polar explorer, receiving a medal from Marshal Franchet d'Esperey at the Geographical Society today. On right is Mme Charcot, the servant's wife, on left Mme Waldeck-Rousseau, sister of Dr.Charcot"]. Oblong Octavo, ca. 13x18 cm (5x7 in). Dated 24 June 1934. Photograph annotated in Spanish and with several stamps and pasted on notes in English and Spanish. A very good photograph.
This is a group of memorabilia related to the last expedition of the famous French Antarctic Explorer Jean-Baptist Charcot. Conducting an ethnographic survey of Greenland and Iceland in partnership with the French explorer Paul-Émile Victor, the crew of the ‘Pourquoi-Pas?' also mapped the region. The expedition ended with tragedy, when on 16 September 1936 the ship was caught in a violent cyclonic storm and was lost on the reefs off the coast of Iceland. Twenty-three of the crew were lost in the wreck and 17 survivors died before rescue came, leaving only one survivor, Eugène Gonidec, master steersman. Jean-Baptiste Charcot was one of the dead, aged 69 (Wikipedia).
This group includes a commemorative silver medal issued after the tragic loss of Charcot’s expedition, and a letter from Charcot to an unidentified recipient whose son wished to join the crew of the expedition ship 'Pourquoi pas?.' Charcot would have liked to respond positively, but: "Le 'Pourquoi pas?' est armé par la Marine Nationale et son équipage ne peut être formé que par des marins d'Etat en activité. Si votre fils s'était trouvé sous les drapeaux au moment de la désignation de l'équipage j'aurais pu tenter une démarche au Ministère mais dans les conditions actuelles il n'y a malheureusement rien à faire." [The 'Pourquoi pas?' is outfitted by the Marine Nationale and its crew can only be formed from currently working Marine's servicemen. If your son was doing his national service at the time the crew was chosen, I could have tried and queried the Ministère. However, owing to these circumstances, there is nothing much that I can do]. Charcot also mentioned Doctor Louis Gain (1883-1963), the naturalist of the French Antarctic Expedition 1908-10, who directed the request to him. Regarding the date of the letter it’s likely related to Charcot’s last expedition departed for Greenland in 1934. In that case the letter is not only an interesting historical witness of the last Charcot’s expedition, but also a document which might have saved the life of a young French mariner.
Finally, the press photograph was taken shortly before Charcot left on his last expedition.
Jean-Baptiste Charcot of course is most famous for being appointed leader of the French Antarctic Expedition with the ship Français exploring the west coast of Graham Land from 1904 until 1907. The expedition reached Adelaide Island in 1905 and took pictures of the Palmer Archipelago and Loubet Coast. From 1908 until 1910, another expedition followed with the ship Pourquoi-Pas, exploring the Bellingshausen Sea and the Amundsen Sea and discovering Loubet Land, Marguerite Bay and Charcot Island, which was named after his father, Jean-Martin Charcot (Wikipedia). "The expedition [1908-1910] had made an impressive contribution to Antarctic geography and had surveyed some 2000 kilometers of unknown or partially-known coastline with an accuracy unchallenged for several decades. The scientific material, together with its 3000 photographs, filled twenty-eight volumes of reports <..,> In the eyes of many contemporary historians, Charcot’s contribution to Antarctic science outweighs all others" (Howgego, 1850 to 1940. The Oceans, Islands and Polar regions, C9).


59. COOK, James, Captain (1728-1779)
Chart of the NW Coast of America and the NE Coast of Asia Explored in the Years 1778 & 1779. The Unshaded Parts of the Coast of Asia are Taken from a M.S. Chart Received from the Russians.

London: T. Harmar, 1784. Uncoloured copper engraved map ca. 67x39 cm (26 ½ x 15 ½ in). Copper engraved double-page map by T. Harmar on laid paper with original centrefold. A fine wide-margined map.
Plate 36 from the atlas of Cook's third voyage "A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, Undertaken... For the Discoveries in the Northern Hemisphere in 1776, 77, 78, 79 and 1780" (London, 1784; 3 vols. And atlas) shows Cook's discoveries in the North Pacific. It was Cook who for the first time "accurately depicted the Northwest coast of America" (Oxford DNB).
"The north-west coast of North America was sighted on 7 March and for the next six and a half months Cook carried out a running survey of some 4000 miles of its coast from Cape Blanco on the coast of Oregon to Icy Cape on the north coast of Alaska, where he was forced to turn back by an impenetrable wall of ice. A search for a route back to Europe north of Siberia also proved fruitless. During this cruise Cook became the first European to enter Nootka Sound on the north-west coast of Vancouver Island, where he remained for a month taking astronomical observations and cutting spars for use as spare masts and yardarms. Trade was carried out with the native Mowachaht for furs, mostly of the sea otter, which when sold later in China drew attention to the commercial potential of this trade" (Oxford DNB); Wagner 696; Lada-Mocarski 37; Sabin 16250.


60. COOK, James, Captain (1728-1779) & KING, James, Captain (bap. 1750 - d. 1784)
A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean; Undertaken by Command of His Majesty, for Ma king Discoveries in the Northern Hemisphere: Performed Under the direction of Captains Cook, Clerke, and Gore in the Years 1776, 1777, 1778, 1779, 1780. Being a Copious, Comprehensive, and Satisfactory Abridgement of the Voyage.

London: Stockdale, Scatcherd, Whitaker, Fielding and Hardy, 1784. First Octavo Edition. Octavo, 4 vols. xii, 370; xii, 359; xii400; xii, 310 +[35] index [24] subscribers pp. With a total of fifty-one copper engraved maps and plates, some large and folding. Period brown gilt tooled half calf with marbled boards and gilt morocco label. Recently rebacked in style using the original boards, overall a very good set.
"Cook's third voyage was organized to seek the Northwest Passage and to return Omai to Tahiti. Officers of the crew included William Bligh, James Burney, James Colnett, and George Vancouver. John Webber was appointed artist to the expedition. After calling at Kerguelen Island, Tasmania, New Zealand, and the Cook, Tonga, and Society Islands, the expedition sailed north and discovered Christmas Island and the Hawaiian Islands, which Cook named the Sandwich Islands. Cook charted the American west coast from Northern California through the Bering Strait as far north as latitude 70'' 44' before he was stopped by pack ice. He returned to Hawaii for the winter and was killed in an unhappy skirmish with the natives over a boat. Charles Clerke took command, and after he died sic months later, the ships returned to England under John Gore. Despite contemporary English hostilities with the United States and France, the scientific nature of this expedition caused the various governments to exempt these vessels from capture. The voyage resulted in what Cook judged his most valuable discover -the Hawaiian Islands" (Hill 361, First Edition).
"This abridged account is preferred by some readers because, the nautical and technical parts having been deleted, the work reads more like an adventure" (Hill 362); "This Edition had a very wide circulation and is notable for its extensive index" (Forbes, Hawaiian National Bibliography 69); "This long-delayed official account of the third voyage was so eagerly awaited by the public that it was sold out on the third day after publication" (Holmes 47); Lada-Mocarski 37 (First Edition).


61. DE FOREST, Henry Josiah (1855-1924)
[Signed and Dated Oil Painting of Mount Edith Cavell in the South Jasper Range, Rocky Mountains.

1921. Oil painting ca. 24x34,5 cm (ca. 9 ½ x 13 ½ in). Signed “H.J. De Forest, 1921” and captioned “Mount Edith” on the lower margin. Faded pencil inscription on verso: “This painting of Mount Edith near Banff on the Bow River was painted by our cousin Harry de Forest and bought by Miss Conny [?] for me. I would like it to be given to one of the family whose name is de Forest & on down on the family to one who bears not [?] loved name “de Forest”, my mother’s name – A. De Forest T[?]”. Framed in an elaborate period gilt molded wooden frame. Text on verso is faded and difficult to read, but the painting is in very good condition.
De Forest "studied drawing and painting at South Kensington School of Art, London, the Julién Academy in Paris and in Edinburgh, Scotland. From 1880 to 1883 he travelled and sketched in England, France, Italy, Egypt, Palestine, Germany and Switzerland. He first settled in Vancouver in 1891 and settled here permanently in 1898. In 1921 he moved to Banff.
His paintings were exhibited in Vancouver in the 1890s and he became the first secretary of the Art, Historical and Scientific Association in 1894. He was also the first secretary of the Vancouver Museum. From 1905 till 1912 he was the curator of the Vancouver Museum and during this time, in 1910, he tried to establish a Masonic museum in Vancouver without success" (freemasonry.bcy.ca).
"Mount Edith Cavell is a mountain located in the Athabasca River and Astoria River valleys of Jasper National Park, Canada. The mountain was named in 1916 for Edith Cavell, an English nurse and executed by the Germans during World War I for having helped allied soldiers escape from occupied Belgium to the Netherlands, in violation of military law. It was previously known as la montagne de la Grande traversée (the Mountain of the Great Crossing) because it stands above Athabasca Pass" (Wikipedia).


62. DICKSON, James, Coroner
[Manuscript Legal Testimony from an Early Criminal Investigation in Victoria]: An inquest was held this day September ninth 1861 at the Police Court Room, Victoria Vancouver Island, before me James Dickson, Coroner for Victoria aforesaid on view of the bodies of two Cowichan Indians.

Victoria, 9 September 1861. Folio (ca. 31,5x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on blue laid paper. Written and signed by Dickson, signed “X” by two witnesses. Docketed on verso by Dickson or in similar hand. Original folds, overall the document is in very good condition.
After listing the sworn jurors, testimony is given by Susan and Cann (Cowichans) attesting to the actions of Simlaw and Caughman in murdering an Indian man, Stahage, and his “klootchman,” Stillaughoe. The two accused were seen firing a musket during a quarrel, killing the man and his wife, and then attempting to escape in a canoe. Both the witnesses signed with Xs. The accused were found guilty of murder and manslaughter, respectively. Very early B.C. Legal documents like this are extremely rare.


63. DIXON, George (1748?-1795)
[NORTHWEST COAST OF AMERICA] To the Right Honorable the Lords Commissioners ... This Chart of the North West Coast of America, with the Tracks of the King George and Queen Charlotte in 1786 & 1787...

London: W. Harrison & J. Reid, 24 December 1788. Uncoloured copper engraved map ca. 88,5x58 cm (34 ½ x 23 in). Copper engraved chart on laid paper with original centrefold. Backed, with a few tears and chips repaired and backing extending the lower margin, otherwise in very good condition.
Large chart of the West coast of North America from Nootka Sound to the Alaska Peninsula, from Dixon’s "A Voyage Round the World; but more Particularly to the North-West Coast of America" (London, 1789). "In 1785-87 [Dixon] sailed with Nathaniel Portlock for the King George’s Sound Company, which had been established <..,> for trading furs from the northwest coast of America to China. With the ships King George (under Portlock) and Queen Charlotte (under Dixon) they <..,> arrived on the Alaskan coast in July 1786. After wintering in the Sandwich Islands (winter 1786-87), the two captains returned to northern waters, visiting the Cook Inlet, Prince William Sound, the Alaskan mainland and the Queen Charlotte Islands. Dixon disposed of his cargo and returned to England in 1788, the following year publishing his popular Voyage Round the World. The bulk of the book consists of descriptive letters by William Beresford, his supercargo, but it contains valuable charts and appendices by Dixon himself. Dixon is generally credited with the discovery of the Queen Charlotte Islands (which were named after his ship), as well as Port Mulgrave, Norfolk Bay, Dixon’s Archipelago the Dixon Entrance, and several other features also bearing the name of his ship" (Howgego, to 1800, D58); Wagner 732; Lada-Mocarski 43.


64. DONCKER, Hendrick (1626-1699)
Pas-caerte van Groenlandt, Yslandt, Straet Davis en Ian Mayen Eylant; hoemen de selvige van Hitlant en de Noord kusten van Schotlant en Yrlant beseylen mach [Map of the North Atlantic Showing Southern Greenland, Iceland, Davis Strait, Baffin Island with Cumberland Sound, and Northern British Isles].

Amsterdam: Hendrick Doncker, ca. 1696. Copper engraved map ca. 43x52,5 cm (16 ¾ 20 ½ in). Original centerfold, blank on verso. Two repaired minor tears at top and bottom of the centrefold, otherwise a very good map.
This is the rare first state of this interesting map of the North Atlantic out of Doncker's De Zee-Atlas of water-waerelt. The map outlines the eastern approach to a probable Northwest passage, with detailed coastlines and anchorages. The map is supplemented with rhumblines, three compass roses and sailing ships and the title cartouche is decorated with figures of two Laplanders in native costume, holding a kayak, and a Dutch whaler with a harpoon. Hendrick Doncker would become one of the most active of the marine atlas and chart publishers in Amsterdam in the second half of the seventeenth century" (Burden 337).
"For about fifty years Hendrick Doncker ran a flourishing business in Amsterdam as a bookseller and publisher of sea atlases and textbooks on navigation. In a period when so many maps and charts were simply copied from other publishers, Doncker's charts were his own work and were noted for their accuracy and constant improvement. Apart from this work, he cooperated for many years with Pieter Goos and Anthonie Jacobsz in producing a pilot guide De Zeespiegel. Eventually his stock was sold to Johannes van Keulen" (Map Hist.com); Tooley A-D p. 378.


65. DOUGLAS, James, Sir (1803-1877)
British Columbia Reduced Copy of the Map Referred to in the Despatch of Govr. Douglas: Dated 16th July 1861.

London: John Arrowsmith, 1861. An outline hand coloured lithographed map ca. 41x29 cm (16x11 ½ in). This recently matted map is in near fine condition.
This interesting map details the course of the Fraser River from it's mouth until its source and the locations of where gold had been recently found on its tributaries are highlighted in yellow. This map was drawn after Governor Douglas travelled to the Fraser River gold regions in the first half of 1861 to get an accurate account of the mineral wealth of these gold fields. This map was published in Further Papers Relative to the Affairs of British Columbia. Part IV. London, HMSO, 1862.


66. DOUGLAS, James, Sir (1803-1877)
[Official Proclamation Establishing the Colony of British Columbia]: British Columbia. V.R. Proclamation. By His Excellency, James Douglas, Governor and Commander-In-Chief of Her Majesty’s Colony of British Columbia and Its Dependencies. <…> Issued under the Public Seal of The Said Colony, at Fort Langley, this Nineteenth Day of Novemer [Sic], 1858, in the Twenty-Second Year of Her Majesty’s Reign, by me, James Douglas, Governor.

[Victoria], [1858]. Folio (ca. 29x20 cm) broadside. 4 pp. Minor age toning, otherwise very good.
Very rare early BC imprint - official publication of “An Act to provide for the Government of British Columbia” given by the British Parliament on 2 August, 1858. James Douglas as the Governor of the new colony officially proclaims the Act “for the information and guidance of Her Majesty’s subjects, and others whom it may concern”. The Act defines boundaries of British Columbia; declares the Queen’s right to establish main laws, government, local legislature and other institutions of the colony; cancels of the jurisdiction of the legal institutions of the Upper and Lower Canada to the territory of British Columbia; sets the order of appeal from judgements in civil suits to the Privy Council; and states that the Colony of Vancouver Island will not be included in British Columbia. The Act will “continue in force until the Thirty-first Day of December One Thousand eight hundred and sixty-two”.
The Act was sent to Douglas by the Secretary of State for the Colonies Sir E. Bulwer-Lytton on the 14 August 1858 and received on the 21st October, the same year (See: Further Papers relative to the Affairs of British Columbia. Part II. London, 1859, p. 7). Douglas reported that the official proclamation of the Act took place “at Fort Langley with becoming solemnity, on the 19th instant [November 1858], in the presence of there gentlemen [Rear Admiral Baynes; Mr. Cameron, Chief Justice of Vancouver Island; Mr. Begbie, the Judge of British Columbia], Her Majesty’s troops, and the inhabitants of the place…” (Further Papers… Part II, p. 34).
This is second edition of the Act – long thought to be the first and only – with substantially revised opening paragraphs, completely reset text, etc.


67. DOUGLAS, James, Sir (1803-1877)
[NEW WESTMINSTER, THE FIRST CAPITAL OF BRITISH COLUMBIA]
[Official Proclamation of New Westminster to Become the First Capital of B.C.]: British Columbia. V.R. Proclamation. By His Excellency, James Douglas, Companion of the Most Honorable Order of Bath, Governor and Commander-In-Chief of British Columbia, Vice Admiral of the Same &c. Whereas, Her Majesty the Queen has been graciously pleased to decide that the capital of British Columbia shall be styled the city of New Westminster; now therefore, I, James Douglas, do hereby declare and proclaim that the town heretofore called and known as Queensborough, and sometimes as Queenborough, in the Colony of British Columbia, shall henceforth be called and known as New Westminster and shall be so described in all legal processes and Official Documents.

[Victoria], [20 July 1859]. Quarto. Broadside with the Royal Arms of the British Empire. Fine copy.
Historically important early proclamation, which establishes the seat of government of the new Colony. The Colony of British Columbia was established on 2 August, 1858, with Sir James Douglas (1803-1877) as its first Governor. Douglas was also the Governor of the Colony of Vancouver Island and ruled both colonies from Victoria. This broadside establishes New Westminster as the first capital of the Colony of British Columbia – however, the colony continued to be governed from Victoria during Douglas’ term, until 1864. The new governor, Frederick Seymour (1820-1869) resided in New Westminster in 1864-66, after that the two colonies were united, and the seat of government moved to Victoria once again.
The text of the colony is reproduced in: Further Papers relative to the Affairs of British Columbia. Part III. London, 1860, p. 39. Not in Lowther.


68. EGEDE, Hans Poulsen (1686-1758) & Poul Hanson (1708-1789)
Omstændelig og Udførlig Relation, Angaaende den Grønlandske Missions Begyndelse of Forsættelse, samt hvad Ellers mere der ved Landets Recognoscering, dets Beskaffenhed, og Indbyggernes Væsen of Leve-Maade Vedkommende, er Befunden. [A Comprehensive Relation About the Greenland Mission, its Reconnaissance, its Character, and the Inhabitants].
[With]: Continuation af Relationerne Betreffende den Grønlandske Missions Tilstand og Beskaffenhed, Forfattet i Form af en Journal fra Anno 1734 till 1740. Af Colonien, Christians-haab udi Discobugt. [Continuation the Relation of the Greenland Mission Written in the form of a Journal from Anno 1734 till 1740..,].

Copenhagen: J.C. Groth, 1738-41. First Editions. Small Quarto, 2 vols in one. [20], 408; [8], 184 pp. With two folding wood cut maps. Period dark brown elaborately gilt tooled full sheep with a light brown gilt label. Label faded, text mildly browned and with some very mild staining of a few leaves, maps with minor repairs and with a small library marking on the title page, otherwise a very good copy.
After much hardship Hans Poulsen Egede landed on the west coast of Greenland with three ships and 40 people (including family) on 3 July 1721. Egede was the first missionary to the Inuit of Greenland, where he served for 15 years and founded the colony of Godthaab. His work was of fundamental importance for the colonization of Greenland. As a missionary he was groundbreaking and was nicknamed the Apostle of Greenland. He also gave an important contribution to the understanding of Greenland's geography and Inuit culture and language. (Universitetsbiblioteket i Oslo). Hans Poulsen Egede "established a successful mission among the Inuit and is credited with revitalizing Dano-Norwegian interest in the island after contact had been broken for hundreds of years. He founded Greenland's capital Godthåb, now known as Nuuk" (Wikipedia).
"Egede first visited Nuk, the site of Godthab, the first year of his Greenland colony, 1721, when seeking a better site for permanent settlement than his temporary residence at Haabets Oe at the mouth of Godthab's Fjord. He found Nuk a fine site with a good harbour. He saw the site again several times in ensuing years, but it was not until 1727 that he again took up the plan to move there" (Holland p. 95). "Egede converted many of the Inuit to Christianity and eventually established a considerable commerce with Denmark" (Howgego E17). First Part: "detailed and full relation regarding the beginning and continuation of the Greenland mission: in addition to other things observations concerning the reconnaissance of the country, its nature and the manners and way of life of its inhabitants" (Arctic Bibliography 4366); Sabin 22021; Second Part: "The diaries of Poul Egede.., containing observations, mainly pertaining to the church and the mission, together with incidents from the everyday life in West Greenland" (Arctic Bibliography 4370); Sabin 22035.


69. ELLIS & CO. [PUBLISHERS]
[Bird's-Eye Panoramic View of] Victoria, B. C. 1889.

Victoria B.C.: Ellis & Co., Publishers of "The Colonist", 1889. Tinted lithograph, printed image ca. 65x100 cm (26x40 in). With a couple of very minor repaired marginal tears, not affecting printed image. Mounted in a recent mat and attractively framed in a black wooden molded frame. A near fine lithograph.
Rare as Worldcat only locates nine copies. This large lithographic panoramic view shows Victoria B.C. As viewed from a bird's eye from the Strait of San Juan Fuca looking north. This view includes a key which identifies 63 places of interest.
"Erected in 1843 as a Hudson's Bay Company trading post on a site originally called Camosun (the native word was "camosack", meaning "rush of water") known briefly as "Fort Albert", the settlement was renamed Fort Victoria in 1846, in honour of Queen Victoria. The Songhees established a village across the harbour from the fort. The Songhees' village was later moved north of Esquimalt. When the crown colony was established in 1849, a town was laid out on the site and made the capital of the colony. The Chief Factor of the fort, James Douglas was made the second governor of the Vancouver Island Colony (Richard Blanshard was first governor, Arthur Edward Kennedy was third and last governor), and would be the leading figure in the early development of the city until his retirement in 1864..,
With the discovery of gold on the British Columbia mainland in 1855, Victoria became the port, supply base, and outfitting centre for miners on their way to the Fraser Canyon gold fields, mushrooming from a population of 300 to over 5000 literally within a few days. Victoria was incorporated as a city in 1862. In 1865, Esquimalt was made the North Pacific home of the Royal Navy, and remains Canada's west coast naval base. In 1866 when the island was politically united with the mainland, Victoria was designated the capital of the new united colony instead of New Westminster - an unpopular move on the Mainland - and became the provincial capital when British Columbia joined the Canadian Confederation in 1871" (Wikipedia); Reps 38.


70. FEDIX, P.A.
L'Oregon et les Cotes de l'Ocean Pacifique du Nord. aperçu géographique, statistique et politique, avec une carte du pays d'après les documens les plus récens. [Oregon and the North Pacific Coast, a geographical, statistical and political overview, with a map of the country according to the most recent documents].

Paris: Librairie de Amyot, 1846. First Edition. Octavo. ix, 258 pp. With a large folding outline hand coloured map. Period style brown gilt tooled quarter calf with marbled boards, with original printed paper wrappers bound in. A fine copy.
"Relates almost entirely to the political aspects of Oregon at that time" (Cowan 1952, p.84). "Copies in wrappers are rare. Overland expeditions; sea voyages; fur trade; English establishments; American settlements; Oregon boundary dispute between Spain and Russia; Spain and England; England and the United States; the rights of Great Britain; U. S. Rights, etc. Monsieur Fedix, after an exhaustive and extensive research, concludes that the country belongs to neither the United States nor Great Britain, but to Oregon and the Oregonians, and urges the settlers to kick out the whole caboodle and establish an independent Republic of their own" (Eberstadt 134:563); "Proposes that world powers maintain Oregon as an independency to serve as an international trade center for the Pacific" (Howes F70); Sabin 24000.


71. FRANKLIN, Jane, Lady (1791-1875)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Jane Franklin” to Portrait Artist Stephen Pearce regarding His Work on the Portraits of Sir Edward Sabine and Sir Francis Beaufort, and Invitation to Dinner where Alfred Lord Tennyson will present].

London, 21 Bedford Place, 15 November 1853. 32mo (ca. 11x9 cm). 3 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper with black border. Neat legible handwriting. Mild fold marks, one trace of the old mount and a minor hole on the last page, caused by removal of the letter from mount, very slightly affecting the text, otherwise a very good letter.
Autograph signed letter from Lady Jane Franklin, the widow of Sir John Franklin, to English portrait painter Stephen Pearce (1819-1904). Among the matters discussed is a series of portraits of Arctic explorers that Pearce had been commissioned to paint by Lady Franklin. She is “much pleased with the picture & with the kindness in putting it into a frame for me, also with the two others. When am I to have Col. Sabine & Adml. Beaufort? I would have sent you a check for the 2 sent [?] if I were not afraid of inclosing it by post, since I have no one to send with it”.
Lady Franklin also invites Pearse to a small family wedding party where possibly will be present the “poet laureate [Alfred Lord Tennyson] and his wife who is my husband’s niece”. The bride and groom were Emma Cracroft (apparently a relative of Lady Jane’s secretary and John Franklin’s niece Sophia Cracroft) and George Benjamin Austin Lefroy.
“Early friendship with Colonel John Barrow, keeper of the admiralty records, brought Pearce a commission to paint 'The Arctic Council discussing a plan of search for Sir John Franklin.' This work he completed in 1851; it contained portraits of Back, Beechey, Bird, Parry, Richardson, Ross, Sabine, and others; was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1853, and was engraved by James Scott. Pearce's picture increased the public interest in Franklin's fate. Pearce also painted for Colonel Barrow half-lengths of Sir Robert McClure, Sir Leopold McClintock, Sir George Nares, and Captain Penny in their Arctic dress, and a series of small portraits of other arctic explorers. Lady Franklin also commissioned a similar series, which passed at her death to Miss Cracroft, her husband's niece. All these pictures are in the National Portrait Gallery, to which Colonel Barrow and Miss Cracroft respectively bequeathed them” (Wikipedia).


72. FRANKLIN, Jane, Lady (1791-1875)
[Autograph Letter Signed to Lady Franklin from Fanny Kemble Mentioning Captain McClintock and Lady Franklin’s New House in Kensington].

Park Hotel, Park Place, Monday 2nd [ca. 1862]. 2 pp. On a folded Quarto leaf (20,5x26,5 cm). Brown ink on laid paper. Mild fold marks, four minor tears on margins neatly repaired, a strip of paper attached to the centrefold as the letter had been tipped in a book or attached to a sheet of paper, otherwise a very good letter.
The letter was written to Lady Franklin by a prominent British actress, Frances Anne Kemble (1809-1893), who attended several dinners given by Lady Franklin in the hew house in Kensington.
“In 1862 when she was seventy years old, Jane Franklin moved into an exquisite jewel of house in the most fashionable district in London. Ashurst Majendie, serving as curator and controller general of Kensington Gardens, helped her acquire this “bijou recherché” in Kensington Gore, near present-day Royal Albert Hall. Secluded, charming, and blessed with a magical garden, the house had been built by John Wilkes, a controversial member of Parliament, in the mid-eighteenth century. <…>
At Gore Lodge, she entertained diverse luminaries, and delighted in creating unlikely combinations. She had a core group of Arctic aficionados, men like McClintock, Barrow, and Beaufort, and she added to these eminent explorers of Africa such as John Hanning Speke, who discovered the source of the Nile <…>. On more than one occasion, she hosted dinners whose guests included Fanny Kemble, the outspoken poet, author, and Shakespearean actress who had left her wealthy American husband over his support of slavery…” (McGoogan, K. Lady Franklin’s Revenge: A True Story of Ambition, Obsession and the Remaking of Arctic History. E-book, 2010).
“From 1862 Lady Franklin and her niece maintained a house in London, its walls hung with portraits of men who had shared the ordeal of the Franklin search. From here she supervised the preparation of memorials to her husband” (Oxford DNB).
“Lady Jane Franklin (1792–1875) was a traveler, a Tasmanian pioneer, second wife of the explorer John Franklin and a promoter of Arctic exploration. In 1836 Sir John was appointed lieutenant-governor of Van Diemen's Land, later renamed Tasmania, at Lady Franklin's suggestion, and they set sail, accompanied by her stepdaughter Eleanor and her niece by marriage Sophia (Sophy) Cracroft. Although Sir John's enlightened views on prison reform and his wife's ‘busyness’ had their critics, the couple were generally popular. They encouraged the social and intellectual development of Tasmania, establishing a scientific society, which became the Royal Society of Tasmania, and a school. Lady Franklin took every opportunity of exploring Australia and New Zealand as well as Tasmania.
Sir John was recalled in 1844, and critics of his progressive views may have prejudiced the further employment for which he and his ambitious wife were eager. After pressure from both, he was appointed commander of the Admiralty expedition to look for the north-west passage. He set sail in 1845. When two years had passed with no news, Lady Franklin demanded that steps be taken to find the missing ships. She bombarded the Admiralty with pleas and suggestions for routes. Her persistence and her willingness to court useful friends and spend the money she had inherited from her father won the respect of many at the Admiralty. Between 1850 and 1857 she helped fit out five ships for the search. The last, the yacht Fox (Captain Leopold McClintock), launched after the official search had been called off, traced the expedition's story to its tragic end. For her role in the search the Royal Geographical Society awarded Lady Franklin the patron's medal for 1860, the first and for many years the only woman it so honoured. Sir Roderick Murchison, president of the society, was one of the main champions of her cause, realizing that it coincided neatly with his wish to promote Arctic exploration for commercial as well as scientific ends.
After the ordeal of the search Lady Franklin disdained the expected retirement. With Sophy Cracroft, who had become as experienced a traveller and keeper of the record as herself, she travelled extensively, although her later journeys were more formal and less adventurous than her earlier ones. She was received with deference in America, Japan, India, and elsewhere. She had an audience with Pope Pius IX, ‘having ascertained that there would be no nonsense about it—no kneeling I mean’, recorded Miss Cracroft (Woodward, 349). She discussed Arctic research with the emperor of Brazil, met Brigham Young at Salt Lake City, and made friends with Queen Emma of Hawaii. She hoped through Murchison to persuade Queen Victoria to stand godmother (with herself as proxy) to Queen Emma's son, with the aim of asserting British influence and thus thwarting American and French designs on the islands. Although the child died before the elaborate ceremony planned could take place, the friendship persisted, and in 1865 Lady Franklin arranged for Queen Emma, now childless and a widow, to visit Britain” (Oxford DNB).


73. FRANKLIN, John, Sir (1786-1847)
[Autograph Letter Signed “John Franklin” to Mr. Hudson, assistant Secretary and Librarian of the Royal Society, regarding the Presentation Copy of “Nautical and Hydraulic Experiments” - the new book of Mark Beaufoy which was sent to Franklin].
21 Bedford Place, Russell Square, 19th August 1834. Octavo (ca. 23x18,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on white paper. Ink stamp “Rawlins Collection: Historical Docs. and A.L.S.” in the right lower corner. Mild fold marks, minor tear on the left margin neatly repaired, very small chip off the right lower corner, otherwise a very good letter.
“I am very much obliged by your kindness in putting my name among those who have the good fortune to receive the presentation copy of Mr. Beaufoys Nautical Experiments. I have been in such close attendance as my brother who is dangerously ill that I have been unable to get to London since the book was sent here - and it is only this morning that I have opened it. As I must return to Greenwich in an hour I have written a note of thanks to Mr. Beaufoy, which I enclose to you and shall esteem it is favour of you will cause it to be forwarded to his address”.
“Colonel Mark Beaufoy FRS (1764–1827) was an English astronomer and physicist, mountaineer, explorer and British Army officer. He was the first-known English climber to make an ascent of a high mountain in the Alps. In 1787, he made an ascent (the fourth) of Mont Blanc. He devoted much of his life to naval experiments at the Greenland Dock with James Scott and Captain John Luard of the "Society for the Improvement in Naval Architecture"; a volume “Nautical and Hydraulic Experiments with Numerous Scientific Miscellanies” was published by his son Henry in 1834 (one volume only, called Volume I). He also made astronomical observations and advocated other ideas like rifles in the militia and schemes for reaching the North Pole”.
“Nautical and Hydraulic Experiments” was published in a large quarto volume with each copy numbered at the back of the title page and “gratuitously distributed to public bodies and individuals interested in naval architecture” (Clerke, A.M. Beaufoy, Mark// Dictionary of National Biography, vol. 4, London-New York, 1885, p. 51).


74. GALIANO, Dionisio Alcalá (1760-1805)
[Map of the North Pacific Coastline from the top of Vancouver Island to the tip of the Alaskan Peninsula] Continuacion des los reconocimientos hechos en la Costa No. De America por los Buques de S.M. An varias Campañas des de 1774 á 1792.

Madrid, 1802. Uncoloured copper-engraved map ca. 37x47 cm. (14 ½ x 19 in). Bottom half of left margin trimmed to neat line, evidently as issued, old folds, otherwise the map is in very good condition.
This is a very rare "coastal chart from the top of Vancouver Island to the Alaska peninsula and Unalaska, made from actual observations, showing the routes of the expeditions from 1788 to 1792. from the Atlas del Viage de las Goletas Sutil y Mexicana al reconocimiento del Estracho de Juan de Fuca in 1792, which accompanied the Relacion del viage..., the record of an important voyage up the Pacific coast, and the last to be undertaken by Spain. Often attributed to José de Espinosa y Tello, but more probably by Galiano, the commander of the expedition, the work itself is an important relation of the voyage that brought the Spaniards to Nootka Sound at the same time as the English explorer George Vancouver. The nine maps in the atlas, however, are perhaps even more significant, presenting a rare record of Spanish cartography in the New World. This is map no. 3 in the atlas" (PBA Galleries); Hayes p.77-9.


75. GILLEN, Denver Laredo (1914-1975)
[Watercolour of Black Tusk in the Garibaldi Ranges, Coastal Mountains, B.C.].

1935. Watercolour on paper, ca. 33x28 cm (ca. 13x11 in). Signed “Gillen, 1935” in the left lower corner. Mounted in a recent mat. Large strokes of paint brush on verso. Evocative recently matted watercolour in very good condition.
This evocative and atmospheric painting was sold at auction (Sloan 1991) in a lot with a painting by Frederick Horsman Varley (1881-1969) "Cheakamus Gorge, Indian Country." Gillen was a student of Varley's and became a well known illustrator and book dust jacket artist. In 1933 Varley and former student J.W.G. Macdonald opened the BC College of Arts which unfortunately only survived two years due to the depression. This present painting was most likely produced during that time and one can surmise that it was produced on a field trip to Garibaldi Park, north of Vancouver, and that Gillen had accompanied Varley and perhaps Macdonald as well.


76. GREEN, Valentine (1739-1813)
John Montagu, Earl of Sandwich, Viscount Hinchingbrook, First Lord Commissioner of the Admiralty, a Governor of the Charter House, &c. &c. &c. From the Original Picture, in the Possession of the Trinity House, London.

London: V. Green, Salisbury Street, Strand, August 30th, 1774. Mezzotint engraving, ca. 50,5x35 cm to plate mark. “J. Zoffani, pinxit. V. Green, engraver in metzotinto to his majesty, fecit”. Paper slightly aged and with minor stains on verso, otherwise a very good Mezzotint.
Beautiful mezzotint engraved portrait of John Montagu, fourth Earl of Sandwich (1718-1792), First Lord of the Admiralty (1748-51, 1763, 1771-82) and famous government champion of James Cook’s second and third expeditions. The portrait was executed by Valentine Green, after the oil painting by German neoclassical painter Johann Joseph Zoffani (1733-1810). Green was a mezzotint engraver to the King since 1774 and an associate engraver with the Royal Academy since 1775,
“As First Lord of the Admiralty, Sandwich approved Admiralty funds for the purchase and fit-out of the Resolution, Adventure and Discovery for Cook’s second and third expeditions of exploration in the Pacific Ocean. In honour of Sandwich, Captain Cook named the Sandwich Islands (now Hawaii) after him, as well as Montague Island off the south east coast of Australia, the South Sandwich Islands in the Southern Atlantic Ocean and Montague Island in the Gulf of Alaska” (Wikipedia).
Sandwich is also known as alleged eponymous inventor of the sandwich.


77. HASSENSTEIN, B[runo] (1839-1902)
[Map of the Discoveries of the British North American Exploring Expedition] Karte von J. Palliser's Expedition zur Erforschung der Rocky Mountains in Britisch Nord-Amerika, 1858.., [With] Karte der Red River Expedition in Britisch Nord-Amerika Unter Gladman, Hind, Napier, Dawson &c. [Two Sheets Joined into one].

Gotha: Justus Perthes, 1860. Outline hand coloured lithographed map ca. 25x86 cm. (10x34 in). The two sheet joined in one lithographed map with original folds is in near fine condition.
This detailed map is out of Petermann's Geographische Mittheilungen and shows the discoveries of the British North American Exploring Expedition. This expedition is "commonly called the Palliser Expedition, explored and surveyed the open prairies and rugged wilderness of western Canada from 1857 to 1860. The purpose was to explore possible routes for the Canadian Pacific Railway and discover new species of plants. The expedition was led by John Palliser" (Wikipedia). Tooley's Mapmakers E-J, p. 284-5.


78. HILL, S[amuel] S.
Travels in Siberia.

London: London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1854. First Edition. Octavo. 2 vols. Xv, [1], 458; xvi, 432 pp. Period dark brown gilt tooled half morocco with green pebbled cloth boards. A very good set.
The author travels from Moscow via towns and places including Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Yekaterinburg, Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Kyakhta, Miatchin, Lena River, Yakutsk, Ochotsk, to Kamchatka. It seems that after Kamchatka Hill travelled to Hawaii and these travels are recorded in his "Travels in the Sandwich and Society Islands." "Samuel Hill was a prolific writer of Travel books, the National Union Catalogue records seven titles by him published between the years 1837 and 1866" (Hawaiian National Bibliography III, 2175).


79. JÖRGENSEN, Gotfred Emile, B.C. Department of Lands and Works
Map of the Province of British Columbia Compiled by Direction of the Honourable G.B. Martin Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works. Compiled and Drawn in the Department of Lands and Works by Gotfred Jorgensen C.E.

Victoria: [printed in: Montreal: Sabiston Lith. & Pub. Co], 1895. Colour lithographed varnished map ca. 114x135,5 cm, mounted on linen on original hardwood rollers. Minor dust soiling, cracking on the upper and left margins, overall a very good map.
This large detailed map prepared by the B.C. Department of Lands and Works was the standard for BC for at least 15 years, superseding earlier maps as it was based on the extensive surveys undertaken after the completion of the CPR. The map outlines the districts of the province which “indicate land recording districts” (see the legend): Coast District, Cariboo, Cassiar, Kootenay, Yale, Lillooet, New Westminster, several districts on Vancouver Island (Nootka, Clayoquot, Barklay, Renfrew et al) and others. Among the places shown are incorporated cities, land and mining recording offices, post and telegraph offices, mining camps, Indian villages and missions, Hudson Bay posts, railroads, “waggon roads”, trails. The note underneath the legend says: “Districts outlined on this map. With two inset maps “Graphic Outline of the Dominion of Canada Showing relative position of British Columbia” and “Map Showing Geographical Relation between Canada and Europe”. Overall a fundamental BC map!
SOLD


80. JUDGE, Spencer Percival (1874-1956)
[Watercolour View of the Coastline near Victoria, B.C.].

Watercolour on paper, ca. 17x25 cm (6 ¾ x 9 ¾ in). Signed “S.P. Judge” in the left lower corner. In a recent frame, hasn’t been examined outside of the frame. Overall a near fine watercolour
Judge is a well known for his Vancouver B.C. watercolours which have fetched up to 6,325 CAD at auction. He also worked as an illustrator, his cover for "Vancouver, the Sunset Doorway of the Dominion" published by the Vancouver Tourist Association 1904 being a good example. The present attractive work is a shoreline scene from most likely near Swartz Bay, perhaps looking towards Salt Spring Island.


81. KOTZEBUE, Otto von (1787-1846)
Entdeckungs-Reise in die Süd-See und nach der Berings-Strasse zur Erforschung einer nordöstlichen Durchfahrt : unternommen in den Jahren 1815, 1816, 1817 und 1818 auf Kosten Sr. Erlaucht des Herrn Reichs-Kanzlers Grafen Rumanzoff auf dem Schiffe Rurick unter dem Befehle des Lieutenants der Russisch-Kaiserlichen Marine, Otto von Kotzebue. [A Voyage of Discovery, into the South Sea, and Beerings Straits, for the Purpose of Exploring a North-East Passage, undertaken in the Years 1815--1818, at the Expense of his Highness the Chancellor of the Empire, Count Romanzoff, in the Ship Rurick, under the Command of the Lieutenant in the Russian Imperial Navy, Otto Von Kotzebue].

Weimar: Gebruedern Hoffmann, 1821. First Edition. Quarto 3 vols. in one. xviii, [iii], 168; 176; [i], 240 pp. 6 engraved maps, 5 folding, 19 hand-coloured aquatint plates from drawings by Choris, 4 double-page, 1 black and white plate, Handsome brown period style elaborately gilt tooled half sheep with marbled boards. With an expertly removed library marking on title page, otherwise a near fine copy.
"First Edition on laid paper with all the aquatint plates finely coloured by hand, of the second Russian circumnavigation and the first for scientific purposes, sponsored by Count Romanzoff, one of Russia's greatest patrons of the sciences. It proved to be one of the most important and fruitful of all Russian circumnavigations, contributing greatly to knowledge of the South Seas, Pacific Northwest and Alaska, although without finding the North-West Passage (here termed the North-East by Kotzebue). [Kotzebue] commanded the Rurick and knew the North Pacific well from his earlier voyage with Krusenstern. With him were Louis Choris, expedition artist, and Adelbert von Chamisso, naturalist. Their valuable study of Pacific islands included Easter Island, the Tuamotus, Marshalls and the newly-discovered Romanzoff Islands, and Kotzebue's reports on coral atolls were later used by Charles Darwin. Reaching Kamchatka they passed through Bering Strait, explored Kotzebue Sound, and investigated the Pribilof Islands and Aleutians, recording excellent descriptions of the Chukchis, Aleuts and Eskimos. Before crossing the Pacific they made stops on the California coast, at San Francisco, followed by a long stay in Hawaii at the court of King Kamehameha I, handsomely portrayed by Choris. Choris' own illustrated account of the voyage was published in 1822" (Christies).
"The second Russian expedition into the Pacific for scientific exploration, sponsored by Count Romanzoff, was commanded by Lieutenant Kotzebue, and also included the famous artist Ludovik Choris. Kotzebue had also sailed with Captain Kruzenshtern in 1803-06. Leaving Kronstadt in 1815, the Rurik rounded Cape Horn and visited Chile, Easter Island, and the Marshall Islands. Kotzebue explored the North American coast and Hawaii and searched unsuccessfully for a passage to the Arctic Ocean. The description of the northwest coast of America is a most important contribution" (Hill 943); Arctic Bibliography 9195; "A Celebrated narrative important for its descriptions of Alaska, California, Hawaii and Micronesia" (Forbes 525); Howgego 1800-1850, K20; "The three volumes are rich in early original source material on Alaska" (Lada-Mocarski 80); Sabin 38284.


82. KRASHENINNIKOV, Stepan Petrovich (1711-1755)
Histoire de Kamtschatka, Des Isles Kurilski, et Des Contrées Voisines, Publiée à Petersbourg, en Langue Russienne, par ordre de Sa Majesté Impériale. On y a joint deux Cartes, l'une de Kamtschatka, & l'autre des Isles Kurilski. Traduite par M. E***. [The History of Kamtschatka, and the Kurilski Islands, with the Countries Adjacent].

Lyon: Chez Benoit Duplain, 1767. First French Edition. Small Octavo. [viii], xv, [i], 327; [viii], 359 pp. With two large copper engraved folding maps. Handsome period brown gilt tooled mottled full calf with red and black gilt labels. A near fine set.
"The Russian Krasheninnikov started out across Siberia with Gerhard Friedrich Mueller and Johann Georg Gmelin, and then made his own way to Kamchatka. When Georg Wilhelm Steller arrived in Kamchatka to supervise his work, Krasheninnikov left in order to avoid becoming Steller's assistant, and returned to St. Petersburg. Krasheninnikov nonetheless was able to make use of Steller's notes in the preparation of his own narrative, and the inclusion of Steller's observations on America, made during his travels with Bering's second voyage, are an important part of this work, and constitute one of the earliest accounts of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. Steller's account was not published until 1793. This work details the customs, morals, and religion of the Kamchatka peninsula, and discusses the power exercised by the magicians. Also described are the differences between the dialects of the Kamchatkans and those of the Korsairs and of the Kurile islanders. This is the first scientific account of those regions" (Hill 948-9).
"The first French edition, translated by Marc Antoine Eidous from the English of James Grieve, of the Russian Krasheneninnikov's important account of Kamchatka, Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, which was based upon his own travels and those of George Wilhelm Stellar" (Bonhams); "Krasheninnikov journeyed through Siberia (1733-36) and the Kamchatka Peninsula (1737-41) before giving the first full description of the latter. Krasheninnikov volcano (6089 feet) is named after him" (Sotheby's); Cox I, p.351; Howgego K37; Lada-Mocarski 12; Sabin 38303.


83. KRUSENSTERN, Adam Johann von (1770-1846)
& UKHTOMSKY, Andrei Grigorievich (1771-1852)
"Grobnitsa Kapitana Klerka v Petropavlovske. Captain Clerkes Grabmal im Hafen St. Peter und Paul" [Captain Clerkes’ Tomb in Petropavlovsk]. Copper engraving from "Atlas k Puteshestviiu Vokrug Sveta Kapitana Krusensterna" [Atlas to the Travels of Captain Krusenstern Around the World]. Plate № XVIII.

Saint Petersburg: Morskaya Typ., 1813. Uncoloured engraving ca. 34x52 cm (13 ½ x 20 ½ in). Title in Russian and German. With a couple of minor repaired tears not affecting image, otherwise a very good strong copper engraving.
A plate from the Russian edition of the Atlas of Krusenstern’s circumnavigation in 1803-1806. The complete Atlas is a great rarity with only one copy found in Worldcat, but separate engravings are also very rare even in Russia. The Atlas contained 109 engraved plates and was one of the most luxurious Russian editions of the beginning of the 19th century, being issued on funds of the Cabinet of the Russian Emperor and costing 15 thousand roubles - a huge sum of money at the time.
The engraving depicts the tomb of Charles Clerke (1741-1779), a participant in all three James Cook’s circumnavigations who after Cook’s death in 1779 took the command of the third expedition and continued searching for the Northwest Passage. Clerke is notable for being the author of the first account of Captain Cook’s death, as his letter to the Admiralty mentioning Cook’s murder on Hawaii and written in Kamchatka on June 8, 1779, was first published as a pamphlet in Reval in 1780 (Hawaiian National Bibliography 18).
Clerke died from tuberculosis not far from Kamchatka and was buried in Petropavlovsk, next to the grave of another explorer, Louis Delisle de la Croyère (about 1685-1741). The latter participated in Vitus Bering’s expedition to the North Pacific in 1741 and as many other expedition members, including Bering himself, died on the hard way back to Kamchatka. The sailors from Krusenstern’s expedition while staying in Petropavlovsk in September 1805, renewed the tombs constructing a wooden pyramid with commemorative boards above both graves. Krusenstern described this event in the account. This plate shows how connected the first explorers of the North Pacific were.
The engraving was made from the drawing from life by Wilhelm Gottlieb Tilesius von Tilenau (1769-1857), German naturalist and artist who participated in Krusenstern’s expedition. The engraver, Andrey Ukhtomsky was a prominent Russian artist, a member of the Russian Academy of Arts (1808), the head of the printing house of the Academy, and the curator of the Academy’s library.


84. LAW, Arthur
[Watercolour View of the Fraser River in British Colombia]: Fraser River Cañon, near Yale, B.C., 1911.

Yale B.C., 1911. Watercolour on paper, ca. 31,5x48 cm (12 ¼ x 19 in). Signed "Arthur Law" in the left lower corner. Later matting with hand drawn borders and manuscript caption. The watercolour is in near fine condition.
A very beautifully and skilfully executed watercolour Fraser Canyon near Yale during most likely an Indian summer evening in 1911.
"Yale is on the Fraser River and is generally considered to be on the dividing line between the Coast and the Interior. Immediately north of the village the Fraser Canyon begins, and the river is generally considered un-navigable past this point, although rough water is common on the Fraser anywhere upstream from Chilliwack, and even more so above Hope, about 20 miles south of Yale. But steamers could make it to Yale, good pilots and water conditions permitting, and the town had a busy dockside life as well as a variety of bars, restaurants, hotels, saloons and various services. Its maximum population during the gold rush was in the 15,000 range, although typically it housed 5-8,000. The higher figure relates to the evacuation of the Canyon during the Fraser Canyon War of 1858" (Wikipedia).


85. LISIANSKY, Urey (1773-1837)
[Map of] Harbour of St. Paul 1805 [From:] Voyage Round the World in the Years 1803, 1804, 1805 and 1806 Performed by Order of His Imperial Majesty Alexander the First, Emperor of Russia in the ship Neva.

London: John Booth, 1814. A hand coloured copper engraved map ca. 26x39 cm (10 x 15 ½ in). Recently matted map with original folds but otherwise in very good condition.
This map is from a "most important work dealing with discoveries on the N.W. Coast of America. The author was a captain in the Russian navy and commander of the "Neva." He visited Kodiak and Sitka, wintering at the former island, and his long stay there gave him ample time and scope for a study of the native inhabitants and their habits and customs. The long chart shows the track of the voyage, and there are charts of the Washington Islands, Cadiack, and the Harbor of St. Paul, the coast from Bering’s Bay to Sea Otter Bay, Sitka or Norfolk Sound, etc.; with colored views of the Harbor of St. Paul in the Island of Cadiack. And New Archangel in Norfolk Sound. There are also plates of Indian implements, etc. The work is important also as the principal source for the Sitka Massacre" (Soliday 873).


86. LISIANSKY, Urey (1773-1837)
Voyage Round the World in the Years 1803, 1804, 1805 and 1806 Performed by Order of His Imperial Majesty Alexander the First, Emperor of Russia in the ship Neva.

London: John Booth & Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, & Brown, 1814. First Edition. Quarto. [xxiv], 388 pp. With a copper engraved portrait frontispiece, three other engraved plates, eight copper engraved hand colored maps (some folding), and two hand colored aquatints. Original publisher's brown papered boards. Expertly re-backed in style, several plates with very mild offsetting, an uncut near fine copy in very original condition.
"Originally published in Russian at St. Petersburg, 1812, this English translation of 1814 is by the author. Lisianskii, deputy commander of Kruzenshtern's expedition around the world, received word of the massacre at Sitka upon reaching Kodiak in 1804. The Kolosh Indians had attacked the settlement of the Russian-American Company and slaughtered almost the entire garrison. Lisianskii laid siege to the Kolosh stronghold and ultimately drove the Indians into the back country. Lisianskii, commanding the Neva, followed a different route from Kruzenshtern, in the Nadezhda, the two ships separating at the Hawaiian Islands. He called at Easter Island and the Marquesas, and discovered Lisianski Island in the Hawaiian Chain. Appended are vocabularies of the language of Nuku Hiva, the Hawaiian Islands, the Islands of Kodiak and Unalaska, the Bay of Kenai, and Sitka Sound" (Hill 1026). Forbes 443. Sabin 41416.
"Highly important work on Sitka, Kodiak and other parts of the northwest coast" (Howes L372). "Ranks in value with Cook and Vancouver as a contribution to geographical knowledge on the N. W. Coast, Sandwich Islands, etc. The colored plates are of unsurpassed beauty" (Wright Howes 56-259). Smith 2255.
"Most important work dealing with discoveries on the N.W. coast of America. The author was a captain in the Russian navy and commander of the “Neva.” He visited Kodiak and Sitka, wintering at the former island, and his long stay there gave him ample time and scope for a study of the native inhabitants and their habits and customs. The long chart shows the track of the voyage, and there are charts of the Washington Islands, Cadiack, and the Harbor of St. Paul, the coast from Bering’s Bay to Sea Otter Bay, Sitka or Norfolk Sound, etc.; with colored views of the Harbor of St. Paul in the Island of Cadiack. and New Archangel in Norfolk Sound. There are also plates of Indian implements, etc. The work is important also as the principal source for the Sitka Massacre" (Soliday 873).
"The naturalist, Langsdorff’s account is of particular importance for its scientific observations, and, like Krusenstern’s, for the history and geographical discoveries in the Aleutian Islands, the Northwest Coast, and California. Further, it contains information respecting the Russian voyages and discoveries in the Northern Ocean, the Russian fur trade and the Russian-American Company. According to Sabin, it affords "a fuller account of Sitka and of the settlement of San Francisco than any other"" (Eberstadt 119-025).


87. MACKENZIE, Alexander (1763/4-1820)
Voyages from Montreal, on the River St. Laurence, Through the Continent of North America, to the Frozen and Pacific Oceans; In the Years 1789 and 1793; With a Preliminary Account of the Rise, Progress, and Present State of the Fur Trade of that Country.

London: T. Cadell et al, 1801. First Edition. Quarto. cxxxii, 413 pp. With a copper engraved portrait frontispiece with three large folding maps. Handsome period style brown elaborately gilt tooled speckled full calf. Maps backed on Japanese paper with old tears repaired, some mild minor staining of text, otherwise a very good copy.
"First and finest edition of the earliest expedition made by a white man in this direction. His investigations, although pursued at so early a period of Arctic exploration, were remarkable for their accuracy; Sir John Franklin more than once expressed his surprise at being able to corroborate their correctness in his own exploration. Some Indian vocabularies are included" (Sabin 43414).
"This is a fascinating account of the descent of the river named after this intrepid explorer, who was the first white man to navigate its length from its source in the Great Slave Lake to its mouth... On the way back he heard reports of the western sea and of another great river, likely the Yukon, and of white traders, who may have been those exploring the coast. His trip from Fort Chipewyan to the Arctic and return lasted about three months and a half. Having resolved to continue exploration to the west, he returned to England to purchase instruments in preparation for the difficult task ahead of him. He left Fort Chipewyan on October 12, 1792. Working his way up the Peace River he finally established winter quarters. In the spring he continued up across the Rocky Mountain Divide, and after many hazardous experiences reached the Pacific Ocean by way of the Bella Coola river. The vast region of the Rocky Mountains and the coastal zone was thus opened up at last and Mackenzie won to the top rank of explorers on the American continent" (Cox Travel II, p.178).
"Not long after his successful expedition to the Pacific, Mackenzie returned to eastern Canada... His accomplishments won him a knighthood... Sir Alexander Mackenzie's 1789 expedition to the Arctic coast of Canada showed that the Rocky Mountains extended farther north than was thought, and cast severe doubts on the idea of a Northwest Passage west of Hudson Bay. Mackenzie also brought back the first reports of the coal deposits north of Great Slave Lake. Mackenzie's expedition of 1792-3... Constituted the first overland journey across North America north of the Rio Grande. His accomplishment was the first recorded transcontinental journey since Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca in 1536. Mackenzie's writings on the voyages came to the attention of Thomas Jefferson and gave impetus to the subsequent overland expedition of Merriwether Lewis and William Clark" (Waldman, p.416); Hill 1063; Holland, p.157; TPL 658.


88. MARA, Edward A.
Map of Canada and Part of the United States Compiled from the Latest Authorities.

Montreal: Leggo & Co, 1871. Partly hand coloured photo steam lithographed map ca. 93x144 cm (36 ½ x 57 in). Mounted on linen with a minor chip to upper middle blank margin, some minor chipping and abrasion of the printed surface, and lower right corner with some mild water staining, but overall a good map.
Very rare large scale map with Worldcat locating only one copy. Department of Agriculture Ottawa 1871:"Compiled and drawn by order of the Honorable C. Dunkin, Minister of Agriculture, under the Superintendence of Andrew Russell, P.L.S. By Edwd. A. Mara, draughtsman &c." The map shows national, provincial, and territorial borders and railroads, including the projected Canadian Pacific Railroad. A Historically important map which was one of the first maps and most likely the first Canadian produced map to show British Columbia as part of the confederation of Canada. "With the agreement by the Canadian government to extend the Canadian Pacific Railway to British Columbia and to assume the colony's debt, British Columbia became the sixth province to join Confederation on July 20, 1871" (Wikipedia).


89. MAY, Commander Walter William A.
Division of Sledges Finding and Cutting a Road Through Heavy Hummocks. In the Queen's Channel. [Plates VIII & IX on one Leaf From the Rare]: "A Series of Fourteen Sketches made During the Voyage up Wellington Channel in Search of Sir John Franklin, K.C.H., and the Missing Crews of H.M. Discovery-Ships Erebus and Terror; together with a Short Account of Each Drawing."

London: Day and Son, May 1, 1855. Tinted lithograph, printed images each ca. 15x23 cm (6x9 in) Recently matted lithographs in very good condition.
"Walter William May, lieutenant on the Assistance, whose sketches would form the basis of a handsome plate book" (Howgego Polar Regions 1850-1940, B15). The Assistance was part of Sir Edward Belcher's expedition which searched the Wellington Channel (1852-54). Belcher's "expedition is distinguished from all other Arctic expeditions as the one in which the commanding officer showed an undue haste to abandon his ships when in difficulties, and in which one of the ships so abandoned rescued herself from the ice, and was picked up floating freely in the open Atlantic" (Oxford DNB); Abbey Travel II, 646.


90. MERCATOR, Rumold (1545-1599)
[Double Hemisphere World Map] Orbis Terrae Compendiosa Descriptio ex ea, quam ex Magna Universali Mercator Rumoldus fieri curabat in hac comodiore forma a Hieron: Porro redact.

Cologne, 1597. Uncoloured copper engraved map ca. 16x24 cm. (6 ½ x 9 ½ in) Matted, closely cropped with no loss of printed surface, with four small wormholes and with original folds, otherwise map in very good condition.
"Rumold Mercator's double-hemispherical world map has been re-engraved in reduced format by Girolamo Porro. It is to the artist's credit that so much detail has been represented with such fineness and clarity"(Shirley 194 & 202).
"This double hemisphere world map is derived from the 1587 world map by Rumold Mercator and set within a similar strapwork background with an armillary sphere and compass rose tucked between the hemispheres. The North Pole is depicted as a landmass surrounding a sea from which four rivers radiate and there is a well depicted Northwest Passage. In the Antarctic is the imaginary southern continent and there is a bulge in the southwest coast of South America. The map was engraved by Girolamo Porro for Giovanni Magini and included in several of Magini's works, as well as those of Quad and Gothard in the early part of the seventeenth century. The map is finely engraved with stippled sea area, text in Latin below and blank verso" (Old World Auctions).


91. MOODY, Rufus (1923-1998)
[A Large Argillite Totem Pole, Decorated with Eagle, Raven, and Bear Signed] "Haida Carving by Rufus Moody, Skidgate Mission Q.C.I. B.C."

Skidgate, B.C., ca. 1960. Totem pole is ca. 32 cm (13 in) high. Attractive argillite carving in fine condition.
"Rufus Moody was born in Skidegate village, Haida Gwaii, on the Queen Charlotte Islands..., [He] is the son of Arthur Moody and grandson of Thomas, both who were renowned argillite carvers. The three generations of artists created a hereditary style, which was distinctive from other argillite artists. Rufus made his living solely as an artist and became one of the most prolific artists in the medium.
In the late 1950s, Rufus Moody in Skidegate and Claude Davidson in Masset began a teaching program to encourage and teach young Haida artists to carve. At the time, argillite was more readily available in larger pieces and Rufus began to carve very large works. He is accredited with carving the largest argillite pole, although there is some dispute over which of his major works is truly the largest. One of these poles is in the Museum of Anthropology, while another is in the Queen Charlotte Museum in Skidegate" (Spirit Wrestler Gallery).


92. MOODY, Rufus (1923-1998)
[A Pair of Argillite Bookends in the Form of Totem Poles in Front of Long Houses, Signed] "Haida Carving by Rufus Moody, Skidgate Q.C.I."

Skidgate, B.C., ca. 1960. Bookends ca. 16,5 cm (6 ½ in) high. Attractive argillite carvings in fine condition.
Unusual and rare pair of argillite bookends in the form of totem poles in front of long houses.
"Rufus Moody was born in Skidegate village, Haida Gwaii, on the Queen Charlotte Islands..., [He] is the son of Arthur Moody and grandson of Thomas, both who were renowned argillite carvers. The three generations of artists created a hereditary style, which was distinctive from other argillite artists. Rufus made his living solely as an artist and became one of the most prolific artists in the medium.
In the late 1950s, Rufus Moody in Skidegate and Claude Davidson in Masset began a teaching program to encourage and teach young Haida artists to carve. At the time, argillite was more readily available in larger pieces and Rufus began to carve very large works. He is accredited with carving the largest argillite pole, although there is some dispute over which of his major works is truly the largest. One of these poles is in the Museum of Anthropology, while another is in the Queen Charlotte Museum in Skidegate" (Spirit Wrestler Gallery).


93. MUELLER, G[erhard] P. [Friedrich] (1705-1783)
[Voyages and Discoveries made by the Russians] Voyages et Découvertes faites par les Russes le long des côtes de la Mer Glaciale et sur l'Océan Oriental, tant vers le Japon que vers l'Amerique. On y a joint L’Histoire du fleuve Amur et des pays adjacens, depuis la conquête des Russes. [Voyages and Discoveries made by the Russians along the coast of the Arctic Ocean and the Eastern Ocean, both in Japan and America. With the History of the River Amur and adjacent countries, since the conquest by Russia] / Translated from the German into French by C.G.F. Dumas.

Amsterdam: Marc-Michel Rey, 1766. First French edition. Small Octavo, 2 vols. in one. x, [2] 388; iv, 207 [25 Table des Matieres, Advertisements] pp. With a large folding engraved map. Handsome period full polished mottled calf, spine gilt lettered with red morocco label, edges coloured. A near fine copy.
The first French translation of Müller’s very important description of the Great Northern Expedition to Kamchatka and the Northwest coast of America (1733-43) under the command of Vitus Bering and with a history of Russian discoveries in the Arctic and Pacific oceans made up to 1749. The book was published for the first time in Saint Petersburg in 1758; both a Russian (in ‘Ezhemesiachnie Sochineniia’ magazine, Jan-May, Jul-Nov 1758) and a German (Sammlung Russischer Geschichte, B. III) versions were issued the same year.
The significance of Müller’s work is found in the many first hand reports and manuscript accounts discovered by him in Yakutsk and Irkutsk archives while working there as a member of Bering’s expedition. His publications were the main source of original material for both European and Russian scientific communities. As Sabin notes, it is "indispensable for the history of discovery and exploration in the Northern Pacific." Professor Golder considered Miller’s work "the most important book" about Bering’s expedition and added that "although a lot of ink and paper has been spent to describe Bering’s voyage since then [1758], little has been added to what had been already known to us from Müller’s work" (Golder, Bering’s Voyages, vol. 1. New York, 1922, p. 352-353).
Müller compiled his work as a refutation to a somewhat controversial publication by Nicolas Delisle who had left Russian Academy of Sciences with a scandal in 1747. Delisle account based on intelligence gathered by his brother, Delisle de la Croyère, who was an astronomer of Bering’s expedition 1733-43. Nicolas Delisle’s map "Carte des nouvelles découvertes au nord de la mer du Sud, tant à l’est de la Sibérie et du Kamtschatka," and the text explanation "Explication de la carte des nouvelles découvertes" (both published in Paris, 1752) contained several significant errors and inaccuracies. On special assignment of the President of Russian Academy, Müller made a map entitled "Nouvelle Carte decouvertes faites par des vaisseaux Russiens aux cotes inconnues de l'Amerique Septentrionale avec les Pais Adiacents" which was first published in 1754 (only a few copies printed, Lada-Mocarski) and then in 1758, with significant additions and improvements it was re-issued. The map showed the territory from the Ob river to the Pacific, and "confirmed the existence of a body of water between Asia and America, the subject of much dispute prior to that time; it was the first to give an approximate picture of what is now the Alaskan peninsula" (Lathrop Harper Auctions). This 1758 map was included in the first French edition.
One of the most notable paragraphs of Müller’s work contains the first description of Semen Dezhnev’s expedition through the strait between Asia and America in 1648, which will be later called Bering Strait, thus determining that Dezhnev was the discoverer of the strait. "This fact was forgotten in the following 88 years and would be completely lost if it were not for Müller’s search in the archives of Yakutsk" (Lada-Mocarski, p. 78).
Müller also tried to give a historical proof for Russia’s rights for Bering Strait and the adjacent American territories. The same goal lies behind the second article, which describes the Amur River and all its tributaries. It was compiled in 1740 on the urgent assignment from Russian Empress Anna Ioannovna, who wanted to use it as a basis for establishing the new border with China. Müller notes about Amur’s importance in possible future navigations to Japan, Kamchatka, trade with India and China and very carefully hints at the possibilities of Russian colonial annexations in the Pacific: "our intentions about Japan and the American discoveries will be easier to realise." The article was first published in Russian in 1757 (‘Ezhemesiachnie Sochineniia, Jul-Oct); and in German in Büsching’s Magazin (Bd II).
The book is supplemented with an index of subjects and personal and geographical names, and Rey’s catalogue of books to sale. "This French translation by Charles Guillaume Frédéric Dumas (ca. 1725-1780) is said to be fuller and far superior to the English translation published by Jefferys in 1761"(Hill 1201); Howes M-875; Sabin 51286; Wickersham 6333; Wagner, Cartography, 615; Lada-Mocarski (German & English editions. Only) 15 & 17: Miller, History of Siberia (3 vols., Moscow, 2000-2005).


94. NORDENSKIOLD, Nils Adolf Erik (1832-1901)
[Autograph Letter Signed ‘A.E. Nordenskiöld’ to a Princess (‘Hoheite Fürstin’), in German About Nordenskiöld's trip to Roma the next day; [With] a Carte-de-Visite Photo of Nordenskiöld by Adolf Halwas (Berlin) showing him head and shoulders in slight profile].

Letter: Napoli, 19 February 1880. On a folded octavo leaf (17,5x22,5 cm). 2 pp. Mild fold marks, otherwise a fine letter. Photograph: Berlin: Adolf Halwas, ca. 1889. Ca. 10,5x6 cm (4 x 2 ¼ in). Period ink inscriptions "Nordenskiöld" on recto. Removed from album with corresponding loss of printed surface on verso, but still a very good photograph.
The letter was written by a renowned polar explorer Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld shortly after he had completed his famous Vega expedition 1878-1879 which was the first complete crossing of the Northeast Passage and the first circumnavigation of the Eurasian continent.
"On 22 June 1878 the ship set out from Sweden through the Northeast Passage around the north coast of Eurasia. Blocked by ice on 28 September of that year only 120 miles (200 km) short of the Bering Strait marking the eastern end of Asia, the ship was not freed until 18 July 1879. Two days later East Cape was passed, and Vega became the first ship to complete a voyage through the Northeast Passage. Returning by way of the Western Pacific, Indian Ocean, and Suez Canal, Vega also became the first vessel to circumnavigate the Eurasian continent" (Wikipedia).
The letter was written by Nordenskiöld on his way back to Sweden, as it’s known that he returned to Stockholm only two months later, on April 24th 1880. In the letter the explorer thanks the princess for her letters and good words about him and mentions ‘a dozen of letters and telegrams’ he has to send, as well as his early leave for Rome the next day.
Freiherr Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld was a Finnish baron, geologist, mineralogist and arctic explorer of Finnish-Swedish origin. He was a member of the prominent Finland-Swedish Nordenskiöld family of scientists. Born in the Grand Duchy of Finland at the time when it was a part of the Russian Empire, he was later, due to his political activity, forced to live in political exile in Sweden, where he later would become a member of the Parliament of Sweden and the Swedish Academy. He is most remembered for the Vega expedition along the northern coast of Eurasia, which he led in 1878-1879. This was the first complete crossing of the Northeast Passage (Wikipedia).


95. PALLIN, Hugo Nikolaus (1880-1953)
[Six Photograph Albums with 516 Original Photographs of Pallin’s Mountaineering Expedition to West Greenland, 1936].

Six albums, all Oblong Folio (ca. 24x33 cm): five with 12 leaves, one with 6 leaves. 1936. In total 516 images, the vast majority ca. 8,5x12,5 cm (3 ¼ x 4 ¾ in) or slightly smaller, mounted on stiff cardboard leaves. Over 30 images with period pencil captions and notes on verso in Swedish. All albums original, cardboard or imitation leather, stitched through on top and bottom of spines. One album with the rear board bent, some with boards slightly rubbed or soiled, otherwise a very good collection with bright, strong images.
[With: A Presentation Copy of the Printed Account of the Expedition]: PALLIN, H.N. Mountains and Glaciers in West Greenland.
London: Spottiswoode, Ballantyne & Co, 1937. Offprint from "The Alpine Journal," November 1937. Octavo. 190-202, [1] p. With 3 plates (1 folding). Original publisher’s wrapper. With Pallin’s presentation inscription on the front wrapper "To Mr. Donald W. Brown, with compliments from H.N. Pallin." Near fine copy.
A unique extensive collection documenting Hugo Pallin’s mountaineering and glacier research expedition to West Greenland in summer 1936. He proceeded from Copenhagen on the SS Hans Egede and went along the coast of Western Greenland, visiting Umanak (Uummannaq), Nugssuaq (Nuussuaq) Peninsula (Uummannaq district) and Pröven. After that he went up north on the coast schooner Sigrid to Upernavik Island, and extensively climbed it in the vicinity of its highest peak Sanderson’s Hope. Together with J. Bjarnow, the district medical officer in Upernavik town, Pallin proceeded up north on motorboat to Melville Bay, usually inaccessible in summer, as the main destination. There the party made several ascents of Devil’s Thumb, Cape Seddon, mountains of Holms Island, Nuussuaq Peninsula (Upernavik Archipelago) and a number of small islands. In the end of his journey Pallin also went to the Wegener Peninsula, a site of the fourth and last expedition to Greenland (1930) of a renowned German polar researcher Alfred Wegener (1880-1930). Pallin went across the Qaumarujuk Glacier and examined Wegener’s winter house erected on the inland ice.
The photographs taken by Pallin himself, give a detailed account of the expedition and cover from the departure from Copenhagen to the final trip across the Wegener peninsula. Pallin’s mountaineering trips are documented at great length, including artistic views of surrounding landscape (mountains, glaciers, ocean, waterways) and close up views of the routes; portraits of Pallin, his companions and guides (e.g. Native Greenlander Martin Hammud and J. Bjarnow), shots taken on board Hans Egede and Sigrid et al. A series of pictures from the site of Alfred Wegener’s expedition is significant, showing the winter house, the remains of Wegener’s innovative propeller-driven snowmobile and numerous abandoned canisters with gasoline, some of which Pallin’s party took with them. Other images include several scenes on the SS Hans Egede on its way from Denmark, with its crew and passengers, and ships met on the way; views of Greenland towns and coastal settlements, several churches (including new Upernavik church built in 1926). There are also quite a few vivid images of the Greenland natives - kayakers, families, children, scenes in the settlements and on board Hans Egede and Sigrid.
The albums contain the originals of all eight images and two large panoramas (divided into four parts) published in Pallin’s articles "Mountains and Glaciers in West Greenland" which is added to the set. Overall a beautiful collection created and assembled with real inspiration. Pallin recounted:
"The view over Umanak fjord from this terrace was one of the most magnificent I have seen. Above the tide waters of the fjord rose a grand Alpine landscape. On the surface of the pale turquoise-blue water floated innumerable icebergs, looking from up here like the white sails of a squadron of pleasure yachts. The icebergs were calving unceasingly in the great summer heat, and the roar of the calving sounded like the cannonade from a naval battle" (Mountains and Glaciers, p. 193-194).
"Hugo Nikolaus (‘Nils’) Pallin was a Swedish civil engineer, a keen alpinist and traveller. He achieved the first winter ascent of Kebnekaise (2123 m.), Sweden's highest mountain, in 1908, of Sarektjakko in 1916, and of Kaskasatjakko in 1920. He also climbed several other 2000 m. Peaks in Swedish Lapland. He described some of his adventures in Kebnekaise. Färder och äventyr i Lappland (Stockholm, 1927). In 1920-21 he accompanied Otto Nordenskiöld’s expedition to West Patagonia as cartographer, and himself led geographical parties to Spitsbergen in 1922, 1923, and 1928, to Iceland in 1935, and to West Greenland in 1936. In 1937 he published a work entitled Mountains and glaciers in West Greenland" (Polar Record. Vol. 7. Issue 50. May 1955. P. 431).
"Pallin was a secretary of the Lapland Mountaineering club (1920), one of the founders and first president of the Swedish Army Reserve Association (1924), a member of the British Alpine Club (1929) et al. He discovered several new 2000-meter peaks in Lapland and conducted a ski trip from the Arctic Ocean to the Kattegat (1927-28). He was the author of over 10 books and publications about mountaineering, including map of Mt. Akkafjället (1920), "Swedish mountain catalog" (Svensk fjällkatalog, 1922), which was purchased by the Swedish Tourist Association, and a revised edition of Petrus Tillaeus’ famous map of Stockholm (1925). Pallin was the editor of "The Road" ("Vägen") magazine since 1936" (Wikipedia).


96. PALMERSTON, Temple Henry John (1784-1865)
[CAPTAIN EDWARD BELCHER’S CIRCUMNAVIGATION 1836-1842] Manuscript Dispatch from the Foreign Office (London) to H.M. Consul in Guayaquil, Walter Cope, notifying Commander Belcher’s Departure to the Pacific Ocean, to Survey the West Coast of America, Requesting the Consul to Explain to the Government of New Granada Belcher’s Mission and Asking Assistance from the Ecuadorian Authorities. The dispatch is written by a secretary, marked "№ 4" and signed "Palmerston."

London, 15 November 1836. Three pages. Small Folio ca. 31x20 cm (12 ¼x 8 in). Watermarked laid paper with centrefold. Fine condition.
The dispatch signed by Henry Palmerston while the head of the British Foreign Office (1830-1841) concerns Edward Belcher’s circumnavigation on HMS Sulphur in 1836-42. It informs the British Consul in Guayaquil that "Commander Belcher" is being sent by the Admiralty to complete "the survey of the Western Coast of America," and instructs him to request the Government of New Granada to support the expedition: "to afford to Captain Belcher and to the Officers under his Command, such friendly assistance and good offices as may facilitate the satisfactory execution of the Duties with which they are charged." The Consul is also obliged to inform the Ecuadorian authorities that "when the proposed Survey shall be completed, HMS Government will be happy to present the Granadian Government with a copy of it." The dispatch finishes with the description of Belcher’s route to South America: "Commander Belcher will proceed in the first instance to Panama crossing the Isthmus from Chagres, and on his arrival at the former Port, he will take the command of the vessels which have been placed under his orders."
"In November 1836 [Belcher] was appointed to the Sulphur, a surveying ship, then on the west coast of South America, from which Captain Beechey had been obliged to invalid out. During the next three years the Sulphur was employed on the west coast of both North and South America, and at the end of 1839 received orders to return to England by the western route. After visiting several of the island groups in the south Pacific and making such observations as time permitted, Belcher arrived at Singapore in October 1840, where he was ordered back to China, because of the war there; during the following year he was actively engaged, especially in operations in the Canton River. The Sulphur finally arrived in England in July 1842, after a commission of nearly seven years. Belcher had already been advanced to post rank (6 May 1841) and was made a CB (14 October 1841); in January 1843 he was made a knight, and that year published his Narrative of a Voyage Round the World Performed in H.M.S. Sulphur during the Years 1836-42 (2 vols.)" (Oxford DNB).


97. PEDDER, John (1850-1929) & CAINE, William Sproston (1842-1903)
[Collection of Eighteen Watercolours and Drawings of the Canadian Rockies and British Columbia with two Drawings of Niagara and Japan. Sixteen of These Works were used to Illustrate the Book by W.S. Caine M.P.: "A Trip Around the World in 1887-8" London: Routledge, 1888].

British Columbia, [1887-8]. Eighteen watercolours and ink drawings, individually matted. Housed in a recent black cloth clamshell box, with a maroon gilt titled morocco label. The collection is in very good condition.
W.S. Caine, a British politician and Temperance advocate, started his around world journey in Liverpool and then crossed the Atlantic to Quebec, where he went overland crossing Canada to B.C., and then continued his trip to Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Ceylon and India. With the exception of one Niagara picture and one drawing in Japan, all of these works were done in the Canadian Rockies or British Columbia. Caine produced four of the works while John Pedder produced the remaining fourteen. The B.C. Archives holds an additional four of Pedder's B.C. Ink drawings used as illustrations in the book. Caine and Pedder were skilled artists in both ink and watercolour, which is clearly shown in this collection:
1) "The Whirlpool Rapids - Niagara." (Illustration p.31) Ink drawing, 5½ x 6¾ inches.
2) "Calgary Canada - Rocky Mountains in Distance." (By W.S. Caine) (Illustration p.59) Watercolour with touches of gouache, over pencil, 4¼ x 7½ inches.
3) "The Bow River leaving the Rocky Mountains at the Gap. Near Calgary Canada." (Illustration p.69 "The Gap: Entrance to the Rocky Mountains) Initialed: "J P." watercolour with touches of gouache, over pencil, 8¼ x 14 inches.
4) "Castle Mountain Range - National Park - Rocky Mountains - Canada." (By W.S. Caine) (Illustration p.72 "Castle Mountain") Ink drawing, 4¼ x 8 inches. Backed. A few small holes in upper border and margin.
5) "The National Park. Rocky Mountains. Canada." (Illustration p.73 "View of Banff from above the Sanatorium" ) Initialed: "J P." watercolour and ink with touches of gouache, over pencil, 7¼ x 12¼ inches.
6) "Cascade Mountain - National Park - Rocky Mountains - Canada." (By W.S. Caine) (Illustration p.80). Ink drawing, 4¼ x 8 inches. Backed. A few small holes in upper border and margin
7) "W.S. And Hannah Caine on the Bow River - Rocky Mountains - Canada." (Illustration p.81) Signed: "J. Pedder." watercolour with touches of gouache, over pencil, 8¼ x 12 inches. Backed. Margins chipped; short, clean tear affecting inch and a half near lower border (repaired).
8) ["Vermillion Lake, National Park"]. (Illustration p.85) Watercolour with touches of gouache, 6¾ x 10½ inches. Backed. Margins chipped with one-inch tear above lower border (repaired).
9) "Canadian Pacific Railway Hotel -National Park - Canada" (Illustration p.91) Initialed: "J P." Ink drawing, 8½ x 4 ½inches.
10) "The Hermit Range Selkirk Mountains." (Illustration p.92) Watercolour with touches of gouache, 5¾ x 6 inches (entire sheet).
11) "Summit Lake Rocky Mountains." (Illustration p.93) Initialed: "J P." Ink, 8¾ x 6½ inches (entire sheet). Mounted. Margins chipped.
12) [Kicking Horse Pass]. (Illustration p.96) Initialed: "J P." Ink drawing, 6¼ x 10½ inches.
13) ["The Monarchs of the Rocky Mountains - Cathedral Peak - Mount Stephen"]. (Illustration p.99) Watercolour with touches of gouache, over pencil, 8¼ x 13 inches.
14) ["Mount Sir Donald and the Great Glacier"]. (Illustration p.107) Signed: "J. Pedder Dec." Watercolour and ink with touches of gouache, over pencil, 8½ x 12½ inches.
15) "Indians catching Salmon - Fraser River - British Columbia." (Illustration p.121) Mounted. Image 5½ x 6 inches. Margins chipped.
16) "Nikko Japan."(By W.S. Caine) (Illustration p.176 "Row of Buddhas at Nikko: Nan-Tai-San Mountains in the Distance) Ink drawing, 6¼ x 10½ inches. One and a half inches loss of top surface of paper near lower border.
Not Illustrated in the Book:
17) "Above St. Andre...[?]. Dated...[?] 24/[8?]6." Pencil, heightened in white, on blue paper, 9¾ x 13¼ inches. Short tear in upper edge.
18) [Untitled illustration of Rocky Mountains]. Watercolour with touches of gouache, 7 x 10 inches.


98. RIZEK, Emil (1901-1988)
[Signed and Dated Oil Painting, Titled on Verso Label]: Totem Poles (Stanley Park, Vancouver B.C.).

[Vancouver, B.C.], 1932. Oil painting on canvas ca. 76,8x49,5 cm (30 ¼ x 19 ½ in). The painting has been expertly restored and mounted on a new canvas with the original CPR label mounted on verso. In a handsome recent black molded wooden frame with gilt highlights, overall an excellent painting.
Emil Rizek was an important Austrian painter who traveled widely throughout his lifetime and produced many of his paintings while travelling. By the time he had produced the present work, he had already travelled extensively throughout Europe, Japan, South Africa, Indonesia, United States and Canada. His works include landscapes, local people, cityscapes and scenes of everyday life.
This painting shows three totem poles that stand in Vancouver’s Stanley Park. The poles were first installed in the park in the 1920s as part of a project to recreate a First Nations village by the Art, Historical and Scientific Association of Vancouver. The poles in this painting originate from Alert Bay, and the canoe pulled up to shore in the background is Kwakiutl. This canoe had been a working vessel, transporting Kwakiutl natives to gatherings before it was abandoned and then later relocated to the First Nations village, (now Klahowya Village), in Stanley Park. In 1962, all the poles were moved to Brockton Point, where more poles were added, many of which still stand today.
Notably, the center pole is Chief Wakas Pole, which originally stood in front of Chief Wakas’s house in Alert Bay and was first raised in the 1890s. Originally, the raven’s beak opened to form a ceremonial entrance to the house. Nimpkish artist Doug Cramer, who inherited Chief Wakas’s crests, carved a new replica pole in 1987. The original pole featured in this painting is now in the Museum of Civilization in Ottawa.
Overall an artistically and historically important beautiful and expressive oil painting, representing one of the best of the artist's work.
Provenance:
Collection of the Canadian Pacific Railway
Acquired as a gift from the above
By descent to a Private Collection, Vancouver.
Works by Rizek frequently come up for auction with many results also from Christies and Sothebys. Similar paintings from his Indonesian travels and of a similar quality to the present painting have fetched up to 116,620 USD.


99. ROSS, John, Sir (1777-1856)
[Autograph Letter Signed and Marked ‘Private’ to Viscount Palmerston, About Ross’ Observations in Berlin and Intelligence About a Secret Treaty between Russia, Prussia, Austria and Holland, and Plans about the Construction of a Prussian Fleet].

Berlin, June 5th 1835. Quarto (25x20 cm). Four Pages. Four pages written in a legible hand, with a period manuscript remark in another hand on the verso of the last leaf (the date and name of the sender). Whatman paper watermarked 1835. Mild fold marks, otherwise the letter is in very good condition.
A very interesting informative letter by renowned British Arctic Explorer Sir John Ross. The letter was written during Ross’ travels to Europe after his second Arctic expedition 1829-1833, at the peak of his popularity, he "made a tour of the Continent and received a number of foreign awards and medals" (Dictionary of Canadian Biography online).
The letter was addressed to British Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston and concerned the latest political events in Europe, caused by the Belgium revolution of 1830.
"The European powers were divided over the Belgian cry for independence. The Napoleonic Wars were still fresh in the memories of Europeans, so when the French, under the recently installed July Monarchy, supported Belgian independence, the other powers unsurprisingly supported the continued union of the Provinces of the Netherlands. Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain all supported the somewhat authoritarian Dutch king, many fearing the French would annex an independent Belgium. However, in the end, none of the European powers sent troops to aid the Dutch government, partly because of rebellions within some of their own borders <..,> Only in 1839 the Treaty of London signed by the European powers (including the Netherlands) recognized Belgium as an independent and neutral country" (Wikipedia).
Ross reported about possible "secret treaty to which Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Holland are parties, <..,> constructed by Prince Wittgenstein, Prince Menchikoff, Prince Mitternich and the Prince of Orange." Russia, according to the treaty, was going "to have the same number of ships in commission this year as they had during the last, the first division has been at sea for some time, the second is to carry the Guards to Dantzig, which are to march to the frontiers of Silesia where a great view[?] of troops is to take place in September, there are to consist of 2 Corps d’armeé from Russia, Prussia and Austria, and of which all the courts are to take present." The Russian Emperor was heard to say that he " should like to have a trial with the English [at sea], they might perhaps beat him, at first, but he had no doubt that at last he would beat the English."
Ross reported that Prussia’s main intention was "to construct a navy, their principle port is to be Svinemunde, at the mouth of the river of Stettin they are to begin with 2 or 3 sloops of war and a flotilla of steam gun vessels, Prince Adalbert, Nephew to the King, looks forward to the command of those." For that reason Ross was going to have an observation trip to Swinemunde at the nearest future in order to "obtain a complete knowledge if not a survey of the harbour, which I understand is excellent for small vessels - a calculation has been made of a flotilla to cost 2 million dollars!" He also visited Potsdam "and examined the manufactory of arms there, in which there is nothing remarkable excepting that they have made an immense number, and all exactly of the same dimensions."
Ross also describes anti-French and anti-Belgian feelings at the Prussian court, saying that "they consider that Belgium will not be long in existence"; and noting several "great fetes which the King and Prince Royal of Prussia gave, that English, Belgian and French Corps Diplomatique were left out, while Russian, Dutch and Austrian down to the rank of Lieutenant were invited, the feeling against Belgium is extremely strong, and not much less against France."
In the letter he mentions several members of European Royal families, including the King of Prussia Friedrich Wilhelm III (reigned 1797 to 1840) who gave Ross an audience, awarded him with "the order of the Red Eagle" and "accepted" Ross’ book, just published "Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage" (London, 1835. 2 vols.). He also talks about Grand Duke Michael Pavlovich of Russia (1798-1849) who "was very desirous to know what brought me here, and immediately asked me this question, but my excuse was so good that no suspicion was excited, he told me that I was expected in Russia to build my ship, but I said owing to the change which had taken place it was abandoned for this season." Among other notable persons mentioned in the letter are Crown Prince of Prussia, future King Frederick William IV (reigned 1840-1861); Prince William of Orange, future King of the Netherlands (reigned 1840-1849); and several high ranking diplomats, most likely Prince Alexander Menshikov (1787-1869), Prince Petr Wittgenstein (1769-1843) and Austrian Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich (1773-1869).
Ross’ mentions in detail Prussian Count Karl von Groeben (1788-1876), who was the Prussian Crown Prince’s personal adjutant at the time. Ross "took up [his] lodging with the Count de Groeber," he also went together with the Count to Swinemunde, but most striking was that it was the Count who gave Ross the information about the "secret treaty," as Ross noted, "he [Groeben] insists, that there is a secret treaty."
In the end of the letter Ross mentions that he was going to stay in Berlin until 14th of June, then move to Copenhagen and return to England from Hamburg on the 18th. His activities in the field of European diplomacy were most likely highly appreciated, as in March 1839 he was appointed British consul in Stockholm, where he remained until 1846 (Dictionary of Canadian Biography online).


100. SABINE, Sir Edward (1788-1883)
[Autograph Note Signed to "Capt. [Sir Francis] Beaufort RN (1774-1857)," rear-admiral and hydrographer].

Ca. 1840. Octavo ca. 18,5x11 cm. 2 pp. Brown ink on laid paper. Mild fold marks, edges uneven, otherwise a very good note.
A note from Sir Edward Sabine – Arctic explorer, astronomer and geophysicist, President of the Royal Geographical Society (1861-1871) – relating to his famous research on the magnetic field of the Earth. The letter is addressed to Sir Francis Beaufort, a prominent hydrographer and the creator of the Beaufort Scale for indicating wind force.
"I had brought my chart of the magnetic intensity to show you – but I do not leave it because I hope to show it & explain it to you myself at Tortington or in London. I should like greatly to shew you our new plan of getting the Digs [?] independent of errors of axle and of the magnetism of the Circle. I am making the observations now daily at Tortington." Postscript on second page (overleaf) is social chat.


101. SEUTTER, [Georg] Matthaeus (1647-1756)
ATLAS MINOR Praecipua Orbis Terrarum Imperia, Regna et Provincias, Germaniæ Potissimum..,

Augsburg, [ca. 1750]. Small Quarto. 68 pp. With a double page hand coloured copper engraved title page and 64 double page hand coloured copper engraved maps. Original publishers' brown flexible full sheep covers, title with decorative border blind stamped on front cover. Extremities with mild wear, leather flap with some cracks, some scattered mild staining on a couple of leaves, otherwise a very good copy in very original condition.
An attractive atlas with very decorative maps. "Most of the maps are reductions from Seutter's Atlas Novus and retain his signature. Some have been redrawn by Seutter's son Albrecht Carl and, in many cases, they have been engraved by his son-in-law Tobias Conrad Lotter. Lotter bought part of Seutter's publishing house in 1762 after the death of Albrecht Carl and, like Probst, continued to publish Seutter's maps"(Christies). The maps include: A world map, Europe, Asia, Africa, North America, South America, and all European Country and many detailed maps of Germany. "Georg Matthäus Seutter was one of the most important and prolific German map publishers of the 18th century.
Seutter started his career as an apprentice brewer. Apparently uninspired by the beer business, Seutter left his apprenticeship and moved to Nuremberg where he apprenticed as an engraver under the tutelage of the prominent J. B. Homann. Sometime in the early 18th century Seutter left Homann to establish his own independent cartographic publishing firm in Augsburg. Though he struggled in the early years of his independence, Seutter’s engraving skill and commitment to diversified map production eventually gained him a substantial following. Most of Seutter’s maps were heavily based upon, if not copies of, earlier work done by the Homann and Delisle firms. By 1732 Seutter was one of the most prolific publishers of his time and was honored by the German Emperor Charles VI with the title of "Imperial Geographer." Seutter continued to publish until his death, at the height of his career, in 1757.
The Seutter firm continued under Seutter’s wastrel son Albrecht Carl until his death in 1762. Following Albrecht’s death, the firm was divided between the established Probst firm and the emerging firm of Tobias Conrad Lotter. Lotter, Matthäus Seutter’s son in law, was a master engraver and worked on behalf of the Seutter firm. Lotter would eventually become one of the most prominent cartographers of his day" (Wikipedia). Tooley Q-Z, p.150.


102. SPENCER, BROWNING & CO.
[An Octant for the American Market, a Navigational Instrument Typical for the Ones in Use by the American Arctic and Pacific Whaling Ships of the Time.]

London: Spencer, Browning & Co., ca. 1840. Octant ca. 31 cm (12 in) long. Wooden octant with brass fittings and ivory inlays. The ivory inlay is signed Spencer, Browning & Co., the ivory scale is initialed SBR and divided 0-100° with a vernier on 10-inch radius arm, double pin hole sights and three filters. Housed in its original wooden case with a mounted pictorial printed retailer's label of S. Thaxter & Son, Importers and Dealers in Nautical & Surveying instruments, Charts, Nautical Books, 125 State Street, Corner of Broad Street, Boston. The brass fittings are a little oxidized, but overall the octant is in very good original condition and in its original case.
"Spencer, Browning & Rust was a London firm that manufactured instruments for navigational use during the 18th and 19th centuries..., Arctic explorer Charles Francis Hall owned a Spencer, Browning & Rust sextant. The Smithsonian Institution houses four navigational instruments manufactured by Spencer, Browning & Rust in its National Museum of American History. The items include two sextants, an octant, and a telescope. American Arctic explorer Charles Francis Hall (1821–1871) owned one of the sextants. It is believed that this brass sextant was most probably with him on 30 August 1871. On that day, Hall (pictured) had arrived at the furthest northern point achieved by an explorer to date" (Wikipedia).


103. STODHARD, T. & [MEARES, John] (1756?-1809)
[NORTHWEST COAST OF AMERICA] Entrance to the Straits of John de Fuca.

London: J. Walter & Son, 1790. Hand coloured aquatint by J. Wells. Image size 24x45 cm (9 ½ x 18 in). Original folds flattened. A very good aquatint.
Plate 12 from Meares’ "Voyages in the Years 1788-'9 from China to the Northwest Coast of America." "One of the early and fundamental books on the Northwest coast of America in general and on Alaska in particular" (Lada-Mocarski 46). "Meares’ voyages resulted in the Nootka Sound affair between Britain and Spain, and were the foundation of Britain’s claim to Oregon, later ceded to the United States" (Abbey Travel 594).
The Strait of Juan de Fuca, located at the southern entrance to Georgia Strait, separates Vancouver Island from Washington’s Olympic Peninsula and forms part of the international boundary. It was named by Capt Charles Barkley in 1787 after a Greek mariner who claimed to have discovered it in 1592. For 200 years the strait was considered the possible entrance to a Northwest Passage. De Fuca’s claims have always been doubted, but the name remains. The strait is susceptible to heavy weather and the Vancouver Island shoreline has been called "the Graveyard of the Pacific" (Encyclopaedia of British Columbia on-line); Cox Vol. II, page 29; Sabin 47260; Staton & Tremaine 612.


104. TEN EYCK, Samuel
[FRASER RIVER GOLD RUSH & GADSDEN PURCHASE]
[Important Autograph Letter Signed from Samuel Ten Eyck to O.B. Throop, giving a Description of Guaymas, Mexico, his Impressions of Mexicans, and Briefly Relating his Experiences During the Fraser River Gold Rush].

Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico: April 27th, 1859. On a folded double quarto leaf. [4] pp. Brown ink on bluish paper. Blind stamp of a papermaker (Rolland Freres, Bordeaux) in the upper left corner. Housed in a later custom made blue quarter morocco clam shell box with gilt lettered spine. Old fold marks, otherwise a near fine letter.
In this letter Samuel Ten Eyck writes to his friend, Origin B. Throop, back home in Schoharie, New York, offering a description of the Mexican port city of Guaymas, Sonora, giving his assessment of Mexican attitudes toward Americans, and describing his experiences in the Fraser River Gold Rush.
Samuel Ten Eyck came from a prominent family in New York's Schoharie County. He left Schoharie in the early 1850s, went to California in search of gold, took part in the Fraser River Gold Rush in British Columbia of 1858-1859, and then arrived in Guaymas, Mexico in the spring of 1859. He apparently went to Sonora in anticipation of that state and the surrounding Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sinaloa being annexed to the United States. The Gadsen Purchase Treaty, ratified in 1854, brought a part of northern Sonora into the United States, and there appears to have been some agitation for the United States to take more territory in the region. Such a thing did not occur, and it is unknown for how long Ten Eyck stayed in Guaymas waiting for it to happen, or where his travels took him next.
The letter begins by Ten Eyck asking Throop to make discreet inquiries to some of his friends as to why they have not corresponded with him. "I suppose you will be astonished to learn I am in this God-forsaken country. I must confess, I am astonished to find myself here, but here I am and what is still more pleasant, have a mighty fine prospect of, as it is termed in California, making my pile. I have been here but a month. On my arrival I found the country all excitement, and a revolution going on in the three states, 'Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa,' they being, I think, the tail end of creation, but they are full of silver mines and in saying that I say all that can be said in their favour. The Mexicans are the most hostile people in the world and think no more of killing an American than of taking a drink and as this is the scene of Walker's exploits and also where the unfortunate H.A. Crabb & followers were massacred, I am obliged to keep a pretty sharp look out. The women, however, are very kind & affectionate, and in case of difficulty invariably give you a warning and find a place of concealment for you. At least I have found it so on two occasions. <..,>
Guaymas, the seaport of Sonora & an old city, contains perhaps eight thousand inhabitants and being an earthquake country the houses are but one story high and mostly built of adoby [sic], which is the building material of mostly all houses in Mexico and on entering one is reminded more of a large brickyard than of a large city. <..,> I would not have come here but that the three states above named will without doubt be annexed to the U.S. - if so your humble servant is all right. I have had five years experience in California and any chance that may offer here I am on hand, in fact the pioneer."
Ten Eyck also briefly describes his experiences in British Columbia during the recent Fraser River Gold Rush: "It is as hot as blazes [in Guaymas]. I feel it more perhaps than others just having come from a northern country, as the year past I have been at Vancouver's Island & British Columbia. You of course heard of the Fraser River excitement. I was almost the first of the many thousands that rushed to that cold country. It did not prove as profitable as was anticipated, still it paid me very well, as I was able after nine months hard work to leave with a five hundred more than I took with me."
In the end Ten Eyck gives his assessment of the qualities of the women he has encountered in Guaymas, "beautiful, full of life and spirit", "very positive to us Americans" etc. A very interesting important letter, with provocative views on Mexico and a bit of information on one American's experiences in the Fraser River Gold Rush.
O.B. Throop was the owner of the only drug store in the county which still exists today as the Schoharie pharmacy, and a Secretary of the Board of Directors of the Albany and Schoharie plank road (1862).


105. THOMSON, John (Born 1777)
Chart of the Northern Passage Between Asia & America.

London: Engraved by Neele, 1816. Hand coloured copper engraved map ca. 50x59 cm (20 x 23 ½ in). Original centre fold, otherwise a very good map.
"Chart of the Bering Straits, showing the tracks of the ships of Bering and Cook, as well as recent discoveries around Vancouver Island. Inland is information gained during the explorations of MacKenzie from Slave Lake north to the Arctic Sea and west to the Pacific Ocean near Queen Charlotte's Sound. This second trip made MacKenzie the first European to cross America north of Mexico"(PBA).
"Very informative map showing the development of the Alaskan and northwest coastline. Alaska is still a bit misshapen with virtually no interior topography. The tracks of Cook's voyage in 1778 and 1779 are traced and in the Arctic is a note of McKenzie's discoveries. The watercourse from Slave Lake to the Arctic Sea is shown, along with interesting anecdotal notes ("Mountains with bright stones" and "According to Indian Report, a Sea a short way to the West"). Includes great detail of the Pacific coast with the exception of Puget Sound, which is quite tiny." (Old World Auctions). This map is from Thomson's 'New General Atlas' Plate 74. Tooley Mapmakers, Q-Z p.271.


106. VANCOUVER, George, Captain (1757-1798)
Carte de la Partie de la Cote Nord-Ouest de L'Amerique. [A Chart Shewing Part of the Coast of N. W. America with the Tracks of His Majesty's Sloop Discovery and Armed Tender Chatham].

Paris: De l'Imprimerie de la Republique, [1800]. Uncoloured copper Engraving ca. 76x59 cm (30x23 in) Map with some old fold and crease marks, otherwise a very good impression with ample margins.
This is the main map, which shows the North Pacific coast from Kodiak Island to the Bay of San Francisco, from the rare folio atlas of the 1800 Paris First French edition of Captain George Vancouver's "Voyage de découvertes a l'Ocean Pacifique du Nord, et autour du monde..," "Vancouver, who had served on Captain Cook's second and third voyages, was made commander of a grand-scale expedition to reclaim Britain's rights, resulting from the Nootka Convention, at Nootka Sound, to examine thoroughly the coast south of 60' in order to find a possible passage to the Atlantic, and to learn what establishments had been founded by other powers. This voyage became one of the most important made in the interests of geographical knowledge" (Hill p. 304).


107. VANCOUVER, George, Captain (1757-1798)
Atlas du Voyage de découvertes, à l'océan Pacificque du Nord, et autour du monde; Et exécuté en 1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794 et 1795.., Paris, de l'Imprimerie de la République [Atlas to the Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean, and Round the World.., Performed in the Years 1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794 and 1795..,].

Paris: L'imprimerie de Didot Jeune, [1802]. First French Octavo Edition. Octavo. [iv] pp. Atlas volume only with eighteen copper engraved views and eight copper engraved folding maps. Original publishers' pink papered wrappers. Lacking most of the spine, but otherwise a very good uncut copy.
This is the atlas volume (Tome VI) to the French Octavo Edition. "Vancouver, who had served on Captain Cook's second and third voyages, was made commander of a grand-scale expedition to reclaim Britain's rights, resulting from the Nootka Convention, at Nootka Sound, to examine thoroughly the coast south of 60' in order to find a possible passage to the Atlantic, and to learn what establishments had been founded by other powers. This voyage became one of the most important made in the interests of geographical knowledge" (Hill p. 304); Hawaiian National Bibliography 343.


108. WALTON, Robert (1618-1688)
[Set of Four Continental Maps]: A New, Plaine, and Exact Map of America ... [in set with] A New Plaine, and Exact Map of Africa ... [and] A New Plaine and Exact Map of Asia ... [and] A New Plaine and Exact Map of Europe..,

London, ca. 1660. Second States. Four uncoloured copper engraved maps each ca. 42x53 cm. (16 ½ x 21 in). Maps with original folds and with margins occasionally cropped close to the plate marks but with no loss of printed surface, a little aged toned, otherwise the maps are in very good original condition.
Set of four extremely rare and important separately published continent maps. Worldcat locates two copies of America, two copies of Asia and one copy of Europe. All maps with portraits and views on all sides. "Robert Walton was one of a handful of map publishers in London during the 1650s. In 1656 he produced a world map and having clearly perceived a market for a set of the continents, completed them in 1658. The American map is derived from the sixth state of Pieter van der Keere's map issued by Nicolaas Visscher, 1652.., The fascinating depiction of California attempts to balance the many theories of the time.., A further improvement is the inclusion of Hudson Bay, which was found on the van den Keere but only ever in the inset not in the main body of the map.., [These] rare map[s] [are] not known to have been intended for any book although [they] have been found inserted into examples of Heylin's Cosmographie and Varenius' Cosmography and Geography.., State 2.., The portrait of Cromwell on the Europe map was replaced by that of [Charles II]" (Burden 330).


109. WEBBER, John (1751-1793)
[COOK’S THIRD VOYAGE, 1776-1780]
Balagans or Summer Habitations, with the Method of Drying Fish at St. Peter and Paul, Kamtschatka.

London: Boydell and Co., April 1st 1809 [1819]. Hand coloured aquatint on Whatman paper watermarked "1819" on the upper right blank margin. Printed image size ca. 29x41,5 cm (11 ½ x 16 ½ in). Recently matted. A very good aquatint.
Plate 11 from the "Views in the South Seas from drawings by the late James Webber, draftsman on board the Resolution, Captain James Cooke, from the year 1776 to 1780" published by Boydell and Co in 1808. "The title page [of "Views in the South Seas"] is dated 1808 in all copies, but the plate imprints are dated April, 1809, and the water mark dates vary widely copy to copy" (Hill 1837). This plate depicts native inhabitants of Kamchatka and their method of drying fish during summer season.
"Webber was appointed at 100 guineas a year on 24 June 1776 and on 12 July he sailed from Plymouth in Cook's Resolution. His fame largely rests on his fine topographical and ethnographic work from the voyage, planned with Cook and with publication in view. Guided by the surgeon, William Anderson, he also drew natural history subjects (as did William Ellis, surgeon's mate and the other active draughtsman). He returned in October 1780, after Cook's and Anderson's deaths, with over 200 drawings and some twenty portraits in oils, showed a large selection to George III, and was reappointed by the Admiralty at £250 a year to redraw and direct the engraving of sixty-one plates, plus unsigned coastal views, in the official account. It appeared in June 1784 as A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean (3 vols, ed. J. Douglas). Webber also painted other views for the Admiralty, his last payment being in July 1785. He also published two sets of voyage prints; four aquatints made by Marie Catherina Prestel (1787-88: one repeating his own etching of 1786), and sixteen soft-ground etchings by himself (1788-92) of which more were probably intended. The latter were pioneering, both in the medium used and as an artist's rather than publisher's selection. Reissued in aquatint from about 1808 as Views in the South Seas, they continued to sell into the 1820s" (Oxford DNB).
Webber was the son of a Swiss sculptor who had emigrated to England. He was appointed as draughtsman to Cook’s third voyage (Abbey 595). Tooley 501; Holmes (Captain James Cook: A bibliographical excursion) 79.


110. WELLS, Oliver
General Report on the Cowichan Valley.

Victoria: Col. Sec. Office, 22 March, 1860. Quarto (ca. 27,5x20 cm). 2 pp., printed in double columns. Paper age toned, with creases and minor tears and chips on extremities. Overall a good copy.
Very rare offprint of the survey of the area around Nanaimo executed in 1859 by Benjamin William Pearse (1832-1902) and Oliver Wells. The survey was executed on assignment of the Surveyor General of the Colony of Vancouver Island Joseph Despard Pemberton (1821-1893). Acknowledged as “containing matter of interest to the public, [it] is herewith published for general information by command of his Excellency, William A.G. Young, Acting Colonial Secretary”. The full report by Pearse and Wells was published in London later that year under the title “Vancouver’s Island. Survey of the Districts of Nanaimo and Cowichan Valley” (London, G. Eyre & W. Spottiswoode, 1859).
Wells gives an auspicious characteristic to the geographical location of the valley, its climate and soils, water sources and minerals; lists local woods, plants, fish and game; and predicts successful farming in the valley: “I am firmly persuaded that under a common, judicious system of farming, as good returns can be obtained from these lands as in any parts of the Continent of America. The climate, it may be noted, is one especially adapted to the pursuits of agriculture, not being subject to the heats and droughts of California, or to the colds of the other British American Provinces, and the Eastern United States”.
Nowadays the Cowichan Valley is the home of “a growing number of vineyards and wineries. They include Cherry Point Vineyards, Blue Grouse, Glenterra, Vigneti Zanatta, Venturi-Schulze Vineyards, and Averil Creek. Locals claim that the warm, dry summers and mild, moist winters are reminiscent of a cool Mediterranean climate, providing ideal growing conditions for many grape varieties” (Wikipedia).
Extremely rare and fragile, this locally-printed report presents a glowing picture of the settlement possibilities of this temperate, fertile valley. Printed copies of this report are almost unknown; most referred to are microfiche. Lowther 135.






 
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