September 2012 - British Columbia, Arctic, Pacific Northwest and Western Canada

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[MCINTOSH, Roderick, Captain] (1845-?)
[Manuscript Journal of the Voyage of the Fishing Schooner Ocean From Provincetown, New England, to the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, May 15 - Sept 29, 1867, Titled]: Journal of a Voyage from Provincetown to the Grand Banks.

[At sea], 1867. Octavo (20,5x16 cm). [38, 1] leaves. Ruled. Ink on laid paper, in legible hand writing. Period style brown quarter sheep with marbled boards using original end papers. Some minor scattered foxing, otherwise a very good manuscript.

A rare journal of an American commercial fishing voyage, the manuscript notes the weather, the schooner’s course, and names of vessels they met or sighted (including "lots of Frenchmen"). At first fish was "very scarce" (May 27th, but the next day the Ocean "came across lot of Cape Ann men catching halibut." The entry for the July 10th when the schooner was at the Virgin Rock noted "Catching fish quite fast <..,> Seen a large fleet of vessels to the Southerd, see them coming for us. Lots of them anchored with us"; the note for July 26th: "All the Doarys come aboard loaded with fish, then we commenced <..,> to make a birth and parted our Chain." The note from August 19th: "Got our Anchor and stood to the Westerd in company with the John Simons. Struck the fish and came to an Anchor." The vessels started returning home in the middle of September: Mary E. Nason and Almira Cloughtman on the 15th, and the Ocean itself on the 17th. The journal ends September 29th; it is supplemented with a "Remark for the fish that we caught on board the Ocean for the year 1867" (2 leaves after the main text).
The Ocean’s journal includes 24 leaves and is followed by a short note on McIntosh’s fishing schooner Bucephalus which went from Provincetown to the Grand Banks in May 1872 (1 page). Ca. fifteen pages are occupied by the accounts of freight and supply coasts for the merchant schooner Freeman which was cruising along the coast of New England in 1879-1881.
"Roderick McIntosh born in 1845, at Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, was the seventh son of Roderick McIntosh. He has lived in Provincetown since 1862, and since 1866 he has been master of vessels" (History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts, 1620-1890/ Ed. By S.L. Deyo. New York, 1890. P. 1004).
The case of McIntosh was included in the report of the Committee on Claims after he claimed a compensation of expense suffered after he had rescued the master and crew (9 men) of the schooner Astoria of Buckport on July 8, 1885. McIntosh, master and owner of the schooner Bucephalus of Provincetown, was fishing on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The rescue of the crew significantly changed his schedule, "his voyage was prolonged fifteen days, and he encountered a severe storm, which damaged his vessel and compelled him to enter a provincial port and repair damages at considerable expense>" McIntosh claimed USD 346, and the Committee found it "reasonable" and that it should be paid, also noting: "It would appear to be good policy not to discourage acts of humanity by failing to reasonable reimburse the masters and owners of vessels for services rendered in saving shipwrecked crews" (See: Reports of Committees of the House of Representatives for the second session of the 49th Congress, 1886-87: in 3 vols. Vol. 2. Washington, 1887. № 4080).
New York Times from September 12, 1888 informed about loss of McIntoch’s schooner Carrie Bonnell at sea. The schooner "was 96 years old register, was 16 years old and was owned by her Captain <..,> [it] was abandoned at sea in a sinking condition. [McIntoch and his crew of 14 men] were taken off by another Provincetown fisherman and landed at St. Pierre on Sept. 3. They saved all their effects and gear and set the vessel on fire before they left her."

[Album of 147 Original Photographs of a Trip Through the American West, Including Scenes in the Grand Canyon, Alaska, Yukon, Mt. Rainier National Park, Victoria (BC), and Canadian Rockies; [With] 71 Real Photo and Printed Postcards Obtained During the Trip].

1919. Oblong Folio (24x36,5 cm). 48 leaves. In total 220 images including a large panorama (ca. 8,5x24,5 cm or 3 ½ x 9 ¾ in) and a large original photograph (ca. 18,5x12,5 cm or 7x5 in); 112 original photographs ca. 10x12,5 cm (4 x 4 ¾ in), 35 smaller photographs ca. 4,5x6,5 cm (1 ½ x 2 ½ in), 46 larger (ca. 8,5x13,5 cm or 3 ½ x 5 ½ in) and 25 smaller (ca. 4,5x7 cm or 1 ¾ x 2 ¾ in) postcards, mounted on black cardboard leaves. Postcards captioned in negative. With the official itinerary of the trip from the travel agent (3 sheets) mounted on the first leaf. Handsome period style black half morocco with moire papered boards and endpapers, and gilt tooled spine. Several leaves with small tears and chips, not affecting photographs, one image with minor blue stains of the upper margin, a small photo faded, a few images with minor damage in the corners (the photographs were stuck together and later separated). Overall a very good album.
An interesting photograph collection of a 1919 summer tour across the Pacific Northwest and the Rocky Mountains. As seen from the official travel itinerary included in the album, the traveller was Howard B. Sprague (93 Binney St., Boston, Mass) who went on an independent tour organized by a Boston travel company Raymond & Withromb Inc. (17 Temple Place).

Sprague left Boston on June 15, 1919 and went to the Grand Canyon; after that he proceeded to California, spending several days in the resorts of Coronado, and the Yosemite Valley. Then he headed to Seattle and Vancouver and on July 12 sailed from Vancouver on a Canadian Pacific steamer, according to the "itinerary of tour # 37." Apparently, he went from Victoria, BC to Alert Bay (Vancouver Island), Prince Rupert (mainland BC), and further along the coast of Alaska, visiting Wrangell, Juneau, and Skagway. After that he went inland through the White Pass and Yukon Route, visited Lake Bennet and Dawson City and probably went down the Yukon River and the on to Victoria, BC. Sprague returned to Seattle on the 30th of July and then stayed at Mt. Rainier Park for several days. He took a train of the Canadian Pacific Railway from Vancouver to the Canadian Rockies and had several stops on the way - in Sicamous (Shushwap region), Glacier (Illecillewaet), Lake Louise, Banff and St. Paul (Alberta). He arrived home on the August 30th.

The Alaskan photographs include coastal landscapes with mountains and icebergs, several pictures of the narrow-gauge White Pass and Yukon Route Railroad and the international boundary between US and Canada. Especially interesting are two photographs of the graves (in Skagway) of Jefferson Randolph "Soapy" Smith (1860-1898), a famous con artist and gangster, and Frank H. Reid (1844 or 1850 - 1898), a soldier and city engineer, both died in the renowned shootout on Juneau Wharf in Skagway on July 8, 1898.
Then follow various views of Yukon River, Lake Bennet, an image of Dawson City; a series of ten photos documenting gold dredging with close up views of mills and machines; several riverside scenes showing bulk of logs on shore and their loading to the ship; there is a picture of a river steamer Casca from Victoria, images of Victoria Legislature Building and CPR Empress Hotel et al.
Grand Canyon views include a photograph, which apparently, is a portrait of Sprague himself, posing on a cliff, a photo of the traveller’s camp, and an interesting series of cowboy’s competition. A couple of photographs show scenes of hiking on Mt. Rainier and various mountainous landscapes, including nicely executed panorama and a large view of Mt. Rainier. The Canadian Rockies are represented with a view of the Great Divide between BC and Alberta, pictures of a bison and a wolf, and a series of over 20 photos of Lake Louise and Banff, including views of the Lake Louise, Bow River, and CPR hotel Chateau Lake Louise (one of the images show guests relaxing in the outdoor swimming pool).

The postcards (62 real photo and 9 printed) include 9 views of the Indian settlement in Alert Bay with its renowned totem poles (also represented with two photos); views of Victoria and Prince Rupert (B.C.), Alaskan coast, Wrangell, Ketchikan, Juneau, Skagway, White Pass and Yukon Route, Canadian dredges on Klondyke River and Bonanza Creek; a scene with a dog sledge entitled "The Malamute Chorus" et al. Series of postcards of Mt. Rainier (32) include images of Paradise Inn hotel (completely covered with snow) and restaurant "Ohop Bob" - a place of fine dining on the way to the mountain (it was built in 1914 for the Tacoma Automobile Club and burned down in 1965). The Canadian Rockies are shown with views of "Sir Donald, Uto and Eagle Peaks" (Glacier Park), Lakes Moraine and Louise.

[Unique Collection of 215 Postcards and Photographs of Alaska, including 15 Original Photographs of the US Coast Guard Cutter Haida and its Crew, 138 Real Photo Postcards, and 62 Printed Postcards; With 8 Pieces of Alaskan and North Pacific Related Ephemera].

[Alaska], ca. 1900-1930. Photographs and postcards all ca. 9x14 cm (3 ½ x 5 ½ in). Many captioned in negative, ca. 50 images captioned and annotated in ink on recto or verso by the same person, most likely a crew member of USCG Haida. Clean and strong postcards, with only less than ten used, one postcard strengthened on margins. All ephemera in very good condition (see detailed description below). Overall a great collection in very good condition.


Unique collection of early and rare postcards and ephemera of Alaskan views, scenes and types.
A collection most likely assembled by a crew member of the US Coast Guard Cutter Haida, who captioned and annotated ca. 50 images. A postcard from the collection with the text written in the same or very similar hand, has been sent from Petersburg, Alaska, on July 30, 1921 (dated and stamped) to "Miss C. Little" in Ireland; the sender "Bruce" informed that "We arrived here today & will stop for a short time <..,> This is another fishing & mining town, also a lumber depo" (most likely, the sender put together the collection).
The collection of annotated images includes 15 original photographs, showing USCG Haida and its crew, including the cutter’s Captain Shea with his dog, chief wireless operator Fanning, chief machinists Browning and Jones, "race boats crew this year," "baseball team this year," "hunting party," "reindeer and one of the crew" et al; three images show natives of St. Lawrence Island on the deck of USS Bear; three photographs depict a naval (or military) formation in the Unalaska dock; and there is also a photo of "Senator Dill & Secretary" on board a ship.
The postcards from the "Haida" collection include a picture of cutter Haida itself, and of other vessels, for example USS Bear, Hudson’s Bay Company’s ship Baichimo (before it became a ghost ship; with an interesting note on verso), "a passenger ship," a shipwreck, a view of the deck of a schooner and a native kayak next to it et all. There are six postcards with the scenes of whaling, five showing Kodiak bears, hunted or caught (with manuscript captions, like "Prisoners of war," "This young bear will never roam the wilderness" et al, and extent notes), and pictures showing local fishermen and walrus hunters, native way of drying salmon, a portrait of Alaskan prospector with inscription "One of the men who made Alaska," two portraits of the natives of Northern Siberia, two images of Alaskan kayaks, a portrait of an "Indian slave" et al.
Postcards showing Alaskan cities and scenery include a series of five very interesting views showing the parade on the 4th of July in Seward, and a group of views of the Aleutian Islands, with six pictures of Unalaska (including images of the Russian Orthodox church and Orthodox service in Unalaska), and two views of the native huts on the Unimak and Akutan Islands.
The manuscript notes and captions are usually very informative, sometimes humorous, but always interesting. See the extensive note on the verso of the postcard captioned "Captain Hanson" and showing hunters cutting a walrus on board a schooner:
"This is the schooner that rescued the last survivors of the American expedition to Wrangell Island. They found the remains of all the men dead with several unfinished diaries. The man on the left if Captain Hanson, a Dane. He was telling me all about he found one Eskimo girl alive and feeling fine in the gruesome surroundings, the only survivor, the famous Ada Blackjack. He said he showed her the time of her life afterwards for many nights. I never laughed so much as to hear that old reprobate tell of his experience. He said that he had it to say he slept with the most famous woman in the world. That was his way of treating the sole survivor. Hanson is quite a character, an old sailing ship man who might have been a great man, but he is so lawless wrecker."
USCGC Haida (WPG-45) was a 240-foot Tampa-class United States Coast Guard cutter in commission from 1921 until 1947. Haida was first stationed at Seattle, Washington and began a peacetime career on the annual Bering Sea Patrols. She first sailed to Unalaska, the headquarters for the Patrol, and then sailed on her assigned tasks, which included acting as a floating court for the inhabitants of the isolated areas she sailed, caring for the sick, conducting search and rescue activities, checking on aids to navigation, regulating fisheries, and other duties. With Prohibition being the law of the land after the passage of the Volstead Act in 1919, the Haida and her sister cutters became the main enforcement arm of the federal government's effort to prevent liquor smuggling at sea, thereby adding another duty to an already full plate. Haida apparently had little luck in stopping any smuggling but nevertheless continued to carry out her other tasks. In 1924 Haida, in concert with the cutter Algonquin, sailed in support of the U.S. Army's World Flight, the first attempt to circumnavigate the globe by air (United States Coast Guards on-line).


The postcards of Alaskan cities and landscapes include four views of the Kodiak Archipelago with three views of Kodiak (public school, Kodiak Cannery and US Experiment Station in the Kalsin Bay, 14 m. From Kodiak), and a view of the Letnik Lake on Afognak Island, pictures of Seward (3), Nome (two, including a picture of the city fire in 1934), Valdez (2), Dutch Harbour next to Unalaska, Cordova, Kennecott, Tanana Valley Railroad, Mt. Hood, McCarty Glacier, and Aurora Borealis in Alaska.
Over 30 postcards represent portraits of the natives, including types of fur dealers, hunters, basket weavers, berry pickers, women, children, "Eskimo in Rain suit," views of totem poles, kayaks, interiors of huts, a portrait of "Big Chief Affannassia" et al. Four postcards show various ships (USS Algonquin, a cutter in Bering Sea, wreck of SS Mariposa, and a schooner from Nome), one postcard represent a mascot of USS Bear (a goat). There are nine postcards with whaling, hunting and fishing scenes (including a series of images about whaling in Kodiak, views of seal poaching ships in Unalaska and "Shark fishing" et al). 17 postcards show Alaskan animals and birds: Kodiak bears (5), fur seals, foxes, moose, spider crab, rock cod, musk ox, Alaska eagle et al.

11 postcards show the American settlers of Alaska and their occupations: the official group portrait of Alaskan authorities (US President Warren Harding, Alaskan Governor Scott Cordell Bone, Secretary of Commerce Herbert Hoover and others), a portrait of American pioneer pilot Parker D. Cramer next to his plane, a "Hawaiian" style portrait of a man having sun tan in the winter Alaskan landscape; several pictures of women and children ("Raising goats in Alaska," "Rosebuds in the North") et al.


Printed postcards (52 colour and 10 black and white) include views of Alaskan cities and settlements: Nome (4, including scenes of landing passengers in Nome, and US Mail Team), Unalaska (3), Valdez (3), Skagway (2), Cordova (2, including views of Copper River and Northwest Railway), Seward, Hadley, Circle City, Chena Slough and Fairbanks, and Bluff City; four postcards show Canadian cities Dawson (2) and White Horse (2). Alaskan landscapes are represented with pictures of Cape Rodney, Cape Prince of Wales, Yukon River (4, including views of Fort Gibbon Weare and Tanana), Thompson Pass, White Pass Summit (2), Muir Glacier, Taku Glacier (2 cards, one stamped "Skagway, Alaska, May 5, 1906 [?]"), a view of "Work train at Mile 113 of Copper River and Northwest Ry." et al.
13 postcards show types of Alaskan natives, including portraits of reindeer herders on Cape Prince of Wales, "Native packer," "An Eskimo smoker," a portrait of a native woman called Jaorge-Sha-Wut, women selling berries in Sitka, carrying children, weaving baskets, "Eskimo Mickaninnies on Parade," a view of an Indian camp, four views of the totem poles (including those in Alert Bay of Vancouver Island) et al.
A series of postcards dedicated to Alaskan gold mining industry include three Nome scenes (a portrait of prospectors, "shovelling on Buster Creek" and "Dredging for gold"); two views of Douglass Island (showing the Treadwell Mine and Mexican and Ready Bullion Mines), a view of the main dining room of the Treadwell Mine’s Boarding House; "Typical miner’s cabin," and a card showing several piles of gold sand and entitled "$ 150,000. One Day’s Sluicing Discovery, Little Creek."
A colour postcard shows Reverend Wm. Duncan, founder of the Native mission in Metlakatla.
The majority of the printed postcards were issued by Portland Post Card Co. (28); Lowman & Hanford Co., Seattle (9); E.H. Mitchell, San Francisco (7); HHT Co. (4); but also there are 7 postcards published by small Alaskan or Canadian entrepreneurs: from Juneau (W.H. Case, Purity Pharmacy), Cordova (O. Kennedy, Cordova Drugs Co.), Nome (B.B. Dobbs, Photographic Supply Stores), Dawson (Zaccarelli’s Book Store). Several postcards were issued by New York (Albertype Co., the Photograph Co.), and Lyon (prototype Levenq & Cottin) companies.
One of the card showing White Horse is supplemented with a vivid text: "Dear Mother, I am now in Yukon, I have not yet picked up any gold. It is fearfully open and cold. I have now travelled over 9000 miles by train from Quebec. Yours truly, Percy John Tyson" (addressed to London, 1909).


The ephemera includes:
A Few Facts Concerning the Development of Alaska and Siberia [An advertising brochure]/ Northwest Commercial Company. Seattle, [1906]. Oblong Octavo (15,5x23 cm). [32] pp., ill., maps. Original publisher’s illustrated wrappers, slightly soiled. A very good copy.
Your Vacation should Include Yellowstone Park, Lewis and Clark Exposition, Alaska, one or all [Advertising]/ Northern Pacific Yellowstone Park Line// McClure’s Magazine, April 1905. Octavo (24,5x16 cm). Very good. The advertising shows a native woman of the Pacific Northwest with two children, sledge dogs and a totem pole in the background.
Two coloured lithographs representing types of natives of Unalaska, Aleutian and Kurile Islands, and "Isole delle Volpi," Plates 67 and 68 from "Asia Settentrionale" (1841). Large octavo (28x20 cm). Very good, bright lithographs.
Front wrapper of the magazine "The Open Road for Boys" (April 1937), by H.L.V. Parkhurst, showing a pilot and a woman passenger flying low over Alaskan mountains and valleys, the heading "The Gold Gulch Flight: Alaskan Air Adventure." Quarto (29x21 cm), very good.
Two collectable cards, # 24 and 71, entitled "Alaska" and sold with coffee of Arbuckle Bros., New York. 1889-1893. Both ca. 7,5x12,5 cm. Very good. The cards show the map of Alaska, and several scenes of local life (seals resting on the ice, whalers, hunters, natives), one card with the description of Alaska on verso.
A collectable card entitled "Ausser-Europäische Wasserstrassen. Bering-Strasse" and sold with Liebig’s Fleisch-Extract (broth), Germany. Ca. 1890-1910-s. Ca. 7x11 cm. Very good. The card shows map and of view of Bering Strait, and a portrait of the native "Eskimo."

[Unique Collection of 23 Original Photographs Documenting the Investigation of the Wreck of the Russian Coast Guard Ship Kreiserok in the Vicinity of Cape Soya, Northwestern Hokkaido].

Ca. 1889. One photograph ca. 16.5 x 22cm (6.5 x 8.5 in), eighteen photographs, ca. 12x17 cm (4 ¾ x 6 ¾ in) and four smaller photographic portraits of the Kreiser’s crew, ca. 11x8 cm (4 ¼ x 3 ¼ in) mounted on card leaves of different sizes. The majority of photographs with pencil captions in Danish on the lower margins of the mounts. Minor foxing of the mounts, but overall a very good collection.

This important photographic collection documents the search expedition of the Russian Navy to the northwestern Hokkaido in November 1889 - January 1890. The purpose was to investigate the fate of the shipwreck of the Russian coast guard schooner Kreiserok ("Little Cruiser") which was in service on the coast of Tyuleniy Island (in the Sea of Okhotsk, 19 km to the south of Cape Patience (Mys Terpeniya), on the eastern Sakhalin coast) protecting against poachers and disappeared in a storm on October 26, 1889.
The wreck of Kreiserok was discovered by Japanese on the shore next to village Wakkanai, in the vicinity of Cape Soya, the northernmost point of Hokkaido, 43 km away across the Laperouse Strait from Sakhalin Island. The Russian consulate informed the Pacific Squadron of the Russian Navy which wintered in Nagasaki, and the Squadron Commander rear admiral Vladimir Schmidt sent the investigation expedition on clipper Kreiser ("Cruiser") to ascertain whether the wreck was indeed the Kreiserok.

The expedition under the leadership of renowned Russian Polar explorer, doctor Alexander von Bunge (1851-1930) included Lt. V.N. Bukharin and other Russian mariners, as well as Japanese officials and translators. The party reached the place of the wreck with great difficulties because of heavy snowfalls and strong winds. They examined what left of the schooner - a part of stern with steering wheel and the right side with both masts. Two ship’s boats, the flag and the board with the ship’s name were discovered, as well as a body of a sailor (Fedor Ivanov). None of the crew members was rescued, obviously there were no survivors. The cause of the disaster wasn’t determined, but it was assumed that the ship wrecked because of the ice formation on Kreiserok’s hull and rigging during strong storm, winds and low temperatures.

This photograph collection, assembled by the Danish member of Kreiser’s crew, Lt. C.M.T. Cold (who also captioned most of the images), includes eleven images of the Kreiserok wreck on shore with all parts of the schooner's remains clearly visible. Five images show the surrounding coast and a Japanese settlement, covered with deep snow. The majority of the pictures from the wreckage also show the expedition members, with Alexander Bunge present on five pictures, and possibly V. Bukharin and Lt. Cold present at least on six pictures; several pictures show the Japanese members, and two images are group portraits of all expedition members. Five pictures are dedicated to the clipper Kreiser including four portraits of its crew members, and a view of Kreiser in the harbour of Nagasaki, the latter was reproduced in: Krestianinov, V.I. Cruisers of the Russian Imperial Navy, 1856-1917. Part 1. SPb., 2003 (Крестьянинов, В.Я. Крейсера Российского Императорского флота, 1856-1917. Ч. I. СПб, 2003).
The monument erected in 1897 in Vladivostok in memory of Kreiserok and its crew became the first monument of Vladivostok and the first official memorial on the Pacific to Russian naval mariners who perished on duty.
Kreiserok ("Little Cruiser") was a coast guard schooner of the Russian Imperial Navy. Tonnage 15 t., length 24 m., width 8 m., draught 2.13 m. Built in 1884 in Seattle, before 1886 – American schooner "Henrietta." In 1886 it was confiscated by the Russian clipper "Kreiser" for poaching in the Russian waters of the Bering Sea. In 1887 under command of lieutenant Tsvangman it carried out hydrographical survey of the Amur estuary. On May 14, 1888 it was renamed after the clipper "Kreiser" and became a coast guard vessel of the Tyuleniy Island (the Sea of Okhotsk). In October 1889 during its service on the island’s coast it captured American poaching schooner Rose and prepared to escort it to Vladivostok, but instead wrecked in a storm with the entire crew perishing. A cape and a bay in the Possiet Gulf (Peter the Great Gulf of the Sea of Japan) were named after it.
Alexander von Bunge was a renowned Russian Polar explorer, doctor of medicine and zoologist, a son of famous botanist Alexander von Bunge (1803-1890). He participated in the expeditions to the mouth of the River Lena (1882-84), Yenisey River (1892-95), Spitsbergen (1900) et al; he headed the expedition to the New Siberian Islands (1885-86). Von Bunge’s meteorological observations were used by F. Nansen during his famous Fram expedition. An island in the Arctic Ocean (Bunge Land), a peninsula on the Russky Island (Nordenskiöld Archipelago), glaciers on Spitsbergen and Novaya Zemlya, and a mountain on Spitsbergen were named after him.

[A Signed Contract Engaging Jean Sonnet of Montreal or La Prairie with W.W. Matthews for Two Winters to Perform Various Tasks, Including Barrel Making].

Montreal: 17 March, 1818. One page folio (32x20 cm). Printed document in French, filled out in manuscript; laid paper. Margins with a couple of minor tears, otherwise a very good document.
A contract between William Wallace Mathews, a manager of the American Fur Company from Montreal, and a local man Jean Sonnet who promised to "well and properly care for the roads and being at the said place, goods, food, pelts, utensils at all things necessary for the journey; serve, obey and execute loyalty to the said Sir." Sonnet was entitled to the wages of 900 livres, ten piastres and some equipment in advance. Jean Sonnet has signed with an “X”.
"In 1817-18, the American Fur Company brought a large number of clerks from Montreal and the United States to Mackinaw, some of whom made good Indian traders, while many others failed upon trial and were discharged. <..,>
To William Mathews was entrusted the engaging of voyageurs and clerks in Canada, with his head-quarters in Montreal. The voyageurs he took from the habitants (farmers); young, active, athletic men were sought for, indeed, none but such were engaged, and they passed under inspection of a surgeon. Mr. M. also purchased at Montreal such goods as were suited for the trade, to lead his boats. These boats were the Canadian batteaux, principally used in those days in transferring goods to upper St. Lawrence river and its tributaries, manned by four oarsmen and a steersman, capacity about six tons.
The voyageurs and clerks were under indentures for a term of five years. Wages for voyageurs, $100, clerk from $120 to $500 per annum. These were all novices in the business; the plan of the company was to arrange and secure the services of old traders and their voyageurs, who, at the (new) organization of the company were in the Indian country, depending on their influence and knowledge of the trade with the Indians; and as fast as possible secure the vast trade in the West and North-West, within the district of the United States, interspersing the novices brought from Canada so as to consolidate, extend, and monopolize, as far as possible, over the country, the Indian trade.
The first two years they had succeeded in bringing into their employ seven-eights of the old Indian traders on the tributaries as far north as the boundaries of the United States extended. The other eighth thought that their interest was to remain independent; toward such, the company selected their best traders, and located them in opposition, with instructions so to manage by underselling to bring them to terms" (Hurlbut, Henry H. Chicago Antiquities: Comprising original items and relations, letters, extracts, and notes pertaining to early Chicago, embellished with views, portraits, autographs, etc. Chicago, 1881. P. 30-31).
"The American Fur Company (1808-1842) was founded by John Jacob Astor and by 1830 grew to monopolize the fur trade in the United States, becoming one of the largest businesses in the country. The company was one the first great trusts in American business.
During its heyday, the American Fur Company was one of the largest enterprises in the United States and held a total monopoly of the lucrative fur trade in the country. The company provided the income for the land investments that catapulted John Jacob Astor to the position of richest man in the world and the first multi-millionaire in America. The German-born Astor remains the eighteenth wealthiest person of all time, and the eighth to create that fortune in the United States. He used part of his fortune to found the Astor Library in New York City. Later it merged with the Lenox Library to form the New York Public Library.
On the frontier, the American Fur Company opened the way for the settlement and economic development of the Midwestern and Western United States. Mountain men working for the company improved Native American trails and carved others that led settlers into the West. Many cities in the Midwest and West, such as Astoria, Oregon and Fort Benton, Montana, developed around American Fur Company trading posts. The American Fur Company played a major role in the development and expansion of the young United States" (Wikipedia).
See also: Matthew’s Adventures in the Columbia: A Pacific Fur Company Document/ Ed. By J.E. Douglas// Oregon Historical Quarterly. Vol. 40. № 2. Jun., 1939. P. 105-148.

"Northesk Admiral; Left London on the 23 May 1829 and returned from the Arctic Regions on the 19th Oct 1833 Ja. Clark.Ross; John Ross; W. Parry, hydrographer."

Ca. 1833. Album sheet, ca. 27x22 cm (10 ½ x 8 ¾ in) The signatures on paper mounted on a light blue album leaf. Signatures and album leaf in fine condition.
Album sheet with the signatures of Naval commander Admiral Northesk, and the Arctic explorers: James Clark Ross, his uncle John Ross, and William Parry.
"Admiral William Carnegie GCB, 7th Earl of Northesk (1756-1831) was born in Hampshire to Admiral George Carnegie, 6th Earl of Northesk and Anne Melville..,
Sir James Clark Ross (1800-1862), was a British naval officer and explorer. He explored the Arctic with his uncle Sir John Ross and Sir William Parry, and later led his own expedition to Antarctica..,
Sir John Ross, CB, (1777-1856) was a Scottish rear admiral and Arctic explorer..,
Sir William Edward Parry (1790-1855) was an English rear-admiral and Arctic explorer, who in 1827 attempted one of the earliest expeditions to the North Pole. He reached 82°45′ North latitude, setting the record for human exploration farthest North that stood for nearly five decades before being surpassed at 83°20′26″ by Albert Hastings Markham in 1875-1876" (Wikipedia)

[An Octagonal Silver Arctic Medal Engraved for W. Ingram, HMS Hecla].
[London], [1857]. Diameter approx. 33 mm. Recto with profile of Queen Victoria wearing a tiara and facing left with words "VICTORIA REGINA" to rim. Reverse with sailing ship and icebergs in the background and a sledge party in the foreground; with the dates "1818-1855" under, and the words "FOR ARCTIC DISCOVERIES" above the scene. The inner edge of the rim on both faces is beaded. At the top of the medal is a small claw above which is a five-pointed star with another smaller five-pointed star offset behind it; on the topmost large point is a swivel through which is a half inch ring. Three lower sections on the rim with engraved words "W. INGRAM H.M.S. HECLA." Medal slightly darkened, complete with suspender, white ribbon renewed; overall in near fine condition.

In May 1857, the London Gazette announced the inception of a new medal awarded for Arctic discoveries. Claimants, who could include those participating in expeditions of discovery and those who had participated in the search for Sir John Franklin, were invited to apply to the Accountant-General of the Navy, Admiralty, Somerset House in London. A list of expeditions for which claims were eligible was also printed, and this list was extended to at later dates (to include, for instance, the Nares Arctic Expedition of 1875-6).
The present example bears an inscription relating to W. Ingram, but the attribution is uncertain: according to Poulsom & Myres, the standard reference work, William Ingram served as a Private R.M. on the North Star during the time of search for Franklin expedition: A medal named to W. Ingram serving on the HMS Hecla is known to exist, but there is a gap in the ship's records of him serving on the Hecla. Poulsom & Myres p.207.

[Album of 91 Original Photographs of Alaska Including Views of Sitka, Wrangell, Muir Glacier and Skagway with the White Pass].

1899. Oblong Folio (28x34,5 cm). 91 photographs, the majority ca. 12x10 cm (4 ¾ x 4 in) or slightly smaller, mounted on 11 grey card leaves. With two chromolithographs and a coloured photograph by LaRoche (Seattle) mounted on the endpapers and on the last leaf of the album. Several images with period pencil or ink captions. Period style black full morocco with gilt tooled title and a chromolithograph showing Yukon tundra in summer, mounted on the front board. First and last leaves with small tears and chips, not affecting photographs. Two photos lightly chipped; a few with some minor soiling. Overall a beautiful album with strong, bright images.

An interesting collection of photographs taken during a cruise on the steamship "Queen" along the Northwest coast of America and Alaska in July 1899, during the Klondike Gold Rush 1896-99. The group of travellers proceeded from Victoria (British Columbia) and went north and visited Sitka, Wrangell, Glacier National Park, where they spent time at the Muir Glacier, Skagway and summitted the famous White Pass leading to the Yukon River and further to the Klondike Gold fields.

The images include Alaskan scenery (mountains, rivers, coastal landscapes), including close-up views of houses and totem poles in Wrangell, views of the harbour and vicinities of Sitka, a nice series of the Muir glacier views, images of the interior of St. Michael’s Russian Orthodox Cathedral in Sitka, the Legislature building in Victoria, a portrait with the building of the Klondike Trading Company in the background et al. The images of the tourists themselves show numerous outdoor activities, such as fishing, hiking, and mountain climbing, as well as taking the air on board the steamship. Images of note include a photo of two ladies in shirtwaists roped up together for mountain climbing; two photos of bison; and an image of a group of native children and their dogs seated on the ground outside a cabin in a village. A nice record of a Victorian pleasure trip to the Far North.

The Cariboo Sentinel: Vol. 1. No. 12.

Barkerville, Williams Creek, British Columbia: Saturday, August 19, 1865. On a double Elephant Folio leaf (ca. 40,5x29,5 cm or 16 x 11 ½ in). Four pages. With Two page Supplement laid in. Period pencil note "30 cops. Exp. Acc. F.J. Barnard" in the right upper corner; blue stamp "M.W. WAITT & Co. Govt. St. VICTORIA" in the left upper corner. Light staining along fold lines, chipping on the upper edge, but overall a very good copy.
Very rare as only four runs of the newspaper located in Worldcat.
One of the first issues of this almost legendary goldfields newspaper inscribed by a prominent BC businessman and politician, the founder of famous Barnard’s Express: Francis Jones Barnard (1829-1889).

The inscription ordered to send 30 copies of the newspaper to the office of a Victoria bookseller, publisher and news agent M.W. Waitt & Co. (probably, on Barnard’s personal account). The reason for this was most likely the article letter from Victoria written anonymously by a member of the Legislature, which presented a lengthy defense of Union of the Colonies of BC and Vancouver Island, based partly on the value of the Cariboo miners to the Island economy and, reciprocally, the value of free trade to the miners (the union was concluded in 1866).

"The Cariboo Sentinel was published in Barkerville, in the Cariboo region of central British Columbia, and ran from June 1865 to October 1875. At the time, Barkerville was home to a fast-growing community of miners who had been attracted to the Cariboo region by the discovery of gold. The Sentinel was published by George Wallace, and its stated objective was not only to disseminate "mining intelligence," but also to eradicate "official abuse[s]" of power, both within the Cariboo region and beyond (vol. 1, no. 1, p. 2)" (UBC Library Catalogue).

"Francis Jones Barnard, often known as Frank Barnard Sr., was a prominent British Columbia businessman and Member of Parliament in Canada from 1879 to 1887. Most famously, Barnard was the founder of the B.X. Express freighting company ("Barnard's Express"), which was the main cartage and passenger services company on the Cariboo Road. His son, Sir Francis Stillman Barnard, often known as Frank Barnard Jr., later became the Lieutenant-Governor of British Columbia.
It was his next enterprise, begun in the fall of 1860, that would grow to become the B.X. Express one of the most important companies in the early history of the Colony, and which would remain in business for decades. He began by carrying mail and newspapers, on foot, all the way from Yale to the goldfield towns of the Cariboo, a 760-mile roundtrip journey, charging $2 per letter and selling newspapers in the goldfields for $1 a copy. In 1861 and 1862 he also carried packages between Yale and New Westminster, a distance of 200 miles, and in 1862 established a one-horse pony express, with himself as sole rider, serving the Cariboo from Yale, where he met with services from New Westminster and Yale provided by Dietz & Nelson (one of the partners in which was the later Lieutenant-Governor Hugh Nelson) and couriered reliably from there to Barkerville. On his return journeys, he became entrusted with shipments of gold dust, and managed to reliably and safely convey earnings from the goldfields to Yale despite the ever-present risk of robbery, in addition to the difficulties posed by distance, climate, and the difficult canyon and plateau trails.
With the completion of the first section of the Old Cariboo Road to Soda Creek in 1862 , Barnard used his own acquired capital and found a backer to launch Barnard's Express and Stage Line with fourteen six-horse coaches and a famous team of "crack whips" to drive them, including legendary drivers Steve Tingley and Billy Ballou. The onset of the busiest phase of movement of miners and goods to and from the Cariboo Gold Rush began that year, and Barnard's new company prospered from a buys trade in services for passengers, freight, letters, newspapers and gold dust, and in 1864 was able to expand his business further with the purchase of more rolling stock and also in winning the government contract to carry the mail. Barnard was also able to encourage the government to end the gold escort with the result that his company's coaches, equipped with armed guardsmen, would be fully in charge of the movement of gold from the Cariboo to the Coast. In 1866 Barnard bought out Dietz and Nelson and so came into control of the bulk of business connecting Victoria to Barkerville, as he was now in control of shipments between Victoria and Yale as well as from Yale northwards" (Wikipedia).

[Leaflet Titled]: To the Queen’s Most Excellent Majesty. Most Gracious Sovereign: We, Your Majesty’s most dutiful and loyal Subjects, the Members of the Legislative Council of British Columbia in Council assembled, humbly approach Your Majesty for the purpose of representing <..,> the subject of the admission of the Colony of British Columbia into the Union or Dominion of Canada...

[Victoria], [1870]. 3 pp. On a folded double folio leaf (ca. 32,5 x 40,5 cm or 13 x 15 ¾ in) with the Royal Arms of the British Empire. Printed on pale blue paper. A fine copy.
Very Rare unrecorded draft of the Terms of British Columbia Union with Canada, the document contains 14 conditions for entry into Confederation. Among the conditions are the statements that "Canada shall be liable for the Debts and Liabilities of British Columbia," and that "the Government of the Dominion undertake to secure the commencement simultaneously, within two years from the date of the Union, of the construction of a Railway from the Pacific towards Rocky Mountains, and from such point as may be selected, East of the Rocky Mountains, towards the Pacific, to connect the Seaboard of British Columbia with the Railway system of Canada; and further, to secure the completion of such Railway within ten years from the date of the Union."

"Both the depressed economic situation arising from the collapse of the gold rushes, as well as a desire for the establishment of truly responsible and representative government, led to enormous domestic pressure for British Columbia to join the Canadian Confederation, which had been proclaimed in 1867. The Confederation League, spearheaded by three future premiers of the province - Amor De Cosmos, Robert Beaven, and John Robson - took a leading role in pushing the colony towards this goal. And so it was on July 20, 1871, that British Columbia became the sixth province to join Canada. In return for entering Confederation, Canada absorbed B.C.'s massive debt, and promised to build a railway from Montreal to the Pacific coast within 10 years. In fulfillment of this promise, the last spike of the Canadian Pacific Railway was driven in Craigellachie in 1885" (Wikipedia).

11. [BRAMBILA, Fernando] (1763-1832)
[Malaspina Expedition] Sepulcro del Gefe anterior a el actual del Puerto de Mulgrave, muerto segun indicios en una Reyerta. [Tombstone of a Chief in the Vicinity of Port Mulgrave, who died in a Skirmish According to the Evidence; Artist Proof Plate Meant for a Seven Volume Work Which was Suppressed and Remained Unpublished].

[Madrid?], [1798?]. Ca. 27x47 cm (10.5 x 18 ½ in) A near fine wide margined aquatint.
Extremely Rare artist's proof aquatint produced for a work which was never published. Worldcat only locates one copy of this print. This aquatint show Port Mulgrave on Khantaak Island, Alaska. The Malaspina Expedition arrived at Port Mulgrave on the 27th of June, 1791 and the Expedition stayed there for ten days. This aquatint shows a Tlingit burial site and tombstone for a Chief who died in battle. The artist of this aquatint, Brambila, joined as a painter the scientific expedition of Alejandro Malaspina (1789-1794), which explored and mapped much of the west coast of the Americas from Cape Horn to the Gulf of Alaska. Brambila painted several landscapes of Guam, the Philippines, Australia (Sydney), Macao, Peru, Chile and Argentina and the Pacific Northwest. After returning to Spain, he worked on producing prints based of his paintings and drawings made on the voyage, in preparation for the publication of the account of the Malaspina Expedition. Unfortunately, Malaspina's political judgment lead him to take part in a failed conspiracy to overthrow Spain's Prime Minister Godoy, and he was arrested on charges of plotting against the state. After an inconclusive trial on April 20, 1796, Charles IV decreed that Malaspina be stripped of rank and imprisoned in the isolated fortress of San Antón in La Coruña, Galicia (Spain), where he remained from 1796 to 1802.
As a result, his seven-volume account of the Expedition was suppressed and remained unpublished until the late 19th century. Thus this aquatint is a very rare contemporary pictorial survivor of the expedition. Hakluyt Society, The Malaspina Expedition; Howgego M26; Wikipedia.

12. [BRAMBILA, Fernando] (1763-1832)
[Malaspina Expedition] Vista de una Galeria natural de cien pies de largo y diez de ancho, en la inmediacion del Puerto del Decanso, en el Estrecho de Juan de Fuca. [View of a Natural Gallery of one Hundred feet long and ten wide, in the Proximity of the Port of Decanso [Gabriola Island B.C.], in the Strait of Juan de Fuca; Artist Proof Plate Meant for a Seven Volume Work Which was Suppressed and Remained Unpublished].

[Madrid?], [1798?]. Ca. 26x49 cm (10.5 x 19 ½ in) A near fine wide margined aquatint.
Extremely Rare artist's proof aquatint produced for a work which was never published. Worldcat only locates one copy of this print. This aquatint show the natural gallery on Gabriola Island. The artist of this aquatint, Brambila, joined as a painter the scientific expedition of Alejandro Malaspina (1789-1794), which explored and mapped much of the west coast of the Americas from Cape Horn to the Gulf of Alaska. Brambila painted several landscapes of Guam, the Philippines, Australia (Sydney), Macao, Peru, Chile and Argentina and the Pacific Northwest. After returning to Spain, he worked on producing prints based on his paintings and drawings made on the voyage, in preparation for the publication of the account of the Malaspina Expedition. Unfortunately, Malaspina's political judgment lead him to take part in a failed conspiracy to overthrow Spain's Prime Minister Godoy, and he was arrested on charges of plotting against the state. After an inconclusive trial on April 20, 1796, Charles IV decreed that Malaspina be stripped of rank and imprisoned in the isolated fortress of San Antón in La Coruña, Galicia (Spain), where he remained from 1796 to 1802.
As a result, his seven-volume account of the Expedition was suppressed and remained unpublished until the late 19th century. Thus, this aquatint is a very rare contemporary pictorial survivor of the expedition. Hakluyt Society, The Malaspina Expedition; Howgego M26; Humphrey, Malaspina's Lost Gallery; Wikipedia.

13. [COOK, Captain James] (1728-1779)
[All Three of Cook's Voyages in Swedish] De Freville (A.F.J. De) Berattteles Om de nya Uptackter, som bliswit gjorde i Soderhafwet Aren 1767-1770, &c., [With] Sammandrag af Capitain Jacob Cooks Åren 1772, 73, 74 och 1775, Omkring Södra Polen [With] Sammandrag of Captain Jacob Cooks Tredje Resa, i Soderhafwet och emot Norra Polen.

Upsala: Johan Edman, 1776-1787. First Swedish Editions. Octavo, 3 vols. [xxviii], 308, [2], [ii], 326, [6]; [xx], 366, [10]; [xii], 618, [12], [2] pp. With two copper engraved folding maps Handsome period style matching brown gilt tooled half sheep with speckled papered boards and brown gilt labels housed in a matching slipcase. A fine set.

Very Rare complete set of all three of Cook's Voyages in Swedish. The First Voyage is a translation from Freville's compilation. The Second and Third Voyages were translated from the official accounts but with editorial notes by an anonymous Finnish editor (Second Voyage) and Oedmann (Third Voyage). The second voyage caused animosity between the editor and Sparrman who condemned the work and is ironically also listed as an author in the book. Du Rietz 1, 9, 12; Forbes 126 (Third Voyage).

14. [COOK, Captain James] (1728-1779)
[A Bronze Memorial Medal, by Lewis Pingo].

[London, 1783 or 1784]. Diameter Approx. 43 mm. Recto with profile bust of Cook facing left within the words "Iac. Cook Oceani Investigator Acerrimus" (James Cook, the Most Ardent Explorer of the Seas), beneath the bust, "Reg. Soc. Lond. Socio Suo" (The Royal Society of London to their Fellow) and initial "L. P. F." [i.e. L. PingoFecit]. Reverse with figure of Fortune leaning against a naval column with rudder on globe within the letters "Nil Intentatum Nostri Liqvere" (Our Men Have Left Nothing Unattended) and, beneath the figure "Auspiciis Georgii III." Medal in fine condition.
The medal was struck in commemoration of Captain Cook by fellow members of the Royal Society of London. It "features on its obverse a profile portrait bust of Cook in uniform, and on the reverse, Fortune (sometimes identified as Britannia), leaning upon a column with a spear in the crook of her arm and holding a rudder on a globe. The decision to create the medal was made by the governing Council of the Royal Society shortly after news of Cook's death in Hawai'i reached London on 10 January 1780.

This was the first, and so far the only, time that the Royal Society has decided to commemorate the death of one of its Fellows in this way. At its meeting on 17 February 1780, the Council decided that the medal would be struck in different metals, with subscription rates set at 20 guineas for a gold medal and 1 guinea for a silver medal or two bronzed ones, and that each member would receive a free bronzed medal, in addition to any others he had subscribed for. Banks headed the list of subscribers, putting in an order for one gold, 23 silver and 13 bronzed medals. In all, it seems that 22 gold, 322 silver and 577 bronzed medals were created" (National Museum of Australia on-line).
Lewis Pingo (1743-1830) belonged to the British dynasty of clockmakers, engravers, and medallists, which had been established in London in the 1670s. His "greatest legacy is his medals, which are variously signed ‘L. PINGO’, ‘L. P.’, or ‘L. P. F.’ (F=fecit). They number more than fifteen, and include portrait medals of David Garrick (1772) and Captain James Cook (1783), as well as prize medals for the Royal Humane Society (1776) and the Board of Admiralty (1796). Examples of his work are represented in the British Museum" (Oxford DNB); Beddie 2788.

BEGBIE, Matthew Baillie, Sir (1819-1894)
[Leaflet Titled]: Court of British Columbia. Order of Court. Whereas, by a Proclamation under the public seal of the said Colony, issued at Victoria, V.I., the 24th day of December, I, Matthew Baillie Begbie, Judge in the said Court, am authorised, while resident in Victoria, Vancouver Island, to make general Rules and Orders of Court in the same manner and of the same force and validity as if I were resident in British Columbia…

[Victoria B.C.]: 24 December, [1858]. On a folded double folio leaf (ca. 28x39,5 cm or 11 x 15 ½ in) with the Royal Arms of the British Empire. 4 pp. The leaflet has a mild stain on the first page, minor creases on corners, otherwise a very good copy.
Rare B.C. Incunabula with only thirteen copies found in Worldcat.

Matthew Begbie’s establishment of the Court of the newly formed Colony of British Columbia (since August 2, 1858). The document contains 14 paragraphs and three forms of declarations by barristers, attorneys or solicitors, and attorneys on temporary rolls.
"Begbie reached Fort Victoria on November 16, 1858. He was sworn into office in Fort Langley on November 19, as the new Colony of British Columbia was proclaimed. Given the influx of prospectors and others during Fraser Canyon Gold Rush and the following Cariboo Gold Rush of 1861, Begbie played a crucial role in the establishment of law and order throughout the new colony" (Wikipedia).
"Sir Matthew Baillie Begbie was the first Chief Justice of the Crown Colony of British Columbia in colonial times and in the first decades after confederation of Canada.
Begbie served as the first Judge of the Supreme Court, Colony of British Columbia 1858 to 1866 and then, in the same capacity in the Supreme Court, the United Colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia from 1866 to 1870. He was Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United Colonies from 1870 to 1871 and, following British Columbia joining confederation in 1871, he served as the first Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the new Province of British Columbia until his death on June 11, 1894.
In the years after his death, Begbie came to be known as the Hanging Judge. However, it appears that he does not deserve this reputation. The death penalty was mandatory in murder cases in those days unless the government approved a judge's recommendation for clemency. Indeed, Begbie successfully argued for clemency in several cases" (Wikipedia).

The British Columbia Directory for 1884-1885, Containing a Complete Classified Business & General Directory of the Province, Provincial Official Lists, and Useful and Reliable Information. Also, Some Facts about the Country Contributed by Gilbert Malcolm Sproat, Esq.

Victoria, B. C.: R.T. Williams, 1885. . Octavo. 4, [12], [2], 9-244, xv pp. With 23 unnumbered advertising leaves printed on paper of different colours, and four smaller unnumbered leaves with ‘Additional names’. Original publisher’s light brown printed cloth covers. Extremities with very mild wear, but overall a very good strong copy.

This is the second year of Williams’ directory (in total 9 vols. were published during the years 1882-1899). The directories "provided lists of government officials, teachers, officers of armed forces, societies, consuls, members of the Legislative Assembly, and judges, as well as providing a wide range of information about various BC localities" (Lowther 624). The book contains the directories of about 70 cities, towns and settlements, including Victoria, New Westminster, Nanaimo, Burrard Inlet (including Granville, Port Moody, Hastings and Moodyville), Richmond, Surrey, Yale, Hope, Kamloops, Langley, Maple Ridge, Okanagan country, Kootenay district, Queen Charlotte Islands and many others.

Interesting is a note on Granville (Vancouver city since 1886): "It is a busy little town, containing a number of general stores, three comfortable hotels, churches, telegraph office &c. <..,> Since the publication of the last directory, two years ago, an unexpected turn in the wheel of fortune has taken place. Negotiations to locate the terminus of the Canadian Pacific Railway at Coal Harbour appears to have at once dispelled the clouds of uncertainty which for the last two years has hovered over terminal matters, and turned the attention of capitalists to Coal Harbour, and also made Granville the most important point in British Columbia" (p. 173).

Gilbert Malcolm Sproat (1834-1913) was an "authority and government official. Born in Scotland; studied commercial law and trained for the civil service; came to BC in 1860 with two shiploads of equipment for building a sawmill at head of Alberni canal; 1860-5 resident manager of company which exported spars to Europe; appointed customs officer by Gov. Douglas; 1872 first agent general for BC in Europe; 1876 on federal and provincial joint commission to adjust Indian land question; 1885-90 stipendiary magistrate and gold commissioner for W. Kootenay; retired to Victoria" (Lowther, p. 315).

RAY, P.H., First Lieutenant 8th US Infantry.
Report of the International Polar Expedition to Point Barrow, Alaska, in Response to the Resolution of the House of Representatives of December 11, 1884.

Washington: Government Printing Office, 1885. First Edition With a Signed Letter by Greely (see below). Folio. [2 - title page], 695 pp. With a chromolithographed frontispiece, 2 chromolithographed plates, 19 phototype plates with tissue guards; a folding map, three charts, and 9 smaller woodcuts and charts in text. Manuscript list of plates added in the end of the Index (p. 695). Lacks one phototype plate facing p. 49. Book plate of Henry D. & Mary F. Couchman on the first paste-down endpaper, later book dealer’s and auction house’s labels and remarks on the first endpaper. Original publisher’s cloth with blind stamped ornamental borders on the boards and lettering on the spine. Cloth rubbed and worn, binding weak on hinges, but overall a good copy.
[With]: [Autograph Letter Signed from Adolphus Washington Greely to Henry Seebohm, Esq. Regarding the Present Edition of Ray’s Report and Colour Plates Presenting Ross’ Gull].
Washington, 16 January 1886. Quarto. 2 pp. Brown ink on laid paper with the official heading "Signal Office, War Department, Washington City." Old fold marks, paper soiled, lower margin browned and with glue residue, tears neatly repaired; overall a good letter.
A unique copy of the Report, supplemented with the letter from a renowned American explorer and army officer A.W. Greely (1844-1935) to a British traveller and amateur ornithologist Henry Seebohm (1832-1895) regarding two coloured plates from the book which showed Ross’ Gull and in fact became the first definitive depiction of this Arctic bird. Greely sent the present copy of the book to Seebohm with his letter and pointed his attention to the plates. As noted John Murdoch, the author of the "Natural History" part of the Report, "our expedition succeeded in obtaining a large series of the rare and beautiful bird – more, in fact, than there were before in all the museums of the world put together" (p. 123).

In the second part of the letter Greely talks about the report of his own expedition - a notorious Lady Franklin Bay Expedition (1881-84) which was undertaken, as well as Lieut. Ray’s, during the First International Polar Year (1882-83). Due to severe weather conditions and cold winters the US Navy vessels failed to supply the expedition with food for two years, which led to death of the most of its members. Only 7 people including Greely survived, "the rest had succumbed to starvation, hypothermia, and drowning, and one man, Private Henry, had been shot on Greely's order for repeated theft of food rations <..,> The returning survivors were venerated as heroes, though the heroism was tainted by sensational accusations of cannibalism during the remaining days of low food" (Wikipedia). Greely’s account of the expedition, which he talks about the letter, was published later the same year (Greely, A. Three Years of Arctic Service... New York, 1886. 2 vols.).
"The first station for Arctic research in Barrow was established for two years of observation during the First International polar Year in 1881-1883. In transmitting his report to General Hazen at the close of the mission, Lieutenant (Signal Corps) P.H. Ray (1885) respectfully suggested that in future expedition it should be desirable to give the leader time in advance to become acquainted with his crew and their project. In addition to valuable geophysical records, Ray prepared a penetrating description of the ways and culture of the Eskimo people whom he saw before their habits had been affected by white contact. He made a winter journey of reconnaissance half way to the head of Meade River. Sergeant Murdoch prepared the first comprehensive report on the birds of the Arctic coast. Both reports remain interesting reading for their information and literary quality" (Irving, L. Progress of research in Zoology through the Naval Arctic Research Laboratory// Proceedings of the U.S. Naval Arctic Research Laboratory. Dedication Symposium. Vol. 22, No. 3, Sep., 1969. P. 327).
"The U.S. Army Signal Corps, on one of 15 expeditions to the Arctic and Antarctic during the First International Polar Year in 1881, began the long research tradition at Barrow when they encamped at what is now the location of the Cape Smythe Whaling and Trading Company in Browerville. Led by Lt. P. H. Ray and documented extensively by Sgt. John Murdoch, the expedition spent two years investigating the northernmost point of U.S. Territory. Ray led geographic explorations. Murdoch conducted ethnological studies, which resulted in a publication (Murdoch, 1892) that is still a standard reference guide. The enlisted men tried to dig a hole to find the bottom of the permafrost. This excavation continued until the Army decamped and resulted in one of the largest ice cellars in Barrow, which is still in use. Later investigators discovered that the permafrost is more than a thousand feet thick at Barrow" (History of Research Based in Barrow Region// The Future of an Arctic Resource: Recommendations from the Barrow Area Research Support Workshop. 1999. P. 3).
Arctic Bibliography 14292. Henze IV, 554.

Report from the Select Committee on the Hudson's Bay Company; together with the Proceedings of the Committee, Minutes of Evidence, Appendix and Index. [With the 'Plans referred to in the Report'.] Ordered, by The House of Commons, to be Printed, 31 July and 11 August 1857. [Plans by 'Henry Hansard, Printer'.] Two items bound together.

London: House of Commons, 1857. First Edition. Folio. [iv], xviii, 547, [1] pp. With three large hand colored folding lithographed maps. Original navy quarter cloth with original printed paper spine label and grey papered boards. Extremities slightly frayed and bumped, otherwise a very good copy.
"An important document containing the evidence of many witnesses on the suitability of Rupert's Land for agricultural settlement" (Peel 188). The Committee was convened to consider 'the State of those British Possessions in North America which are under the Administration of the Hudson's Bay Company, or over which they possess a License to Trade', at the 'near approach of the period when the license of exclusive trade, granted in 1838 for 21 years, to the Hudson's Bay Company over that north-western portion of British America which goes by the name of the Indian Territories, must expire'. Highly detailed, and containing much first-hand testimony from notable figures (J. H. Lefroy; John Rae; Sir George Simpson; William Kernaghan; Sir John Richardson; Rear-Admiral Sir George Back; Edward Ellice). Nineteen appendices, containing transcripts of documents and other material. The HBC's 21-year monopoly, granted in 1838, was running out and pressure for opening its lands to settlement was growing. This report urges restraint in opening up the lands, warning of corruption of the Indians and overhunting of the fur supply. TPL 3729.

[Original Pen and Wash Drawing of the Town of Ivittuut in South Greenland].

[Ca. 1865]. Drawing matted to approximately 15x20 cm (6 x 7 ½ in). In a period gilt trimmed frame. Drawing and frame in very good condition.
Original pen and wash drawing of the mining town of Ivittuut (formerly Ivigtut), in South Greenland. Contemporary inscriptions on the back of the frame appear to indicate that the drawing is either the basis for, or has been done after, an 1865 photogravure by Thomas Schniat.
"The name of the settlement means the grassy place in Greenlandic. The town has a 5 kilometer road that connects it to Kangilinnguit. Ivittuut is also the only town in Greenland to have roads leading to another town.., Ivittuut stands at the site of the Norse Middle Settlement, which is sometimes considered part of the Western Settlement. This was the smallest of the three settlements, including about 20 farms, and less is known about it than about either of the others, as no written records survive.., In 1806, cryolite was found in the area, with mining operations starting in 1865. The mineral deposits were exhausted by 1987, and the town lost its economic base. It was abandoned soon after" (Wikipedia).

KINSEY, Clark & KINSEY, Clarence
[Original Photograph] 25 Above Discovery [Claim on] Bonanza [Creek].

[Grand Forks, Alaska], 1901. Photograph ca. 27x33 cm (10 ½ x 13 in). Margins with very small chips and short repaired tear at the top of the image, overall a very good strong image.
A very interesting rare large format image of about a dozen miners working the "25 Above Discovery" claim, with sluices, flumes, steam point, etc. all in operation. Clark and Clarence Kinsey operated at Grand Forks, Alaska for several years, mining and establishing their studio there 1898-1906. (See Mautz, p. 499).

"Bonanza Creek is a watercourse in Yukon Territory, Canada. It runs for about 20 miles (32 km) from King Solomon's Dome to the Klondike River. In the last years of the 19th century and the early 20th century, Bonanza Creek was the center of the Klondike Gold Rush, which attracted tens of thousands of prospectors to the creek and the area surrounding it. Prior to 1896 the creek was known as Rabbit Creek. Its name was changed by miners in honor of the millions of dollars in gold found in and around the creek" (Wikipedia).

21. [KRUSENSTERN, Adam Johann von] (1770-1846) and
UKHTOMSKY, Andrei Grigorievich (1771-1852)
"Grobnitsa Kapitana Klerka v Petropavlovske. Captain Clerkes Grabmal im Hafen St. Peter und Paul" [Captain Clerkes’ Tomb in Petropavlovsk]. Copper engraving from "Atlas k Puteshestviiu Vokrug Sveta Kapitana Krusensterna" [Atlas to the Travels of Captain Krusenstern Around the World]. Plate № XVIII.

Saint Petersburg: Morskaya Typ., 1813. 52x34 cm (20 ½ x 13 ½ in.). Title in Russian and German. Upper margin strengthened, mild water stains on upper and lower margins, otherwise a very good wide margined copy.
A plate from the Russian edition of the Atlas of Krusenstern’s circumnavigation in 1803-1806. The complete Atlas is a great rarity with only one copy found in Worldcat, but separate engravings are also very rare even in Russia. The Atlas contained 109 engraved plates and was one of the most luxurious Russian editions of the beginning of the 19th century, being issued on funds of the Cabinet of the Russian Emperor and costing 15 thousand roubles - a huge sum of money at the time.
The engraving depicts the tomb of Charles Clerke (1741-1779), a participant in all three James Cook’s circumnavigations who after Cook’s death in 1779 took the command of the third expedition and continued searching for the Northwest Passage. Clerke is notable for being the author of the first account of Captain Cook’s death, as his letter to the Admiralty mentioning Cook’s murder on Hawaii and written in Kamchatka on June 8, 1779, was first published as a pamphlet in Reval in 1780 (Hawaiian National Bibliography 18).
Clerke died from tuberculosis not far from Kamchatka and was buried in Petropavlovsk, next to the grave of another explorer, Louis Delisle de la Croyère (about 1685-1741). The latter participated in Vitus Bering’s expedition to the North Pacific in 1741 and as many other expedition members, including Bering himself, died on the hard way back to Kamchatka. The sailors from Krusenstern’s expedition while staying in Petropavlovsk in September 1805, renewed the tombs constructing a wooden pyramid with commemorative boards above both graves. Krusenstern described this event in the account. This plate shows how connected the first explorers of the North Pacific were.
The engraving was made from the drawing from life by Wilhelm Gottlieb Tilesius von Tilenau (1769-1857), German naturalist and artist who participated in Krusenstern’s expedition. The engraver, Andrey Ukhtomsky was a prominent Russian artist, a member of the Russian Academy of Arts (1808), the head of the printing house of the Academy, and the curator of the Academy’s library.

22. [MILLER, N.B.]
[Original Albumen Panoramic Photograph of Sitka with the Governor's Mansion and Russian Orthodox Church].

[Sitka], [ca. 1896]. Photograph 18x48 cm (7½ x 19 in). Photograph bisected vertically and mounted on two slightly larger contemporary mounts. Mounts slightly edge worn. Photograph a bit faded, but in very good condition.
An attractive, early panoramic photograph of Sitka, Alaska, showing the waterfront including the Governor's Mansion and St. Michael's Russian Orthodox Church, with mountains in the background. A young fisherman sits in a small boat in the bottom foreground of the image. The Russian Orthodox Cathedral of St. Michael, visible in the right side of the picture, was founded in 1848. The three-story governor's residence sits on a hilltop overlooking the harbor, and an American flag flies near it. Smaller one- and two-story structures, including warehouses and homes, are seen along the entire length of the waterfront. The photograph is unsigned, but is attributed to N.B. Miller.
Carl Mautz notes only that N.B. Miller was a (possibly amateur) photographer active in Alert Bay on Vancouver Island, circa 1888-89. However, Miller served as the assistant naturalist for the United States Treasury Department Fur Seals Investigations in 1896 in the Pribilof Islands (an island group in the Bering Sea). Not simply an amateur, he was a talented photographer, and it seems likely that this photograph was taken while he was doing his work with the fur seals commission in 1896.
Sitka was made the capital of Russian America in 1808, and it was the seat of the American territorial government after the transfer of power from Russia to the United States in October, 1867. Sitka remained the capital of the Alaska Territory until 1908, when the capital was moved to Juneau. See the website of the Univ. of Washington Library, Special Collections "Guide to the Alaska Marine Resources and Pribilof Islands Photograph Collection ca. 1896-1909" for further examples of Miller's work. Mautz, p. 67 (ref).

23. [PENDRAY, John Carl] (1879-1961?)
[Unsigned Original Oil Painting of West Coast Totem Poles and a Native Village (Queen Charlotte Islands?)].

Ca. 1930. Oil on canvas board ca. 49x39 cm (20 x 16 in). Reeves & Sons (established 1927) (Canada) Superior Canvas Board). Painting in very good condition and framed in the original period white with light brown trim frame.
Annotated on the reverse of the frame: "Painted by Pendray - Bought from Son Directly (early Pioneer family)." Although no location is specified, the landscape looks very much like the Queen Charlotte Islands. Victoria’s founding Pendray family has produced many painters since the late 1800s. Most likely this painting is by John Carl Pendray who was President of the British America Paint Company from 1913-48. He was also very civic minded and served four one year terms as mayor of the City of Victoria from 1924 to 1928. The son referred to in the annotation would thus be John Carl's son Allan who took over as President of the British America Paint Company from his father in 1948.
This attractive and skillfully executed painting is definitely influenced by the work of Emily Carr and so one could say that Pendray was a follower and admirer of Emily Carr's work. Emily Carr is also known to have painted on the grounds of the Pendray family home. Additionally, the fact that they were Victoria contemporaries and leading figures of the city, means that they almost certainly knew each other personally (;

[A Nail from Sir John Ross’ Yacht Mary Found on Beechey Island, [With] an Oak Plank Fragment from Sir John Franklin’s Ship Found on King William Island].

Ca. 1840-1850. Weathered crescent-shaped oak ship fragment, ca. 120x40x19 mm, with an arrow head carved on top. A copper nail, square in section, ca. 65x12 mm, the sharp tip is broken off.
According to the letter of provenance attached to the artefacts, they had been offered to the Vancouver Maritime Museum some time ago by a relative of a crew member who had served on the RCMP schooner St. Roch. The Museum did not want them as they already had numerous expedition-related artefacts found in the Arctic.
A wooden relic very similar to ours is now in the collection of the National Maritime Museum (Greenwich) supplemented with the following annotation:
A relic of Sir John Franklin's last expedition 1845-8 recovered by Charles Francis Hall (1821-71). A fragment of a hardwood block sheave marked with a broad arrow. Possibly from the ship driven ashore at Grant Point. Schwatka was told by the Inuit of the Adelaide Peninsula that they had found a ship near the shore in this area. It was abandoned except for the body of a European. The Inuit removed anything useful and the vessel subsequently sank. They also reported finding the footprints of the four last crew members on the shore. Hall was told a similar story except that the ship was said to have sunk near O'Reilly Island. Illustrated in a plate entitled: "Relics found by Captain Hall in his recent Arctic exploring expedition" published in ‘Harper’s weekly’ in 1869 (See: Collections/Polar Equipment and Relics/Franklin relics:
The nail belonged to the yacht Mary which accompanied schooner Felix under command of Sir John Ross during his third expedition to the Lancaster Sound and the Beechey Island in search of the Franklin’s lost expedition. Similar nail is in the collection of the National Maritime Museum, see: Collections/Polar Equipment and Relics/Franklin relics (
"Another private search party was funded by public subscribers, with the Hudson’s Bay Company making the largest contribution. This group sponsored the aged Sir john Ross, then seventy-two years old, to once again head into the Arctic. Departing from Loch Ryan, Scotland, in May 1850 in the schooner Felix, Ross also took along his own yacht Mary, for use as a tender. <..,> Ross left his yacht Mary on the shores of Beechey Island, in hope it would aid Franklin or other stranded explorers in the future" (Delgado, J. Across the top of the world: the quest for the Northwest Passage. 1999. p. 118, 123).
"Sir John Ross depoted his small yacht Mary here [on the Beechey Island] in 1851, in the hope that it might prove useful to any survivors or else to subsequent search expeditions." In 1858 Leopold McClintock "also noted that Ross’s yacht Mary was still in good condition, as were two lifeboats. <..,> in April 1902 Otto Sverdrup sent a three-man party here to inspect the state of supplies left in Northumberland House and to check on Mary’s seaworthiness. Fram was beset on the south coast of Ellesmere Island, and Sverdrup was considering the possibility of reaching Greenland via Beechey. Since Mary was now a wreck and the storehouse broken into by bears and its supplies spoiled, it was fortunate that Fram was released later in the year. <..,> The remains of shore installations erected by Franklin in 1845-1846 may still be seen, as well as the graves of three of his men, the mast and scattered spars of Ross’s yacht Mary, Pullen’s storehouse, and the memorials erected by Belcher to Lieutenant Joseph-Rene Bellot and others dying on his expedition and by McClintock to Franklin" (Beechey Island/ Mills, W. Exploring polar frontiers: A historical encyclopaedia. Vol. 1 A-M. 2003. p. 74-75).

Сахалинскiй Календарь [Sakhalin Calendar/ Printed under the order of the Sakhalin Military Governor].

Sakhalin: Printed in the typography on the Sakhalin Island, 1899. First Edition. Octavo. [2], iii, 149, 176 pp. With 4 lithographed plates. Period style red half morocco with raised bands and gilt tooled spine. Six leaves (p. 131-134, 139-142 145-148) with margins neatly strengthened, but overall a very good strong copy.
Very rare and important Sakhalin imprint. The first book published on the island, "Sakhalin Calendar" was issued for 5 years, 1895-1899. There are only two copies of single volumes in the world libraries (Harvard and Yale Universities); all five volumes are in the Russian State Library, while the collection of the Russian National Library doesn’t have the original of our, fifth volume (only a photocopy).

Our copy is bound without the last article "About hygienic condition in Sakhalin convict prisons" (supposed to start on p. 177, with four plates). However, not all copies have this last article as it was perhaps suppressed. Thus, the copy the collection of the main Sakhalin library is identical to the present copy (Sakhalin Provincial Universal Scientific Library, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk).
"The ‘Sakhalin Calendars’ became the first books published on Sakhalin. They were printed in 1895-1899 in the typography of the police direction of the Alexandrovsky post (now Alexandrovsk-Sakhalinsky) with permission of the Sakhalin military commander Vladimir Dmitrievich Merkazin (1834-1903). The calendars contained Orthodox Christian, Catholic and other calendars, official documents and orders, statistical information, scientific and journalistic articles of local intelligentsia and political exiles" (Sakhalin Provincial Universal Scientific Library on-line).

The editor of all the issues was the head of the Sakhalin medical administration Doctor V. Stsepensky; among the contributors were the exiled ethnographers L. Stenberg (1861-1927) and B. Piłsudski (1866-1918), a revolutionary and a father of Russian poet Daniil Kharms I. Yuvachev (Miroliubov) (1860-1940), doctor N. Kirilov (1860-1921), exiled revolutionary B. Ellinsky (1872-1942) and others.
As the editorial to the Calendar for 1898 noted, "to be honest, it is very, very difficult to publish the ‘Sakhalin Calendar.’ A very small group of people, real old-residents of the island who work on this project, would have most likely given it up, if recently numerous newspapers didn’t publish articles about Sakhalin which remind them of the stories of the ancient Phoenicians about their travels to legendary countries <..,> Sakhalin for the mother country is terra incognita - write what you want (it happens more and more in the recent years) – people will believe everything. To give the opportunity to everyone interested in Sakhalin to separate the wheat from the chuff, a handful of the mentioned above old residents is working with the goal to spread the truth about the island."
Our issue of the calendar for 1899 contains a list of all officers and associates of civil and military administration of Sakhalin, information about Sakhalin state, civil and education institutions (churches, hospitals, schools, asylums, libraries, meteorological stations, penitentiaries, post); population, local troops; agriculture, industry, private enterprises and joint-stock companies, ships which visited Sakhalin in 1897; charity et al.

Very important is one of the earliest reports of the first Sakhalin museum which was founded in Alexandrovsky post in 1896 (now Sakhalin State Provincial Museum of Local History, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk). The report compiled by the museum director Pogaevsky, encloses museum activities from January 1st 1898 to January 1st 1899, including notes on new acquisitions (stuffed bears and a fox, a model of a Japanese warrior etc.) and a visit to the museum of Prince Heinrich of Prussia (1862-1929), an officer of the Imperial German Navy and commander of the East Asia Squadron in 1899-1903.
The second part of the ‘Calendar’ contains extent articles about the climate of the Southern Sakhalin (by N. Kirilov); an overview of the care after suffering from mental sickness on Sakhalin in 1897-98 (based on the official data, by L. Landau); "About the routes of the Korsakov district" (by N. Kirilov); "Food of the Sakhalin Gilyaks (from the local museum)"; "Analysis of the weather of the Alexandrovsky post on Sakhalin for 1898 (from the report of Alexandrovsky meteorological station)."

26. [SKIDGATE, B.C.]
[Original Photograph of (from verso)] "Chief Nangsmwas Lodge, Skidgate in Which the First Service was held by Archdeacon Collison (1847-1922), in 1877. Queen Charlottes Islands."

[Skidgate B.C.], [ca. 1880]. Image ca. 18x22 cm (7 ½ x 9 in) Matted and mounted on slightly larger card, a very good strong unfaded image.
A vivid and interesting image showing native buildings, each with totem poles and three native men and a European man, possibly Collison).
"William Henry Collison (1847-1922), also known as W. H. Collison, was an Anglican missionary among First Nations people in coastal British Columbia, Canada <...>
In 1873 he married Marion M. Goodwin and was sent the same year by the Church of England's Church Missionary Society (CMS) to Metlakatla, British Columbia, to assist William Duncan in converting the Tsimshian people. Marion Collison became the first white woman resident in that community and their first child was the first white child born there. But Collison came into fierce conflict with Duncan over Duncan's moves to establish his mission there as an independent church out of the control of the CMS.
In 1876 he became the first missionary to work among the Haida people on the nearby Queen Charlotte Islands. He was ordained at Metlakatla in 1879. In 1881 he began work among the Gitxsan, up the Skeena River from the Tsimshian. He founded the first mission at Hazelton, B.C., in Gitksan territory. In 1891 he became Archdeacon of Metlakatla, from which Duncan had departed to found his new community of "New" Metlakatla, Alaska, taking most of the inhabitants of the village with him. From 1893 to 1894 Collison served as Secretary for the CMS's northern B.C. Mission. In the early 1890s he and his family moved to Kincolith, a Nisga'a village on the Nass River in northern B.C., founded as an Anglican mission by the medical missionary Robert Tomlinson. Collison remained there until his death on January 23, 1922.
Collison is best remembered for his vivid 1915 memoir In the Wake of the War Canoe, which contains numerous ethnological insights, including information on the nearly extinct Tsetsaut people, remnants of whom lived at Kincolith..,
Skidegate is a Haida community in Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands) in British Columbia, Canada. It is located on the southeast coast of Graham Island, the largest island in the archipelago, and is approximately 50 kilometres (31 mi) west of mainland British Columbia across Hecate Strait. Skidegate is also the northern terminal for the BC Ferries service between Graham Island and Alliford Bay on Moresby Island. Skidegate was so named in the early 19th century, after its chief, according to tradition. The community was a hub for the trade of otter furs" (Wikipedia).

PALLIN, Hugo Nikolaus (1880-1953)
[Album with 288 Original Photographs of Pallin’s Svalbard Expedition 1928 as Part of Umberto Nobile International Rescue Expedition; With Another Album of 232 Original Photographs of Pallin’s Backcountry Skiing and Mountaineering Trip from the Arctic to Kattegat Sea Area].

Two albums, both ca. 1928. Oblong Folio (ca. 20x31 cm). 37 and 31 leaves. Albums 288 and 232 photographs (with three photographs in duplicate), each ca. 7x11,5 cm (2 ¾ x 4 ½ in) or slightly smaller, mounted on stiff cardboard leaves. Ca. 90 images (in both albums) with period pencil captions and notes on verso in French and Swedish; many with the ink stamp "Bennos. Drottninggatam 15." Both albums in period imitation leather, and in very good condition, with bright, strong images.

The first album contains the first-hand photographic account of the international rescue operation after the crash of Umberto Nobile’s airship "Italia" on Nodhauslandet, the eastern part of Svalbard Archipelago, on May 25, 1928. "Italia" was in the middle of the second series of flights over the North Pole, but due to weather conditions and navigation mistakes in bad weather, the airship crashed on the pack ice with only 9 members of the crew and Nobile’s fox terrier Titina (expedition’s mascot) surviving the crash. The rescue operation which included planes and ships from Denmark, Finland, France, Italy, Norway, Sweden, USA and USSR started in the beginning of June and finished on July 14, 1928, the last survivors having spent 48 days on the ice flow.

Hugo Pallin was a part of the Swedish rescue team and arrived in Svalbard on the seal fishery vessel Quest which we can see on several photographs. Most pictures are dated with July 1928 and show numerous views of rescue planes and vessels from different countries, a part of them (identified) as:
Swedish: Floatplane / ski biplane de Havilland 60 Moth S-AABN; Floatplane monoplane Hansa Brandenburg (Heinkel HE 5) "257"; Floatplane monoplane Junkers G 24 "Uppland" S-AABG; Ski monoplane Klemm-Daimler L.20 D-1357 (from Germany); Seal fishery vessel Quest; Freighter S/S Tanja.
Norwegian: seal fishery vessel Braganza under Norwegian flag.
Finnish: floatplane / ski aircraft Junkers F 13 "Turku" K-SALG (from Aero OY / Finnair).
Soviet: icebreaker Krasin (4);
Italian: flying boat Savoia-Marchetti S.55 I-SAAT "Santa Maria" (from Italian Air Force); cable ship Citta di Milano.

Portraits of the members of the rescue teams include several pictures of a famous pilot Einar Lundborg (1896-1931) who rescued Nobile from the ice (saluting and posing); Lieut. Shyberg (pilot of Swedish S-AABN), Lieut. Rosensvaerd; members of the Italian dog sledge team captain Sora and Dutchman van Dongen; captain of Krasin Carl Eggi and many others (overall over 30 close-up portraits). Quite a few pictures show Pallin himself and his team member, devoted Swedish mountaineer and photographer Borg Mesch (1869-1956) with his son Halvard. Curiously, eight images show Nobile’s dog Titina on board Citta di Milano, including three images of Pallin with her on his hands.

Interesting shots include a picture of a young man putting wooden sledges on a ships’ deck, the sledges inscribed "Gen. Nobile." There are also many views of Svalbard landscapes: Hinlopenstretet, Murchinson Bay, Kings bay and Ny-Ålesund (the latter with pictures of a hangar construction and a railroad leading to the dock).
An excellent collection with numerous images from the Golden Age of Aviation.

The second album documents Pallin’s winter backcountry skiing and mountaineering trip to the Scandinavian mountains, most likely a part of his travel from the Arctic to Kattegat (1927-28). He went through the central Swedish provinces of Jämtland, Dalarna (Dalécarlie) and Värmland, and finished his trip in Oslo where he arrived through the Norwegian Hedmark county. The photographs include numerous views of lakes Rogen, Torron ans Kall, villages Ljungdalen and Funäsdalen, tourist station Volodalen, (all in Jämtland); Mt. Fulufjället (1,044 m.) and Njupeskär waterfall (93 m., the highest in Sweden; both Dalarna); Finnskoga (Värmland), Kongsvinger, Skaaret and Frogner (Norway) et al. Interesting shots include portraits of Saami people and local peasants with scenes of everyday life (logging, skiing; portrait of groups of children), a view of a "Lapland" school with a teacher, interior of a Swedish peasant house, several pictures of a military regiment on skis et al. Especially interesting is a series of ca. 14 shots of bridges, apparently taken by Pallin out of his professional interest as an engineer. The album also contains several portraits of Hugo Pallin himself, posing on top of Fulufjället mountain, on a backcountry ski trail, and at the shore of Skagerrak Strait (in Oslo) in the end of the expedition.

[Leaflet Titled]: Despatches [A letter dated 12 December 1865 from Governor Kennedy to the Legislative Assembly enclosing despatches concerning crown lands].

Victoria, [1865]. 4 pp. On a folded folio leaf (ca. 27,5x35,5 cm or 10 ½ x 13 ¾ inches). Printed in double-columns. Signed by J.D. Pemberton (brown ink, in the right upper corner). Near fine, clean copy.

A very rare leaflet as no copies located in Worldcat. Most likely the copy which belonged to Joseph Despard Pemberton (1821-1893), Surveyor General of the Colony of Vancouver Island at the time. The document contains several despatches from the Governor of Vancouver Island Arthur Edward Kennedy (1809-1883), J.D. Pemberton himself, attorney general of the Vancouver Island George Hunter Cary (1832-1866), and acting surveyor general of Vancouver Island Benjamin William Pearse (1832-1902) regarding surveys of the lands of the Hudson’s Bay Company and other proprietors, in order to facilitate terms of the Union of the colonies of Vancouver Island and British Columbia. Lowther 261.

Vancouver, British Columbia, Western Terminus Canadian Pacific Railway. Compliments Vancouver Real Estate Board. Supplement to the Morning Oregonian.

Portland: A. Anderson and Co., [1888]. Wood engravings on a large double-sided sheet ca. 54x71,5 cm (21 ¼ x 28 in), printed both sides and folded into 16 panels. With 16 engraved views, including three panoramas. Most views after engravings made by Moss Eng. Co, N.Y. (drawn by J.T. Pickett), several views of buildings - after photographs by Mr. Sidney Williams. Weak on folds, some splits along folds neatly repaired, overall in very good condition.

Early views of Vancouver produced just after the city began to rebuild after the great fire of 1886. It is charmingly noted that: "Population 1885 - 0000, Population 1888 - 7000." The views of Vancouver and surrounding scenery include panoramas looking from the harbour, from the south, from Point East, CPR hotel "Vancouver," from the Leland House and "Outside the Heads." There are also images of the buildings of the Leland House, CPR hotel "Vancouver," offices of Vancouver real estate agents (the Wilson Block of Rand bros; R.G. Tatlow & Co, Ross & Ceperley), bankers (Bewicke & Wulffsohn), City Foundry and machine works, a view of the proposed building of the Opera House, as well as a picture of exterior and interior (Saloon) of the Steamship "Premier" (Canadian Pacific Navigation Co.).
"The City of Vancouver was incorporated on April 6, 1886, the same year that the first transcontinental train arrived. CPR president William Van Horne arrived in Port Moody to establish the CPR terminus recommended by Henry John Cambie, and gave the city its name in honour of George Vancouver. The Great Vancouver Fire on June 13, 1886, razed the entire city. The Vancouver Fire Department was established that year and the city quickly rebuilt. Vancouver's population grew from a settlement of 1,000 people in 1881 to over 20,000 by the turn of the century" (Wikipedia).
Not in Vancouver Centennial Bibliography (Vancouver, 1986, 4 vols.), not in Lowther. No copies in Worldcat. Extremely Rare.

[Two Original Photographs of Downtown Vancouver: East End Looking East & Cambie Street Looking North].

Vancouver, ca. 1895. Each image ca. 15x20 cm (6 x 8 in) Images matted and mounted on slightly larger card. Images mildly faded but otherwise in a very good condition.
Two early interesting images of Vancouver in the early to mid 1890's.
Vancouver "was incorporated on April 6, 1886. Three months later, on June 13, a spectacular blaze destroyed most of the city along the swampy shores of Burrard Inlet in twenty-five minutes. The Great Vancouver Fire, which destroyed the city, was eventually considered to be beneficial, as the city was rebuilt with modern water, electricity and streetcar systems.
Things recovered quickly after the fire, although celebratory Dominion Day festivities to launch the opening of the CPR were postponed a year as a result. The first regular transcontinental train from Montreal arrived at a temporary terminus at Port Moody, in July 1886, and service to Vancouver itself began in May 1887. That year Vancouver's population was 5,000, by 1892 it reached 15,000 and by 1900 it was 100,000" (Wikipedia).

[EARLY REGISTRATION OF REAL ESTATE IN BRITISH COLUMBIA] [Broadside Titled]: An Act for Establishing a Registry of Deeds.

[Victoria B.C.], [1858]. Folio (ca. 35,5x21,5 cm or 14 x 8 ½ in). Light blue paper. A couple of very small tears on the edges, otherwise a very good copy.
Very Rare B.C. Incunabula with no copy located in Worldcat. This broadside establishes the "Registry of Deeds and other instruments affecting Real Property"; which purpose was "to simplify the conveyance of Land and other Real Property," to provide "the valid execution of Deeds, Acts of Instruments"; "and for the due recording of all Wills or Testaments" regarding "any Estate in Land or other Real Property."

Most likely a preliminary version of the Council Bill which finally established the Registry in 1859. Clearly a draft, since the printing is rather poor and a blank space has been left at one place, and no royal seal is printed at the top of the text. The Minutes of the Council note the introduction by Douglas of this item for consideration at its meeting on Dec. 1st, 1858, so quite likely it was printed before that time. The importance of this legislation relegated it to discussion at council meetings for several months while various opinions as to its legality, etc., were sought. Unrecorded.

[Broadside Titled]: An Act to Authorize the Victoria and Esquimalt Railway Company Limited to Make a Railway from Esquimalt to Victoria.

Victoria B.C., 1862. One page on a folded double folio leaf (ca. 35,5x42,5 cm or 14 x 17 in).Pale blue paper. A fine copy.
Very rare broadside with Worldcat only locating a copy at UBC. This is a draft of an act for a railway between Victoria and Esquimalt which most likely hadn’t been accepted; unlisted in the official set of Acts.

According to the document, "the Victoria and Esquimalt Railway Company Limited was duly registered on the 21st day of November, 1862" with the goal of "making of a Line of Railway between Victoria and Esquimalt, and the conveyance of passengers and goods between Esquimalt and Victoria."
The Company will commit to "make and complete the permanent way of the said line <..,> within two years from the passage of this Act, unless hindered by the dangers of the sea or other unavoidable casualty." In case of approval, the Act "may be sited as the Victoria and Esquimalt Railway Act, 1862."

33. [VICTORIA, B.C.]
[Two Lithographs Views of Victoria B.C.:] "View of Victoria" & "A Street in Victoria."

London: Clayton & Co., 1865. Printed images ca. 11x18 cm (4 ½ x 7 in). Two lithographs matted in one, both lithographs in fine condition.
The two lithographs are from Thomas Rawlings’ "The Confederation of the British North American Provinces; Their Past History and Future Prospects; including also British Columbia & Hudson's Bay Territory; with a Map and Suggestions in Reference to the True and Only Practicable Route from the Atlantic to the Pacific Ocean" (London: Sampson, Low, Son, and Marston, 1865). The view of "A Street in Victoria" is of Wharf Street.
"With the discovery of gold on the British Columbia mainland in 1855, Victoria became the port, supply base, and outfitting centre for miners on their way to the Fraser Canyon gold fields, mushrooming from a population of 300 to over 5000 literally within a few days. Victoria was incorporated as a city in 1862. In 1865, Esquimalt was made the North Pacific home of the Royal Navy, and remains Canada's west coast naval base" (Wikipedia).

Joint Maps of the Northern Boundary of the United States, From The Lake of the Woods to the Summit of the Rocky Mountains. U.S. Northern Boundary Commission, Archibald Campbell, W.J. Twining, D.R. Cameron, S. Anderson.

Washington: Government Printing Office, 1878. First Edition. Elephant Folio. 26 leaves including a pictorial title, index map leaf, 24 leaves of maps numbered I to XXIV showing the U.S.-Canada boundary line as it was established by the Joint Commission (each sheet 40,2 x 59 cm). Publishers' original green blind stamped and gilt titled (on front cover) cloth portfolio with silk ties. With a paper label on front cover, gilt mildly faded, covers slightly dusty, one silk tie missing, otherwise a very good copy.
"The very scarce atlas printed to accompany the Reports upon the Survey of the Boundary between the Territory of the United States and the Possessions of Great Britain, which was issued as a United States Senate document. The survey was conducted by Archibald Campbell, Commissioner, and W.J. Twining, Captain of Engineers, United States Army, Chief Astronomer, and for Her Majesty’s North American Boundary Commission, Major D.R. Cameron, Commissioner, and Captain S. Anderson of the Royal Engineers, Chief Astronomer" (Howell); Phillips Atlases 1264.

[Original Photograph of] Pioneer "S.S. Beaver" First Steamboat on the Pacific Having Rounded Cape Horn in 1835 ["S.S. Beaver" on the Rocks at Prospect Point in Vancouver's Stanley Park, where She Went Aground on 25 July 1888].

Vancouver B.C., [ca. 1888]. Image ca. 17x24 cm (7 ½ x 9 ½ in) Matted and mounted on slightly larger card, a very good strong unfaded image.
Bailey Bros. Inventory # X 735, the City of Vancouver Archives hold a copy of exactly the same image.
"Beaver was the first steamship to operate in the Pacific Northwest of North America. She made remote parts of the west coast of Canada accessible for maritime fur trading and was chartered by the Royal Navy for surveying the coastline of British Columbia.
Beaver was built in London of British oak, elm, greenheart and teak, and was copper fastened and sheathed. Her length was 101 feet (31 m), and the beam over her paddle boxes was 33 feet (10 m). She was launched at Blackwall Yard on 9 May 1835 and left London on 29 August under the command of Captain David Home, and with the company's barque, Columbia, built at the same time and commanded by Captain Darby. Beaver was outfitted as a brig for the passage out, paddles unshipped, and came out via Cape Horn under sail alone. After calling at Juan Fernandez and Honolulu, she arrived off the Columbia River on 18 March 1836 and anchored off Fort Vancouver on 10 April. Here the paddles were shipped and boilers and engines connected. Beaver was used to service trading posts maintained by the Hudson's Bay Company between the Columbia River and Russian America (Alaska) and played an important role in helping maintain British control in British Columbia during the Fraser Canyon Gold Rush of 1858-59. In 1862 she was chartered by the Royal Navy to survey and chart the coast of the Colony of British Columbia. She also provided assistance to the Royal Navy at Bute Inlet during the Chilcotin War.
Initially she had a rectangular boiler, generating steam pressure at under 3 psi, and was fed by seawater. Boulton and Watt engines are not pressure engines, rather they are vacuum engines. [Salt water feed was common in the early days and could be done with low pressure and frequent boiler blowdowns to prevent salt scale build up on the plates]. The salt water played havoc with the boilers as the salinity rusted the wall thickness of the boiler which would rot out. The Beaver had to have a new boiler every seven years or so and went through multiple installations over her career. Over time the boiler pressure was upped, and the large 42 inch cylinders were replaced with 36 inch diameter ones.
The Beaver played roles in the establishment of coal mines at Fort Rupert, and later in 1853, Nanaimo. The Beaver helped the Hudson's Bay Company establish Fort Victoria as a post in 1843. It would also ferry dignitaries like the Governor back and forth between the two colonies of New Caledonia.
In her later life the Beaver burned coal and would hire young Natives of the Squamish nation to work the holds as coal passers. She was finally sold by the Hudson's Bay Company in 1874. She was purchased by a consortium that became the British Columbia Towing and Transportation Company in 1874 and was used as a towboat until 25 July 1888 when, due to an inebriated crew, she went aground on rocks at Prospect Point in Vancouver's Stanley Park. The wreck finally sank in July 1892 from the wake of the passing steamer Yosemite, and only after enterprising locals had stripped much of the wreck for souvenirs. The Vancouver Maritime Museum houses a collection of Beaver remnants. The site of the sinking has been commemorated with a plaque" (Wikipedia); Mautz p.56.

36. BELCHER, Edward, Sir (1799-1877)
Narrative of a Voyage Round the World Performed in her Majesty's Ship Sulphur, during the years 1836-1842. Including Details of the Naval Operations in China, from Dec. 1840, to Nov. 1841. Published under the Authority of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty.

London: Henry Colburn, 1843. First Edition. Octavo, 2 vols. xxii, 387, [8]; vi, 474 pp. With nineteen engraved plates, three folding maps, and numerous engraved vignettes. Original publisher's blue blind stamped gilt cloth. Two additional gilt lines added to spines, plates mildly foxed, otherwise a very good set.
"Captain Belcher's observations include a comparison of present conditions in Honolulu with those observed during 1826 and 1827, when he had visited Hawaii as a member of Captain Beechey's voyage on HMS Blossom" (Hawaiian National Bibliography 2, 1377). "The voyage was intended for the exploration and survey of the Pacific Coast of North and South America and the Pacific basin. The various harbors along the coast of California and northwest to Alaska were surveyed, and a month's journey in open boats was made up the Sacramento River from San Francisco Bay. The Hawaiian Islands, the Marquesas, the Society Islands, the Tonga Islands, the New Hebrides, the Solomon Islands, New Guinea, etc., were visited" (Hill 102).

"The Treaty of Chuenpi, signed on 20.1.41, ceded the island of Hong Kong to the British, and three days later Belcher was ordered to the colony to carry out a survey" (Howgego 1800-1850, B25). "Belcher and /or Kellett visited several points in Alaska, including Kodiak Island, Port Etches, Port Mulgrave, Montague Island, Sitka, etc. At Montague Island they were visited by the Russians, who had a settlement there; during Captain's Belcher's two visits to Sitka he met the Russian Governor, Captain Koupreanoff, and his wife, who received him most courteously" (Lada-Mocarski 117).
"In November 1836 [Belcher] was appointed to the Sulphur, a surveying ship, then on the west coast of South America, from which Captain Beechey had been obliged to invalid out. During the next three years the Sulphur was employed on the west coast of both North and South America, and at the end of 1839 received orders to return to England by the western route. After visiting several of the island groups in the south Pacific and making such observations as time permitted, Belcher arrived at Singapore in October 1840, where he was ordered back to China, because of the war there; during the following year he was actively engaged, especially in operations in the Canton River. The Sulphur finally arrived in England in July 1842, after a commission of nearly seven years. Belcher had already been advanced to post rank (6 May 1841) and was made a CB (14 October 1841); in January 1843 he was made a knight, and that year published his Narrative of a Voyage Round the World Performed in H.M.S. Sulphur during the Years 1836-42 (2 vols.)" (Oxford DNB); Sabin 4390.

37. BELCHER, Edward, Sir (1799-1877)
The Last of the Arctic Voyages; Being a Narrative of the Expedition in H. M. S. Assistance, in Search of Sir John Franklin, During the Years 1852-53-54 with Notes on the Natural History by Sir John Richardson..,

London: Lovell Reeve, 1855. First Edition. Octavo, 2 vols. xx, 383; vii, 419 pp. With 36 plates (twelve color lithographed plates) and four maps and charts (three folding). Original publisher's navy patterned blind stamped gilt cloth and housed in a custom made matching navy cloth slip case. Recased and with Historical Society blind stamps on titles, plates and maps, otherwise a very good copy.
"This expedition penetrated up Wellington Channel to the extreme limits of navigation. No claim is made by Captain Belcher in his narrative to a solution of the fate of Sir John Franklin or of the Northwest Passage to the Pacific, but regarding the latter he says: "the continuous frozen sea, traced by the officers under my command, in 1853, proves a water communication through Wellington Channel, round Parry islands, to the position attained by Captain M'Clure, and.., in 1854 our sledge parties had penetrated to the southern extreme of Prince of Wales Strait, perfecting the labours of Dease and Simpson." This was Belcher's last active service. He became Admiral in 1872" (Hill 106).

"In 1852 [he] was appointed to command an Arctic expedition in search of Sir John Franklin. The appointment was unfortunate; for Belcher, though an able and experienced surveyor, had already demonstrated that he had neither the temper nor the tact necessary for a commanding officer under circumstances of peculiar difficulty. Despite his abilities, Belcher evidently inspired strong personal dislike among his superiors and his subordinates, and the customary exercise of his authority did not make Arctic service less trying. His expedition is distinguished from all other Arctic expeditions as the one in which the commanding officer showed an undue haste to abandon his ships when in difficulties, and in which one of the ships so abandoned rescued herself from the ice, and was picked up floating freely in the open Atlantic. Belcher's account, published in 1855 under the extravagant title of The Last of the Arctic Voyages (2 vols.), may be compared with the description of the abandonment of the Resolute by Admiral Sherard Osborn in his Discovery of a North-West Passage (4th ed, 1865, 262-6). Belcher was never employed again" (Oxford DNB); Abbey Travel 645; Arctic Bibliography 1241; Howgego 1800-1850, B25; Sabin 4389.

38. BELCHER, Edward, Sir (1799-1877)
[Autograph Letter Signed to ‘Dear Sir’ Regarding Frank Marryat’s Account of his Voyage on HMS Samarang in 1843-46 under Belcher’s command].

London Harley St.: 18 January, 1848. 3 pp. On a folded octavo leaf (19x24 cm). Brown ink on blue paper. Mild fold marks, traces of paper on the fourth page as the letter had been attached to a book or a sheet of paper, otherwise a very good letter.
A wrathful letter by Edward Belcher which was obviously a reaction to a recently published book by Francis Samuel Marryat (1826-1855) "Borneo and the Indian Archipelago" (London, 1848). The book was based on Marryat’s experiences as a midshipman on HMS Samarang, which in 1843-46, under Belcher’s command was making a survey of the coast of China, South-East Asia and Indonesia, Singapore, Borneo, the Philippines, Taiwan, Moluccas etc. Belcher’s own account of the voyage was also published in 1848: "Narrative of the Voyage of H.M.S. Samarang" (London, 2 vols.).
Most likely, Belcher was enraged with Marryat’s comments about his behavior and treatment of the crew, for example with notes about Mr. Heard, "our late first lieutenant, who had left our ship, in consequence of the treatment he received from the captain"; Mr. Wade who also was a first lieutenant and "also left us, not being able to put up with the treatment he received"; lieutenant Inglefield "who joined the ship as assistant-surveyor and <..,> after having had a report spread against him that he was mad, he determined to leave the ship, and appointed his Admiralty discharge" (see: Marryat. Borneo... P. 191). Marryat recounted the court-martial which was assembled to inquire into the conduct of Lieutenant Heard, but was subsequently "dissolved." Marryat made a clear hint, that it was Belcher who was to be condemned in the problems on board of the Samarang: "Had the court-martial proceeded, what would in prove? – that a superior officer had been guilty of slander, and had attempted by this means to ruin a most excellent officer" (Idem. P. 192).
Belcher was obviously very irritated with these statements, especially considering the young age of Marryat who was just 19-20 when his book was published. In the letter Belcher talks about "Mr. Marryat’s effusion," his "mutinous feelings" and asks: "Is the language that of a gentleman? If any of the acts which he attributed to his superiors has a shadow of foundation why is he supported by the present high-minded Board of Admty? If Lieut. Heard was as spotless as described why has he not been supported - promoted?"
Belcher mentions "good officers on board who unfortunately died - two Lieutenants - Baugh and Robertson who could & would have denied everything stated" (One of them was lieutenant Henry William Baugh (died 31 Jan 1846) who "from the following December [1842] until 1845 appears to have been employed in the East Indies on board the Samarang surveying vessel, Capt. Sir Edw. Belcher". (See: O’Burne, W. A Naval Biographical Dictionary. Vol. 1. A-M. London, 1849. p. 56). He also says that he has "a document to prove the falsehood of every assertion that touches my character."
The letter illustrated the fact, that "during his career, Belcher was one of the most controversial figures in the Royal Navy. As an officer he had many desirable attributes: scientific curiosity, technical competence, inventiveness, physical energy, and sometimes reckless bravery. However, he suffered from an irritable, quarrelsome, and hypercritical nature which made relations with superiors and subordinates alike extremely difficult. Although he was in many ways a capable officer, his record remains blighted by his ignominious failure as commander in chief of the Franklin search expedition, an appointment which has been described as "unfortunate" since Belcher’s temperament did not enable him to function as the situation demanded" (Dictionary of Canadian Biography on-line).

39. BELLOT, J[oseph] R[ene] (1826-1853)
Voyage aux Mers Polaires a la Recherche de Sir John Franklin avec une Introduction par M. Paul Boiteau.Nouvelle Edition, illustre par M. Ad. Beaune. [Voyage to the Polar Seas in Search of Sir John Franklin with an Introduction by Mr. Paul Boiteau, Ilustrated by Mr. Ad. Beaune].

Paris: Garnier Freres, 1880. Limited New Edition # 19 of 25 on Chinese paper. Quarto. lix, 492 pp. With a wood engraved frontispiece and wood engraved title vignette and many other wood engravings on plates and in text and a folding map. Publishers' original beige pictorial printed wrappers. Covers with some small marginal tears and spine with some chipping of head and foot, otherwise a very good copy
"Account of the second voyage of the Prince Albert, outfitted and dispatched by Lady Franklin under command of Capt. William Kennedy. Describes the voyage to Prince Regent Inlet, establishment of a base in Batty Bay, Somerset Island; overland trips around the island in Peel Sound region and eastern Prince of Wales Island; Discovery of Bellot Strait. Includes throughout, observations on the ice, animals, and birds seen at sea, the physical features of the country and the climate, with notes on the Eskimos of West Greenland and the Canadian Arctic Islands"(Arctic Bibliography 1304 (First Edition)). "In February 1852, Kennedy and Bellot set out from their winter quarters in Batty Bay on a dog sledging journey, travelling south to Brentford Bay, where they discovered Bellot Strait (a strait between Boothia Felix and Somerset Island). They then continued west to cross Prince of Wales Island to Ommanney Bay, returning to Batty Bay via Peel Sound and Cape Walker – a total trek of 1,800 km" (Wikipedia).

40. BROWNE, W. H.
Two Tinted Lithographs: "The Bivouac (Cape Seppings)," & "The Sledges Arriving at the Southern Depot" Taken from: [Ten Coloured Views taken during the Arctic Expedition of Her Majesty's Ships "Enterprise" and "Investigator," under the command of Captain Sir James C. Ross. With a summary of the various Arctic Expeditions in Search of Captain Sir John Franklin, and his Companions in H.M. Ships "Erebus" and "Terror"].

London: Ackermann & Co., 1850. Two tinted lithographs ca. 19x24 cm (7 ½ x 9 ½ in) & 27 x 18 cm (10 ½ x 7 in). Matted near fine tinted lithographs.

Two tinted lithographs from the account of one of the first Franklin search expeditions."The principal of these expeditions was that under Sir James Clark Ross, and was commissioned to follow as closely as possible the supposed track of Sir John Franklin. It consisted of H.M.S. Enterprise ... and H.M.S. Investigator" (Browne: Summary, p. 6). Browne served on board the Enterprise and, in addition to producing these views, led one of the four search parties during the spring of 1849. Beset by ice off Somerset Island, Browne made an eight day sledge journey in search of clues to Franklin's disappearance. Abbey Travel 637: Plates #'s 3 & 5.

41. CHAPPE D'AUTEROCHE, l'Abbe Jean (1722-1769)
Voyage en Sibérie, fait par ordre du roi en 1761; contenant les moeurs, les usages des Russes, et l'etat actuel de cette puissance; la description géographique & le nivellement de la route de Paris à Tobolsk; l'histoire naturelle de la même route; des observations astronomiques, & des expériences sur l'électricité naturelle: enrichi de cartes géographiques, de plans, de profils du terrein; de gravures qui représentent les usages des Russes, leurs moeurs, leurs habillements, les divinités des Calmouks, & plusieurs morceaux d'histoire naturelle. Par M. l'abbé Chappe d'Auteroche[A Journey into Siberia, made by order of the King of France... containing an Account of the Manners and Customs of the Russians, the Present State of Their Empire: with the Natural History, and Geographical Description of Their Country, the Level of the Road from Paris to Tobolsky] [With] Contenant la Description du Kamtchatka ... Par M. Kracheninnikov. [The History of Kamtschatka, and the Kurilski Islands, with the countries adjacent].

Paris: Debure, 1768. First Edition. Text: 2 vols. in 3 (Small Folio) & Elephant Folio Atlas. [iv], xxx, [ii], 347; [iv], 347-777; xvi, 627, [i], [ii], [ii]. Engraved frontispiece, 3 engraved maps, 53 engraved plates, some folding, 1 engraved table, and engraved title vignettes, after Moreau le Jeune and Le Prince; atlas volume with engraved frontispiece index and 30 engraved maps, many folding, some hand-coloured in outline. The text volume in period brown elaborately gilt tooled mottled full calf with maroon gilt morocco labels and atlas in period green gilt titled full vellum. Atlas with some mild foxing, otherwise a very good set in very original condition.

This work has "splendid and accurate engravings and.., [gives a] powerful description of manners and character" (Cox I p.352). "This work deserves attention for its attractive and accurate engravings, and for its forthright and sometimes provocative descriptions of Russian manners and character. Certain of these descriptions inspired the publication of an indignant rebuttal, sometimes attributed to Catherine the Great. Chappe d'Auteroche was a French priest and astronomer, who travelled to Siberia to observe the transit of Venus in 1761. The present work includes meteorological observations, descriptions of the climate, animals, birds, and insects, notes on the iron ore, copper, and gold mines, etc. Chappe d'Auteroche's translation of Stepan Petrovich Krasheninnikov's description of Kamchatka from the first Russian edition of 1755.., His translation of Krasheninnikov's Kamchatka contains considerable material on Alaska and the northwest coast of America" (Hill 277).

"In 1761, by the order of the king of France, and by arrangement with Catherine II, he undertook an expedition into Siberia to observe the transit of Venus. From Paris he reached St. Petersburg, then sledged to Tobolsk, where in June 1761 the transit was duly observed. The expedition carried out a large number of scientific measurements en route, and reported on the geography of the region and the customs of its inhabitants" (Howgego C101).

42. CHARCOT, Jean-Baptiste (1867-1936)
[CHARCOT’S LAST EXPEDITION 1934-1936] Autograph Letter Signed ‘J. Charcot’ to ‘Un Monsieur’ About Latter’s Son’s Desire to Join the ‘Pourquoi-Pas?’

Crew. Neuilly-s-Seine, 5 May 1933. Ca. 21x27 cm (8 ¼ x10 ½ in). One page. Laid paper, folded twice, the text is written in ink in a legible hand, with the address printed on top. Very minor tear on fold, otherwise in very good condition.
With: A Commemorative Silver Medal, by P. Richter and E. Lindauer.
N.d., ca. 1936. Diam. Ca. 68 mm., obverse showing a bust of Charcot in high relief, reverse with view of Charcot’s ship the ‘Pourquoi-Pas?’ surmounted by caption ‘Expéditions Polaires Françaises’. Original felt-lined crimson leather case with clasp; A very good set.
[With] An Original Press Photograph ca. 13x18 cm (5 x7 in) Dated 24 June 1934 Showing "Polar Explorer Honoured O.P.S.: Dr. Charcot, the famous French polar explorer, receiving a medal from Marshal Franchet d'Esperey at the Geographical Society today. On right is Mme Charcot, the servant's wife, on left Mme Waldeck-Rousseau, sister of Dr. Charcot."
Photograph annotated in Spanish and with several stamps and pasted on notes in English and Spanish. A very good photograph.

This is a group of memorabilia related to the last expedition of the famous French Antarctic Explorer Jean-Baptist Charcot. Conducting an ethnographic survey of Greenland and Iceland in partnership with the French explorer Paul-Émile Victor, the crew of the ‘Pourquoi-Pas?' also mapped the region. The expedition ended with tragedy, when on 16 September 1936 the ship was caught in a violent cyclonic storm and lost on the reefs off the coast of Iceland. Twenty-three of the crew were lost in the wreck and 17 survivors died before rescue came, leaving only one survivor, Eugène Gonidec, master steersman. Jean-Baptiste Charcot was one of the dead, aged 69 (Wikipedia).
This group includes a commemorative silver medal issued after the tragic loss of Charcot’s expedition, and a letter from Charcot to an unidentified recipient whose son wished to join the crew of the expedition ship 'Pourquoi pas?.' Charcot would have liked to respond positively, but: “The 'Pourquoi pas?' is outfitted by the National Navy [Marine Nationale] and its crew can only be formed from currently working Navy's servicemen. If your son was doing his national service at the time the crew was chosen, I could have tried and queried the Ministry. However, owing to these circumstances, there is nothing much that I can do” (in translation). Charcot also mentioned Doctor Louis Gain (1883-1963), the naturalist of the French Antarctic Expedition 1908-10, who directed the request to him. Regarding the date of the letter it’s likely related to Charcot’s last expedition departed for Greenland in 1934. In that case the letter is not only an interesting historical witness of the last Charcot’s expedition, but also a document which might have saved the life of a young French mariner.
Finally, the press photograph was taken shortly before Charcot left on his last expedition.
Jean-Baptiste Charcot of course is most famous for being appointed leader of the French Antarctic Expedition with the ship Français exploring the west coast of Graham Land from 1904 until 1907. The expedition reached Adelaide Island in 1905 and took pictures of the Palmer Archipelago and Loubet Coast. From 1908 until 1910, another expedition followed with the ship Pourquoi-Pas, exploring the Bellingshausen Sea and the Amundsen Sea and discovering Loubet Land, Marguerite Bay and Charcot Island, which was named after his father, Jean-Martin Charcot (Wikipedia). "The expedition [1908-1910] had made an impressive contribution to Antarctic geography and had surveyed some 2000 kilometers of unknown or partially-known coastline with an accuracy unchallenged for several decades. The scientific material, together with its 3000 photographs, filled twenty-eight volumes of reports <..,> In the eyes of many contemporary historians, Charcot’s contribution to Antarctic science outweighs all others" (Howgego, 1850 to 1940. The Oceans, Islands and Polar regions, C9).

43. COOK, Captain James (1728-1779)
Chart of the NW Coast of America and the NE Coast of Asia Explored in the Years 1778 & 1779. The Unshaded Parts of the Coast of Asia are Taken from a M.S. Chart Received from the Russians.

London: T. Harmar, 1784. Ca. 66,8x38,7 cm (26 ¼ x 15 ¼ in). Copper engraved double-page map by T. Harmar on laid paper with original centrefold. A fine wide-margined map.
Plate 36 from the atlas of Cook's third voyage "A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, Undertaken... For the Discoveries in the Northern Hemisphere in 1776, 77, 78, 79 and 1780" (London, 1784; 3 vols. And atlas) shows Cook's discoveries in the North Pacific. It was Cook who for the first time "accurately depicted the Northwest coast of America" (Oxford DNB).

"The north-west coast of North America was sighted on 7 March and for the next six and a half months Cook carried out a running survey of some 4000 miles of its coast from Cape Blanco on the coast of Oregon to Icy Cape on the north coast of Alaska, where he was forced to turn back by an impenetrable wall of ice. A search for a route back to Europe north of Siberia also proved fruitless. During this cruise Cook became the first European to enter Nootka Sound on the north-west coast of Vancouver Island, where he remained for a month taking astronomical observations and cutting spars for use as spare masts and yardarms. Trade was carried out with the native Mowachaht for furs, mostly of the sea otter, which when sold later in China drew attention to the commercial potential of this trade" (Oxford DNB); Wagner 696; Lada-Mocarski 37; Sabin 16250.

44. COXE, William (1748-1828)
Account of the Russian Discoveries Between Asia and America, to Which Are Added The Conquest of Siberia, and the History of the Transactions and Commerce Between Russia and China.

London: J. Nichols for T, Cadell, 1780. First Edition. Quarto. xxii, 344, [13], [2] pp. Folding map frontispiece, with 3 other folding maps and charts, and one folding wood engraved panorama. Handsome period brown elaborately gilt tooled treed full calf, rebacked in style. A very good copy.

"During a stay in St. Petersburg, Coxe researched recent Russian discoveries between Asia and America, which resulted in the present work, he endeavored to collect the journals of the several voyages subsequent Bering's expedition in 1741, with which Gerhard Mueller concluded his account of the first Russian navigations. Coxe recounts the principal Russian discoveries and explorations made in Northwestern America in their attempts to open communications with Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. The voyages and discoveries of Nevodsikoff, Serebranikoff, Trapesnikoff, Pushkareff, Drusinin, Kulkoff, Korovin, Glottoff, Solovioff, Otcheredin, Krenitzin, Levasheff, Synd, Bering, Chirikov, and several others are included. Accounts of some of these journeys had already been published, mostly in German, but Coxe took the trouble to verify the correctness with such eminent authorities as Gerhard Friedrich Mueller and Peter Simon Pallas. Coxe made suggestions which led the Russians to promote expeditions of discovery to the northern parts of Siberia. Notable in the present work are a useful bibliography and pertinent observations on the fur trade between Russians and the Chinese" (Hill 391); Howes C834; Cordier Sinica 2447; Sabin 17309.
"Coxe's important compilation of contemporary accounts which was supplemented by details of Krenitzin and Levashev's "secret" expedition. Part I of the work is a translation of Johann Ludwig Schultz's Neue Nachrichten (Hamburg and Leipzig: 1776) and the other parts are similarly based on previously-published narratives and accounts, principally German. However, Coxe took advantage of a sojourn in Russia to verify these accounts with Gerhard Friedrich Muller and Peter Simon Pallas and other eminent Russian experts on the subject. "[Coxe] also succeeded in securing additional material (for instance the narrative and maps of Krenitzin and Levashev's 'secret' expedition, the first official Russian government expedition since Bering's second expedition of 1741. He was able to secure this particular information, not widely known at the time even in Russia, from Dr. William Robertson, who in turn obtained it through his friend Dr. Rogerson, first physician to Empress Catherine II" (Lada-Mocarski 29; Christies).

45. CRESSWELL, Samuel Gurney (1827-1867)
Sledging over Hummocky Ice. April, 1853.

London: Day & Son, 1854. Image 34x43cm (13 ½ x 17 in). Chromolithograph by W. Simpson, mounted on old cardboard and matted, cut close to the image, but with no loss. A good copy.
Plate VIII from Cresswell’s "A Series of Eight Sketches in Colour of the Voyage of H.M.S. Investigator" (London, 1854), rare set of spectacular lithographed views of Captain Robert McClure’s expedition to the Northwest Passage in 1850-54. McClure "was given command of the Investigator as part of the second Franklin search expedition. Entering the North-West Passage from the Bering Strait and sailing eastwards, the ship became trapped in pack ice in the autumn of 1851, before being finally abandoned in 1853" (Christie’s).
Cresswell was a second Lieutenant on the Investigator and led several sledge investigating and rescue parties across Banks and Dealy Islands after the ship had been stuck in the ice. "He is best remembered as the artist of the cruise. His paintings of the ship in the grip of ice and almost flung over on her side, and of his Dealy island party, painfully dragging a loaded sledge up a ramp of ice-rubble, do more than the liveliest prose to bring home to us what was endured by the stalwarts of the British Navy in the mapping of Canada’s northern archipelago with wind-jammers and man-hauled sledges" (Neatby, L.H. Samuel Gurney Cresswell (1827-1867) / Arctic, v. 35, no. 4, Dec. 1982, p. 554-555, ill.); Abbey Travel 644, Sabin 17490; Staton & Tremaine 3353.

46. DE VEER, Gerrit (b. around 1570 – d. after 1598)
A True Description of Three Voyages by the North-East Towards Cathay and China, Undertaken by the Dutch in the Years 1594, 1595 and 1596 / Ed. By T. Beke.

London: Hakluyt Society, 1853. First Edition. Octavo. 8, [6], cxlii, iv, 291 pp. With four folding maps and twelve double-page plates. Original publisher’s light-blue cloth with gilt lettering on the spine, blind ornamental borders on boards (front board in gilt). Black ink signature on the front free flyleaf "Basil T. Woodd. 1853." A near fine copy.
Scarce early Hakluyt Society publication of de Veer's account describing Barentsz's three voyages to find the Northeast Passage made during the years 1594-97. From the library of Basil T. Woodd, one of the members of the Hakluyt Society (included in the List of Members, p. 5-8).
The publication "is most appropriate at this particular juncture, when public attention is so painfully absorbed by apprehensions as to the fate of Franklin and his companions" (Preface). The extensive preface gives an overview of early English and Dutch travels to the Russian Arctic. Appendixes contain: Letter from John Balak to Gerard Mercator (from Hakluyt, Principal Navigations); An account of Henry Hudson’s visit to Novaya Zemlya; Writings of William Barents, preserved by Purchas. The text is supplemented with illustrations form the first editions as well as with three charts of Novaya Zemlya and the surrounding areas showing the Barents’ tracks on all his three voyages, compiled by Augustus Petermann.

47. DIXON, George (1748?-1795)
[NORTHWEST COAST OF AMERICA] To the Right Honorable the Lords Commissioners ... This Chart of the North West Coast of America, with the Tracks of the King George and Queen Charlotte in 1786 & 1787...

London: W. Harrison & J. Reid, 24 December 1788. Ca. 88,5x58 cm (34 ½ x 23 in). Copper engraved chart on laid paper with original centrefold. Backed, with a few tears and chips repaired and backing extending the lower margin, otherwise in very good condition.
Large chart of the West coast of North America from Nootka Sound to the Alaska Peninsula, from Dixon’s "A Voyage Round the World; but more Particularly to the North-West Coast of America" (London, 1789). "In 1785-87 [Dixon] sailed with Nathaniel Portlock for the King George’s Sound Company, which had been established <..,> for trading furs from the northwest coast of America to China. With the ships King George (under Portlock) and Queen Charlotte (under Dixon) they <..,> arrived on the Alaskan coast in July 1786. After wintering in the Sandwich Islands (winter 1786-87), the two captains returned to northern waters, visiting the Cook Inlet, Prince William Sound, the Alaskan mainland and the Queen Charlotte Islands. Dixon disposed of his cargo and returned to England in 1788, the following year publishing his popular Voyage Round the World. The bulk of the book consists of descriptive letters by William Beresford, his supercargo, but it contains valuable charts and appendices by Dixon himself. Dixon is generally credited with the discovery of the Queen Charlotte Islands (which were named after his ship), as well as Port Mulgrave, Norfolk Bay, Dixon’s Archipelago the Dixon Entrance, and several other features also bearing the name of his ship" (Howgego, to 1800, D58); Wagner 732; Lada-Mocarski 43.

48. DOBIE, Richard (1731-1805)
[EARLY FUR TRADE IN CANADA] [Autograph Letter in French to Jean-Louis Besnard (dit Carignant) in Michilimackinac Regarding Commercial Operations of Their Trade in Furs].

Montreal: 20 July, 1776. One page on a double quarto leaf (23x18,5 cm), addressed and sealed on the 4th page. Brown ink on watermarked Whatman laid paper. Writing in different hand under the main text ‘[?] á Montreál le 17 avril 1777. G.B’. Round stamps "C de V" on the lower margins of the 2nd and 3rd pages. Loss of the upper blank corner of the 4th page with some text of the address (possibly, a docket), otherwise a very good letter.
Early important primary account of the operations of Montreal fur traders, the letter recounts (translated): "I now have the pleasure of informing you that we each will earn around 10000 Francs on the pelts we sent on joint account last year. If you can find a good deal and we can get as reasonable a price as possible in this business, you may purchase them for our joint account and draw on me for the sum, provided the packets accompany the drafts and that they do not exceed 3000 Halifax Louis. <..,> The pelts that sell best are the beaver, bear, otter, marten, and northern wolf; the cats suffered a very big loss."
Richard Dobie was a merchant from Scotland who came to Canada about 1760 and by 1764 was actively involved in the fur trade around Lake Superior and the other Great Lakes. Much of their trade was to the south of these lakes which was a well established trade zone.
In 1767 Dobie went into partnership with Benjamin Frobisher, who travelled to the trading posts and wintered there, while Dobie remained in Montreal. They mounted at least one attempt at the northwest fur trade in partnership but most of Dobie's trade efforts continued with various partners, one of whom was Francis Badgley, in the Great Lakes area. Although heavily involved in the fur trade, Dobie was also active in any number of non fur trade enterprises. He accumulated a large fortune in these endeavors and was an important member of the Montreal community (Wikipedia).
Jean-Louis Besnard (dit Carignant) (1734-1791) was a merchant trader based out of Montreal and engaged in the fur trade by 1770. He was outfitting voyageurs and, in turn, relying on suppliers like Pierre Foretier. He was also in the milling business with a flour mill at Lachine, Quebec. Through a series of events he was forced to declare bankruptcy in September 1776. His dealings with the Montreal merchant Richard Dobie were called into question at that time. Creditors of Besnard sued Dobie because of these transactions. A legal and political melee ensued with the Governor, Sir Guy Carleton dismissing Chief Justice Peter Livius.
Besnard ended up turning over all his assets to his creditors. Although officially considered dishonest, he was allowed to continue in the fur trade and pursue other occupations. He ended up in important positions at Fort Michilimackinac and died of drowning in Lake Michigan. His failures in business were probably the result of the nature of the fur trade at that time. Control of the trade was increasingly held by few powerful merchants. They, in turn, created the North West Company in 1783 (Wikipedia).
Fort Michilimackinac was an 18th century French, and later British, fort and trading post in the Great Lakes of North America. Built around 1715, and abandoned in 1783, it was located along the southern shore of the strategic Straits of Mackinac connecting Lake Huron and Lake Michigan, at the northern tip of the lower peninsula of the present-day state of Michigan in the United States. The site of the fort in present-day Mackinaw City is a National Historic Landmark and is now preserved as an open-air historical museum” (Wikipedia).

49. DOUGLAS, James, Sir (1803-1888)
[GOLD MINING REGULATIONS IN BRITISH COLUMBIA] [Leaflet Titled]: Rules and Regulations, Issued in Conformity with the Gold Fields Act, 1859.

Victoria B.C.: 24 February, 1863. 4 pp. On a folded double folio leaf (ca. 29,5x20 cm (11 ½ x 8 in) with the Royal Arms of the British Empire. Leaflet with minor foxing, corners creased where once turned down, otherwise a very good copy.
Rare leaflet with only thirteen copies found in Worldcat. This leaflet contains the latest changes to the ‘Rules’ issued to make them consistent with legislation passed in 1859-63.

The Gold Fields Act 1859 became the earliest regulation of mining in British Columbia and was issued during the height of Fraser Canyon Gold Rush. It implemented the appointment of two gold commissioners who registered claims, issued licenses and adjudicated disputes with the advice and aid of elected district mining boards.
"The Fraser Canyon Gold Rush, (also Fraser Gold Rush and Fraser River Gold Rush) began in 1858 after gold was discovered on the Thompson River in British Columbia at its confluence with the Nicoamen River. This was a few miles upstream from the Thompson's confluence with the Fraser River at present-day Lytton. The rush overtook the region around the discovery, and was centered on the Fraser Canyon from around Hope and Yale to Pavilion and Fountain, just north of Lillooet.
Though the rush was largely over by 1860, miners from the rush spread out and found a sequence of other gold rushes throughout the British Columbia Interior and North, most famously that in the Cariboo. The rush is credited with instigating European-Canadian settlement on the mainland of British Columbia. It was the catalyst for the founding of the Colony of British Columbia, the building of early road infrastructure, and the founding of many towns" (Wikipedia).

50. DUDLEY, Robert, Sir (1574-1649)
[First Map of the Labrador Sea Between Greenland and Labrador] Carta particolare della Meta Incognita Australe con una parte della America Settentrionale..,

Florence, [1661]. Copper engraved map ca. 45,5x37 cm (18 x 14 ½ in) A good strong impression. Middle of right margin with a small chip, not affecting the printed area, otherwise a very good map.

This is the second state of this map, which "is the first printed sea chart to depict the waters between Greenland, labelled Europa on the map, and Labrador. Using Mercator's projection for the first time, it is also the earliest to indicate the prevailing winds and ocean currents" (Burden 275). "In the early 1640s [Dudley] retired to the Villa di Castello and devoted himself to writing on naval matters, drawing on his experience to compose the encyclopaedic Dell'arcano del mare (1646-7), dedicated to Grand Duke Ferdinand II. The first of its six books dealt with methods of calculating longitude, including those of his own invention; the second contained charts and sailing directions. The third contained much of the material in the earlier ‘Direttorio marittimo’, plus proposals for the creation of a navy; the fourth book, concerned with shipbuilding and fortifications, recalled his practical experience at Leghorn. Book five built on the work of the Portuguese navigator Pedro Nunez. The final book was an atlas of 127 maps, the first to employ Mercator's projections" (Oxford DNB); Tooley A-D, p.395

51. EGEDE, Hans Poulsen (1686-1758) & Poul Hansen (1708-1789)
Omstændelig og Udførlig Relation, Angaaende den Grønlandske Missions Begyndelse of Forsættelse, samt hvad Ellers mere der ved Landets Recognoscering, dets Beskaffenhed, og Indbyggernes Væsen of Leve-Maade Vedkommende, er Befunden [A Comprehensive Relation About the Greenland Mission, its Reconnaissance, its Character, and the Inhabitants];
[With] Continuation af Relationerne Betreffende den Grønlandske Missions Tilstand og Beskaffenhed, Forfattet i Form af en Journal fra Anno 1734 till 1740. Af Colonien, Christians-haab udi Discobugt [Continuation the Relation of the Greenland Mission Written in the form of a Journal from Anno 1734 till 1740..,].

Copenhagen: J.C. Groth, 1738-41. First Editions. Small Quarto, 2 vols in one. [20],408; [8],184 pp. With two folding wood cut maps. Period dark brown elaborately gilt tooled full sheep with a light brown gilt label. Label faded, text mildly browned and with some very mild staining of a few leaves, maps with minor repairs and with a small library marking on the title page, otherwise a very good copy.

After much hardship Hans Poulsen Egede landed on the west coast of Greenland with three ships and 40 people (including family) on 3 July 1721. Egede was the first missionary to the Inuit of Greenland, where he served for 15 years and founded the colony of Godthaab. His work was of fundamental importance for the colonization of Greenland. As a missionary he was groundbreaking and was nicknamed the Apostle of Greenland. He also gave an important contribution to the understanding of Greenland's geography and Inuit culture and language (Universitetsbiblioteket i Oslo). Hans Poulsen Egede "established a successful mission among the Inuit and is credited with revitalizing Dano-Norwegian interest in the island after contact had been broken for hundreds of years. He founded Greenland's capital Godthåb, now known as Nuuk" (Wikipedia).

"Egede first visited Nuk, the site of Godthab, the first year of his Greenland colony, 1721, when seeking a better site for permanent settlement than his temporary residence at Haabets Oe at the mouth of Godthab's Fjord. He found Nuk a fine site with a good harbour. He saw the site again several times in ensuing years, but it was not until 1727 that he again took up the plan to move there" (Holland p95); "Egede converted many of the Inuit to Christianity and eventually established a considerable commerce with Denmark" (Howgego E17); First Part: "detailed and full relation regarding the beginning and continuation of the Greenland mission: in addition to other things observations concerning the reconnaissance of the country, its nature and the manners and way of life of its inhabitants" (Arctic Bibliography 4366); Sabin 22021; Second Part: "The diaries of Poul Egede.., containing observations, mainly pertaining to the church and the mission, together with incidents from the everyday life in West Greenland" (Arctic Bibliography 4370); Sabin 22035.

[Bird's-Eye Panoramic View of] Victoria, B. C. 1889.

Victoria B.C.: Ellis & Co., Publishers of "The Colonist", 1889. Tinted lithograph, printed image ca. 65x100 cm (26x40 in). With a couple of very minor repaired marginal tears, not affecting printed image. A near fine lithograph.
Rare as Worldcat only locates nine copies. This large lithographic panoramic view shows Victoria B.C. As viewed from a bird's eye from the Strait of San Juan Fuca looking north. This view includes a key which identifies 63 places of interest.

"Erected in 1843 as a Hudson's Bay Company trading post on a site originally called Camosun (the native word was "camosack", meaning "rush of water") known briefly as "Fort Albert", the settlement was renamed Fort Victoria in 1846, in honour of Queen Victoria. The Songhees established a village across the harbour from the fort. The Songhees' village was later moved north of Esquimalt. When the crown colony was established in 1849, a town was laid out on the site and made the capital of the colony. The Chief Factor of the fort, James Douglas was made the second governor of the Vancouver Island Colony (Richard Blanshard was first governor, Arthur Edward Kennedy was third and last governor), and would be the leading figure in the early development of the city until his retirement in 1864..,
With the discovery of gold on the British Columbia mainland in 1855, Victoria became the port, supply base, and outfitting centre for miners on their way to the Fraser Canyon gold fields, mushrooming from a population of 300 to over 5000 literally within a few days. Victoria was incorporated as a city in 1862. In 1865, Esquimalt was made the North Pacific home of the Royal Navy, and remains Canada's west coast naval base. In 1866 when the island was politically united with the mainland, Victoria was designated the capital of the new united colony instead of New Westminster - an unpopular move on the Mainland - and became the provincial capital when British Columbia joined the Canadian Confederation in 1871" (Wikipedia); Reps 38.

53. FEDIX, P.A.
L'Oregon et les Cotes de l'Ocean Pacifique du Nord. aperçu géographique, statistique et politique, avec une carte du pays d'après les documens les plus récens. [Oregon and the North Pacific Coast, a geographical, statistical and political overview, with a map of the country according to the most recent documents].

Paris: Librairie de Amyot, 1846. First Edition. Octavo. ix, 258 pp. With a large folding outline handcoloured map. Period style brown gilt tooled quarter calf with marbled boards, with original printed paper wrappers bound in. A fine copy.

"Relates almost entirely to the political aspects of Oregon at that time" (Cowan 1952, p.84). "Copies in wrappers are rare. Overland expeditions; sea voyages; fur trade; English establishments; American settlements; Oregon boundary dispute between Spain and Russia; Spain and England; England and the United States; the rights of Great Britain; U. S. Rights, etc. Monsieur Fedix, after an exhaustive and extensive research, concludes that the country belongs to neither the United States nor Great Britain, but to Oregon and the Oregonians, and urges the settlers to kick out the whole caboodle and establish an independent Republic of their own" (Eberstadt 134:563). "Proposes that world powers maintain Oregon as an independency to serve as an international trade center for the Pacific" (Howes F70); Sabin 24000.

54. FLEURIEU, Charles Pierre (1738-1810) & MARCHAND, Etienne (1755-1793)
Voyage Autour du Monde, Pendant les Annees 1790, 1791, et 1792, par Etienne Marchand..,précédé d'une introduction historique : auquel on a joint des recherches sur les terres australes de Drake, et un examen critique du voyage de Roggeween; avec cartes et figures. [A Voyage Round the World, Performed During the Years 1790, 1791, and 1792, by Etienne Marchand..,].

Paris: De L’Imprimerie de la Republique., 1798-1800. First Edition. Octavo 5 vols. & Small Folio Atlas. cci, 294, [1];vii, 529, [1]; viii, 474, [1];viii, 494, [2] xii, ;559, [4]; viii, 158 pp. With a copper engraved plate and fifteen folding maps and eleven folding tables. Handsome 19th-century maroon elaborately gilt tooled quarter morocco with marbled boards. A near fine set.

"A most important work for the history of geographical discovery in the Northwest. Marchand’s expedition sailed around Cape Horn and, after touching at the Marquesas and Hawaii, visited Norfolk Sound, Queen Charlotte Island, Nootka Sound, and parts of the northwest coast of America, of which lengthy descriptions are given, in addition to descriptions of the Indian inhabitants. The introduction is a valuable feature of this work, as it contains Fleurieu’s learned researches on the early navigators to the North Pacific, from 1537 to 1791. Among others, the voyages of Drake, Juan de Fuca, Admiral de Fuentes (de Fonte), Bering, Chirikov, Cook, La Perouse, Meares, Portlock and Dixon, Colnett, Don Haro, and Malaspina are discussed and a recapitulation given" (Hill 612); Howes F195.

"Although the main objective of the voyage was to trade skins from North America with Cantonese merchants and then return laden with Chinese wares for the home market, Marchand was also anxious to stake out colonial claims for France" (Howgego M43); "This is a very important and authoritative work for the history of the northwest coast" (Lada-Mocarski 54); "The first French commercial voyage to the Northwest Coast and only the second French circumnavigation.., Marchand sighted the Kohala coast of Hawaii October 4, 1791, and passed Kauai on October 10, 1791.., This octavo edition was issued simultaneously with the quarto edition" (Forbes 292-3); O’Reilly & Reitman 618; "Valuable for the scientific observations, and the learned researches of the author on the early navigations" (Sabin 247520-2).

55. GALIANO, Dionisio Alcalá (1760-1805)
[Map of the Entrance to Nootka Sound] Plano de la Cala de los Amigos. Situada en la parte Ocidental de la entrada de Nuka Año 1791.

Madrid, 1802. Copper-engraved map ca. 27x18 cm. (10 ½ x 7 in). This matted map is in fine condition.
This is a very rare "chart of the western portion of the entrance to Nootka Sound, showing the islands and protected bay, with its small settlement. From the Atlas del Viage de las Goletas Sutil y Mexicana al reconocimiento del Estracho de Juan de Fuca in 1792, which accompanied the Relacion del viage..., the record of an important voyage up the Pacific coast, and the last to be undertaken by Spain. Often attributed to José de Espinosa y Tello, but more probably by Galiano, the commander of the expedition, the work itself is an important relation of the voyage that brought the Spaniards to Nootka Sound at the same time as the English explorer George Vancouver. The nine maps in the atlas, however, are perhaps even more significant, presenting a rare record of Spanish cartography in the New World. This is the seventh map in the atlas" (PBA Galleries); Hayes p.77-9.

56. GALIANO, Dionisio Alcalá (1760-1805)
[Map of the North Pacific Coastline from the Top of Vancouver Island to the Tip of the Alaskan Peninsula] Continuacion des los reconocimientos hechos en la Costa No. De America por los Buques de S.M. An varias Campañas des de 1774 á 1792.

Madrid, 1802. Copper-engraved map ca. 37x47 cm. (14 ½ x 19 in). Bottom half of left margin trimmed to neat line, evidently as issued, old folds, otherwise the map is in very good condition.
This is a very rare "coastal chart from the top of Vancouver Island to the Alaska peninsula and Unalaska, made from actual observations, showing the routes of the expeditions from 1788 to 1792. from the Atlas del Viage de las Goletas Sutil y Mexicana al reconocimiento del Estracho de Juan de Fuca in 1792, which accompanied the Relacion del viage..., the record of an important voyage up the Pacific coast, and the last to be undertaken by Spain. Often attributed to José de Espinosa y Tello, but more probably by Galiano, the commander of the expedition, the work itself is an important relation of the voyage that brought the Spaniards to Nootka Sound at the same time as the English explorer George Vancouver. The nine maps in the atlas, however, are perhaps even more significant, presenting a rare record of Spanish cartography in the New World. This is map no. 3 in the atlas" (PBA Galleries); Hayes p. 77-9.

57. GOLOWNIN, Captain (Vasily Mikhailovich) (1776-1831)
Recollections of Japan, Comprising a Particular Account of the Religion, Language, Government, Laws and Manners of the People with Observations on the Geography, Climate, Population & Productions of the Country (...) To which are prefixed Chronological Details of the Rise, Decline, and Renewel of British Commercial Intercourse with that Country.

London: Henry Colburn, 1819. First English Edition. Octavo. viii, lxxxix, 302, [2] pp. Period style brown gilt tooled half calf with marbled boards and black gilt label. Some scattered very mild foxing, otherwise a very good copy.
In 1808-1811 the Russian sloop "Diana" under the command of Vasily Golovnin and Peter Rikord, as the second-in-command, was sent as a second official Russian circumnavigation with the purpose of exploration and surveying of the Russian Far East, Kamchatka and Alaska. Upon return from Russian America in 1810, Golovnin started to chart the Kuril Islands. During his short stop at the island of Kunashir, Golovnin, his two officers and four sailors were taken prisoners, transported to the island of Hokkaido and there were kept in prison near the town of Matsumae for over two years.
The peaceful solution of the conflict became possible only as a result of the friendly relationship between Peter Rikord, who organized and led three expeditions to rescue his commander Golovnin, and the prominent Japanese businessman and public figure Takadaya Kahei (1769-1827), who was captured by Rikord with his ship Kanze-maru, and stayed in Russia for several months. Takadaya Kahei learned Russian, and upon returning home he convinced the Japanese government that the Russians could be trusted. The Russian sailors were then released from Japanese captivity (no one in history has ever returned from the Japanese captivity before). After Golovnin's release in 1813, his account of his captivity was published in English with the title" "Narrative of my Captivity in Japan During the Years 1811, 1812, 1813" and this work was later augmented with the current volume which gives a more detailed description of Japan and the Japanese people. Cordier Japonica 465; Howgego 1800-1850, G15.

58. GREENE, Captain Duane M.
[Important Archive of Materials from Captain Duane M. Greene of the 6th California Infantry, Detailing Operations Against Indians in Northern California during the Civil War].

Humboldt County, 1863-4. A total of more than 80 pages of manuscript material, mostly on quarto sized sheets. Plus an additional thirty-six printed and manuscript items relating to the later military career of Second Lieutenant Duane M. Greene. Most documents with old folds; a few with edge wear and tears, occasionally affecting some text. Overall the collection is in very good condition.
A very important and interesting manuscript archive, giving an account of actions against Indians in northern California during the Civil War. This archive contains the military papers of Captain Duane M. Greene of Company E, 6th California Volunteers, stationed at Fort Gaston in present-day Humboldt County. During the period covered by this archive, Fort Gaston was headquarters of the California Volunteers, whose main mission was battling hostile Indian tribes, including what is referred to in these papers as the "Weitchpec" tribe.

Duane M. Greene volunteered for service at San Francisco in February 1863 and served for two years. Aside from his service against Indian tribes in Humboldt County, he was also an Assistant Commissary of Musters. Four of Greene's reports have been printed in the massive collection, "The War Of The Rebellion: A Compilation Of The Official Records Of The Union And Confederate Armies" (1880). The present archive, however, goes far beyond the printed record of Greene's experiences and gives a full view of the eight months he spent engaging Indians in northern California. The archive contains several of Greene's manuscript drafts and notes used to produce his formal reports, and a few of the reports are present also in final manuscript versions, in a secretarial hand. It also contains several manuscript copies of orders sent to Greene regarding his mission, the conduct of his company, records of promotions and discharges, notes regarding the discipline of disobedient or deserting soldiers, orders regarding requisitions, and much more.
A part of this archive that has certainly not been printed, for example, is a fourteen-page series of notes, in Greene's hand, beginning February 17, 1864, describing the movement of his company from Benicia to northern California – first to Arcata and then to Fort Gaston. This manuscript appears to have some gaps, but it gives interesting insight into Greene's early attitudes toward his service, and the challenges faced by his company as they travelled to the Humboldt region.

A letter to Greene of March 10, 1864 was written by Major Thomas Wright at "Camp at Gaston," and gives Greene instructions on interacting with local Indians:
"I send you by Lt. Taylor rations for 10 days. You will remain until further orders near the junction of the Trinity and Klamath [rivers]. You will select such a position as you may deem best - with an eye to defense and comfort, putting your men in huts as soon as possible. You will send out one detachment at a time of 15 men in such directions as you may think best. I hardly think one Indian is worth going for to the mouth of the Klamath. Believe little that you hear from the Indians but do not let them discover your unbelief. Find out all you can, give as little information in return as possible and never trust one of them when out of sight."
Among the manuscript orders and directives is a copy of "Orders No. 2" issued from headquarters of Humboldt Camp and dated March 14, 1864, which instructs that "hereafter all Indians - 'Bucks' - captured in open hostility will be hung and none will be shot after capture. The women and children will always be spared and sent as prisoners of war to the cmdg. Officer of Fort Humboldt."
Several of the documents contain Greene's original manuscript notes of missions and reconnaissance in very brief and rough form. They are not final, polished, reports, but rather his original notes giving details of missions, from which his longer reports were written. They therefore constitute the "first draft" reports of his troops' activities and encounters with Indians. For example, there are four pages containing notes on missions sent out by Captain Greene in March 1864, one of which resulted in the capture of two Indians:
"Saturday [March] 12. The Capt. With 20 men started on an expedition down the river taking 4 days rations leaving 20 men in camp. Monday 14 - at 7:30p.m. The Captain and a party returned to Camp having in custody 2 Indian prisoners, 'Jack' and 'Stone.' Confined them in the log cabin under a guard of 6 men. 15 Tuesday - The 2 Indians still in confinement having no means convenient to hang them."

Greene notes that the next day the Indians were transported to Fort Gaston, where they were hung on Thursday the 17th. Reports for later in the month describe the search for two missing privates:
"March 19. Lt. Taylor with 28 men and 10 days rations for the command arrived from Fort Gaston - reported 2 men...of my company missing. A scouting party of ten men out from 9am until 5pm marched n. Easterly making a sweep of about 5 miles inclining towards the river which they touched at about 3 miles below the ferry. Seen nothing of any Indians. [March] 20 Lt. Taylor with an escort of 10 men started for Fort Gaston having the pack mules in charge. Sent out Sgt. Hines and 15 men across the river on a scout towards 'French Camp' to examine the trails and more particularly search for the two men who was missing from Lieut. Taylor's command on the previous day."
An eight-page manuscript report in a secretarial hand is accompanied by an eight-page rough draft manuscript (in pencil) in Greene's hand and an incomplete four-page version of the same report, also in Greene's hand. These are expanded and more polished versions of the reports noted above, and contain detailed information on "scouts and movements made from the 8th to the 15 day of March, 1864 inclusive by a detachment of Company 'E' 6th Infantry." The scouting expeditions mostly involved searches for belligerent Indians and encounters with "friendly" Indians. For example, part of the report for March 8 reads:
"I proceeded about five miles and met an Indian whose right hand was bleeding profusely, and on examination I found it was a rifle shot round. I asked him how he got hurt, and he said it was by the accidental discharge of his piece. He said he belonged to Lieut. Middleton's party which he said was within half a mile of me, returning to Fort Gaston. Suspecting that he belonged to the band reported opposing Middleton, and endeavoring to escape, I made prisoner of him and proceeded about half a mile and met Middleton who said the Indian's story was correct, whereupon I released him. Middleton told me the rumor of his being attacked, or that the Indians were collecting for that purpose was not correct. He saw some Indians, but they scattered and fled to the mountains."

Another pair of manuscript reports (one of them seven pages in a secretarial hand and the other four pages in Greene's hand) provide reports from the month of April, that also give details of scouts in search of any actions against unfriendly Indians. The report is datelined at Camp Iaqua and describes in great detail an action of April 8, 1864 in which Greene's troops, in conjunction with friendly Indians, attacked a tribe led by "Ceonalton John," which led to a meeting between Greene and "John" to discuss terms of the Indians' surrender.
Another original manuscript report in Greene's hand (written in pencil) is dated May 2nd and gives details of a successful attack on an Indian camp:
"Up before daylight and started for the Indian camp which we surrounded in a short time. Lieut. Taylor occupying the south and a part of the east and west side, while I occupied the north and part of the east and west sides, I having a part of Lieut. Taylor's detachment. Lieut. Taylor opened fire on the Indians when they run towards me I then fired on them and the fire became general from all sides. After the fight was over we found that we had killed three bucks and three squaws and broke one bucks arm, took two squaws and two children prisoner. The attack took the Indians so much by surprise that they had not time to carry off any of their property or plunder."
An original two-page manuscript report, dated March 15, 1864 at "Camp Greene," and written by Second Lieutenant John B. Taylor, gives a detailed reconnaissance of the area around the Klamath River, the quality of trails, good places to cross, etc. An order, dated April 23, 1863 at Benicia Barracks, orders that "no more 'small boys' of the same age or height as Patrick Ford are to be enlisted. Bugles and not drums will be the field music of the Regiment."
Also included in this collection are another three dozen items relating to the later military career of Second Lieutenant Duane M. Greene. This was apparently Captain Greene's son, who served as an adjutant in Kansas and Arizona Territory. This grouping contains a collection of printed and manuscript orders, 1872-77, written from Fort Hays, Fort Riley, Kansas, and Camp Bowie, Camp Lowell, and Yuma Station, Arizona Territory. Also included are other documents relating to Greene's later life, including his career as a grocer in Pasadena.
"Fort Gaston was founded on December 4, 1859, in the redwood forests of the Hoopa Valley, in Northern California, on the west bank of the Trinity River, 14 miles from where the Trinity flows into the Klamath River. It was located in what is now the Hoopa Valley Indian Reservation. Fort Gaston as part of the Humboldt Military District was intended to control the Hupa Indians and to protect them from hostile white settlers. The post was named for 2nd Lieutenant William Gaston, of the First Dragoons, who had been killed May 17, 1858, during the Spokane-Coeur d'Alene-Paloos War.., On December 25, 1863, a battle with the Indians took place near Fort Gaston. The Indians holed up in several log buildings, firing at Companies B and C of the Mountaineers from rifle ports. Attempting to drive them out the Army attacked them with howitzers. At nightfall, with the buildings in ruins, the Indians were able to escape in the darkness.
The Mountaineers continued operating against Indians in 1864, Company B in a skirmish near Boynton's Prairie May 6, 1864. Company C, at the Thomas House, on the Trinity River, May 27, 1864 and in operations in the Trinity Valley September 1-December 3, 1864. The Mountaineer companies held the fort until June 1865" (Wikipedia).

59. HILL, S[amuel] S.
Travels in Siberia.

London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1854. First Edition. Octavo, 2 vols. xv, [1], 458; xvi, 432 pp. Period dark brown gilt tooled half morocco with green pebbled cloth boards. A very good set.
The author travels from Moscow via towns and places including Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Yekaterinburg, Tomsk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk, Kyakhta, Miatchin, Lena River, Yakutsk, Ochotsk, to Kamchatka. It seems that after Kamchatka Hill travelled to Hawaii and these travels are recorded in his "Travels in the Sandwich and Society Islands." "Samuel Hill was a prolific writer of Travel books, the National Union Catalogue records seven titles by him published between the years 1837 and 1866" (Hawaiian National Bibliography III, 2175).

60. HILL, Samuel S.
Travels in the Sandwich and Society Islands.

London: Chapman and Hall, 1856. First Edition. Octavo. xii, 428 pp. With a folding frontispiece map of the Sandwich Islands. Original publishers brown blind stamped gilt cloth. A very good copy.

"An interesting travel narrative by an English gentleman-traveler, who devotes more than 300 pages of the text to his visit to Hawaii.., [Hill] describes Honolulu, gives a general history of the Island since Captain Cook’s time, and visits local sites of picturesque of historical interest. His travels around the island of Hawaii, however, are the most interesting portions of the text.., He viewed the site of Cook's death, observed native life, visited Hoonaunau, then set off on foot for Kailua, Kona. En route he watched surfers..," (Hawaiian National Bibliography III, 2175).

61. JANSSONIUS, Johannes (1588-1664)
Nova et accurata Poli Arctici et Terrarum Circum Iacentium Descriptio. [A New and Accurate Description of the Lands Around the Arctic Pole].

Amsterdam: H. Hondius, ca. 1684. Fourth State. Original outline handcoloured copper engraved map ca. 41x53 cm (16 x 20 ½ in). A good impression, the map is in very good condition.

"This beautiful map, originally published in 1637, eventually replaced Hondius' map of the North Pole and became the prototype for many later maps including those of Blaeu. This map incorporates the discoveries made by Captain Thomas James along the southern and western shores of Hudson Bay in 1631-2. The delineation on Russia's Arctic coast is derived from the information from Willem Barents' exploration of 1596-7. A small island off the coast of Lapland is named for the English explorer Hugh Willoughby (Sir Hugo Willoughby's Landt), who led a failed expedition to find a Northeast Passage in 1553. Rhumb lines radiate from the North Pole and several compass roses embellish the chart. A large title cartouche, with two figures and numerous wind heads, conveniently hide the northwest coast of America. The map is further decorated with ships and a cartouche with Jansson's imprint, which depicts men in parkas, a polar bear and foxes. This is the fourth state of the plate with a legend beneath the cartouche and a completed coastline of Spitzbergen" (Old World Auctions); Burden 250; Tooley E-J, p. 429.

62. KLUTSCHAK, Heinrich W[enzel] (1847-90)
Als Eskimo Unter Den Eskimos: Eine Schilderung Der Erlebnisse Der Schwatka'schen Franklin-Aufsuchungs-Expedition in den Jahren 1878-80. [As an Eskimo Under the Eskimos: A description of the Experiences of the Schwatka Franklin Search Expedition in the years 1878-80].

Vienna: A. Hartleben's Verlag, 1881. First Edition. Octavo. [vi], 247, [1] pp. With three lithographed maps (two folding) and twelve wood engraved plates and numerous wood engravings in text Original publisher's red gilt patterned blind stamped cloth. Spine very mildly faded, otherwise a very good copy.
An account of the Schwatka Franklin search expedition in 1878-80 by the artist and surveyor on the expedition. "Sponsored by the American Geographical Society to follow up on recent Eskimo reports that records and journals of the Franklin expedition might still be preserved on King William Island. The five member expedition left for Hudson Bay on the whaler Eothen, whose captain, Thomas Barry, had brought the Eskimo rumor to the United States.., Records of Schwatka's expedition include observations on topography, travelling conditions, Eskimoes and their distribution and travelling techniques, flora and fauna. The sledge journey to King William Island, covering 5, 287 KM in 50 weeks, was a record distance for any sledging expedition by whites at that time and has rarely been surpassed" (Holland p. 310-11). Henze 3, p.44; Not in the Arctic Bibliography.

63. KOTZEBUE, Otto von (1787-1846)
Entdeckungs-Reise in die Süd-See und nach der Berings-Strasse zur Erforschung einer nordöstlichen Durchfahrt : unternommen in den Jahren 1815, 1816, 1817 und 1818 auf Kosten Sr. Erlaucht des Herrn Reichs-Kanzlers Grafen Rumanzoff auf dem Schiffe Rurick unter dem Befehle des Lieutenants der Russisch-Kaiserlichen Marine, Otto von Kotzebue [A Voyage of Discovery, into the South Sea, and Beerings Straits, for the Purpose of Exploring a North-East Passage, undertaken in the Years 1815--1818, at the Expense of his Highness the Chancellor of the Empire, Count Romanzoff, in the Ship Rurick, under the Command of the Lieutenant in the Russian Imperial Navy, Otto Von Kotzebue].

Weimar: Gebruedern Hoffmann, 1821. First Edition. Quarto 3 vols. in one. xviii, [iii], 168; 176; [i], 240 pp. 6 engraved maps, 5 folding, 19 hand-coloured aquatint plates from drawings by Choris, 4 double-page, 1 black and white plate, Handsome brown period style elaborately gilt tooled half sheep with marbled boards. With an expertly removed library marking on title page, otherwise a near fine copy.

"First Edition on laid paper with all the aquatint plates finely coloured by hand, of the second Russian circumnavigation and the first for scientific purposes, sponsored by Count Romanzoff, one of Russia's greatest patrons of the sciences. It proved to be one of the most important and fruitful of all Russian circumnavigations, contributing greatly to knowledge of the South Seas, Pacific Northwest and Alaska, although without finding the North-West Passage (here termed the North-East by Kotzebue). [Kotzebue] commanded the Rurick and knew the North Pacific well from his earlier voyage with Krusenstern. With him were Louis Choris, expedition artist, and Adelbert von Chamisso, naturalist. Their valuable study of Pacific islands included Easter Island, the Tuamotus, Marshalls and the newly-discovered Romanzoff Islands, and Kotzebue's reports on coral atolls were later used by Charles Darwin. Reaching Kamchatka they passed through Bering Strait, explored Kotzebue Sound, and investigated the Pribilof Islands and Aleutians, recording excellent descriptions of the Chukchis, Aleuts and Eskimos. Before crossing the Pacific they made stops on the California coast, at San Francisco, followed by a long stay in Hawaii at the court of King Kamehameha I, handsomely portrayed by Choris. Choris' own illustrated account of the voyage was published in 1822" (Christies).
"The second Russian expedition into the Pacific for scientific exploration, sponsored by Count Romanzoff, was commanded by Lieutenant Kotzebue, and also included the famous artist Ludovik Choris. Kotzebue had also sailed with Captain Kruzenshtern in 1803-06. Leaving Kronstadt in 1815, the Rurik rounded Cape Horn and visited Chile, Easter Island, and the Marshall Islands. Kotzebue explored the North American coast and Hawaii and searched unsuccessfully for a passage to the Arctic Ocean. The description of the northwest coast of America is a most important contribution" (Hill 943); Arctic Bibliography 9195; "A Celebrated narrative important for its descriptions of Alaska, California, Hawaii and Micronesia" (Forbes 525); Howgego 1800-1850, K20; "The three volumes are rich in early original source material on Alaska" (Lada-Mocarski 80); Sabin 38284.

64. KRASHENINNIKOV, Stepan Petrovich (1711-1755)
Histoire de Kamtschatka, Des Isles Kurilski, et Des Contrées Voisines, Publiée à Petersbourg, en Langue Russienne, par ordre de Sa Majesté Impériale. On y a joint deux Cartes, l'une de Kamtschatka, & l'autre des Isles Kurilski. Traduite par M. E*** [The History of Kamtschatka, and the Kurilski Islands, with the Countries Adjacent].

Lyon: Chez Benoit Duplain, 1767. First French Edition. Small Octavo. [viii], xv, [i], 327; [viii], 359 pp. With two large copper engraved folding maps. Handsome period brown gilt tooled mottled full calf with red and black gilt labels. A near fine set.

"The Russian Krasheninnikov started out across Siberia with Gerhard Friedrich Mueller and Johann Georg Gmelin, and then made his own way to Kamchatka. When Georg Wilhelm Steller arrived in Kamchatka to supervise his work, Krasheninnikov left in order to avoid becoming Steller's assistant, and returned to St. Petersburg. Krasheninnikov nonetheless was able to make use of Steller's notes in the preparation of his own narrative, and the inclusion of Steller's observations on America, made during his travels with Bering's second voyage, are an important part of this work, and constitute one of the earliest accounts of Alaska and the Aleutian Islands. Steller's account was not published until 1793. This work details the customs, morals, and religion of the Kamchatka peninsula, and discusses the power exercised by the magicians. Also described are the differences between the dialects of the Kamchatkans and those of the Korsairs and of the Kurile islanders. This is the first scientific account of those regions" (Hill 948-9).
"The first French edition, translated by Marc Antoine Eidous from the English of James Grieve, of the Russian Krasheneninnikov's important account of Kamchatka, Alaska and the Aleutian Islands, which was based upon his own travels and those of George Wilhelm Stellar" (Bonhams); "Krasheninnikov journeyed through Siberia (1733-36) and the Kamchatka Peninsula (1737-41) before giving the first full description of the latter. Krasheninnikov volcano (6089 feet) is named after him" (Sothebys); Cox I, p.351; Howgego K37; Lada-Mocarski 12; Sabin38303.

65. LA PEROUSE, Jean François Galaup de (1741-1788)
A Voyage Round the World. Performed in the Years 1785, 1786, 1787, 1788,abridged from the Original French Journal ... Which was lately published by M. Milet-Mureau ... To which are added, A Voyage from Manila to California by Don Antonio Maurelle and an Abstract of the Voyage and Discoveries of the late Capt. G. Vancouver.

Boston: Joseph Bumpstead, 1801. First American Edition. Duodecimo. vi, 333 pp. Period brown gilt tooled speckled full sheep with light brown gilt label. Some browning of text as is usual, mild waters stain on title and first few leaves, extremities mildly rubbed, otherwise a very good copy in very original condition.
Rare "first American Edition of both the La Perouse and the Vancouver Voyages" (Forbes 331).

"Laperouse sailed from France in 1785, with the frigates Astrolabe and Bousole, to the Pacific and the west coast of North America. He was to examine such parts of the region as had not been explored by Captain Cook: to seek for an interoceanic passage; to make scientific observations on the various countries, peoples, and products; to obtain reliable information about the fur trade and the extent of the Spanish settlements in California; and to promote in general the inducements for French enterprise in that quarter. Articles taken along on the voyage to trade with the natives included 1,000,000 assorted pins, four large German organs, and fifty-two plumed dragoon's helmets. The result was that Laperouse made valuable contributions to the history of geographical discovery, particularly with regard to the American coast and the natives of America. His labours there furnished geographers with results whereby they could check the charts of Russian, English, and Spanish navigators. The expedition visited, and accounts are given of, Easter Island, Hawaii, Macao, Formosa, the Aleutian Islands, Samoa, Tonga, and Australia. Laperouse sent his dispatches to France from Kamchatka and Botany Bay. After leaving Botany Bay, the expedition was never heard from again. Thirty-nine years later the broken remnants of his two ships were found on the reef of Vanikoro, one of the Santa Cruz Islands, by Peter Dillon" (Hill p.173).

"Vancouver, who had served on Captain Cook's second and third voyages, was made commander of a grand-scale expedition to reclaim Britain's rights, resulting from the Nootka Convention, at Nootka Sound, to examine thoroughly the coast south of 60' in order to find a possible passage to the Atlantic, and to learn what establishments had been founded by other powers. This voyage became one of the most important made in the interests of geographical knowledge" (Hill p. 304); Howes L 93; Sabin 38966.

66. LAW, Arthur
[Watercolour View of the Fraser River in British Colombia] Fraser River Cañon, near Yale, B.C., 1911.

Yale B.C., 1911. Watercolor size 31,5x48 cm (12 ¼ x 19 in). Signed "Arthur Law" in the left lower corner. Later matting with hand drawn borders and manuscript caption. The watercolor is in near fine condition.

A very beautifully and skilfully executed watercolor Fraser Canyon near Yale during most likely an Indian summer evening in 1911.
"Yale is on the Fraser River and is generally considered to be on the dividing line between the Coast and the Interior. Immediately north of the village the Fraser Canyon begins, and the river is generally considered un-navigable past this point, although rough water is common on the Fraser anywhere upstream from Chilliwack, and even more so above Hope, about 20 miles south of Yale. But steamers could make it to Yale, good pilots and water conditions permitting, and the town had a busy dockside life as well as a variety of bars, restaurants, hotels, saloons and various services. Its maximum population during the gold rush was in the 15,000 range, although typically it housed 5-8,000. The higher figure relates to the evacuation of the Canyon during the Fraser Canyon War of 1858" (Wikipedia).

67. LISIANSKY, Urey (Yuri Fedorovich) (1773-1837)
[Map of] Sitca or Norfolk Sound Surveyed by Captn. Lisiansky 1805. [From:] Voyage Round the World in the Years 1803, 1804, 1805 and 1806 Performed by Order of His Imperial Majesty Alexander the First, Emperor of Russia in the ship Neva.

London: John Booth, 1814. A hand coloured copper engraved map ca. 39,5x25,5 cm (15 ½ x 10 in). Matted map with original folds but otherwise in very good condition.
"Sitka Sound is a body of water near the city of Sitka, Alaska. It is bordered by Baranof Island to the south and the northeast, by Kruzof Island to the northwest and by the Pacific Ocean to the southwest. During the early 19th century it was a major locus of the Maritime Fur Trade" (Wikipedia).
This map is from a "most important work dealing with discoveries on the N.W. Coast of America. The author was a captain in the Russian navy and commander of the "Neva." He visited Kodiak and Sitka, wintering at the former island, and his long stay there gave him ample time and scope for a study of the native inhabitants and their habits and customs. The long chart shows the track of the voyage, and there are charts of the Washington Islands, Cadiack, and the Harbor of St. Paul, the coast from Bering’s Bay to Sea Otter Bay, Sitka or Norfolk Sound, etc.; with colored views of the Harbor of St. Paul in the Island of Cadiack and New Archangel in Norfolk Sound. There are also plates of Indian implements, etc. The work is important also as the principal source for the Sitka Massacre" (Soliday 873).

68. LISIANSKY, Urey (Yuri Fedorovich) (1773-1837)
[Map of the] Island of Island of Cadiack, with its Environs 1805 [From:] Voyage Round the World in the Years 1803, 1804, 1805 and 1806 Performed by Order of His Imperial Majesty Alexander the First, Emperor of Russia in the ship Neva.

London: John Booth, 1814. A hand coloured copper engraved map ca. 27x20 cm (10 ½ x 8 in). Matted map in very good condition.
"Kodiak Island is a large island on the south coast of the U.S. state of Alaska, separated from the Alaska mainland by the Shelikof Strait. The largest island in the Kodiak Archipelago, Kodiak Island is the second largest island in the United States and the 80th largest island in the world" (Wikipedia).
This map is from a "most important work dealing with discoveries on the N.W. Coast of America. The author was a captain in the Russian navy and commander of the "Neva." He visited Kodiak and Sitka, wintering at the former island, and his long stay there gave him ample time and scope for a study of the native inhabitants and their habits and customs. The long chart shows the track of the voyage, and there are charts of the Washington Islands, Cadiack, and the Harbor of St. Paul, the coast from Bering’s Bay to Sea Otter Bay, Sitka or Norfolk Sound, etc.; with colored views of the Harbor of St. Paul in the Island of Cadiack and New Archangel in Norfolk Sound. There are also plates of Indian implements, etc. The work is important also as the principal source for the Sitka Massacre" (Soliday 873).

69. M'DOUGALL, George F. (c.1825-1871)
The Eventful Voyage of the H.M. Discovery Ship "Resolute" to the Arctic Regions in Search of Sir John Franklin and the Missing Crews of H.M. Discovery Ships "Erebus" and "Terror," 1852, 1853, 1854. To Which is Added an Account of her Being Fallen in with by an American Whaler After her Abandonment in Barrow Straits, and of her Presentation to Queen Victoria by the Government of the United States.

London: Longman, Brown, Green, Longmans, & Roberts, 1857. First Edition. Octavo. xl, 530, [1]; 24 pp. With 8 chromo-lithographs, 24 woodcuts, and a hand colored folding map. Original brown blind stamped patterned gilt cloth. Some moderate foxing, otherwise a very good copy.

"The Resolute, commanded by Captain Henry Kellett, formed part of the five-ship search force sent out under the overall command of Rear Admiral Sir Edward Belcher. Leaving one ship, The North Star, at Beechey Island as a base, the other four ships made important explorations as they searched unsuccessfully for Franklin. In May of 1854, convinced that the four ships could not be freed from the ice, Belcher ordered the squadron abandoned. Kellet objected strongly, believing the abandonment premature. Later naval historians have tended to agree with Kellett. The crews traveled over the ice for two weeks, until they reached the North Star and returned in her to England. The Resolute freed herself from the ice and drifted unharmed for a thousand miles before being recovered and ultimately presented to Queen Victoria"(Hill 1124); "Kellett and McClintock turned their attention to the search for Franklin's expedition and the exploration of new lands in the vicinity of Melville Island" (Howgego 1850-1940 Polar Regions, B15); Arctic Bibliography 10603; Sabin 43183.

70. MOHUN, Edward (1838-1912)
Map of the Province of British Columbia Compiled and Drawn by Edward Mohun, C.E. By Direction of the Honorable W. Smithe, Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works.

Victoria B.C.: Lands and Works, 1884. Map lithographed and printed in four colours ca. 49x56 cm (19x22 in). Map mounted on linen and housed in period dark green gilt tooled straight-grained full sheep covers. Covers mildly worn at extremities and spine chipped at head and foot and hinges cracked, otherwise a very good map in very original condition.
Worldcat only locates eleven copies of this rare map which shows the soon to be completed Canadian Pacific Railway. The map was engraved and printed in Edinburgh by J. Bartholomew and was published by the Dawson Brothers in Montreal.
Edward Mohun "arrived in Victoria in June of 1862. He was married to Emmeline Jane Newton (widow of W.H. Newton) in New Westminster in 1878. From 1863-1871 he worked as a surveyor throughout Vancouver Island, the Okanagan, Fraser Valley and Haida Gwaii. In 1871 and 1872 he was a the Canadian Pacific Railway Divisional Engineer of the "H Party" in charge of surveying the Yellowhead and Eagle Pass. Mohun was appointed as a surveyor to the Joint Indian Reserve Commission in 1876. He surveyed reserve allotments throughout Vancouver Island and the coastal areas. In 1884, with the direction of the Honourable W. Smithe, Chief Commissioner of Lands and works, Mohun created a map of the Province of British Columbia" (Federal and Provincial Collections of Minutes of Decision, Correspondence, and Sketches Online). The covers were produced by M.W. Waitt & Co., a printer/publisher established in Victoria BC in 1877, who sold the map.

71. MUELLER, G[erhard] P. [Friedrich] (1705-1783)
[Voyages and Discoveries made by the Russians] Voyages et Découvertes faites par les Russes le long des côtes de la Mer Glaciale et sur l'Océan Oriental, tant vers le Japon que vers l'Amerique. On y a joint L’Histoire du fleuve Amur et des pays adjacens, depuis la conquête des Russes [Voyages and Discoveries made by the Russians along the coast of the Arctic Ocean and the Eastern Ocean, both in Japan and America. With the History of the River Amur and adjacent countries, since the conquest by Russia] / Translated from the German into French by C.G.F. Dumas.

Amsterdam: Marc-Michel Rey, 1766. First French edition. Small Octavo, 2 vols. in one. x, [2] 388; iv, 207 [25 Table des Matieres, Advertisements] pp. With a large folding engraved map. Handsome period full polished mottled calf, spine gilt lettered with red morocco label, edges coloured. A near fine copy.

The first French translation of Müller’s very important description of the Great Northern Expedition to Kamchatka and the Northwest coast of America (1733-43) under the command of Vitus Bering and with a history of Russian discoveries in the Arctic and Pacific oceans made up to 1749. The book was published for the first time in Saint Petersburg in 1758; both a Russian (in ‘Ezhemesiachnie Sochineniia’ magazine, Jan-May, Jul-Nov 1758) and a German (Sammlung Russischer Geschichte, B. III) versions were issued the same year.
The significance of Müller’s work is found in the many first hand reports and manuscript accounts discovered by him in Yakutsk and Irkutsk archives while working there as a member of Bering’s expedition. His publications were the main source of original material for both European and Russian scientific communities. As Sabin notes, it is "indispensable for the history of discovery and exploration in the Northern Pacific." Professor Golder considered Miller’s work "the most important book" about Bering’s expedition and added that "although a lot of ink and paper has been spent to describe Bering’s voyage since then [1758], little has been added to what had been already known to us from Müller’s work" (Golder, Bering’s Voyages, vol. 1. New York, 1922, p. 352-353).
Müller compiled his work as a refutation to a somewhat controversial publication by Nicolas Delisle who had left Russian Academy of Sciences with a scandal in 1747. Delisle account based on intelligence gathered by his brother, Delisle de la Croyère, who was an astronomer of Bering’s expedition 1733-43. Nicolas Delisle’s map "Carte des nouvelles découvertes au nord de la mer du Sud, tant à l’est de la Sibérie et du Kamtschatka," and the text explanation "Explication de la carte des nouvelles découvertes" (both published in Paris, 1752) contained several significant errors and inaccuracies. On special assignment of the President of Russian Academy, Müller made a map entitled "Nouvelle Carte decouvertes faites par des vaisseaux Russiens aux cotes inconnues de l'Amerique Septentrionale avec les Pais Adiacents" which was first published in 1754 (only a few copies printed, Lada-Mocarski) and then in 1758, with significant additions and improvements it was re-issued. The map showed the territory from the Ob river to the Pacific, and "confirmed the existence of a body of water between Asia and America, the subject of much dispute prior to that time; it was the first to give an approximate picture of what is now the Alaskan peninsula" (Lathrop Harper Auctions). This 1758 map was included in the first French edition.
One of the most notable paragraphs of Müller’s work contains the first description of Semen Dezhnev’s expedition through the strait between Asia and America in 1648, which will be later called Bering Strait, thus determining that Dezhnev was the discoverer of the strait. "This fact was forgotten in the following 88 years and would be completely lost if it were not for Müller’s search in the archives of Yakutsk" (Lada-Mocarski, p. 78).
Müller also tried to give a historical proof for Russia’s rights for Bering Strait and the adjacent American territories. The same goal lies behind the second article, which describes the Amur River and all its tributaries. It was compiled in 1740 on the urgent assignment from Russian Empress Anna Ioannovna, who wanted to use it as a basis for establishing the new border with China. Müller notes about Amur’s importance in possible future navigations to Japan, Kamchatka, trade with India and China and very carefully hints at the possibilities of Russian colonial annexations in the Pacific: "our intentions about Japan and the American discoveries will be easier to realise." The article was first published in Russian in 1757 (‘Ezhemesiachnie Sochineniia, Jul-Oct); and in German in Büsching’s Magazin (Bd. II).
The book is supplemented with an index of subjects and personal and geographical names, and Rey’s catalogue of books to sale. "This French translation by Charles Guillaume Frédéric Dumas (ca. 1725-1780) is said to be fuller and far superior to the English translation published by Jefferys in 1761" (Hill 1201); Howes M-875; Sabin 51286; Wickersham 6333; Wagner, Cartography, 615; Lada-Mocarski (German & English editions. Only) 15 & 17: Miller, [History of Siberia] (3 vols., Moscow, 2000-2005).

72. NARES, Captain George S., Sir (bap. 1831 - d. 1915)
Journals and Proceedings of the Arctic Expedition, 1875-6; [With] a Carte de Visite Photograph of Nares produced by J. Griffin & Co. London ca. 1878.

London: Her Majesty's Stationary Office, 1877. First Edition With a Carte de Visite Photograph of Nares. Folio. vii, 484 pp. With text illustrations plus nine uncolored maps (seven folding), seven colored maps (six folding), and sixteen plates (twelve folding). Period navy patterned gilt lettered full cloth. A near fine copy.
This work is the official British government report of the Arctic Expedition of 1876-7 commanded by Captain George S. Nares. The expedition's primary objective was to attain the highest northern latitude and, if possible, to reach the North Pole, and from winter quarters to explore the adjacent coasts within the reach of traveling parties. The expedition was the first to sail ships through the channel between Greenland and Ellesmere Island and as far north as the Lincoln Sea. A sledging party under Captain Albert Hastings Markham also set a new record on land, reaching as far north as 83° 20'.

The "British Arctic expedition of 1875-6, in the vessels Alert and Discovery, [had] the chief aim of which was to reach the north pole. Reports of the American expeditions of Isaac Israel Hayes, 1860-61, and C. F. Hall, 1870-73, had revived the belief in an open polar sea and suggested that land extended far to the north, west of Robeson Channel. Both these theories proved to be wrong, but at the time they indicated the Smith Sound route as the best line of advance to the pole. The vessels sailed on 29 May 1875 and reached winter quarters on the coast of Grinnell Land (Ellesmere Island), the Discovery in latitude 81°44' N., and the Alert, with Nares, in latitude 82°27' N ‘the most northerly point hitherto reached in the Canadian Arctic’ (Levere, 281). The following spring sledge parties were sent out. That led by Lieutenant Pelham Aldrich of the Alert explored the north coast of Ellesmere Island westwards. They reached its most northerly point (Cape Columbia) and continued to Cape Alfred Ernest (Alert Point) before turning back, having charted some 400 km of new coastline (Hattersley-Smith, 121). Lieutenant Lewis A. Beaumont of the Discovery followed the coast of Greenland northwards to Sherard Osborn Fjord. Meanwhile, a party led by Commander A. H. Markham of the Alert struck out over the ice in an attempt to get to the pole. They reached 83°20' N, a heroic achievement considering that the pack ice was extremely rough, and also drifting south almost as fast as they were travelling northwards. Their experience and an outbreak of scurvy affecting both ships led Nares to call off the entire expedition and return home early, in the late summer of 1876" (Oxford DNB).
This official work includes reports of the expedition's two ships, the Alert and the Discovery, and various autumn 1875 and spring 1876 traveling parties (including journals of the various sledge parties). The volume provides incredible detail concerning the daily activities and experience of the expedition, including descriptions of the ice, weather, wildlife, vegetation, and the health and activities of the members of the expedition. The appendix: Nares' report on the quality and quantity of the provisions, is also of great interest, noting which supplies were particularly worthwhile and which items were useless. Howgego 1850-1940, Polar Regions N6.

73. NARES, Captain George S., Sir (bap. 1831 - d. 1915)
Narrative of a Voyage to the Polar Sea During 1875-6 in H.M. Ships 'Alert' and 'Discovery'...,With Notes on the Natural History, Edited by H. W. Feilden, Naturalist to the Expedition.

London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle, & Rivington, 1878. First Edition. Octavo, 2 vols. xl, 395; viii, 378, 32 pp. With two folding maps, six woodbury type photographs, eight other plates, including a chromolithograph, and 38 woodcuts in text. Original publisher's green gilt cloth. With library blind stamps on some pages and plates, and with a map and hinge reinforced with old archival tape, otherwise a very good set.
"The scope and primary objective of which should be to attain the highest northern latitude, and, if possible, to reach the North Pole, and from winter quarters to explore the adjacent coasts within the reach of traveling parties, the limits of ship navigation being confined within the meridians of 20 and 90 west longitude" (Arctic Bibliography 12026); Howgego 1850-1940 Polar Regions, N6.
"The vessels sailed on 29 May 1875 and reached winter quarters on the coast of Grinnell Land (Ellesmere Island), the Discovery in latitude 81°44' N., and the Alert, with Nares, in latitude 82°27' N ‘the most northerly point hitherto reached in the Canadian Arctic’ (Levere, 281). The following spring sledge parties were sent out. That led by Lieutenant Pelham Aldrich of the Alert explored the north coast of Ellesmere Island westwards. They reached its most northerly point (Cape Columbia) and continued to Cape Alfred Ernest (Alert Point) before turning back, having charted some 400 km of new coastline (Hattersley-Smith, 121). Lieutenant Lewis A. Beaumont of the Discovery followed the coast of Greenland northwards to Sherard Osborn Fjord. Meanwhile, a party led by Commander A. H. Markham of the Alert struck out over the ice in an attempt to get to the pole. They reached 83°20' N, a heroic achievement considering that the pack ice was extremely rough, and also drifting south almost as fast as they were travelling northwards. Their experience and an outbreak of scurvy affecting both ships led Nares to call off the entire expedition and return home early, in the late summer of 1876.
This was a morally courageous action which undoubtedly prevented further loss of life. Nares was a humane man, but acting within the rigid structures of the Victorian navy. When one of the sub-lieutenants shot a seal (a vital source of fresh food for the scurvy sufferers) he ‘was reprimanded by Nares for disturbing the ship's company at divine service. However, he was later congratulated in the wardroom by the captain on his marksmanship’ (Hattersley-Smith, 124). It would be unfair to blame Nares alone for mistakes in planning the expedition, though he was responsible for the low priority given to scientific work (perhaps a reflection of his experiences in the Challenger.) In spite of this, valuable scientific as well as geographical results had been obtained. Nares wrote a narrative of the expedition, A Voyage to the Polar Sea (1878)" (Oxford DNB).

74. NORDENSKIÖLD, Nils Adolf Erik (1832-1901)
[Autograph Letter Signed ‘A.E. Nordenskiöld’ to a Princess (‘Hoheite Fürstin’), in German About Nordenskiöld's trip to Roma the next day; [With] a Carte-de-Visite Photo of Nordenskiöld by Adolf Halwas (Berlin) showing him head and shoulders in slight profile].

Letter: Napoli, 19 February 1880. On a folded octavo leaf (17,5x22,5 cm). 2 pp. Mild fold marks, otherwise a fine letter. Photograph: Berlin: Adolf Halwas, ca. 1889. 10.5 x6 cm (4 x 2 ¼ in). Period ink inscriptions "Nordenskiöld" on recto . Removed from album with corresponding loss of printed surface on verso, but still a very good photograph.
The letter was written by a renowned polar explorer Adolf Erik Nordeskiöld shortly after he had completed his famous Vega expedition 1878-1879 which was the first complete crossing of the Northeast Passage and the first circumnavigation of the Eurasian continent.
"On 22 June 1878 the ship set out from Sweden through the Northeast Passage around the north coast of Eurasia. Blocked by ice on 28 September of that year only 120 miles (200 km) short of the Bering Strait marking the eastern end of Asia, the ship was not freed until 18 July 1879. Two days later East Cape was passed, and Vega became the first ship to complete a voyage through the Northeast Passage. Returning by way of the Western Pacific, Indian Ocean, and Suez Canal, Vega also became the first vessel to circumnavigate the Eurasian continent" (Wikipedia).
The letter was written by Nordeskiöld on his way back to Sweden, as it’s known that he returned to Stockholm only two months later, on April 24th 1880. In the letter the explorer thanks the princess for her letters and good words about him and mentions ‘a dozen of letters and telegrams’ he has to send, as well as his early leave for Rome the next day.
Freiherr Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld was a Finnish baron, geologist, mineralogist and arctic explorer of Finnish-Swedish origin. He was a member of the prominent Finland-Swedish Nordenskiöld family of scientists. Born in the Grand Duchy of Finland at the time when it was a part of the Russian Empire, he was later, due to his political activity, forced to live in political exile in Sweden, where he later would become a member of the Parliament of Sweden and the Swedish Academy. He is most remembered for the Vega expedition along the northern coast of Eurasia, which he led in 1878-1879. This was the first complete crossing of the Northeast Passage (Wikipedia).

75. PALLIN, Hugo Nikolaus (1880-1953)
[Six Photograph Albums with 516 Original Photographs of Pallin’s Mountaineering Expedition to West Greenland, 1936].

In total 516 images, the vast majority ca. 8,5x12,5 cm (3 ¼ x 4 ¾ in) or slightly smaller, mounted on stiff cardboard leaves. Over 30 images with period pencil captions and notes on verso in Swedish. All albums original, cardboard or imitation leather, stitched through on top and bottom of spines. One album with the rear board bent, some with boards slightly rubbed or soiled, otherwise a very good collection with bright, strong images.
[With: A Presentation Copy of the Printed Account of the Expedition]: PALLIN, H.N. Mountains and Glaciers in West Greenland. Six albums, all Oblong Folio (ca. 24x33 cm): five with 12 leaves, one with 6 leaves. 1936.
London: Spottiswoode, Ballantyne & Co, 1937. Offprint from "The Alpine Journal," November 1937. Octavo. 190-202, [1] p. With 3 plates (1 folding). Original publisher’s wrapper. With Pallin’s presentation inscription on the front wrapper "To Mr. Donald W. Brown, with compliments from H.N. Pallin." Near fine copy.

A unique extensive collection documenting Hugo Pallin’s mountaineering and glacier research expedition to West Greenland in summer 1936. He proceeded from Copenhagen on the SS Hans Egede and went along the coast of Western Greenland, visiting Umanak (Uummannaq), Nugssuaq (Nuussuaq) Peninsula (Uummannaq district) and Pröven. After that he went up north on the coast schooner Sigrid to Upernavik Island, and extensively climbed it in the vicinity of its highest peak Sanderson’s Hope. Together with J. Bjarnow, the district medical officer in Upernavik town, Pallin proceeded up north on motorboat to Melville Bay, usually inaccessible in summer, as the main destination. There the party made several ascents of Devil’s Thumb, Cape Seddon, mountains of Holms Island, Nuussuaq Peninsula (Upernavik Archipelago) and a number of small islands. In the end of his journey Pallin also went to the Wegener Peninsula, a site of the fourth and last expedition to Greenland (1930) of a renowned German polar researcher Alfred Wegener (1880-1930). Pallin went across the Qaumarujuk Glacier and examined Wegener’s winter house erected on the inland ice.

The photographs taken by Pallin himself, give a detailed account of the expedition and cover from the departure from Copenhagen to the final trip across the Wegener peninsula. Pallin’s mountaineering trips are documented at great length, including artistic views of surrounding landscape (mountains, glaciers, ocean, waterways) and close up views of the routes; portraits of Pallin, his companions and guides (e.g. Native Greenlander Martin Hammud and J. Bjarnow), shots taken on board Hans Egede and Sigrid et al. A series of pictures from the site of Alfred Wegener’s expedition is significant, showing the winter house, the remains of Wegener’s innovative propeller-driven snowmobile and numerous abandoned canisters with gasoline, some of which Pallin’s party took with them. Other images include several scenes on the SS Hans Egede on its way from Denmark, with its crew and passengers, and ships met on the way; views of Greenland towns and coastal settlements, several churches (including new Upernavik church built in 1926). There are also quite a few vivid images of the Greenland natives - kayakers, families, children, scenes in the settlements and on board Hans Egede and Sigrid.

The albums contain the originals of all eight images and two large panoramas (divided into four parts) published in Pallin’s articles "Mountains and Glaciers in West Greenland" which is added to the set. Overall a beautiful collection created and assembled with real inspiration. Pallin recounted:
"The view over Umanak fjord from this terrace was one of the most magnificent I have seen. Above the tide waters of the fjord rose a grand Alpine landscape. On the surface of the pale turquoise-blue water floated innumerable icebergs, looking from up here like the white sails of a squadron of pleasure yachts. The icebergs were calving unceasingly in the great summer heat, and the roar of the calving sounded like the cannonade from a naval battle" (Mountains and Glaciers, p. 193-194).

"Hugo Nikolaus (‘Nils’) Pallin was a Swedish civil engineer, a keen alpinist and traveller. He achieved the first winter ascent of Kebnekaise (2123 m.), Sweden's highest mountain, in 1908, of Sarektjakko in 1916, and of Kaskasatjakko in 1920. He also climbed several other 2000 m. Peaks in Swedish Lapland. He described some of his adventures in Kebnekaise. Färder och äventyr i Lappland (Stockholm, 1927). In 1920-21 he accompanied Otto Nordenskiöld’s expedition to West Patagonia as cartographer, and himself led geographical parties to Spitsbergen in 1922, 1923, and 1928, to Iceland in 1935, and to West Greenland in 1936. In 1937 he published a work entitled Mountains and glaciers in West Greenland" (Polar Record. Vol. 7. Issue 50. May 1955. P. 431).

"Pallin was a secretary of the Lapland Mountaineering club (1920), one of the founders and first president of the Swedish Army Reserve Association (1924), a member of the British Alpine Club (1929) et al. He discovered several new 2000-meter peaks in Lapland and conducted a ski trip from the Arctic Ocean to the Kattegat (1927-28). He was the author of over 10 books and publications about mountaineering, including map of Mt. Akkafjället (1920), "Swedish mountain catalog" (Svensk fjällkatalog, 1922), which was purchased by the Swedish Tourist Association, and a revised edition of Petrus Tillaeus’ famous map of Stockholm (1925). Pallin was the editor of "The Road" ("Vägen") magazine since 1936" (Wikipedia).

76. PALMERSTON, Temple Henry John (1784-1865)
[CAPTAIN EDWARD BELCHER’S CIRCUMNAVIGATION 1836-1842] Manuscript Dispatch from the Foreign Office (London) to H.M. Consul in Guayaquil, Walter Cope, notifying Commander Belcher’s Departure to the Pacific Ocean, to Survey the West Coast of America, Requesting the Consul to Explain to the Government of New Granada Belcher’s Mission and Asking Assistance from the Ecuadorian Authorities. The dispatch is written by a secretary, marked "№ 4" and signed "Palmerston."

London, 15 November 1836. Three pages. Ca. 31x20 cm (12 ¼x 8 in) Watermarked laid paper with centrefold. Fine condition.
The dispatch signed by Henry Palmerston while the head of the British Foreign Office (1830-1841) concerns Edward Belcher’s circumnavigation on HMS Sulphur in 1836-42. It informs the British Consul in Guayaquil that "Commander Belcher" is being sent by the Admiralty to complete "the survey of the Western Coast of America," and instructs him to request the Government of New Granada to support the expedition: "to afford to Captain Belcher and to the Officers under his Command, such friendly assistance and good offices as may facilitate the satisfactory execution of the Duties with which they are charged." The Consul is also obliged to inform the Ecuadorian authorities that "when the proposed Survey shall be completed, HMS Government will be happy to present the Granadian Government with a copy of it." The dispatch finishes with the description of Belcher’s route to South America: "Commander Belcher will proceed in the first instance to Panama crossing the Isthmus from Chagres, and on his arrival at the former Port, he will take the command of the vessels which have been placed under his orders."
"In November 1836 [Belcher] was appointed to the Sulphur, a surveying ship, then on the west coast of South America, from which Captain Beechey had been obliged to invalid out. During the next three years the Sulphur was employed on the west coast of both North and South America, and at the end of 1839 received orders to return to England by the western route. After visiting several of the island groups in the south Pacific and making such observations as time permitted, Belcher arrived at Singapore in October 1840, where he was ordered back to China, because of the war there; during the following year he was actively engaged, especially in operations in the Canton River. The Sulphur finally arrived in England in July 1842, after a commission of nearly seven years. Belcher had already been advanced to post rank (6 May 1841) and was made a CB (14 October 1841); in January 1843 he was made a knight, and that year published his Narrative of a Voyage Round the World Performed in H.M.S. Sulphur during the Years 1836-42 (2 vols.)" (Oxford DNB).

77. PARRY, Captain William Edward (1790-1855)
Journal of a Second Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific from the Atlantic to the Pacific; Performed in the Years 1821-22-23, In His Majesty's Ships Fury and Hecla.

London: John Murray, 1824. First Edition with a Signed Letter by Parry. Quarto. xxx, [ii], 571, [1] pp. With a frontispiece and 30 other aquatints and copper engraved plates, and eight folding copper engraved maps and coastal panoramas. Handsome period brown gilt tooled half calf and marbled boards. Hinges with some cracks but holding, otherwise a very good copy.
[With]: [An Autograph Letter Signed by Parry to an Unknown "My Dear Friend" Regarding Parry’s family and their new home in the Regent’s Park].
Admiralty, 17 May 1837. 3 pp. On a folded octavo leaf (18,5x23 cm). Brown ink on laid paper; slightly later ink inscription on the first page "Captain Parry, the Arctic navigator." Mild fold marks, traces of paper on the forth page as the letter had been attached to a book or a sheet of paper, otherwise a very good letter.

"The letter was written after Parry had returned from Australia where he served in 1829-34 as the Commissioner of the Australian Agricultural Company based at Tahlee (northern shore of Port Stephens, New South Wales). At the time of writing this letter Parry was a newly appointed "supervisor of the packet service (overseas mail) of the Admiralty, which had been transferred from the Post Office to the Admiralty in January 1837, and was responsible for negotiating contracts with steamship companies for carrying the mails to India and elsewhere." He was also a "controller of steam machinery at the Admiralty from April 1837 to December 1846" (Oxford DNB).
In the letter Parry mentions that he will be "in the midst of preparations to receive my dear wife and little ones, after a separation, more or less, of nearly 5 months." His wife, Isabella Louisa Parry (1801-1839), daughter of John Thomas Stanley, first Baron Stanley of Alderley, was a sketcher and collector. She married Parry on 23 October 1826 and accompanied him to Australia where she designed and drew the plan of the Agricultural Company's chapel of St John at nearby Stroud (Design and Art Australia on-line). Sixteen drawings by Isabella Parry are now in the collection of the Scott Polar Research Institute, University of Cambridge.
Parry also mentions his "elder Boy Edward" – one of four Parry’s surviving children. Edward Parry (1830-1890) became suffragan bishop of Dover and wrote a biography of his father entitled Memoirs of Rear-Admiral Sir W. E. Parry (1857).
In the letter Parry tells his unidentified correspondent that he has "just concluded a bargain for a house N 2 [?] Gloucester Terrace, in the Regent’s Park, for 3 months from the 25th - so that I hope we may now have a prospect of seeing something of you and yours occasionally."
“After proving on his first voyage that Lancaster Sound did in fact exist, and that Ross' Croker mountains were imaginary, Parry set out to test his theory that the Northwest Passage could be found farther south, on the northwest corner of Hudson Bay. "Parry sailed on another arctic expedition in May, 1821, and was twice frozen in for several months, but made many explorations and discoveries by sea and by land. He became a captain in November of that year and in 1823 was appointed acting hydrographer to the Admiralty. This work deals with the characteristics of the Eskimos and is a treatise on aboriginal life as well as a narrative of scientific discoveries" (Hill 1312); these are some of the first anthropological descriptions of the Inuit, and Parry and his men owed much of their survival to learning the techniques of these people; Arctic Bibliography 13142; Howgego 1800-1850, P10; Sabin 58864.

78. PEDDER, John (1850-1929) & CAINE, William Sproston (1842-1903)
[Collection of Eighteen Watercolours and Drawings of the Canadian Rockies and British Columbia with two Drawings of Niagara and Japan. Sixteen of These Works were used to Illustrate the Book by W.S. Caine M.P.: "A Trip Around the World in 1887-8" London: Routledge, 1888].
British Columbia, [1887-8]. Eighteen watercolours and ink drawings, individually matted. Housed in a recent black cloth clamshell box, with a maroon gilt titled morocco label. The collection is in very good condition.
W.S. Caine, a British politician and Temperance advocate, started his around world journey in Liverpool and then crossed the Atlantic to Quebec, where he went overland crossing Canada to B.C., and then continued his trip to Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Ceylon and India. With the exception of one Niagara picture and one drawing in Japan, all of these works were done in the Canadian Rockies or British Columbia. Caine produced four of the works while John Pedder produced the remaining fourteen. The B.C. Archives holds an additional four of Pedder's B.C. Ink drawings used as illustrations in the book. Caine and Pedder were skilled artists in both ink and watercolour, which is clearly shown in this collection:

1) "The Whirlpool Rapids – Niagara" (Illustration p.31). Ink drawing, 5½ x 6¾ inches.

2) "Calgary Canada - Rocky Mountains in Distance" (By W.S. Caine) (Illustration p.59). Watercolour with touches of gouache, over pencil, 4¼ x 7½ inches.

3) "The Bow River leaving the Rocky Mountains at the Gap. Near Calgary Canada" (Illustration p.69 "The Gap: Entrance to the Rocky Mountains) Initialed: "J P.". Watercolor with touches of gouache, over pencil, 8¼ x 14 inches.

4) "Castle Mountain Range - National Park - Rocky Mountains - Canada" (By W.S. Caine) (Illustration p.72 "Castle Mountain"). Ink drawing, 4¼ x 8 inches. Backed. A few small holes in upper border and margin.

5) "The National Park. Rocky Mountains. Canada" (Illustration p.73 "View of Banff from above the Sanatorium" ). Initialed: "J P." Watercolor and ink with touches of gouache, over pencil, 7¼ x 12¼ inches.
6) "Cascade Mountain - National Park - Rocky Mountains - Canada" (By W.S. Caine) (Illustration p.80). Ink drawing, 4¼ x 8 inches. Backed. A few small holes in upper border and margin

7) "W.S. And Hannah Caine on the Bow River - Rocky Mountains - Canada" (Illustration p.81) Signed: "J. Pedder". Watercolor with touches of gouache, over pencil, 8¼ x 12 inches. Backed. Margins chipped; short, clean tear affecting inch and a half near lower border (repaired).

8) ["Vermillion Lake, National Park"] (Illustration p.85). Watercolour with touches of gouache, 6¾ x 10½ inches. Backed. Margins chipped with one-inch tear above lower border (repaired).
9) "Canadian Pacific Railway Hotel -National Park - Canada" (Illustration p.91). Initialed: "J P." Ink drawing, 8½ x 4 ½inches.
10) "The Hermit Range Selkirk Mountains" (Illustration p.92). Watercolour with touches of gouache, 5¾ x 6 inches (entire sheet).
11) "Summit Lake Rocky Mountains" (Illustration p.93). Initialed: "J P." Ink, 8¾ x 6½ inches (entire sheet). Mounted. Margins chipped.
12) [Kicking Horse Pass] (Illustration p.96) Initialed: "J. P." Ink drawing, 6¼ x 10½ inches.

13) ["The Monarchs of the Rocky Mountains - Cathedral Peak - Mount Stephen"] (Illustration p.99). Watercolour with touches of gouache, over pencil, 8¼ x 13 inches.

14) ["Mount Sir Donald and the Great Glacier"] (Illustration p.107) Signed: "J. Pedder Dec." Watercolour and ink with touches of gouache, over pencil, 8½ x 12½ inches.

15) "Indians catching Salmon - Fraser River - British Columbia" (Illustration p.121). Mounted. Image 5½ x 6 inches. Margins chipped.
16) "Nikko Japan" (By W.S. Caine) (Illustration p.176 "Row of Buddhas at Nikko: Nan-Tai-San Mountains in the Distance). Ink drawing, 6¼ x 10½ inches. One and a half inches loss of top surface of paper near lower border.
Not Illustrated in the Book:
17) "Above St. Andre...[?]. Dated...[?] 24/[8?]6." Pencil, heightened in white, on blue paper, 9¾ x 13¼ inches. Short tear in upper edge.
18) [Untitled illustration of Rocky Mountains]. Watercolour with touches of gouache, 7 x 10 inches.

79. PERRÈ, Henri (1828-1890)
[Watercolour of a River (Fraser?) Between Mountains in the Interior of British Columbia].
Ca. 1878. Watercolour mounted on original backing board ca. 20,5x30,5 cm (8x12 in). Pencis inscription "Henri Perre, Canadian View" on the verso of the mounting board. Some minor foxing of upper right corner, otherwise in very good condition.
This watercolour by Perre shows a river landscape between mountains with a native American figure at the water's edge. This watercolour is from Perre's visit to British Columbia after he had visited Colorado and California in 1878. The painting possibly shows the Fraser River north of Lillooet.
"Henri Perré studied art in Dresden before being forced to flee to the United States after fighting in the 1849 uprisings in Saxony. References to his American career are primarily anecdotes of his friends who related that he had lived the life of a confirmed bachelor in the Carolinas, Cincinnati, Ohio, and Chicago before fighting in the Confederate army during the Civil War. He had made a brief visit to Toronto in 1854 and moved there in 1863. Perré, described by Canadian friends as eccentric but popular, lived in Toronto for much of the balance of his life, in the city’s downtown district and for a time in the quarters of the Ontario Society of Artists.
Principally a landscape artist, he not only painted in the Don valley and the Toronto environs but also made numerous sketching trips by railway: to Ancaster, Dundas, and Preston, Ont., in 1874 and 1881; to Bic and Matapédia, Que., in 1882; as well as to Muskoka and Owen Sound, Ont. However, during 1877-78 he visited Philadelphia, with fellow artist John Wesley Bridgman, and painted along the Schuylkill and Shenandoah rivers. Titles of his paintings indicate that in 1878 he visited Colorado and California at the time when Thomas Moran and other American artists were discovering the west, and several British Columbia views suggest that he went north from California to sketch there before that province had been linked to central Canada by rail.
Perré’s rural landscapes, primarily in oil and water-colour, are usually modest in size, with the exception of the large Niagara Falls. His realistic style is allied to that of the late Hudson River school of painters and other contemporary American landscapists. Despite his large output (approximately 150 works were exhibited at Ontario Society of Artists and Royal Canadian Academy exhibitions between 1874 and 1889), few are now in public collections. His academy diploma work, Landscape (in the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa), and a water-colour, Cliff and cove (in the Art Gallery of Ontario, Toronto), are landscapes characterized by minute figures as central themes surrounded by trees, rocks, and water.
While teaching the antique, drawing from casts of classical sculpture, at the Ontario School of Art (now the Ontario College of Art), Toronto, from 1876 to 1882, Perré instructed the school’s early students, including George Agnew Reid. He probably also influenced the youthful Homer Ransford Watson, whom he met at the Toronto photographic studio of William Notman. They may have been sketching companions given the fact that Perré’s Dundas Road and Watson’s The old Dundas Road (National Gallery of Canada) both date from 1881. Perré was elected a member of the Ontario Society of Artists in 1874 and was a close associate of society members who proposed him as a charter member of the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts in 1880. He exhibited with both societies, as well as at the Art Association of Montreal and at the Toronto Industrial Exhibition. His paintings were displayed in the Canadian sections at the Philadelphia Centennial International Exhibition, 1876, and the Colonial and Indian Exhibition, London, 1886" (Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online).

80. PIM, Bedford Clapperton Trevelyan (1826-1886), [ARCTIC EXPLORER]
[Autograph Letter Signed "Bedford Pim" to Don Carlos Gutierrez (1818-1882), Minister Plenipotentiary, Honduras Government, with the Latter’s Signed Note, Countersigned by Pim in Receipt].
London: 2 Crown Office Row, Temple, E.C., 15 July 1872. Quarto (ca. 22,5x19,5 cm (9 x 7 ½ in).Four pages with only two filled in. Laid watermarked paper with printed address letterhead and a penny Inland Revenue stamp on the second page; text written in ink in a legible hand. Paper mildly sunned and aged, and with folds, but overall the letter is in a very good condition.
Captain Bedford Pim, R.N. Was a British naval officer, arctic explorer and barrister. Pim "served under Captain Henry Kellett on the Herald from 1845 to 1849. In that year he was lent for duty on the brig Plover; having wintered in Kotzebue Sound, Alaska, he made a journey in March and April 1850 to Mikhailovsky in search of Sir John Franklin.., [Then in 1852 on board the Resolute he] served under Sir Edward Belcher in the western division of his Arctic search expedition. In the following October, when the Resolute was in winter quarters off Melville Island, a travelling party discovered in a cairn on the island the information (placed there by McClure the previous April) that McClure's ship, the Investigator, was ice-bound in Mercy Harbour, Banks Land, 160 miles off. It was too late in the season to attempt a communication, but on 10 March 1853 Pim was sent as a volunteer in charge of a sledge to Banks Land. The journey was accomplished in twenty-eight days: on 6 April Pim safely reached the vessel, only just in time to relieve the sick and enfeebled crew.., [Then] In June 1859 he was appointed to the Gorgon, for service in Central America. While stationed off Grey Town he originated and surveyed the Nicaraguan route for an isthmian canal through Mosquito and Nicaragua. While on the station he purchased a bay on the Atlantic shore, for which he was censured by the lords of the Admiralty in May 1860" (Oxford DNB).

This letter concerns his salary as "Special Commissioner of Honduras" to which he was appointed to on the "23rd of May." Proposing payment "on the quarter days usual in this country," Pim includes the details of the first two proposed payments and "Incidental expenses." The letter is docketed, at the foot of the second page, "in the name & on behalf of the Honduras Government & as Minister Plenipotentiary." and signed "Carlos Gutierrez." Countersigned by Pim in receipt of £550 over a penny Inland Revenue stamp, and dated 23 July 1872.

81. RAE, John (1813-1893)
[Autograph Letter Signed to Alfred G. Henriques Regarding Latter’s Forthcoming Lecture on Arctic Subjects].
London: 2 Addison Gardens South Kensington, 9th February, 1874. Octavo (17,8x10,7 cm) two pages. Brown ink on laid paper. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
In the letter Rae mentions his wife, Catherine Jane Alicia Thompson, who had told Rae about Henriques’ intention to give a lecture "on Arctic subjects." Rae proceeds: "I have no doubt you have objects of interest enough to illustrate the lecture but should it so happen that this is not the case, permit me to say that anything from the Arctic Coast that we have, is heartily at your service, should you think them of any use."
The letter was written after Rae, having retired from the service in the Hudson’s Bay Company, returned to Britain and "divided his last years (1870-93) between London and Orkney. In 1866 he had been made an honorary LLD by Edinburgh University and in 1880, having contributed articles to Nature and other learned journals, he was made fellow of the Royal Society" (Oxford DNB).
Alfred Gutteres Henriques (1830-1908) was a lawyer involved with the management of the London Hospital, a member of the Royal Colonial Institute (which Rae also was a member of), Sussex Archaeological Society, a vice-president of the Anglo-Jewish Association.
John Rae (Inuktitut Aglooka "He who takes long strides") was a Scottish doctor who explored Northern Canada, surveyed parts of the Northwest Passage and reported the fate of the Franklin Expedition.
After studying medicine at Edinburgh he went to work for the Hudson's Bay Company as a doctor, accepting a post as surgeon at Moose Factory, Ontario, where he remained for ten years. Whilst working for the company, treating both European and indigenous employees of the company, Rae became known for his prodigious stamina and skilled use of snow shoes. He learned to live off the land like the Inuit and working with the local craftsmen, designed his own snow shoes. This knowledge allowed him to travel great distances with little equipment and few followers, unlike many other explorers of the Victorian Age.
In 1844-45, wanting to learn how to survey, Rae walked 1200 miles over two months in the winter forest, a feat that earned him the Inuit nickname Aglooka, "he who takes long strides." In 1846 Rae went on his first expedition and in 1848 joined Sir John Richardson in searching for the Northwest Passage.
By 1849 Rae was in charge of the Mackenzie River district at Fort Simpson. He was soon called upon to head north again, this time in search of two missing ships from the Franklin Expedition. While exploring the Boothia Peninsula in 1854 Rae made contact with local Inuit, from whom he obtained much information about the fate of the lost naval expedition. His report to the British Admiralty carried shocking and unwelcome evidence that cannibalism had been a last resort for some of the survivors. When it was leaked to the Press, Franklin's widow Lady Jane Franklin was outraged and recruited many important supporters, among them Charles Dickens who wrote several pamphlets condemning Rae for daring to suggest British Naval sailors would have resorted to cannibalism.
In 1860 Rae worked on the telegraph line to America, visiting Iceland and Greenland. In 1864 he made a further telegraph survey in the west of Canada. In 1884 at age 71 he was again working for the Hudson's Bay Company, this time as an explorer of the Red River for a proposed telegraph line from the United States to Russia” (Wikipedia).

82. ROPER, Edward (1857-1891)
[Two Original Monochrome Signed Watercolours of the Griffin Lake Area of the Selkirk Range in British Columbia, one of which is entitled "Our First View of the Selkirks"].
Ca. 1887. The watercolours measure 10,5x21 cm (4x8 in) and 13,5x27 cm (5 ¼ x 10 ½ in) respectively. The watercolours are in fine condition and under later mat, glass and frame.

Roper produced these watercolours on his trip through Canada between 1887-1890. He published an account of his travels titled: "By track and trail: A journey through Canada: With numerous original sketches by the author." London & Calcutta: W.H. Allen & Co, 1891. The watercolour "Our First View of the Selkirks" is reproduced as a plate on page 141 in the book, while a very similar illustration to the watercolour of Griffin Lake appears on page 161. Originally purchased from the estate of a Vermont art collector whose collection was displayed in Vermont museums who in turn purchased the watercolours from the Kennedy Galleries of NYC, NY.

83. ROSS, John, Sir (1777-1856)
[Autograph Letter Signed and Marked ‘Private’ to Viscount Palmerston, About Ross’ Observations in Berlin and Intelligence About a Secret Treaty between Russia, Prussia, Austria and Holland, and Plans about the Construction of a Prussian Fleet].

Berlin, June 5th 1835. Quarto (25x20 cm). Four pages written in a legible hand, with a period manuscript remark in another hand on the verso of the last leaf (the date and name of the sender). Whatman paper watermarked 1835. Mild fold marks, otherwise the letter is in very good condition.
A very interesting informative letter by renowned British Arctic Explorer Sir John Ross. The letter was written during Ross’ travels to Europe after his second Arctic expedition 1829-1833, at the peak of his popularity, he "made a tour of the Continent and received a number of foreign awards and medals" (Dictionary of Canadian Biography online).
The letter was addressed to British Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston and concerned the latest political events in Europe, caused by the Belgium revolution of 1830.
"The European powers were divided over the Belgian cry for independence. The Napoleonic Wars were still fresh in the memories of Europeans, so when the French, under the recently installed July Monarchy, supported Belgian independence, the other powers unsurprisingly supported the continued union of the Provinces of the Netherlands. Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain all supported the somewhat authoritarian Dutch king, many fearing the French would annex an independent Belgium. However, in the end, none of the European powers sent troops to aid the Dutch government, partly because of rebellions within some of their own borders <..,> Only in 1839 the Treaty of London signed by the European powers (including the Netherlands) recognized Belgium as an independent and neutral country" (Wikipedia).
Ross reported about possible "secret treaty to which Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Holland are parties, <..,> constructed by Prince Wittgenstein, Prince Menchikoff, Prince Mitternich and the Prince of Orange." Russia, according to the treaty, was going "to have the same number of ships in commission this year as they had during the last, the first division has been at sea for some time, the second is to carry the Guards to Dantzig, which are to march to the frontiers of Silesia where a great view[?] of troops is to take place in September, there are to consist of 2 Corps d’armeé from Russia, Prussia and Austria, and of which all the courts are to take present." The Russian Emperor was heard to say that he "should like to have a trial with the English [at sea], they might perhaps beat him, at first, but he had no doubt that at last he would beat the English."
Ross reported that Prussia’s main intention was "to construct a navy, their principle port is to be Svinemunde, at the mouth of the river of Stettin they are to begin with 2 or 3 sloops of war and a flotilla of steam gun vessels, Prince Adalbert, Nephew to the King, looks forward to the command of those." For that reason Ross was going to have an observation trip to Swinemunde at the nearest future in order to "obtain a complete knowledge if not a survey of the harbour, which I understand is excellent for small vessels - a calculation has been made of a flotilla to cost 2 million dollars!" He also visited Potsdam "and examined the manufactory of arms there, in which there is nothing remarkable excepting that they have made an immense number, and all exactly of the same dimensions."
Ross also describes anti-French and anti-Belgian feelings at the Prussian court, saying that "they consider that Belgium will not be long in existence"; and noting several "great fetes which the King and Prince Royal of Prussia gave, that English, Belgian and French Corps Diplomatique were left out, while Russian, Dutch and Austrian down to the rank of Lieutenant were invited, the feeling against Belgium is extremely strong, and not much less against France."
In the letter he mentions several members of European Royal families, including the King of Prussia Friedrich Wilhelm III (reigned 1797 to 1840) who gave Ross an audience, awarded him with "the order of the Red Eagle" and "accepted" Ross’ book, just published "Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage" (London, 1835. 2 vols.). He also talks about Grand Duke Michael Pavlovich of Russia (1798-1849) who "was very desirous to know what brought me here, and immediately asked me this question, but my excuse was so good that no suspicion was excited, he told me that I was expected in Russia to build my ship, but I said owing to the change which had taken place it was abandoned for this season." Among other notable persons mentioned in the letter are Crown Prince of Prussia, future King Frederick William IV (reigned 1840-1861); Prince William of Orange, future King of the Netherlands (reigned 1840-1849); and several high ranking diplomats, most likely Prince Alexander Menshikov (1787-1869), Prince Petr Wittgenstein (1769-1843) and Austrian Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich (1773-1869).
Ross’ mentions in detail Count Karl von Groeben (1788-1876), who was the Prussian Crown Prince’s personal adjutant at the time. Ross "took up [his] lodging with the Count de Groeber," he also went together with the Count to Swinemunde, but most striking was that it was the Count who gave Ross the information about the "secret treaty," as Ross noted, "he [Groeben] insists, that there is a secret treaty."
In the end of the letter Ross mentions that he was going to stay in Berlin until 14th of June, then move to Copenhagen and return to England from Hamburg on the 18th. His activities in the field of European diplomacy were most likely highly appreciated, as in March 1839 he was appointed British consul in Stockholm, where he remained until 1846 (Dictionary of Canadian Biography online).

84. ROSS, John, Sir (1777-1856)
Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage, and of a Residence in the Arctic Regions During the Years 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833; Including the Reports of Commander, now Captain, James Clark Ross and the Discovery of the Northern Magnetic Pole. [With] Appendix to the Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage and of a Residence in the Arctic Regions During the Years 1829, 1830, 1831, 1832, 1833.

London: A.W. Webster, 1835. First Edition, Large Paper Issue With a Signed Note by Ross. Small Folio, 2 vols. xxxiii, [i], 740; xii, 120, cxliv, cii, [i] pp. With 50 engraved and lithographed plates, twenty hand colored, and a large folding hand colored map. Original publisher's patterned navy gilt cloth. A very good set.
With a Signed Note by Ross: "Madame, I have the honor to be yours most obediently, John Ross."
"As a result of the failure of his voyage in 1818, the Admiralty refused to support John Ross in a second expedition. It was not until 1829 that the assistance of Felix Booth, the sheriff of London, enabled him to set out in the small paddle-steamer Victory with his nephew James Clark Ross as second-in-command. The expedition survived four winters in the Arctic, during which James Clark Ross discovered the North Magnetic Pole. James Clark Ross edited the natural history section of the appendix, and John Ross the remaining sections, comprising meteorology, navigation, and ethnology" (Hill 1490).

"In searching for a passage south from Regent's inlet, the Victory was stopped by ice, and spent the winter of 1829-30 in Felix harbour. In the summer of 1830 she got a few miles further south and wintered in Victoria harbour. But there she remained, fast held by the ice, and in May 1832 was abandoned. Ross and his men made their way to Fury Beach, where they passed a fourth winter in a hut built from the wreck of the Fury. They remained healthy by eating an Inuit diet. In the summer of 1833 they succeeded in reaching Ross's old ship, the Isabella in Lancaster Sound, and in her returned to England in October.

The results of the voyage, remarkable for the length of time spent in the ice, were the survey of the Boothia peninsula, of a great part of King William Land, and of the Gulf of Boothia; the presumptive determination that the sought-for passage did not lie in that direction; and the discovery of the magnetic pole by James Clark Ross. In 1834 Ross was knighted; the geographical societies of London and Paris awarded him their gold medals, and on 24 December 1834 he was nominated a CB. In 1835 he published Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage (2 vols.)" (Oxford DNB); Abbey Travel 636; Arctic Bibliography 14866; Chavanne 1450; Holland, p.202; Howgego 1800-1850, R29; Sabin 73381.

85. ROSS, John, Sir (1777-1856)
First communication with the Natives of Prince Regents Bay, as Drawn by John Sackheouse and presented to Capt. Ross, Augt. 10, 1818.

London: John Murray, Feb. 2, 1819. Hand colored aquatint, folded as issued [Engraved by Robert or Daniel Havell]. Printed image size 20,5x39 cm (8 ½ x 15 ½ in). Matted with a minor finger soil in right upper blank margin, otherwise a very good aquatint.
From the first edition of Sir John Ross’ work "A Voyage of Discovery, made under the orders of the Admiralty, in His Majesty's Ships Isabella and Alexander, for the purpose of Exploring Baffin's Bay, and inquiring into the Probability of a North-West Passage" (London, 1819).
Abbey Travel II, 634; Sabin 73376; Staton & Tremaine 1152.

86. SANTINI, François
[Map of the Russian Discoveries in the North Pacific] Carte des Nouvelles Découvertes au Nord de la Mer du Sud, tant a l’Est de la Sibérie et du Kamchatka, qu’a l’Ouest de la Nouvelle France [Map of the New Discoveries on the North of the South Ocean, Eastern Siberia and Kamchatka, and on the West of the New France].

Venice: M. Remondini, 1784. 45x63 cm (17 ½ x 25 in). Double-page engraved map, contemporary outline color. Decorative title cartouche top centre, flanked by "Avertissement" and "Echelles de Lieux" in top border, with "Habitant du Kamtchatka" in left corner, "Sauvage du NO de la Louisiane" in right corner. Prime meridians: Paris; Isle de Fer. Nice wide margined copy.
Later edition of the map by Joseph-Nicola Delisle, originally drawn by Philippe Buache in 1752; It shows the Northern hemisphere from Siberia in Asia to New France in North America, with the routes of discovery in the Northern Pacific Ocean. The legendary "Mer de l’Ouest'" and the mythical discoveries of Admiral de la Fonte also included. Wagner, H. (NW) 566; Tooley, R.V. (Amer) p.35, #104 (Chez M. Remondini added to Santini imprint); Kershaw, K.A. #1225.

87. SCHRAEMBL, Franz Anton (1751-1803)
[MAP OF THE NORTH PACIFIC] Karte von den N.W. Amerikanischen und N.O.E. Asiatischen Kusten nach den Untersuchungen des Kapit. Cook in den Jah. 1778 und 1779, entworfen von Heinrich Roberts Lieut[enant].

[Wien]: F.A. Schraembl, 1788. Printed image size ca. 67x39 cm (26 ½ x 15 ½ in). Copper engraved double-page map by I.C. Von Lackner on watermarked laid paper with original centrefold. A small hole in the lower blank margin (paper flaw), otherwise a near fine wide-margined map.
Map # 107 from Schraembl’s "Allgemeiner Grosser Atlas" (Vienna: P.J. Schalbacher, 1786-1800), which shows James Cook’s discoveries in the North Pacific. This is a German version of the map by James Cook’s official cartographer, Lt. Henry Roberts, which was originally published in the atlas of Cook's third voyage "A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean, Undertaken... For the Discoveries in the Northern Hemisphere in 1776, 77, 78, 79 and 1780" (London, 1784; 3 vols. And atlas). "It covers the western coast of Alaska and the east coast of Asia including Kamchatka and illustrates Cook's explorations in 1778 and 1779. Excellent detail in the Bering Straits, including extensive notes on soundings. Notes concerning other explorations in the region are also included both along the coasts and inland. The Schraembl edition of Cook's map is one of the scarcest editions" (Old World Auctions).
It was Cook who for the first time "accurately depicted the Northwest coast of America; <..,> The north-west coast of North America was sighted on 7 March and for the next six and a half months Cook carried out a running survey of some 4000 miles of its coast from Cape Blanco on the coast of Oregon to Icy Cape on the north coast of Alaska, where he was forced to turn back by an impenetrable wall of ice. A search for a route back to Europe north of Siberia also proved fruitless. During this cruise Cook became the first European to enter Nootka Sound on the north-west coast of Vancouver Island, where he remained for a month taking astronomical observations and cutting spars for use as spare masts and yardarms. Trade was carried out with the native Mowachaht for furs, mostly of the sea otter, which when sold later in China drew attention to the commercial potential of this trade" (Oxford DNB).
Kershaw, K.A. Early Printed Maps of Canada, vol. 4, # 1149; Tooley’s Dictionary of Mapmakers, Q-Z, p. 131.

88. SNOW, William Parker (1817-1895)
Voyage of the Prince Albert in Search of Sir John Franklin: A Narrative of Every day life in the Arctic Seas.

London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans, 1851. First Edition. Octavo. xvi, 416 pp. With four chromolithograph plates and a folding map. Original publisher's navy pictorial gilt and blind stamped cloth. Plates with some very minor foxing, top of back hinge of spine with small crack, otherwise a very good copy.

In 1850 Snow volunteered "for one of the expeditions in search of Sir John Franklin, prompted by a dream, which he believed had shown him the true route. The idea came to dominate his whole life. He served in 1850 as purser, doctor, and chief officer of the Prince Albert, a small vessel fitted out at the expense of Lady Franklin, under Commander C. C. Forsyth RN. On his return Snow published Voyage of the Prince Albert in Search of Sir John Franklin (1851) and was awarded the polar medal. He was convinced that success had been hindered by Forsyth's refusal to go on, and during the following years he vainly importuned the Admiralty to send him out again in command of any vessel, however small, and tried to organize unofficial searches" (Oxford DNB).
"William Parker Snow here describes an 1850 Franklin search expedition in the Prince Albert, a small vessel fitted out at the expense of Lady Franklin and captained by Commander Forsyth of the British Navy. Snow accompanied the voyage as purser, doctor, and chief officer.., the Prince Albert crew discovered traces of the Franklin expedition's first winter. Encampment on Beechey Island, upon their empty-handed return, Snow was convinced that Forsyth had sabotaged the success of the search by his refusal to go on or to pursue Snow's foretold route" (Hill 1598); Arctic Bibliography 16362; Howgego 1850-1940 Polar Regions S38.

89. SPEED, John (1552-1629)
A Newe Map of Tartary.

London: George Humble, 1626. An outline hand coloured copper engraved map ca. 40x51 cm (15 ½ x 20 in). With four views on upper margin and eight costumed figures on side margins. A good impression. Verso with old paper repair, otherwise the map is in very good condition.

Rare first issue of one of the most decorative maps of Tartary with Kamchatka omitted and Korea shown as an island. The map was published as part of the 1627 " ‘A Prospect of the Most Famous Parts of the World’ which was the first world atlas produced by an Englishman.., Much of the engraving was done in Amsterdam at the workshop of [Speed's] friend Jodocus Hondius" (Wikipedia). The four views show Astrakhan, Samarkand, Beijing and a house on Nova Zemlya. The figures depict Tartars and Samoyeds. Tooley Q-Z, p.193.

90. STODHARD, T. & [MEARES, John] (1756?-1809)
[NORTHWEST COAST OF AMERICA] Entrance to the Straits of John de Fuca.

London: J. Walter & Son, 1790. Hand colored aquatint by J. Wells. Image size 24x45 cm (9 ½ x 18 in). Original folds flattened. A very good print.
Plate 12 from Meares’ "Voyages in the Years 1788-'9 from China to the Northwest Coast of America." "One of the early and fundamental books on the Northwest coast of America in general and on Alaska in particular" (Lada-Mocarski 46). "Meares’ voyages resulted in the Nootka Sound affair between Britain and Spain, and were the foundation of Britain’s claim to Oregon, later ceded to the United States" (Abbey Travel 594).
The Strait of Juan de Fuca, located at the southern entrance to Georgia Strait, separates Vancouver Island from Washington’s Olympic Peninsula and forms part of the international boundary. It was named by Capt Charles Barkley in 1787 after a Greek mariner who claimed to have discovered it in 1592. For 200 years the strait was considered the possible entrance to a Northwest Passage. De Fuca’s claims have always been doubted, but the name remains. The strait is susceptible to heavy weather and the Vancouver Island shoreline has been called "the Graveyard of the Pacific" (Encyclopaedia of British Columbia on-line); Cox Vol. II, page 29; Sabin 47260; Staton & Tremaine 612.

91. TEN EYCK, Samuel
[Important Autograph Letter Signed from Samuel Ten Eyck to O.B. Throop, giving a Description of Guaymas, Mexico, his Impressions of Mexicans, and Briefly Relating his Experiences During the Fraser River Gold Rush].

Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico: April 27th, 1859. On a folded double quarto leaf. [4] pp. Brown ink on bluish paper. Blind stamp of a papermaker (Rolland Freres, Bordeaux) in the upper left corner. Housed in a later custom made blue quarter morocco clam shell box with gilt lettered spine. Old fold marks, otherwise a near fine letter.
In this letter Samuel Ten Eyck writes to his friend, Origin B. Throop, back home in Schoharie, New York, offering a description of the Mexican port city of Guaymas, Sonora, giving his assessment of Mexican attitudes toward Americans, and describing his experiences in the Fraser River Gold Rush.

Samuel Ten Eyck came from a prominent family in New York's Schoharie County. He left Schoharie in the early 1850s, went to California in search of gold, took part in the Fraser River Gold Rush in British Columbia of 1858-1859, and then arrived in Guaymas, Mexico in the spring of 1859. He apparently went to Sonora in anticipation of that state and the surrounding Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sinaloa being annexed to the United States. The Gadsen Purchase Treaty, ratified in 1854, brought a part of northern Sonora into the United States, and there appears to have been some agitation for the United States to take more territory in the region. Such a thing did not occur, and it is unknown for how long Ten Eyck stayed in Guaymas waiting for it to happen, or where his travels took him next.
The letter begins by Ten Eyck asking Throop to make discreet inquiries to some of his friends as to why they have not corresponded with him. "I suppose you will be astonished to learn I am in this God-forsaken country. I must confess, I am astonished to find myself here, but here I am and what is still more pleasant, have a mighty fine prospect of, as it is termed in California, making my pile. I have been here but a month. On my arrival I found the country all excitement, and a revolution going on in the three states, 'Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa,' they being, I think, the tail end of creation, but they are full of silver mines and in saying that I say all that can be said in their favour. The Mexicans are the most hostile people in the world and think no more of killing an American than of taking a drink and as this is the scene of Walker's exploits and also where the unfortunate H.A. Crabb & followers were massacred, I am obliged to keep a pretty sharp look out. The women, however, are very kind & affectionate, and in case of difficulty invariably give you a warning and find a place of concealment for you. At least I have found it so on two occasions. <..,>

Guaymas, the seaport of Sonora & an old city, contains perhaps eight thousand inhabitants and being an earthquake country the houses are but one story high and mostly built of adoby [sic], which is the building material of mostly all houses in Mexico and on entering one is reminded more of a large brickyard than of a large city. <..,> I would not have come here but that the three states above named will without doubt be annexed to the U.S. - if so your humble servant is all right. I have had five years experience in California and any chance that may offer here I am on hand, in fact the pioneer."
Ten Eyck also briefly describes his experiences in British Columbia during the recent Fraser River Gold Rush: "It is as hot as blazes [in Guaymas]. I feel it more perhaps than others just having come from a northern country, as the year past I have been at Vancouver's Island & British Columbia. You of course heard of the Fraser River excitement. I was almost the first of the many thousands that rushed to that cold country. It did not prove as profitable as was anticipated, still it paid me very well, as I was able after nine months hard work to leave with a five hundred more than I took with me."
In the end Ten Eyck gives his assessment of the qualities of the women he has encountered in Guaymas, "beautiful, full of life and spirit", "very positive to us Americans" etc. A very interesting important letter, with provocative views on Mexico and a bit of information on one American's experiences in the Fraser River Gold Rush.
O.B. Throop was the owner of the only drug store in the county which still exists today as the Schoharie pharmacy, and a Secretary of the Board of Directors of the Albany and Schoharie plank road (1862).

92. TRONSON, J[ohn] M.
Personal Narrative of a Voyage to Japan, Kamtschatka, Siberia, Tartary, and various parts of Coast of China; in H.M.S. Barracouta.
London: Smith, Elder, 1859. First Edition. Octavo. xiii, 414, 24 pp. With a tinted lithograph frontispiece, seven other lithographed plates, two text illustrations and five folding maps. Later maroon gilt tooled quarter morocco with cloth boards. Map with a repaired tear, otherwise a very good copy.

"This is a narrative of experiences in the Orient and along the coasts of Russia, in the years 1854-56. It provides detailed descriptions of China and Japan and was written during and immediately after the opening of those two countries to Western Commerce" (Hill 1716); "Officer on the "Barracouta" in waters near Japan just after Commodore Perry's journey describes brief visit to Petropavlovsk along with other shore trips" (Nerhood 257). “Tronson was surgeon aboard the HMS Barracouta, a paddle sloop, of the Royal Navy. During the Crimean War she participated in the blockade of Petropavlovski. She also participated during the Second Opium War in 1856 before returning to England and being paid off in 1857” (Wikipedia); China Illustrata Nova II, 1227; Cordier Japonica 543.

93. VANCOUVER, Captain George (1757-1798)
Carte de la Partie de la Cote Nord-Ouest de L'Amerique. [A Chart Shewing Part of the Coast of N. W. America with the Tracks of His Majesty's Sloop Discovery and Armed Tender Chatham].

Paris: Imprimerie de la Republique, [1800]. Copper Engraving ca. 76x59 cm (30x23 in). Map with some old fold and crease marks, otherwise a very good impression with ample margins.
This is the main map, which shows the North Pacific coast from Kodiak Island to the Bay of San Francisco, from the rare folio atlas of the 1800 Paris First French edition of Captain George Vancouver's "Voyage de découvertes a l'Ocean Pacifique du Nord, et autour du monde…"

"Vancouver, who had served on Captain Cook's second and third voyages, was made commander of a grand-scale expedition to reclaim Britain's rights, resulting from the Nootka Convention, at Nootka Sound, to examine thoroughly the coast south of 60' in order to find a possible passage to the Atlantic, and to learn what establishments had been founded by other powers. This voyage became one of the most important made in the interests of geographical knowledge" (Hill p. 304).

94. VANCOUVER, Captain George (1757-1798)
A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean, and Round the World; in Which the Coast of North-West America has been Carefully Examined and Accurately Surveyed Undertaken by his Majesty's Command, Principally with a View to Ascertain the Existence of any Navigable Communication Between the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans; and Performed in the Years 1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794 and 1795 in the Discovery Sloop of War, and Armed Tender Chatham.
London: G.G. and J. Robinson, 1798. First Edition from the Library of Sir Edward Charles Stirling (1848-1919). Quarto, 3 vols. and Folio Atlas. xxix, [ii], [iv], [ii], 432; [ix], 504; [x], 505, [3] pp. Text volumes with eighteen engraved plates including one chart and Atlas volume with ten engraved folding charts and six engraved double page coastal profile views. Text handsome period brown gilt tooled mottled full calf. Plates mildly foxed, hinges cracked, spines worn, and one cover detached. Atlas early 19th century brown gilt tooled half calf with marbled boards. Plates and charts mildly foxed, both covers detached. Overall this set is in very good condition, however, as nothing has been done to it since Sir Edward Stirling bought it in the second half of the nineteenth century. This would be an ideal set for rebinding which we could organize to be done in a very expert period style for any buyer on request.

"George Vancouver, who had served on Captain Cook's second and third voyages, was made commander of a grand-scale expedition to reclaim Britain's rights, resulting from the Nootka Convention, at Nootka Sound, to examine thoroughly the coast south of 60' in order to find a possible passage to the Atlantic, and to learn what establishments had been founded by other powers. This voyage became one of the most important made in the interests of geographical knowledge. Vancouver sailed by way of the Cape of Good Hope to Australia, where he discovered King George's Sound and Cape Hood, then to New Zealand, Hawaii, and the northwest coast of America. In three season's work Vancouver surveyed the coast of California, visited San Francisco, San Diego (one of the folded charts, dated 1798, depicts the port of San Diego), and other Spanish settlements in Alta California; settled the necessary formalities with the Spanish at Nootka; investigated the Strait of Juan de Fuca; discovered the Strait of Georgia; Circumnavigated Vancouver Island; and disproved the existence of any passage between the Pacific and Hudson's Bay. Vancouver died before the narrative was finished; his brother John, assisted by Captain Peter Puget, edited and published the complete record" (Hill 1753).

"The voyage was remarkable for the accuracy of its surveys, the charts of the coasts surveyed needing little improvement to the present day. When Charles Wilkes resurveyed Puget Sound for the U.S. Navy in 1841, he was amazed at the accuracy Vancouver had achieved under such adverse conditions and despite his failing health. Well into the 1880's Vancouver's charts of the Alaskan coastline remained the accepted standard" (Howgego V13); Lada-Mocarski 55; Sabin 98443, Cox II p.30-31; Hawaiian National Bibliography 335.
From the Library of Sir Edward Charles Stirling (1848-1919):
"Sir Edward Charles Stirling (1848-1919), surgeon, scientist and politician, and Sir John Lancelot Stirling (1849-1932), politician, were the sons of Edward Stirling (1804-1873) and his wife Harriett, née Taylor. Their father arrived in South Australia in 1839; he eventually bought the pastoral stations of Highland Valley in the Mount Lofty Ranges and Nalpa on Lake Alexandrina. In 1855-61 he was in partnership with (Sir) Thomas Elder, Robert Barr Smith and John Taylor, as Elder, Stirling & Co., which financed the Wallaroo and Moonta copper mines. Appointed to the Legislative Council in 1855 he helped frame the Constitution and was a member of the new council in 1856-65. He died on 2 February 1873 in London. Two South Australian towns bear his name.

Edward Charles was born on 8 September 1848 at Strathalbyn, South Australia. Educated at the Collegiate School of St Peter and at Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., 1870; M.A., 1873; M.B., 1874; M.D., 1880; Sc.D., 1910), he became a fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons in 1874 and was lecturer in physiology and assistant surgeon at St George's Hospital, London, and later surgeon at Belgrave Hospital for Children. Returning to South Australia in 1875 he married Jane, daughter of Joseph Gilbert, on 27 June 1877, and took her to England for specialized medical treatment. In 1881 he settled permanently in South Australia where he became consulting surgeon to Adelaide Hospital, lecturer and later first professor of physiology at the University of Adelaide and a member of the University Council.
In 1884-87 Stirling was member for North Adelaide in the House of Assembly and in 1886 he introduced a bill to enfranchise women; but the South Australian Museum became his major life's work. He was its director in 1884-1912 and was largely responsible for its excellent collection of Aboriginal cultural specimens. In 1888 he received from central Australia a specimen of the previously unknown marsupial mole which he named, described and illustrated in the 1890-91 Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of South Australia.
Stirling crossed the continent from Darwin to Adelaide with the Earl of Kintore in 1891, collecting ethnological and zoological specimens. In 1893 he travelled to Lake Callabonna where a field party, organized by him, was excavating numerous remains of the giant marsupial Diprotodon. In the same year he was made a fellow of the Royal Society, London, and created C.M.G. He was medical officer and anthropologist with the William Horn expedition which, in 1894, made a comprehensive survey of the country between Oodnadatta and the MacDonnell Ranges. He wrote the extensive anthropological section published as part of the four volumes that recorded the expedition's discoveries. His work on the Diprotodon culminated in a full description of its skeletal anatomy in the Memoirs of the local Royal Society in 1899, and the complete reconstruction of its skeleton in 1906. Casts of the latter are still the only articulated examples to be found in museums in Australia and abroad.
Actively associated with the Public Library, the Art Gallery, the Zoological Society, the Adelaide Hospital and the State Children's Council, Stirling was dean of the Faculty of Medicine in 1908-19 and president of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in South Australia. He participated in the long struggle to secure Flinders Chase on Kangaroo Island as a sanctuary. In 1917 Stirling was knighted. He died on 20 March 1919 at his home St Vigeans, Mount Lofty, where he had established a famous garden, survived by his wife and five daughters; two sons predeceased him. His estate was sworn for probate at £65,700.
John Lancelot was born on 5 November 1849 at Strathalbyn and followed his brother to St Peter's. After two years on the Continent he went up to Trinity College, Cambridge (B.A., LL.B., 1871), where he won a blue for athletics. In 1870 and 1872 he won the amateur hurdles championship of England. At 23 he was called to the Bar at the Inner Temple. He returned to South Australia in 1876, and with his brother bred merino sheep; he also bred Ayrshire cattle and horses on the family properties. On 12 December 1882 he married Florence Marion, daughter of Sir William Milne. He was a member of the House of Assembly for Mount Barker in 1881-87 and Gumeracha in 1888-90, and in 1891-1932 was a member for the Southern Districts in the Legislative Council and was president in 1901-32. Though an unexceptional speaker he was respected for his ability. He was appointed K.C.M.G. In 1909.
Stirling was director of the Beltana and Mutooroo Pastoral companies, the Australian Mutual Provident Society, the Wallaroo and Moonta Mining and Smelting Co. And the Alliance Insurance Co. He introduced polo to South Australia and captained a team that twice defeated Victoria. He was the steward of several racing clubs, and was once master of the Adelaide hounds. A member of the University of Adelaide Council, he was also president of the Royal Agricultural and Horticultural Society of South Australia, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, the Pastoralists' Association of South Australia, and the Zoological and Acclimatization Society. He died on 24 May 1932 at Strathalbyn, survived by his wife, three sons and two daughters" (Australian Dictionary of Biography).

95. VANCOUVER, Captain George (1757-1798)
Voyage de découvertes a l'Ocean Pacifique du Nord, et autour du monde : dans lequel la côte nord-ouest de l'Amérique a été soigneusement reconnue et exactement revelée: ordonné par le Roi d'Angleterre, principalement dans la vue de constater s'il existe, à travers le continent de l'Amérique, un passage pour les vaisseaux, de l'Océan Pacifique du Nord à l'Océan Atlantique septentrional ; et exécuté en 1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794 et 1795, par le Capitaine George Vancouver. [A Voyage of Discovery to the North Pacific Ocean, and Round the World; in Which the Coast of North-West America has been Carefully Examined and Accurately Surveyed Undertaken by his Majesty's Command, Principally with a View to Ascertain the Existence of any Navigable Communication Between the North Pacific and North Atlantic Oceans; and Performed in the Years 1790, 1791, 1792, 1793, 1794 and 1795 in the Discovery Sloop of War, and Armed Tender Chatham.
Paris: Imprimerie de la Republique, [1800]. First French Edition. Quarto text, 3 vols. & Folio Atlas. xi,[i],491; [iv],516; [iv],562; 4 pp. Text with eighteen folding engraved plates and maps and folio atlas with sixteen charts and coastal views, many double page. Period half vellum with marbled boards and red gilt tooled labels. Atlas expertly rebound to match, otherwise a near fine set.

"George Vancouver, who had served on Captain Cook's second and third voyages, was made commander of a grand-scale expedition to reclaim Britain's rights, resulting from the Nootka Convention, at Nootka Sound, to examine thoroughly the coast south of 60' in order to find a possible passage to the Atlantic, and to learn what establishments had been founded by other powers. This voyage became one of the most important made in the interests of geographical knowledge. Vancouver sailed by way of the Cape of Good Hope to Australia, where he discovered King George's Sound and Cape Hood, then to New Zealand, Hawaii, and the northwest coast of America. In three season's work Vancouver surveyed the coast of California, visited San Francisco, San Diego (one of the folded charts, dated 1798, depicts the port of San Diego), and other Spanish settlements in Alta California; settled the necessary formalities with the Spanish at Nootka; investigated the Strait of Juan de Fuca; discovered the Strait of Georgia; Circumnavigated Vancouver Island; and disproved the existence of any passage between the Pacific and Hudson's Bay. Vancouver died before the narrative was finished; his brother John, assisted by Captain Peter Puget, edited and published the complete record" (Hill 1753), Cox II p.30-31.

"The first French Edition of the Vancouver voyage. In the first text volume, the "Notice des planches"(repeated in folio atlas) describes the maps, charts, and land views to be found in the atlas. This information does not appear in the first (London) edition.., Copies of the French edition are printed both in a more attractive manner and on better paper than the English edition" (Hawaiian National Bibliography 324)

"The voyage was remarkable for the accuracy of its surveys, the charts of the coasts surveyed needing little improvement to the present day. When Charles Wilkes resurveyed Puget Sound for the U.S. Navy in 1841, he was amazed at the accuracy Vancouver had achieved under such adverse conditions and despite his failing health. Well into the 1880's Vancouver's charts of the Alaskan coastline remained the accepted standard" (Howgego V13); Lada-Mocarski 55; Sabin 98441.

96. WARREN, Emily Mary Bibbens (1869-1956)
Original Watercolour Painting of Falls Lake, B.C. (Coquihalla Summit Recreation Area).
Ca. 1900. Size ca. 16,5x33 cm (6.5 x 13 in) Mounted on card and matted with period gold card. A very good watercolour.
"The Coquihalla Valley has long served as the major transportation route from the coast to the interior beginning with the Hope-Nicola Trail in 1876. The Coquihalla Summit Recreation Area still contains some remnants of the Kettle Valley Railway which ran through the area from the early 1900s through to 1961. Modern access has been highlighted by the construction of the Coquihalla Highway and the subsequent establishment of a series of protected areas along the route in 1986" (BC Parks Online).
"Emily Mary Bibbens Warren was a British Canadian artist and illustrator. She worked in ink, watercolour, oil, gouache, and graphite. Her favourite subjects included gardens, landscape, and in interiors and exteriors of buildings. She is known for sunlight beaming through stained glass windows.
She took a course in architecture by Sir Bannister Fletcher and graduated from the College of Art, South Kensington. She took certificates in biology, botany and geology. She came to Canada in 1919 and lived in Ottawa, Ontario. She lived in Montreal, Quebec from 1928 to 1934.
Warren was a member of The Royal Society of British Artists, The British Watercolour Society, the Old Dudley Arts Society, the Aberdeen Society of Arts and the Society of Women Artists; a member of the Committee for Preservation of Memorials in London. Warren instigated a successful movement to have John Ruskin's home, Brantwood, made into a museum. She lectured before Ruskin Societies.
National Gallery of Canada purchased her oil painting "Placing the Canadian Colours on Wolfe's Monument in Westminster Abbey", an oil 19 × 37", which can be seen in the Picture Division -File No. 705-7, Room 12- 15 B.I. In 1921 she was commissioned by Sir Robert Borden to come to Canada to complete two large canvasses 6'6" × 11'6", oil painting entitled "Canada's Tribute, The Great War 1914-1919" and "Placing the Canadian Colours on Wolfe's Monument in Westminster Abbey". The Canada Tribute paintings were initially hung in the Parliament Buildings but have been hung in the Sir Arthur Currie Memorial Hall of the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ontario since 1947.
Emily Warren`s `Placing the Canadian Colours on Wolfe's Monument in Westminster Abbey` c 1919 oil painting in Officer Mess, Cartier Square Drill Hall in Ottawa, Ontario Canada
She travelled and painted in British Columbia, Belgium. Scotland and France. She exhibited in England. She illustrated `Homes and Haunts of John Ruskin` by E.T. Cook. She gave lectures in Canada in the 1920s and 1930s illustrated by 1900 handcoloured glass slides reproducing her own paintings. Half of the 1900 slides are in the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, University of Toronto, along with an extensive collection of correspondence, lecture notes, and biographical material. Two boxes of slides of drawings of individual generals' faces and of flags, preliminary drawings for her paintings, "Canada's Tribute" and "Placing the Canadian Colours on Wolfe's Monument in Westminster Abbey", are in the Canadian War Museum, Ottawa.
She held an annual sale of watercolours in Ottawa, Ontario. There was a demand for her paintings of Canada, England and the continent of Europe" (Wikipedia).
There are many references written on the artist and her work:
Constance McRae's book on Emily Warren: The Light must be Perfect Toronto, Dreadnaught Press, 1981; Forty-four of her illustrations were reproduced in Edward T. Cook's Homes and Haunts of John Ruskin (London: G. Allan, 1912); The Collector's Dictionary of Canadian Artists at Auction: Volume IV, S-Z.
Emily Mary Bibbens Warren Collection at the Thomas Fisher Rare Book Library, University of Toronto includes lecture notes and glass slides, watercolours, drawings, commonplace book, scrapbook, sketchbook, notes, correspondence, and notes, drafts and photographs for her biography by Constance McRae.
Emily Mary Bibbens Warren Collection, Canadian Women Artists History Initiative, Documentation Centre, Concordia University.

97. WEBBER, John (1751-1793)
Balagans or Summer Habitations, with the Method of Drying Fish at St. Peter and Paul, Kamtschatka.
London: Boydell and Co., April 1st 1809, [1819]. Hand coloured aquatint on Whatman paper watermarked "1819" on the upper right blank margin. Printed image size ca. 29x41,5 cm (11 3/8 x 16 3/8 in). Recently matted. A very good aquatint.
Plate 11 from the "Views in the South Seas from drawings by the late James Webber, draftsman on board the Resolution, Captain James Cooke, from the year 1776 to 1780" published by Boydell and Co in 1808. "The title page [of "Views in the South Seas"] is dated 1808 in all copies, but the plate imprints are dated April, 1809, and the water mark dates vary widely copy to copy" (Hill 1837). This plate depicts native inhabitants of Kamchatka and their method of drying fish during summer season.
"Webber was appointed at 100 guineas a year on 24 June 1776 and on 12 July he sailed from Plymouth in Cook's Resolution. His fame largely rests on his fine topographical and ethnographic work from the voyage, planned with Cook and with publication in view. Guided by the surgeon, William Anderson, he also drew natural history subjects (as did William Ellis, surgeon's mate and the other active draughtsman). He returned in October 1780, after Cook's and Anderson's deaths, with over 200 drawings and some twenty portraits in oils, showed a large selection to George III, and was reappointed by the Admiralty at £250 a year to redraw and direct the engraving of sixty-one plates, plus unsigned coastal views, in the official account. It appeared in June 1784 as A Voyage to the Pacific Ocean (3 vols, ed. J. Douglas). Webber also painted other views for the Admiralty, his last payment being in July 1785. He also published two sets of voyage prints; four aquatints made by Marie Catherina Prestel (1787-88: one repeating his own etching of 1786), and sixteen soft-ground etchings by himself (1788-92) of which more were probably intended. The latter were pioneering, both in the medium used and as an artist's rather than publisher's selection. Reissued in aquatint from about 1808 as Views in the South Seas, they continued to sell into the 1820s" (Oxford DNB).
Webber was the son of a Swiss sculptor who had emigrated to England. He was appointed as draughtsman to Cook’s third voyage (Abbey 595); Tooley 501; Holmes (Captain James Cook: A bibliographical excursion) 79.

98. WIT, Frederick de (1629/30-1706)
[Map of Northern Labrador, Baffin Island and Greenland] Septemtrionaliora Americae a Groenlandia, per Freta Davidis et Hudson, ad Terram Novam / De Noorderlyckste Zee kusten van America van Groenland door de Straet Davis ende Straet Hudson tot Terra Neuf.

Amsterdam, [1675]. A copper engraved outline hand colour map.48,5x56 cm (19 x 22 in) Map with some marginal damp staining not affecting image, one margin with a small part strengthened, otherwise a very good map.
This map is from Frederick de Wit's maritime atlas "Orbis Maritimus ofte Zee Atlas."

"This is the first state of De Wit's fine chart of Hudson Bay and Arctic Canada. This beautifully engraved chart was based on Van Loon's important chart of 1666 and includes Hudson Bay and Strait, Baffin Bay and extends to include the western coast of Greenland. The chart shows an erroneous second bay next to James Bay named The Great Bay, (an exaggeration of Rupert Bay), and Mansel Island is named as Mansfield Island. A sea battle rages outside of the Hudson Strait and another ship sails in Baffin Bay. The chart is richly embellished with rhumb lines and two elaborate cartouches - the second with a Dutch title" (Old World Auctions); "In this first state of the plate there is no engraved name for the large island north of the Hudson Strait" (Kershaw 209).

99. WYNNIATT, Commander Robert James, R.N. (1830-1860)
[Member of the Sledging Party who were the First Europeans to Cross the Northwest Passage; Framed Watercolor Portrait of Robert James Wynniatt in Naval Cadet's Uniform; With Wynniatt's Bicorn Hat].

N.d., ca. 1845. Frame size 31x25 cm (12 x 9 ¾ in) Watercolour portrait in 19th century wooden frame, with brief manuscript biography and visiting card mounted on reverse. Unexamined out of frame. Black velour bicorn hat trimmed with golden braid on upper edges, and golden wire cockade with golden button with Royal Navy emblem. Hat size is 44x17x14 cm (17 ½ x 6 ¾ x 6 in). The hat with signs of wear, but overall both items in very good condition.
A portrait of Robert James Wynniatt, naval officer and Arctic explorer, shown as a naval cadet. As a young lieutenant in 1850 he was mate during Robert McClure's expedition in search of Franklin and the Northwest Passage. When their ship became ice-locked, Samuel Gurney Cresswell and Wynniatt "accompanied a sledging party led by Richard Roche, a mate on the resolute, back to the North Star at Beechey Island. [They] and a few invalids from the investigator found their way back to England the same year in the supply ship Phoenix under Edward Augustus Inglefield, effectively becoming the first Europeans to travel through the Northwest Passage" (Howgego 1850-1940, Polar Regions B15). Wynniatt won an Arctic Medal for his service (Poulsom & Myres p. 342). However during the expedition he was badly affected by scurvy; both he and Cresswell suffered ill-health for the rest of their careers and died at a young age.
In 1857 Wynniatt became Lieutenant-Commander of HMS Plover, an Albacore-class wooden screw gunboat launched in 1855, serving in the Far East. In 1859, during the Second Opium War (1856-1860), he was given acting command of HMS Nimrod (a six-gunner). Nimrod took part in at the Second Battle of Taku Forts (1859), an unsuccessful attack on heavily defended forts at the mouth of the Pei-ho river (in which Wynniatt's former posting HMS Plover was sunk). Wynniatt was mentioned in Rear-Admiral James Hope's dispatches. At the end of the war Nimrod sailed for England, first taking the news of the successful negotiations at the end of the War to Australia. However Wynniatt died on route and was buried at Galle, Sri Lanka. He was only 30 years old, apparently weakened by his earlier adventures in the Arctic.

100. ZIMMERMANN, Henri[ch] (1741-1805)
Dernier Voyage du Capitaine Cook Autour du Monde, ou se Trouvent les Circonstances de sa Mort. [Last Voyage of Captain Cook Round the World, and the Circumstances of his Death].

Berne: Chez la Nouvelle Societe Typographique, 1783. Second French Edition. Octavo. xvi, 200 pp. Very handsome period red gilt tooled quarter straight-grained morocco with vellum tips and yellow paste paper boards. Original boards, rebacked in style, otherwise a fine uncut copy.
"With possible exception of John Rickman's Journal, earliest account of Cook's last voyage" (Howes Z14). And thus one of the first works to mention Hawaii. Also, one of the most interesting narratives of this voyage.

"In 1776, after several unsuccessful attempts at various professions, Zimmermann, a native of Speyer, signed on as a common sailor on the Discovery. Sir Maurice Holmes, in his Cook Biography, writes of Zimmermann, "from the start of the voyage he determined to keep a shorthand journal and to retain it, despite the instructions .. Demanding the surrender of all logs and journals.' the original account, printed in 1781, was suppressed in Germany at the request of the British Admiralty in accordance with the instructions given to the personnel of the ship that all journals were to be turned over to them for use in the official account of the expedition" (Hill p. 333).
"The second French-language edition, which closely follows that of the first edition (Berne, 1782) with the title and text reset. Zimmermann's narrative ends on page 117, followed on page 118 by a life of Cook, "Abregee de la vie du capitaine Cook," as in the first French (Berne ) edition, and an important series of "Notes" (Forbes 59). Zimmermann's work is one of the rarest of all accounts of Cook's third voyage and, with Rickman's narrative, the earliest published account of the third voyage, the death of Cook, and the discovery of Hawaii. The first edition came out in German at Mannheim in 1781. Beddie 1630; Lada-Mocarski 33; Sabin 106436.


UBC Robson Square, 800 Robson Street
Saturday, September 22nd, 10am to 5pm
Sunday, September 23nd, 10am to 5pm

For more information please visit the book fair website:

Our good friend Craig Bowlsby will be at our booth on Saturday, September 22nd, 10am to 5pm to sell signed copies of his captivating and exhaustively researched new book:

Empire of Ice. The Rise and Fall of the Pacific Coast Hockey Association, 1911-1926

Trade paperback, 9 by 6 inches, 432 pages, including 70 b&w illustrations. Cover Art by Aaron White, ISBN: 978-0-9691705-6-3
Vancouver did win the Stanley Cup.
And so did Seattle and Victoria – in a league created a century ago.
The PCHA rose and fell like the Roman Empire, but left its own mark on history. Now fans can re-live how the Patrick Brothers invented modern hockey, and brought the highest level of the game to the Pacific Coast, and to the world.
This legendary league has never, until now, been comprehensively recorded.
Craig H. Bowlsby has unearthed much new information. He has debunked common misconceptions, and even solved many mysteries. Empire of Ice chronicles the rise of the PCHA to the pinnacle of its success, and then to its final, bizarre plummet. All the league’s exciting Stanley Cup struggles are described in detail, as well as the trials, experiments and scandals of the regular seasons. This brings to new light the techniques and exploits of the great hockey stars of both West and East.
Cyclone Taylor, Frank and Lester Patrick, Hugh Lehman, Moose Johnson, Frank Nighbor, Eddie Gerard, Nels Stewart, and many others, are spotlighted.
The PCHA also created the first American teams to fight for the Stanley Cup, and the stories of Seattle, Portland and Spokane are fascinating ones. As well, fans can read how the teams of both the NHL and the Prairies clashed with the Pacific Coast in search of the Stanley Cup. There is much new information about Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Quebec, Saskatoon, Regina, Calgary, and Edmonton.
A cornucopia of statistics is provided for those who relish in-depth comparisons.
For all the drama, and for one of the freshest views of hockey history ever published—read on!
Price: 25.00 U.S. or Canadian
(plus $10.00 shipping in U.S. or Canada )

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