October 2018 - 50 Unique Items:
Archives, Drawings, Manuscripts & Watercolours

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October 2018 - 50 Unique Items: Archives, Drawings, Manuscripts & Watercolours.
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JONES, Thomas Morgan (d. 1817)
[Extensive Important Autograph Letter Signed "Thos. Morgan Jones" and Addressed to Reverend Matthew Wilks (1746-1829) (one of the founders of the London Missionary Society), Describing in Detail Jones' Outbound Voyage to the Gold Coast, his First Impressions of Cape Coast Castle and his Experiences of his First Seven Weeks There, Including a Detailed Account of the Preparations of Bowdich's Mission to Ashantee of Which Jones was Initially Meant to be a Participant].

Cape Coast Castle (Ghana), 8 March 1817. Folio (ca. 33x20,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on beige laid paper. Addressed, sealed and postmarked on the last page. Fold marks, minor hole on the last page after opening, slightly affecting the text, a couple of repaired tears at folds, some soiling on last page, otherwise a very good legible letter.
A historically important letter which Jones starts by saying that the "voyage hither was very favorable.., [and that he] arrived here [Cape Coast Castle] on the 16th of Jany. [1817]. He goes on to describe the landscape, "the feature of the country all along the Gold Coast is nearly the same as it is here, namely small hills covered with bush or evergreen shrubs to their very summits which gives an appearance of perpetual verdure to the country that is very pleasing." He continues by saying that "a man from the interior is called a Bushman.., [and] there are so many novelties & such myriads of birds of every description, many of whose plumage is beautiful or curious in the extreme, that a man cannot walk out without deriving amusement. I should have now sent you some birds but when shot their plumage is generally spoiled as the natives do not bring them in for sale until the rainy season & after which period I hope to send you some that may be thought worthy a place in your museum if I can be sufficiently successful in my attempt to preserve them.., I think the bush may contain a great many that are not known." He also mentions large predators, "the only carnivorous animal that is constantly here is the patacos (hyena).., [a] large leopard has not been seen here for two years that was taken by the present king of the town in a trap after many fruitless attempts to do so. This animal put the whole town in consternation." However, the most important part of the letter relates to the preparation of Bowdich's Mission: "we brought out very superb presents for the King of Ashantee & a deportation of officers with a guard is to take them up (this embassy is described in Thomas Edward Bowdich, (1791-1824), The Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee, London 1819)." Jones seems to have been meant to go on this mission but the new governor John Hope Smith (d. 1831) "wished to retain [him] at the castle.., [as the] limit the number to be sent to three officers [but still] it having been represented to him by Mr. Bowdich that I was qualified to take counter observations on the route was the reason of his so doing but as the expense of each individual will be very great on account of the great distance will be very great & as the instructions from the Committee are on a very economical plan no more will go than are absolutely necessary, namely [Frederick] James esq., Mr. Bowdich to take Lat. Long. Of various places on the route & whom I was to adjust. Mr. Tedlie as surgeon & botanist & a resident probably the first has resided many years in this country & has great knowledge of the manners, language & customs." Jones also covers many other topics in this extensive letter including further description of the countryside and its fauna, local customs and alcohol consumption, the local mission and its recently constructed school and Jones' financial and living situation etc, etc.


[Collection of Nine Original Drawings by Wilhelm and Ismael Gentz, Leopold Mueller, and Charles Welsch, Used as Prototypes for Illustrations in Georg Ebers’ Encyclopaedic Work “Aegypten in Bild und Wort (Stuttgart & Leipzig 1879-80);” [Egypt: Descriptive, Historical, and Picturesque]; With: Complete Sets of both the First German and the First English Editions of the Book]
Drawings: ca. 1870s. Pencil, pen, ink and wash on album paper, some heightened in white, all but one signed by the artists on the lower margins, some with additional pencil notes and captions on the lower margins. See detailed descriptions and sizes below. All drawings matted in recent mats and housed in a custom made brown full cloth box with a gilt lettered title label on the spine, decorative brass corners on the upper board and brass clasps. Overall a fine collection of beautiful drawings.
A beautiful collection of nine original drawings created by prominent German and Austrian artists of the “oriental” genre for the famous lavishly illustrated work “Aegypten in Bild und Wort” by a noted German Egyptologist and novelist Georg Ebers (1837-1898). The drawings were made from nature, as all the artists had travelled to Egypt and worked there for longer or shorter periods. Among the drawings are three works by Wilhelm Gentz (1822-1890), and one by his son Ismael Wolfgang Gentz (1862-1914). The drawings were made during their journey to Egypt and the Holy Land in the late 1870s. There are also three drawings by an Austrian artist in “oriental” genre Leopold Müller (1834-1892) who lived and worked in Egypt in 1873-76, and two by Charles Feodor Welsch (1828-1904), who travelled to Egypt in 1874. The drawings are accompanied by copies of the two-volume sets of the first German and first English editions of Ebers’ work. Overall a very nice collection of beautiful original drawings.
List of drawings:
1) GENTZ, Wilhelm. Hof des Antiquitäten-Museums zu Bulak [Court of the Museum of Antiquities at Bulaq]. Pen and wash on paper. Ca. 29,5x25 cm (11 ½ x 10 in), leaf ca. 39x34 cm (15 ½ x 13 ¼ in). Signed in ink in the left lower corner, with period pencil and ink notes on the lower margin. Published in: vol. II, p. 49 (German ed.), vol. II, p. 40 (English ed.)
2) GENTZ, Wilhelm. Hafen von Bulak [Harbour of Bulaq]. Pen and wash on paper. Ca. 23,5x32 cm (9 ¼ x 12 ¾ in), leaf ca. 33x38,5 cm (13 x 15 ¼ in). Signed in the right lower corner, with an ink caption on the lower margin. Published in: vol. II, p. 165 (German ed.), vol. II, p. 147 (English ed.)
3) GENTZ, Wilhelm. In den Nil geführte Büffel [Buffaloes Watered in the Nile]. Pen and wash on paper. Ca. 29x36 cm (11 x 14 ¼ in), leaf ca. 33x41,5 cm (13 x 16 ¼ in). Signed in ink in the right lower corner, with an ink note underneath. Published in: vol. II, p. 227 (German ed.), vol. II, p. 204 (English ed.)
4) GENTZ, Ismael. Des Vaters Liebling [Father’s Darling].Pencil and charcoal on paper, heightened in white. Ca. 18x16 cm (7 x 6 ¼ in), leaf ca. 33,5x25 cm (13 ¼ x 10 in). Signed in pencil in the right lower corner, with an ink note underneath. Published in: vol. II, p. 97 (German ed.), vol. II, p. 86 (English ed.)
5) MÜLLER, Leopold. Besprengung der Straße [Watering the Roads]. Ink on paper. Ca. 15x11,5 cm (6 x 4 ½ in), leaf ca. 24,5x16 cm (9 ½ x 6 ¼ in). Signed in the right lower corner. Published in: vol. I, p. 47 (German ed.), vol. II, p. 43 (English ed.)
6) MÜLLER, Leopold. Sarrâf oder Wechsler [Sarraf, or Money-Changer].Ink on paper. Ca. 19x13,5 cm (7 ½ x 5 ¼ in), mounted on a larger leaf ca. 32,5x23,5 cm (13x9 in). Signed in the right lower corner, pencil note on the lower margin of mount. Published in: vol. I, p. 55 (German ed.), vol. II, p. 49 (English ed.)
7) MÜLLER, Leopold. Hirte in der Wüste [Herdsman in the Desert].Pen and wash on paper. Ca. 13,5x21 cm (5 ¼ x 8 ¼ in), mounted on a larger leaf ca. 25x33,5 cm (10 x 13 ¼ in). Signed in ink in the left lower corner, pencil note on the lower margin of mount. Published in: vol. I, p. 108 (German ed.), vol. I, p. 95 (English ed.)
8) WELSCH, Charles Feodor. Alt-Kairo [Old Cairo]. Pencil and charcoal on paper, heightened in white. Ca. 25x19 cm (9 ¾ x 7 ½ in), mounted on a larger leaf ca. 45x31 cm (17 ¾ x 12 ¼ in). Not signed, a pencil and ink notes on the lower margin of the mount. Published in: vol. I, p. 225 (German ed.), vol. II, leaf facing p. 193 (English ed.)
9) WELSCH, Charles Feodor. Am Nilufer [On the Bank of the Nile]. Pencil and watercolour on paper. Ca. 27x17 cm (10 ½ x 7 ½ in), leaf ca. 45,5x35 cm (18x14 in). Signed in the left lower corner, a pencil note on the lower margin of the mount. Published in: vol. I, p. 377 (German ed.), vol. II, p. 340 (English ed.)
First German edition: EBERS, G. Ägypten in Wort und Bild. Stuttgart & Leipzig: Hallberger, 1879-1880. 2 vols. Folio. (ca. 38,5x31 cm). [8], vi, [2], 387; xii, 432 pp. With two chromolithographed maps and numerous woodcut illustrations in text. Original publisher’s brown full cloth with rich gilt tooled ornaments on the upper board and the spine, decorated with blue beads; marbled papered endpapers, all edges gilt. Binding slightly rubbed on extremities, corners slightly bumped, several beads on the front cover missing, but overall a very good copy. Ibrahim-Hilmy I, 205; Kainbacher 111; Rümann, 19. Jh. 144.
First English edition: EBERS, G. Egypt: descriptive, historical, and picturesque. Translated from the original German by Clara Bell. With an introduction and notes by S. Birch. London, Paris & New York: Cassell, [1880s]. 2 vols. Folio (ca. 38,5x29,5 cm). Xxiv, 314, [4]; xxii, 388, [4] pp. With two frontispieces, 29 woodcut plates and numerous woodcut illustrations in text. Original publisher’s brown full cloth with gilt tooled and colour stamped ornaments, as well as gilt lettered titles on the upper board and the spine, all edges gilt. Binding slightly rubbed on extremities, corners slightly bumped, but overall a very good copy. Ibrahim-Hilmy I, 206ff.


LUCK, Charles Cardale (1875-1954); LUCK, Cicely Maud; LUCK, Hildur Carolina (1881-1891).
[Extensive Private Archive with over 140 Original Gelatin Silver Photographs taken during Hildur Luck’s Travels to Kenya and Uganda, Showing Her Brother Cardale Luck’s Gwonongween Estate in Kenya, His Family and House Servants, Missionary Stations, Schools and Churches in Mbarara (Uganda), Lake Victoria, River Nile’s Ripon Falls, Mombasa, and Others, Many Vivid Portraits of Native People; With 31 Letters Written to Hildur Mostly by Cardale and his wife Cicely from Kenya; Additionally with about Sixty Items of Ephemera collected during Hildur’s Voyage to Kenya and Uganda in 1940s].

Ca. 1920s. Over 140 loose gelatin silver prints of various size, including over eighty large photos ca. 11,5x16 cm (4 ½ x 6 ¼ in) or slightly smaller; and over thirty smaller images, ca. 9x14 cm (3 ½ x 5 ½ in); the rest are ca. 6,5x11 cm (2 ½ x 4 ¼ in) or slightly smaller. Most photos with pencil or ink captions in English or Swedish on versos. Several corners of photos mildly creased, but overall very good strong photos. With 31 letters, dated 1920-1948, small and large Octavos, in all over eighty pages of legible text in English. Black and blue ink on various wove paper; with three stamped envelopes. With over sixty items of various ephemera (visas, travel insurance, telegrams, recommendation letters to African authorities and churches, receipts from hotels, shops and churches, railway tickets, medicine prescriptions et al.), dated 1946-1947. Overall a very interesting archive in very good condition.
Extensive interesting archive of original photographs, letters, and ephemera from the estate of Hildur Carolina Luck, a secretary of Swedish Kvinnelige Misjons Arbeidere (Women Mission Workers’ Organization) in the 1940s. The archive’s contents are closely related to the life of Hildur’s brother, Charles Cardale Luck (1875-1954), a known Swedish artist and a residing farmer in eastern Kenya in the 1920-1940s. The archive contains over 140 original photos taken during Hildur’s visit to her brother’s Gwonongween estate near Lumbwa (Kenya’s Rift Valley region) in autumn-winter 1921-1922 (see the letter by Cicely Luck from 17 Oct. 1921). Over twenty images were taken in the estate, including portraits of Cardale Luck, his wife Cicely and their four children George Thomas Axel (1911-?), Rolf Cardale (1912-1944), Cecil Percy (1917-2008), and Andolie Sophia (ca. 1920-?), with nice photos of the wife and children feeding the chickens, two younger Luck kids posing next to an African hut, portraits of native farm workers milking cows, Kikuyu girls near Lumbwa, native men dancing on the front lawn of the estate, servants moving furniture out of or to the estate, a panoramic view of the estate taken from the distance, views of the nearby mountain ridges of the Great Rift Valley, and others. About twenty images of Kenya show streets in Mombasa, Fort Jesus on Mombasa Island, a street in Kavirondo district, a native dance, termite mounds, people from Kavirondo in festive costumes, and others.
Over sixty interesting photos were taken during Hildur Luck’s trip to the missionary stations in Mbarara (Ankole region of Uganda) via Lake Victoria. The photos show Church Missionary Society station in Ndejje (native girls posing with missionary “Miss E. Brewer”), children on a lesson in CMS school in Mbarara, mission bungalow in Mbarara, native church in the Ankole region, a group of native boy scouts in Mbarara, missionary “Miss Brittain” on a bike posing with native boys in the Ankole region, a female missionary teaching native girls sowing, people leaving Kampala Cathedral after the service, CMS hospital in Kampala; several group portraits of Ugandan native Christian priests with their families; view of the graves of English missionary and martyr James Hannington (1847-1885) and missionary George Lawrence Pilkington (1865-1897) apparently in Kampala; portraits of Hildur Luck being carried by native porters across a river and driven in a cart, a portrait of native carriers moving heavy luggage uphill, and numerous portraits of native villagers, children, babies, girls carrying water, musicians playing drums, girls working on a field, and others. There are also fourteen interesting images of Lake Victoria and Ripon Falls in Uganda (now submerged after the construction of the Owen Falls Dam in 1954), showing native canoes in Jinja, a village on the lake shore, native boat with the sign “Africa, Entebbe” on the stern, and Hildur Luck and her brother (?) posing in front of the Ripon Falls.
The letters include four early ones written in the first years of the Luck family’s life in the Gwonongween estate (dated 31 July 1920 – 26 Oct. 1922), and twenty-seven later ones, written in the family next house in Ol Ngatonga farm, Kitale region of Kenya (16 Dec. 1938 – 12 Dec. 1948). Written mostly by Cicely Luck (with a few authored by Cardale) and addressed mostly to Hildur or her sister Nilsalie (Nilsalie Frederica Hallencreutz, 1878-1972), the letters talk about family affairs and life in Africa, household duties, crops, farm animals, Swedish food they had a home, risks of getting sleeping sickness and malaria, locust attacks, Swedish Mount Elgon Expedition (4 Aug. 1920), the beginning of WW2 (4 Sept. 1939), Russo-Finnish War of 1939-1940 (22 Feb. 1940), the death of their second son Rolf (5 Nov. 1944), the end of WW2 (14 May 1945), the plans to move to Cape Town for retirement (12 Dec., 1948), and others.
A long fascinating letter by Cicely Luck dated 26 October 1922 gives a detailed account of their car trip from Jinja to Kisumu on the shore of Lake Victoria via Busia, with a thunderstorm and heavy rains getting their car stuck in the mud and forcing them to stay overnight in the mud huts of a nearby rest camp; a long colourful passage describes Kavirondo people coming back from a Ngoma party whom the travellers met on the way: “I can’t attempt to do justice to their attire – it was infinitely varied & grotesque beyond belief! Pat & I could really have wept at being unable to snap them. <…> All the women were oiled until they gleamed like well kept mahogany. They had painted their legs with grey <…?> paint, but otherwise were not got up, save for numerous bead ornaments, hair oiled etc. They really looked delightful, or rather the young girls did, before child-bearing had spoilt their figures, poor dears. They were so graceful & unselfconscious in their movements & looked so happy, teeth & eyes gleaming in competition with their polished limbs. All the men were painted but not like the Lua Kavirondos the other side of Nunias that you took a snap of – not all over haphazard, but carefully with elaborate designs <…> in dull red, grey & ochre coloured earths. Some had nose, mouth & chin painted yellow, outlined in red, others had eyes patterned. Almost all had elaborate patterns in 2 or 3 colours on the legs. Some wore leopard skins, & other “cat” skins, not slung over the shoulders, but round the waist, giving quite a skirt=-ike effect. One wore, I think, a hyena skin, but I can’t be sure. Some crowned these costumes with European straw hats, preferably 2 on tops of each other – Tenai fashion - & that, together with their <…?> salutes, were indescribably ludicrous, when combined with their native war paint! <…> They carried huge shield & spears – one had on European boots! Some wore tusks & horns all round their heads, these I think were the most alarming to the eye – truly they were all like the worst nightmare of cannibal chiefs that a fever-haunted child-brain could conjure up. And yet you know they were very kindly should & saluted & “jamboed” us very friendly as we passed, & grinned like pleased school-boys at our open admiration!”
Other excerpts from the letters:
Swedish Mount Elgon Expedition (April-July 1920): “Just now we have 3 of the Swedish Expedition with us – Capt. & Fru Lovén, Dr. Granvik – it is very nice to have them to talk to & hear all their adventures at Elgon & en route. They are very pleased with their time & the results of their labours, & on the whole the weather has been all in their favour. They will stay here for some days before going for a brief trip to Uganda, after which they go home with their spoils. I so ejoy having Marta Lovén here, one never sees white women here, just swarms of men <…> Fru Lovén has brought a charming little baby monkey with her – you would delight in him I know. As I write he sits on the balustrade of the verandah, gracefully scratching fleas with one paw, & draping his knee long tail around him. He eats Cape gooseberries <…> and is really quite dreadfully human! <…> They hope to take him home with them, but the pity is that baby monkeys grow up & become large and ugly!” (Cicely Luck, letter from 4 Aug., 1920).
WW2: “We are this year going in chiefly for flax which is so badly needed for war purposes, aeroplane wings covering in particular <…> We may have to go in for pigs and more cattle to supply the troops in Egypt with bacon & butter & cheese” (22 Feb. 1940); “The rationing, which mainly hits town people, is by no means severe, and we have all we need. Of course, we have had masses of troops to feed, and still have <…> Renewals, renewals of every kind needed to replace everything that has got worn out during the war, not least agricultural machinery everywhere, then too fabrics of every sort and kind <…> Spares of every sort & kind for machinery and cars have been most difficult to get” (Cardale Luck, 16 Sept. 1945).
Germans: “Even in Tanganyika, the missionaries preached Nazism from the pulpits and had Hitler’s <…?> in the churches, & that with few exceptions” (Cardale Luck, 16 Sept. 1945)
Death of Rolf Cardale Luck: “We received this wire from Airgroup Nairobi yesterday morning: “Deeply regret to inform you H.Lt. R.C. Luck D.F.C. Reported missing Oct. 28th, failed to return to base from special mission.” What this “special mission” was I hope we may know some day is not now. As presumably his Catalina came down at sea & they must have led scout planes scouring the probably area for 4-5- days before the telegram was despatched…” (Cardale Luck, 5 Nov. 1944).
Overall a fascinating extensive archive giving a first-hand account of white settlers’ life in the 1920s-1940s British East Africa.
Charles Cardale Luck was a son of a prominent Swedish businessman of English origin Percy F. Luck (1844-1915). Charles Luck studied engraving in the Royal Swedish Academy of Fine Arts, and later in England and France, exhibited at the 1913 Salon (Benezit Dictionary of Arts) and moved to Kenya in 1920. While residing in Africa, he authored an article “The Origin of the Massai and Kindred Tribes and of Bornean Tribes” (The Journal of the East Africa and Uganda Natural History Society, London, 1926, August, pp. 91-193).


4. [AFRICA - LIVINGSTONE], David (1813-1873)
[Autograph Letter Signed "David Livingstone" Dated at Mr. Stearns', Malabar Hill, Nov. 2nd 1865 and Addressed on the Verso “To H. Chowfussy." “I expect a telegram from James Young... On a subject of considerable importance to me, but as it would appear from your careful investigation that no telegram has come from England for me, the only other source I can imagine must have been from the Governor and as I have written to him to-day he will see that I have not received any - I think that no further search need be made but with hearty thanks I remain sincerely yours..,” [With] A Carte de Visite Albumen Photograph of Livingstone Standing by a Table ca. 1865 (8.5 x 5.5 cm).

2 November 1865. Octavo letter (ca. 18x11,5 cm) in four pages on a bifolium. Carte de Visite Albumen Photograph mounted on period stiff card with pencil caption "Livingstone" under photograph. Brown ink written in a legible hand on laid beige paper. Fold marks and with residue of mounting paste, but overall the letter and the photograph are in very good condition.
In November 1864, Livingstone had decided that he "would try to ‘settle’ the watersheds of central Africa, though he insisted that he remained primarily a missionary. He planned to return to the Rovuma, pass to the north of Lake Nyasa, look for the Nile headwaters, and then make for Ujiji, on Lake Tanganyika; but he still hoped to find a site for a trading mission. The expedition was to be small-scale, without a steamboat, and without other Europeans. The RGS put up £500, as did the British government; and £1000 came from James Young, a friend from Livingstone's student days in Glasgow, who had made a fortune from distilling paraffin"(Oxford DNB); James Young's (1811-1883) £1000 contribution is perhaps what explains the importance of the mentioned telegram to Livingstone. This letter dates from Livingstone's time in Bombay where he organized and recruited for this expedition. "In Bombay, Livingstone recruited several sepoys, and twelve Africans from mission schools.., [and] the governor, Sir Bartle Frere.., gave the party passage in a government ship to Zanzibar [in January 1866]" (Oxford DNB). This was to be Livingstone's last expedition where after a long period without contact to the outside world, Stanley found him at Ujiji in 1871 and greeted him there with the famous salutation, "Dr Livingstone, I presume?" William French Stearns (1835-74) was the son of the distinguished President of Amherst College, Massachusetts. He was engaged in the business of Stearns, Hobart & Co. Of Bombay from 1857 to 1868. Livingstone had met Stearns in 1865 on a steamer to Bombay and had become firm friends. Stearns letters from Livingstone were published by Boston University's African Studies Centre in 1968.


SHARPE, Alfred, Sir (1853-1935)
[Collection of 25 Autograph Letters and Notes Signed “Alfred Sharpe” to “Dear Colles” – his Literary Agent William Morris Colles, with a number of topics touched, including Sharpe’s prospective book about his travels, Central Africa, polemics with the Labour Party’s idea of Postwar International Administration of Equatorial Africa, and politics in the Balkans during WWI].

Various places in Britain (the majority – Elmhurst, Lancaster), 1915-1918. Various sizes, from Small Octavo (ca. 17,5x11 cm) to Quarto (ca. 23x19,5 cm). 39 pp. in total. Brown ink on various paper (blue laid paper, blue San Remo linen paper, white “Basildon Bond” paper et al.) Eighteen letters with blind stamped address “Elmhurst, Lancaster” on the upper margin, and two with the “Plâs Nantyr, Glyn” ink stamp; one letter on the printed form of “Euston Hotel, London”, and one – on the form of the “Royal Societies Club, St. James’s Street, London”. All but one letters with the ink stamp “Received” on the first page, specifying the date of reception; all letters with blue pencil numbers apparently put by Colles. Mild fold marks, holes in one of the corners after the letters having been stapled together, some letters with minor creases and tears on the margins, but overall a very good archive of interesting letters written in a legible hand.
Interesting historically important archive of Sir Alfred Sharpe, British traveller and colonial administrator in Central Africa, who was actively engaged in the formation of the British Central Africa Protectorate (after 1964 - Malawi), became its High Commissioner (1896-1907) and later, when the colony was renamed to Nyasaland – its first governor (1907-1910). Sharpe was also a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society (RGS) since 1891, received its Cuthbert Peak Award in 1898 and became a member of the Society’s Council in 1913-1917. Much of the collection relates to the history of writing and publication of Sharpe’s memoirs about his travels in Africa. The first documents regarding this date from the end of 1916 (Nov 24 and Dec 11) when Sharpe had the diaries of his journey to South Africa retyped and sent to Colles “together with 100 photos from which a choice – or all – can be taken”. After that Sharpe went on another trip, writing to Colles: “I leave for Africa on Friday” (11 Dec, 1916), and already in July 1917 he sent to the agent “notes on my last journey” (9 Jul, 1917). From this time starts long correspondence about different aspects of the prospective book: what stories should be included, what should be edited or revised; whether it is possible to find paper to print a book (in wartime) et al. Some examples of the correspondence about “the Book”: Sharpe is talking about his travel to the German East Africa in 1904 – “to the magnificent high district immediately north of Lake Nyasa”. He encloses the diary he kept at the time saying that he can “complete a running narrative out of it” (5 March, 1918). “I can make out say 2000 or 3000 words on the German Kondeland – with a general description of that nice country, and the notes of the journey I sent you. Let me know if you want it” (6 March, 1918), “You said I owe a paper – Here is one of the Cape to Cairo fetish [?] <…> Would it do also to incorporate as a chapter in the book?” (9 March, 1918). Several letters reveal the negotiation process with prospective publisher Edward Arnold: he is first mentioned in a letter from 9 July 1917. Almost a year after, on 1 May 1918 Sharpe writes to Colles that Arnold wants him to rewrite the manuscript and make “a fresh book”. Throughout the next five letters continues the discussion about Sharpe’s royalty: the author wanted “20 % and £200 down” and then was ready “to go down to the South coast & shut myself up for 2 to 3 months & make the thing to work”. The outcome on 21 May was unfavourable, Sharpe writing: “It is not sufficiently attractive for me to go in for four months hard work. Moreover it is a form of agreement which would bend me to write, but leaves A. Open to publish or not according to when he likes, and if paper goes to his price. Will you kindly inform him that I can not consider his offer”. Note: Sharpe’s book was eventually published in 1921 by H.F. & G. Witherby under the title “The Backbone of Africa: A record of Travel During the Great War, with Some Suggestions for Administrative Reform." Other letters from the collection reveal a number of different interesting subjects: Four letters touch on the idea of post-war international administration of the Equatorial Africa suggested by the Labour Party, the idea which Sharpe was a passionate opponent of: “What on earth the Labour Gentlemen have to do with our African possessions <…>”; Their idea of a mixed up Africa governed by a mixed up international Govt is of course a farce. Does anyone really looks on it seriously?” (2 Jan, 1918). The other letters are dedicated to the article by H.G. Wells which supported the Labour’s idea and was published in the Daily Mail (30 Jan 1918) under the title “The African Riddle”. Sharpe wrote a reply article for the Daily Mail for 1000 words, and another one for 3500 words – and is asking Colles to find a magazine to publish it (5 Feb, 1918). From the next letter we get to know that it went to the “Land and Water” magazine (10 Feb, 1918).
Six letters dated October-December 1917 contain some interesting contemporary observations on the events in the Balkans theatre of WW1, e.g. Extensive notes on the “present German actions in Greece” also discusses Greek Prime-Minister Eleftherios Venizelos (31 Oct); letter about the British politics regarding Bulgaria and its desire to ally with the Entente (2 Nov); description of Sharpe’s private meeting with Venizelos when the conditions of Bulgaria’s alliance with the Entente were discussed (15 Nov); or thoughts about the future of the Balkan and Mediterranean fronts: “It is now sticking out for anyone to see that Germany, after she has done what she can in Italy, will send her spare army down to the Balkans, & make a big effort to force us out to the sea. After that she will go for Mesopotamia & Gaza. And how can we do anything there to stand up to her? – These many fronts are our weakness” (6 Nov).
William Morris Colles (1865-1926) was English literary agent, the founder and managing director of The Authors' Syndicate, Ltd. (1890); a Member of the Council of the Society of Authors, and of the Copyright Association. His extensive correspondence with numerous writers is held in several depositories, including the library of UCLA (correspondence with James Barrie, Arnold Bennett, E. F. Benson, R. Haggard, and S. Maugham), and the University of Columbia (Thomas Hardy, Alfred Ollivant, John Pendleton, William H. Rideing, Peter Kropotkin and others).


[Two Manuscript Journals Documenting Voyages to the Indian Ocean, Southeast Africa, Indonesia, Caribbean and South America Between 1820 and 1826, Describing the Trade of Slaves Brought from Indonesia and the Southeast African Coast to Reunion, After the French Ban on Slavery (1818).]

September 16, 1820 to June 14, 1826. Two Folio journals each ca. 39x26 cm (15 1/3 x 10 in). Manuscript text in French. Brown ink on white laid paper, two pages with small pencil inscriptions. First volume with original title «À Mon Meilleur Ami» («To my best friend») contains 51 leaves. Second volume titled “Voyage à la Guadeloupe» contains 38 leaves, including three smaller inset leaves each ca. 25,5x20 cm (10x8 in). The vast majority of entries are dated and there are numerous titles in the margin. Period style navy blue half morocco with marbled papered boards, spine with gilt tooled ornament and gilt lettered title “À Mon Meilleur Ami” and “Voyage à la Guadeloupe.” One page with ink stain on lower right corner, leaves with paper repairs in gutter, volume 2 more so with a few leaves with repairs affecting text, slightly age toned and some mild stains in gutter throughout, but overall a very good journal written in a legible hand.
A very interesting manuscript travel journal with entries containing historically important descriptions of the 1820s French slave trade between Indonesia, Southeast Africa and Reunion, with descriptions of trade in the Caribbean and South America. The second volume of this manuscript is particularly interesting as the lieutenant of the brig Euridice, under Captain Le Coq, documents the trade of slaves that occurred between December 1822 and December 1824, despite the 1818 ban on the slave trade in France. The author describes in detail a voyage to Indonesia, with stops in Bali, Dili (Timor Island) and several smaller islands to obtain slaves. While slaves are found to be rare and expensive, the crew embarks 80 young girls and children from Bali, and they depart from Dili “having on board 154 slaves, of which 120 were very young girls and some were very pretty.” The ship also travels numerous times between Ile Bourbon [Reunion], under French control at the time, and the southeastern coast of Africa, including several Indian Ocean islands. They make one stop in Anjouan (Comoro Islands): « We received the Sultan [Abdallah bin Alawi (1816-1832)] and his entourage aboard… We served him breakfast, he seemed calm and very confident and left very happy and wanting to procure us our desired merchandise” after which they travel to Mohéli to embark 30 slaves from the Sultan. They stop in Oïbe [Ibo, Mozambique]: “As soon as we arrived, the captain disembarked and discussed affairs with the governor who made him the biggest promises and gave him the biggest hopes. However, we had a competitor who was no less threatening to us as we were to him, the ship Le Soleil… In the last 6 months, over one hundred merchants from Oïbe, accompanied by a thousand slaves, left Oïbe charged with provisions and merchandise to trade in central Africa.” They also search for slaves in Makaloé, Miquindamy [Mikindani, Tanzania], Tanguy [Tanga, Tanzania] and Misimboua [Mocimboa da Praia, Mozambique]. The author describes the difficult traverse back to Reunion during which there are not enough provisions for the 500 people on board, leading to the death of the captain, the “subrécargue” (supercargo) and the doctor: over 300 slaves are delivered to La Reunion. The journal entries also describe the trade of other goods, including several trips to Tamatave [Toamasina, Madagascar] to embark cattle and bring it to Reunion, and a voyage to Ensenada (Argentina) where French goods are sold (salt, butter, and wine) in exchange for mules and feed. During the stay in Argentina, the author describes a horseback voyage to Buenos-Aires with captain Le Coq to meet with the consignee, the Hegain, Mayer & Cie House. There is also a brief description of a voyage aboard Aimable Eulalie from Le Havre to Pointe-à-Pitre (Guadeloupe) including details of the voyage aboard the ship and the transportation of sugar to Le Havre.
In the first volume of the manuscript, the author describes three different voyages. During the first voyage in 1820, from Le Havre to Wright Island (UK) aboard the Minerve, the ship embarks with tobacco and cotton cargoes from the American ship Concorde. There is also a visit from the King of England on September 26th: “The King arrived at West Cowes, we saluted him by firing the canon 21 times.” On the second voyage from Le Havre to Guadeloupe 1820-21, also aboard the Minerve, the sailors disembarked 23 swine and several of the crew became ill, including the author who returns to France aboard the Moselle: “I returned aboard at 2:00 after being overwhelmed by fatigue and the heat, with a piercing headache and fever…” Finally, during the third voyage from Le Havre to Sao Marcos bay (Brasil) aboard the Saint Louis 1821-22, the author describes life on the ship, including several disputes: “On Monday at noon I had a fairly vivid quarrel with the captain […] In the evening I asked the captain if he would allow me my food ration he told me that he would not give it to me because I had disobeyed him […] and he would consider me as a passenger on the ship.” He also describes the offloading of merchandise (including steel and oil), a visit from the customs, the loading of horn and cotton, and observations of the town and the country: “At 10 AM, we entered in the river that forms the port and berthed in the presence of Portuguese people gathered on the dock. After furling our sails, we saluted the town by firing the canon 19 times and they answered with 13… The city in front of us looks like a war town. All around are bulwarks armed with canons.”
The author is anonymous, but is known to be from Caen and is likely in the early days of his career, considering that he progresses from novice aboard Minerve, to ship owner in Le Havre, sailor aboard Saint-Louis and finally lieutenant aboard Aimable Eulalie and Euridice. Overall, a very interesting manuscript with rich and detailed descriptions of the illegal slave trade aboard a French ship in Indonesia and along the southeastern coast of Africa, trade in South America and the Caribbean, and life on board the ships.
Volume I
1- Le Havre to Wright Island (UK) aboard Minerve, September-October 1820
2- Le Havre to Désirade Island (Guadeloupe) aboard Minerve, November 21st 1820 to March 26th 1821, back on the Moselle
3- Le Havre to Sao Marcos Bay (Brasil) aboard Saint Louis, September 8th 1821- March 5th 1822

Volume II
4- Le Havre to Pointe-à-Pitre (Guadeloupe) aboard Aimable Eulalie (owned by Feray), April 28th to September 5th 1822 (as lieutenant)
5- Euridice under Captain Le Coq, as lieutenant:
a. Crach (France) to Ensenada (Argentina) December 29th 1822- April 14th 1823
b. Saint Denis (Ile Bourbon / Reunion) arrives 16th June 1823
c. Saint Louis (Ile de France / Mauritius Island) arrives 24th June 1823
d. Saint Denis (Reunion)
e. Toamasina (Madagascar), arrives 13th July 1823
f. Saint-Paul (Reunion), arrives August 1st 1823
g. Toamasina to Anjouan (Comoros Islands), September 22nd 1823
h. Anjouan to Mohéli, leaves Octover 22nd 1823
i. Between October 22nd and December 23rd 1823: East Coast of Africa and Islands (Makaloé, Miquindamy (Mikindani, Tanzania), Tanguy (Tanga, Tanzania) and Misimboua (Mocimboa da Praia, Mozambique))
j. Misimboua to Oïbe Island (Ibo, Mozambique) December 15th 1823- March 7th 1824
k. Oïbe to La Reunion (with stop in Madagascar), March 7th -April 26th 1824
l. La Reunion to Bali (Indonesia), May 16th – October 7th 1824
m. Stops on several islands and arrive in Timor (Indonesia) October 31st
n. Dili (Timor) – La Reunion, 19th November – December 24th 1824
o. Summary of trades in Madagascar (for rice), Seychelles (coconuts for la Reunion plantation), stay in Mauritius, 1825 - June 14th 1826.


[HALL, Charles, Commander of H.M. Brig Rolla]
[Period Copy of Hall’s Letter to the Editor of the United Service Gazette, Regarding the West African Slave Trade, Titled:] The Present Slave Trade; Stating only a Tithe of Its Horrors. By an Eye-Witness.

Ca. 1840. Folio (ca. 33x20 cm). Brown ink on Stacey Wise laid paper watermarked “1840”. 4 pp. Unsigned, but written in a very legible hand. Fold marks, paper slightly age toned, but overall a very good manuscript.
The exact (apart from several words or grammatical forms) period copy of Commander Hall’s letter which was first published in the United Service Gazette (January 1843) and later in Rev. S.A. Walker’s “Missions in Western Africa among the Soosos, Bulloms, etc…” (London-Dublin, 1845, pp. 76-77). Hall commanded HMS Rolla at Cape of Good Hope and West coast of Africa in 1838-1842. He didn’t succeed in capturing many slave ships, but assisted in liberating slaves from several barracoons on shore at the Gallinas River (Sierra Leone), as well as destroying eleven large slave barracoons belonging to the white piratical slave dealers (see more: The Friend of Africa, London, October 1842, p. 156). The letter vividly describes the mechanism of West African Slave trade, huge profits made by traders, mode of transportation on slave ships, horrible conditions of slaves, et al.
“The cruel, unfeeling and heartless Slave Traders, or their agents, reside at the most convenient places at or near the Slaving Towns, or villages on the W. Coast of Africa, and have generally large, expensive establishments in the shape of barracoons for from 500 to 1000 men slaves to live in; others for women and boys, with comfortable Dwelling Houses and every luxury for themselves. They have also Factories, or Storehouses containing quantities of Slave goods, the only inland barter for Slaves. <…> The slaving piratical vessels which run across the Atlantic for Cargoes of Slaves sail very fast and are generally armed with large Guns, for the express purpose of killing and wounding the Seamen and sinking the Boat belonging to the British Cruisers showing at the time no flag of any nation. On their making to the Slave Coast where they are bound to, they immediately, night or day, communicate with the shore, by means of light canoes <…>, when they immediately make sail off the land, and at the appointed time stand I close to the beach <…> They have certain information where the [British] cruisers are on the coast, their sailing qualities to a nicety, having scouts along the coast and communication kept up by signals, fires, smokes and small kroo canoes which pull along shore very fast, giving timely notice of the approach of a Man of War.
The inducements to the Slave dealers are very great, if at all successful they realize a profit of 180 to 200 per cent and upwards. <…> The present System pursued in endeavouring to put down the Slave Trade by Cruisers is attended with great risk, anxiety and loss of life, with heavy expenses to the Country - it is also attended with unspeakable horrors and unutterable sufferings to the poor unfortunate Slaves who are doomed for exportation. They are frequently for months (from a man of war blockading the Slaving place) kept in a state of mere starving existence in the Barracoons on shore; from the heavy expense of feeding them, many are starved to death, chained together by the neck, in gangs from 12 to 20, or shackled by the legs in pairs. On an opportunity offering, they are shipped off in an exhausted, inanimate state, and packed in a Slaver’s hold nearly in bulk, when their miseries or sufferings increase, as they are deprived of fresh air, and almost deprived of Water, which they did not feel the want of in the Barracoons…
The articles made expressly for the Slave Trade are of the worst possible manufacture – the rum is horrible and drives the natives mad, the muskets burst to pieces in their hands, and the tobacco is made of the worst ingredients possible. The most worthless articles are exported, for which the natives are charged a very exorbitant price. Every possible imposition is practised on the poor, much benighted African; and debased in intellect to the lowest grade by the white piratical slave dealers, the scourge and curse of Africa, and to the utter disgrace of any thing in the shape of a human Being.”


RITCHIE, Joseph (ca. 1788-1819)
[Interesting Autograph Letter to John Whishaw, Secretary of the African Institution, Written at the Beginning of Ritchie's Ill-Fated Expedition to Africa, to Introduce Sidi Hassuna D'Ghies, who was a son of the Prime Minister of the Pasha of Tripoli, and Later Would Become the Pasha’s Foreign Minister, and Additionally he was Later also Connected to the Fate of Alexander Laing].

Marseilles, 28 August 1818. Quarto (ca. 25,5x19,5 cm). 1 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Mild fold marks and light chipping of the top margin, ink slightly faded, but overall a very good legible letter.
Rare historically important letter by Joseph Ritchie, an English surgeon and African explorer, written during his ill-fated expedition to Northern Africa in 1818-1819, which tried to ascertain the course of the Niger and the location of the fabled Timbuktu. Ritchie and George Lyon followed the route of Frederick Hornemann’s expedition of 1797, crossing the Sahara via Murzuq. “The expedition was underfunded, lacked support and because of the ideas of Barrow departed from Tripoli and thus had to cross the Sahara as part of their journey. A year later, due to much officialdom they had only got as far as Murzuk, the capital of Fezzan, where they both fell ill. Ritchie never recovered and died there” (Wikipedia).
The letter, written in Marseille shortly before Ritchie's departure for Malta was addressed to John Whisham (1764-1840), the secretary of the African Institution and the biographer of Mungo Park. Ritchie introduced to him 'Sidi Hassuna D'Ghies, a Tripolitan who has passed some time in this Town - & son of the present Minister of the Pacha. I am anxious in some measure to repay the Services which he has rendered me during a tedious detention here (waiting for a passage to Malta) by giving me much useful information respecting Africa; the interest which has been so kindly taken in the Attempt I am about to make, emboldens me to hope that his liberality & goodness will be well-appreciated in England'.
Hassuna D’Ghies was appointed the foreign minister of the Pasha of Tripoli in 1825. He “came from a wealthy merchant family with commercial interests in Ghadamis, Fazzan, and various European countries. Having spent seven years in London and Paris on business and diplomatic missions, he was familiar with European ways. [British consul in Tripoli] Warrington, who had most to lose from Hassuna D’Ghies insistence on conducting business with the consuls in a way which prevented their intervention in local affairs, used the death near Timbuktu in 1826 of the English explorer Major Laing as an occasion to force the pasha to dismiss his foreign minister. <…> Warrington claimed, without any substantial evidence, that Laing’s assassination had been plotted by the Pasha and D’Ghies, that the latter had given Laing’s papers to the French consul in return for a forty per cent reduction of a debt which he owed him and that Caillie had never set foot in Timbuktu and the diary he had published under his name was compiled from Laing’s papers.” As a result in 1829 D’Ghies was announced by the pasha responsible for Laing’s death and replaced as foreign minister by his brother Muhammed (Abun-Nasr, Jamil M. A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period. Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 202).
Ritchie was involved into scientific and literary circles of London. He foretold the exceptional literary future of John Keats, and “possibly from some association of ‘Endymion’ with the Mountains of the Moon, promised to carry a copy of the poem with him to Africa and fling it into the midst of the Sahara” (Oxford DNB).


[De la MOTTE, Edward]
[Typewritten Manuscript Account of the Fifth Ascent of Aconcagua, by British Climber Edward de la Motte and American Mountaineer James Ramsey Ullman, Being also the First American Ascent of Aconcagua, Titled:] Horcones Valley and Aconcagua. February/March 1928.

Ca. 1928. Quarto (ca. 28,5x22 cm). 25 numbered leaves of typewritten text. Occasional period ink corrections in text. Vertical centrefold, first and last leaves with mild creases and traces of old staples removed, otherwise a very good manuscript.
Original typescript of the diary of Edward de la Motte, one of the participants of the fifth ascent of Aconcagua, the highest peak in the Americas, with his manuscript corrections in text. De la Motte’s climbing partner was a famous American mountaineer and writer James Ramsey Ullman (1907-1971), thus the expedition became the first American ascent of Aconcagua. The expedition party included two other members, named in the manuscript “Bromley” and “Mrs.” (a female). De la Motte gives a detailed description of the whole expedition from arrival to Retiro (Buenos Aires) on 25 February to the final arrival to Buenos Aires (on the way back) on 12 March 1828. The manuscript describes the mountaineers’ arrival in Mendoza, preparation and supplying of the expedition, trip to the Uspallata town and Puente del Inca, the long hike up the Horcones Valley, and all proceedings in the high camps on the mountain, including an acclimatization hike to the Buena Vista ridge and the summit day. The entries note the altitudes gained, pulse levels, experienced symptoms of mountain sickness, weight of loads carried, menus and preparations of the meals, frostbites et al. There are also several mentions of previous British expeditions to Aconcagua – by E. Fitzgerald and S. Vines (1897) and by J. Cochrane and M.F. Ryan (1925).
Some entries: “February 27th. Mrs. Togs up a la “complete mountaineer” in heavy boots and breeches, but fearing the populace slips out by a back entrance and gets nearly eaten by a yard full of dogs.” (p. 3).
“March 3rd. Base, night min. 28° 18,000 max. Pulse before starting: Ram 68, me 100. This is being written in Ryan’s tent with a snow storm outside, luckily the tent in perfectly sound, and apart from a little fine driven snow, all is snug inside. There is enough food for a week and between us we have 7 blankets, and eiderdown and a Jaeger sleeping bag. <…> Ram and I are comfortable with our feet tied in rucksacks and are able to laugh at the weather” (pp. 9-10).
“March 4th. Up at 8.30, rising consisting of putting on boots and balaclava and extricating oneself from the sleeping bag – in itself a laborious process and only to be performed with much gasping. This gasping is an altitude effect which neither of us can get over – headaches are things of the past, our appetites are tremendous, but the least exertion such as tightening a rope, leaving or entering the tent, opening a tin of sausages and even eating makes us gasp for breath” (p. 12).
“March 5th. [Summit Day]. Up 5 a.m. <…> Ram wearing his Ventana boots could only get on two pairs of socks – same as myself, so that to avoid frostbite we both tried to keep out toes moving inside our boots as far as possible. <…> Both of us were fairly near the limits of our endurance but the top was in view and at 4.30 we stepped out on the summit, very glad at being finished with the hard work of climbing. Driving snow clouds prevented the view to the South and what was worse, Ram could not find Ryan’s thermometers – the only object visible being an empty beer bottle. The top is of triangular shape with the Northern apex at the highest point. Photos were taken from the West tower which should identify the summit alright, at any rate, so far as Ryan and other climbers are concerned.
Ram got busy with a self timer – which like the meta cooker failed to work, the resulting messing about with which gave Ram four frostbitten fingers (unnoticed until considerably later). An ice axe with E.M. And A.R. Carved on the shaft was left, also a card with our names on was left in a small Yerma tin with one plasmon biscuit (sustenance for the next party that reaches the top)” (pp. 14-15).
James Ramsey Ullman was a noted American writer and mountaineer, official historian of the American Mount Everest Expedition 1963, the author of “The White Tower” (1945), “Banner in the Sky” (1954), “The Age of Mountaineering” (1954), “Tiger of the Snows” (together with Tenzing Norgay, 1955), “Americans on Everest” (1964), and others. Most of Ullman’s papers are now deposited in the Princeton University Library.
“The Andean career of Edward de la Motte apparently began in 1928 with Aconcagua, highest of all Andean peaks, and ended probably in 1946 with Sajama, highest of Bolivian mountains. With the well-known American novelist James Ramsey Ullman (author of the White Tower), he accomplished on 5 March 1928 the fifth ascent of Aconcagua” (Echevarria, E. Early British Ascents in the Andes, 1831-1946 // The Alpine Journal. 1987. Vol. 92. P. 63).


WHYMPER, F[rederick] (1838-1901)
[Two Original Signed Ink and Wash Sketches of Nuklukayet and a Russian Mission Settlement on the Yukon River in Russian America, Taken during His Journey up the Yukon River to Fort Yukon as a Member of the Russian-American Telegraph Expedition in September 1866-August 1867].

1867. Two pen and wash sketches on paper, ca. 19x42 cm (7 ½ x 16 ½ in) and ca. 15,5x42 cm (6 x 16 ½ in). Each mounted on slightly larger piece of period card, dated and signed by the artist “F. Whymper del. 1867” in the right lower corner; handwritten titles (in brown ink) on the mounts. Both watercolours slightly age toned, the second watercolour with minor scratches on the upper margin and of the title on the mount (with some text missing), otherwise a very good pair of watercolours.
Two historically important watercolour views of two settlements on the Yukon River in Russian America drawn by British artist Frederick Whymper who extensively travelled across Alaska during the Russian-American Telegraph Expedition (1865-1867). The first drawing shows Nuklukayet – an important trading ground of the Native Americans from the upper reaches of the Yukon and “the furthest point ever reached by the Russian traders” (Whymper, F. Travel and Adventure in the Territory of Alaska. London, 1868, p. 210). Nuklukayet was abandoned in the end of the 19th century; the closest modern settlement is Tanana, about one mile downstream. The artist gave a peaceful picture of the village with the native Americans gathered next to their tents on the bank of the river, poles with drying fish, numerous canoes on shore, mighty Yukon and distant hills in the background. The second drawing shows the Russian Mission village on the lower Yukon where Whymper and his companions stopped just for three hours on their way back from Fort Yukon in July 1867. Whymper created an attractive picture of the whole little settlement: Russian Orthodox church and the priest’s house, three log houses of the Russian American Company (a native American is standing next to the door of one of them), elevated storage on high poles, and a couple of tents. Overall beautiful early views of the Yukon River when still a possession of Russian America.
This is how Whymper described both places in his book “Travel and Adventure in the Territory of Alaska...” (London, 1868):
“In the evening [June 7, 1867] we made the junction of the Tanana River and the Yukon, between which, on a tongue of land, Nuclukayette, an Indian trading ground of importance, is situated. <…> The place in the furthest point ever reached by the Russian traders, and is about 240 miles above Nulato. Within the last two or three years some of the Hudson Bay Company’s men have also come down with trading goods to this village. Hither come Indians from all quarters. Co-Yukons, Newicarguts, Tananas, and even the Kotch-á-kutchins from Fort Yukon. On some occasions their gatherings have numbered 600 persons. <…> On landing at this village a ceremony had to be gone through, possible to test whether we had “strong hearts” or not. The Indians already there, advanced, whooping, yelling, and brandishing their guns till they reached us, and then discharged them in the air. We, with the Indians just arrived, returned the compliment <…>. We found this place almost bare of provisions; the Indians dancing and singing all the same with empty stomachs, knowing that the season for moose-hunting was at hand” (210-211).
“On the 20th [of July, 1867], at half-past four in the morning, we reached the “Missie,” or Mission, once exclusively what its name implies, but now both the residence of a priest of the Greek Church and the sole Russian trading post on the lower river. We met the priest , or “pope,” as the Russians term him, afterwards at St. Michael’s, and a very saintly and heavily-bearded individual he was, but said to be by no means averse to the bottle. <…> The Russians had centralized their forces at the Mission, and had withdrawn them from Andreavski – to be hereafter mentioned – and from the Kolmakoff Redoubt on the Koskequim River. From this place they made periodical trading excursions. <…> The settlement comprises a chapel with two buildings attached, the property of the priest, and three log houses appertaining to the Fur Company. There is no fort or enclosed space. <…> We stopped there about three hours, and then resumed our journey…” (p. 235-236).
“Nuklukayet: locality, at junc. Of Tanana and Yukon Rivers <…> Former Indian trading camp and settlement located on the right bank of the Yukon River near the junction of the Tanana River, usually between the Tozitna River and Mission Hill; reported by Dall (1870, p. 57) as “Nuklukahyet.” With the establishment of a trading station, about 1869, the area became a more permanent station. (See Tanana)” (Orth, D.J. Dictionary of Alaska Place Names. Washington, 1967, p. 708).
“Russian Mission, village, pop. 102, on right bank of Yukon River 25 mi SE of Marshall, Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta <…>. Var. Ekogmute, Ikagmiut, Ikogmut, Ikogmute, the Mission. The Eskimo name for this village appears to have been reported by Lt. L.A. Zagoskin, IRN, in 1842-44 and published in Russian by Tikhmenev, in 1861, as “S[elo] Ikogmyut,” possibly meaning “people of the point.” It is listed by I. Petroff in the 1880 Census as “Ikogmute,” with 143 inhabitants; the 1890 Census lists 140. Baker (1906, p. 32), gives a population of 350 Eskimo in 1902. This village was the location of a Russian Orthodox Mission (sometimes called “Porkovskaya Mission”), established in 1851, the first in the interior of Alaska (Oswalt, 1963, p. 6). The designation “Russian Mission” supplanted the Eskimo name about 1900” (Orth, Idem, p. 822).
“Russian Mission(IqugmiutinCentral Yup'ik) is a city in Kusilvak Census Area, Alaska. It was the location of the first fur trading post of the Russian-American Company in 1842. It was officially named Russian Mission after the sale of Russian American possessions to the United States. The sale of alcohol is prohibited. At the 2000 census the population was 296” (Wikipedia).
“Whymper arrived in Victoria in the autumn of 1862, and the following summer he travelled to the Cariboo district of British Columbia on what he described as “a sketching and pedestrian tour.” <…> After a second winter in Victoria, Whymper set out in March 1864 for Bute Inlet (B.C.), in order to publicize through his drawings the road that Alfred Penderell Waddington was attempting to build to the Cariboo. He dutifully gave good reports of the enterprise, but attracted more attention from his account of the background to the killing of workers on the project by Indians, which had occurred while he was leaving the region. <…> Soon after he arrived back in Victoria, Whymper applied for the position of artist on the Vancouver Island Exploring Expedition. Of wiry build, he accepted the rigours of an expedition which covered much of the southern part of the island. An exhibition of 33 of his drawings from the exploration was held in Victoria in November 1864.
In 1865 Whymper joined the Russian-American Telegraph project, which intended to construct a telegraph line linking the United States and Europe through British Columbia, Alaska, and Siberia. As its artist he went to Norton Sound (Alas.) during the summer and then crossed to Petropavlovsk (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii, Russia). Following a winter in San Francisco, he again set out for Petropavlovsk and subsequently travelled around the Gulf of Anadyr (Andadyrsky Zaliv, Russia). Near the end of October 1866 he crossed to Mikhailovski (St Michael) on Norton Sound, and after a winter at Nulato he ascended the Yukon River to Fort Yukon, where he received news of the successful laying of a transatlantic telegraph cable. On his return to Mikhailovski in August 1867 he was told of the abandonment of the Russian-American project” (Dictionary of Canadian Biography online).


BROWNE, Robert Sewall (1866-1904) & BROWNE, Alice (1869-1965)
[Historically Important Very Extensive Private Klondike Gold Rush Archive of over 260 Letters and Documents with over 170 Original Letters and Legal Papers regarding the Yukon and Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush and Shortly After, Documenting the Life and Death of American Gold Miner Robert Sewall Browne, Including 95 Letters by Browne to his wife Mrs. Alice Gray Browne Written from Yukon and Alaska, 26 Letters from Alice Browne to her Husband in Alaska, 27 Letters Written by Browne’s Family Members or Business Partners while he was in Alaska or the West Coast, 28 Letters, Telegrams and Legal Papers Concerning his Death in Alaska in August 1904 and Arrangements for the Transportation and Burial of His Body; a Letter by his Son Written in 1951 to the “Hostess of Fairbanks” Eva McGown Regarding the Location of Robert Browne’s Grave; Additionally with over 80 Private Family Letters on Various Topics].

30 October 1898 - 26 March 1906, 10 November 1951. Ca. 177 original letters and legal documents; black ink, black and blue pencil on writing paper of various size, from ca. 17,5x11 cm (7 x 4 ¼ in) to ca. 35,5x21 cm (14 x 8 ¼ in). Over 90 letters in the original envelopes, addressed in ink and with postal stamps on recto and/or verso. In all about 380 pp. of text in Robert Browne’s letters from Alaska and the Yukon, and ca. 270 pp. of correspondence closely related to his time in Alaska and the Yukon. With a clipping from “Fairbanks weekly news” from September 3, 1904 (article describing Browne’s death), an advertising brochure about Everett (Wa), printed in 1901, and ca. 89 pieces of private family correspondence, 1884-1906. Eight letters from Robert Browne apparently incomplete, several letters with tears or minor holes not affecting the text; but overall an incredibly extensive collection of original letters from an Alaskan gold miner, written in a very legible hand and in very good condition.
Important very extensive collection of original letters and documents giving a detailed first-hand account of life and experiences of R.S. Browne, a gold miner in the Yukon and Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Robert Sewall Browne (1866-1904) was a son of Rev. Sewall Browne (1833 – August 1906) and Minerva-Meader Browne (1840 – October 1905) from Tenants Harbour (later moved to East Corinth, both in Maine). In 1890 he married Alice Emeline Gray (1869-1965), a daughter of Charles Hermann Gray (1844-1931) and Eliza Howe Perley Gray (1841-1901) from Old Town, Maine; Robert and Alice’s only child Carl Gray Browne (1891-1972) was born a year later. In about 1894 Robert Browne left his family in Old Town and started a business with his brother Ralph in Norfolk (Va), but due to health problems (recurring dysentery) went to “the North” following a recommendation of his doctor. In 1897 he went to the Yukon right in the middle of the Klondike Gold Rush (1896-99), where for almost five years he worked on and eventually bought several claims around Dawson: on Indian River, Sulphur Creek, Bonanza Creek, and Henderson Creek (where he named the quartz mine “Alice” in honour of his wife), but without much success. In between his mining enterprises he worked for wages, cutting wood and transporting it by raft to Dawson City, and typing papers in a Dawson law firm “Belcourt, McDougal & Smith.”
In the autumn of 1902 Browne went to the Washington State and found a job in Everett, Wa. Where Alice visited him for the second honeymoon the following spring. In 1903 he decided to try his luck in Alaska and in July went to Valdez on board U.S.S. “Bertha” with the stops in Ketchikan, Juneau, Sitka, Yakutat, Orca, & Kayak. After a few weeks in Valdez where his hopes for successful gold prospecting didn’t work out, Browne headed to the Alaskan interior via Kimball Pass, Copper Center, Tanana River crossing, Chicken Creek, and Forty Mile. For about a month he worked on the Coal Creek mine, until it closed for the winter, then in Forty Mile, and eventually went mining in Jack Wade. There he also did some book keeping for the local companies, including Steel Creek Trading Co., and Wade Creek General store. In June 1904 Browne left the Wade Creek mine and ended up in Fairbanks after a brief attempt to work as a mail currier between Ketchumstock and Tanana Crossing. Later that month Browne formed a partnership with an “old man by name of Henry Woodcock from Ripley, Maine” to cut wood for the steamer of the Northern Commercial Company which ran on the Tanana River. On the way back from the logging site, on August 25, 1904 Robert Browne drowned during a tragic accident when a boat with him and two other men capsized in the Tanana River about 25 miles above Salcha (Fairbanks North Star Borough). His body was discovered two months later and was initially buried on the bank of the Tanana River; in 1905 it was exhumed, transported to Fairbanks and buried on a local cemetery on the account of the local branch of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Alice’s plans to bring the body back to Old Town and bury it there didn’t come true. She lived for another sixty years and didn’t get married again. Robert and Alice’s only son Carl Gray Browne graduated from the Phillips Academy (Mass.) in 1909 and from Harvard Business School with the A.B. Degree in 1914; he later worked as a sales manager in Williamsport, Pa. The story of his father’s tragic death stayed in his mind for years, which is revealed in the letter he wrote in 1951 to the famous “hostess of Fairbanks” Mrs. Eva McGown, asking her help in locating Robert Browne’s grave.
Browne’s passionate letters to his wife give a fascinating historically important account of the life of a gold miner in the Klondike and Alaska during the Gold Rush years, talking about finding claims, building a log house and a winter cabin, unsuccessful searches for a pay streak, procedure and rules for staking a claim, gold panning, quartz mining, working conditions in winter, boilers and sluices, gold nuggets, winter temperatures, local wildlife and hunting experiences; vividly describe the places he lived - Dawson City (location, prices for food supplies, architecture, women, theatre); Seattle, Sitka, Yakutat, Valdez, Jack Wade, Fairbanks and others; humorous stories from local life, etc. The first letter (from 30 October 1898) is illustrated with a hand-drawn map of the Yukon tributaries between the Klondike and Stewart Rivers where Browne mined; the other letter (from 31 December 1902) has a pencil portrait of Alice Browne copied by Robert from a photograph. The last letter written by Browne to his wife is dated 19 August 1904, i.e. Less than a week before his tragic death.
The collection is supplemented with:
1) 26 letters to Robert Browne from Alice Browne, all addressed to Alaska (Fairbanks, Jack Wade, Nome, Forty Mile), from Old Town (ME), all but two letters written in 1904 (the other two – in 1903), including eight letters written and sent after Browne’s death. All but three letters with the original envelopes.
2) 27 various letters related to Robert Browne’s time in the West Coast or Alaska, 1902-1904: letters by his family members and friends (including two unopened letters by his father Rev. Sewall Browne apparently delivered to Jack Wade after Browne’s death), letters by Alice Browne to her father when she was visiting her husband in Everett in spring-summer 1903, several official letters regarding the arrangement of Alice Browne’s trip to Everett, a letter with an offer to buy Browne’s claims in Alaska (dated September 1904), an unfinished legal document (in three copies) giving Browne the power of attorney of the applicant’s mines “in the United States, Alaska and the Dominion of Canada” (dated June 1903), and letters to Alice Browne from her new friends in Everett. Written from Saint John (NB), Stoneridge (NB, Canada), East Corinth, Seattle, Shelton (Wa), New York, Everett etc.; addressed to Everett, Jack Wade, Old Town, Boston etc.; 15 letters in the original envelopes, with two additional empty envelopes.
3) 28 various letters and legal papers, related to the discovery of Browne’s death on August 25, 1904, filing of the inheritance and insurance claims, arrangements of transportation of his body from the first grave on the bank of the Tanana River to Fairbanks and possibly to Old Town, letters of condolences etc. 16 October 1904 – 26 March 1906. Written from Everett, East Corinth, Baltimore, West Buxton, Fairbanks, Portland, Lewiston, Seattle, Dawson, and Valdez by Rev. Sewall Browne and other family members, manager of the Portland branch of the life insurance company, Browne’s partners and acquaintances from Alaska: Harold H. Reeves, Leslie H. Sawyer, Charles W. Bram, George B. Wesch, H. J. Woodcock, manager of “Fairbanks Weekly News” R.J. McChesney, Dawson barrister F.J. McDougal et al. (16 letters in the original envelopes, with one additional empty envelope).
The collection ends with a draft of a touching letter written my Browne’s son Carl Gray Browne (1891-1972) to the famous “Hostess of Alaska” Eva McGown. Dated 10 November 1951, the letter tells the story of Robert Browne’s life and death in Alaska and asks for Mrs. McGown’s help in locating his grave in Fairbanks. “My father, Robert Sewall Browne, left his small family, consisting of my mother and me, at Old Town, Maine, to regain his health and perhaps make his fortune in the Gold Rush of 1898. He endured and survived everything Alaska had to offer, including the White Horse Rapids and Chilkoot Pass, regained his health and was I believe, well on his way to independence when Fate intervened, and he lost his life in the Tanana River Aug. 25, 1904. I understand he was buried by the Masons in Fairbanks in a lead casket, no doubt with the idea in mind that his remains would be sent out.
At the time of the accident my father was working with a small crew of men getting out a contract for wood to fuel a small steamboat which ran up the Tanana River. He also owned some valuable mining claims which in those days were carried on the person. These were stolen, I believe, after he was brought to Fairbanks <..> There certainly was a foul play because my mother only learned about it indirectly when a friend in the State of Washington read about it in the paper and wrote her a letter of condolence! <…>
My father incidentally, was an expert boatman, and the indirect cause of the catastrophe was an axe – in the hands of my father, who had nearly severed his foot and probably he nearly bled to death. At any rate he was lying in the bow of the boat wrapped in a bearskin robe when the bateau evidently got out of control and everyone was dashed into the seething rapids. Of course, my father in his condition didn’t have a chance. <…>
Someday before I get too old I dream of seeing Alaska. <…> After all these years is there any possibility that I may see my father’s grave? <…> I <…> wanted you to get the story, so you might become sufficiently interested to try to locate someone who might remember Rob Browne as he was called. He was a wonderful person, who could do anything he set his heart and mind on and I can still remember him although I never saw him after I was 7. My mother went west and met him in Washington State, Spokane, I think it was, either in 1903 or 1904. He was a big, strapping, husky man, far different from the man she remembered who had lost his health in the south and been advised by his doctor to go north for his health. Well, he really did “Go North” and he really lived for a few years. He had promised my mother that he would come out the next year. I know he tried hard to induce Mother to come and live there with him; probably in Fairbanks. And I believe she should have if it hadn’t been for me. I have never stopped wishing we had both gone…”
There is also a substantial amount of various additional private letters, including 25 earlier letters from Robert Browne to his wife, sent from Norfolk (VA) & Pueblo (CO), 1894-96, all but three with the original envelopes; and 64 various letters from or to family and friends, including Alice’s parents Charles Herrmann Gray and Eliza Howe Gray, sister Hortense Eugenia (1871-1956) and her husband Rev. Colwort Kendall Pier Cogswell (1869-1954), son Carl Browne, parents-in-law Rev. Sewall Browne and Minerva-Meader Browne, and various relatives and friends from Boston, Norfolk, Tenants Harbour, East Corinth, Brooklyn, New York, Charleston, Baltimore, West Buxton, Bangor, Waterville etc., 1884-1906 (54 with the original envelopes, with four additional empty envelopes). With an advertising brochure about Everett, Wa: Everett: The Industrial “City of Smokestacks… Report of Everett Chamber of Commerce, 1901.”
Overall a rare extraordinarily extensive collection of original letters and documents relating to the Klondike and Alaskan Gold Rush. Some excerpts from Robert Browne’s letters to his wife, 1898-1904:
Claim # 15 above discovery, Sulphur Creek, N.W.Terr., 30 October 1898: “Few people have glass windows here. They cut a hole in the wall over which they nail a piece of cotton cloth to admit light in the day & have another piece of canvas to put over that at night. Glass is worth almost its weight in gold in Dawson <…> There is one woman on this creek. She is in here with a man that I doubt is her husband, on claim 45 below. John & I called to see if we could use their stove to make some tea & fry a slice of bacon for our lunch as we came up & were surprised to find a woman there. She asked us in & let us cook. Said she liked it in here very much & expected to strike it rich this winter <…>”
Sulphur Creek, 19 April 1899: “… we all got claims on Black Hill Creek in Stewart R. District & paid $15 each to get them recorded and part of our party remained there all winter & prospected them putting down 7 or 8 holes but found no gold in paying quantities. Tho’ they did find a few coarse colours. The truth about Stewart R. Is, that you can find a little gold all along it, but it has never yet been found in paying quantities and there is not a claim that is worth the recording fee in the whole district today <…> Of the Indian R. Dist. Sulphur & Dominion Creeks alone have turned out fairly good. I hope to get a good claim in this dist. This summer. The Klondike of course you know is rich. That is where we are trying to find claims now. Besides taking up a claim of course a man can buy as many claims or interests I claims as he wants to if he has the money & that is why it is so desirable to have some money in this country to work on…”
Dawson, 28 June 1899: “… the Dawsonites keep things lively about town all night long. The saloons, theatres, dancehalls, stores etc. keep wide open all night as well as day. Dawson is really a bigger place than I realized that is, more stores, restaurants, and all kinds of places of business & at present the town is filled with men. Nearly all the men are in now from the creeks. Steamers are coming up or down the river nearly every day & hundreds are going out of the country by every boat. Everyone here is excited by the reports that they have struck another Bonanza down on the American side near St. Michael & hundreds are going down there in small boats & on the steamers <…> [Dawson] is a city of frame & log & canvas buildings, but many of the saloons & theatres have magnificent bars. There are hundreds & thousands of women here & women seem to love this country & enjoy themselves as nowhere else. I have never been in a place where women dressed more fashionably or expensively…”
Magnet Gulch, 22 March 1900: “For the past two weeks it has been very warm, hardly freezing at night & there is not proper ventilation in our mine. Our fires for thawing out the ground make so much smoke & carbon gas that it is impossible to work more that one day out of two or three, and then there is gas enough remaining in the tunnel to cause us great inconvenience. It affects the eyes more than anything else, making them inflamed so that they run all the time & are very painful.”
Magnet Hill, 6 June 1900: “Do you know, I think anyone could make a fortune bringing in a consignment of cats in here. Cats of all kinds & descriptions. They are very scarce here & I believe every woman in Dawson, to say nothing of the creeks, as well every saloon keeper & merchant, would take one at prices from 25 to 100 dollars!”
Dawson, 13 August 1900: “Lord Minto, the Governor General of Canada in coming here this week & they are making preparations to receive & entertain his Lordship. Have erected 3 triumphal arches across the principal street for him to pass under & decorating public buildings etc.”
Dawson, 27 August 1900: “In addition to the regular performance, there is a prize fight at the Savoy tonight. Frank Slavin, an ex-champion, heavy weight is up against a local aspirant. There is bad blood between them on account of an old grudge & it promises to be interesting. We tried to get in, but were too late. The crown was there ahead of us & could not get inside the portal <…> The streets of Dawson as today seemed quite like they used to in her palmier days. People are flocking into Dawson from back up & down river. There were 6 or 7 steamers in today, two from St. Michael bringing lots of people from Nome & all the upriver boats are crowned with chechakos or returning sour-doughs. I don’t see what the outsiders can be thinking of to be flocking into Dawson the way they are…”
Dawson, 16 June 1901: “I have gotten hold of a good many claims now and was thinking [?] on disposing of some of them. Things have occurred to change my plans a good deal. The fact is that there is a strong probability of all the Dominion Creek properties being very valuable. So much so that I have decided not to sell any of them & am buying instead all I can get <…> as far as my resources go. So I have only three pieces of property that I am willing to sell. I can probably get about $2000 out of them. So I doubt I will be in a position to go outside this fall. I will tell you another thing. I and a gentleman with whom I am very closely connected have made a discovery of a quartz lode of great extent which I believe is going to revolutionize mining in this country. We have had it assayed & the first assay was $ 228 per ton which is fabulous. Don’t mention this to anyone, but you can say with safety if you see fit, that I have one very valuable property here.”
Dawson, 9 December 1901: “As to the pinchers, I hardly know what you mean, as I got no pinchers out of that instrument case & only brought a pair of small & very ancient tooth forceps. However I will send them too as I haven’t many teeth left to pull & consequently no use for them.”
Claim No. 5, 60 Pup Henderson Creek, 6 January 1902: “I think that we shall be able to take out a lot of money after we get started. You will understand the dirt doesn’t pan so rich, that is, they do not get such big pans on this creek, as they do on creeks where the pay in on bed rock, but here it is distributed evenly through from 3 to 7 feet in depth & 4 ½ feet of it will probably average about 10 cts. To the pan. A pan holds a little more than a shovel full of dirt.”
Stewart River, 18 February 1902: “You will be delighted to hear that the claim is turning out splendidly better a good deal than we ever thought it would and our machinery is working perfectly. We have had a great deal of work to do to get opened up but are fairly in the swing now and taking out a lot of money everyday.”
60 Pup, Henderson, 7 April 1902: “You asked a while ago what a “pup” was. In mining terms a pup is a young creek, or a tributary of a larger one. In this case 60 Pup was erroneously called a pup, but is really the upper end of the main creek.”
Henderson Creek, 25 May 1902: “Danker and I were out prospecting today (Sunday) for quartz and pretty nearly wacked our legs off climbing over mountains and through the brush. I was sorry I didn’t take my camera. Will send you some pictures probably in the next letter I write. There is a lady lives in a cabin on the next claim, who develops quite nicely and I get her to print them for me.”
Henderson Creek, 13 July 1902: “We are all greatly encouraged now & it is only a matter of time till we will strike good [quartz] ore. We know it is there & there is every reason to think it will be rich. It is likely that another week will put us into the ore or two weeks anyway <…> I believe that we are going to have a great mine here & that we are the pioneers on quartz mining in this country.”
The Alice Mine, Henderson Creek, 27 July 1902: “If the result of the work we are now doing proves good, we have got a half interest in 7 or 8 other claims at present and that is only the beginning. We will have a town here of our own and a big mining camp and everything coming our way. 3 months ago the people around Stewart though we were fools to talk about quartz in this country and cranks to go to work to develop the ledge – but now they are changing their minds and coming around and trying to get locations and there is great excitement over our prospects here, but we are keeping it as quiet as we can and only telling them what we think best to about it, as we intend to get about all the country that is any good ourselves.”
Seattle, 2 November 1902: “Seattle is a busy bustling place and going ahead fast, but I can’t say I like it and I know you would not like it for a home. It is a terribly immoral place, the worst I ever saw anywhere and all kinds of dens of vice run wide open. <…> there is no art, literature or culture here, all is new and rustling day and night for the almighty dollar.”
Seattle, 5 July 1903: “Last night after the train bore you away, I was alone and have felt alone ever since. I put up my umbrella & walked around the city a while to see how people were celebrating. Walked up First Ave. & along Pike where most of the fireworks were. The Denny Hotel was covered with electric lights in design & looked very pretty. Pike Street looked like a regular carnival. Boys & girls, men & women carried bags of tissue paper cut up very fine & threw it at each other ad libitum.”
U.S. Mail S.S. “Bertha,” 15 July 1903: “Sitka is the most romantic picturesque place I ever visited and I might almost say the most beautiful withal. It certainly is a lovely spot and reminds one of places we have read about in romance <…> There are a great many Indians there. They were lined up in rows on either side the walk with their wares consisting of curios to sell, hundreds of them. <…> I paid 50 cents to visit the old Russian church. It is a unique structure, both outside & in. <…> There are numerous pictures such as usually seen in Cath. Chs. This is not Cath. However, but Greek Ch. A number of the pictures were very costly, the faces painted by old […?] & the clothing & rest of picture wrought in silver, one or two of Christ & of the Mother & Child were wrought in gold & silver, very beautiful. They also had robes made of cloth of woven gold etc. <…> Yesterday we ran for Yakutat, 225 miles <…> very pretty place, Indian village & mission. We had a missionary on board & put him off. Many Indians & whites too, came out in boats & canoes to see us, the Indians to offer their wares for sale. The Indians all look like Yaks [?]. Every tribe has a different pattern of canoe. The Yakutat tribe canoe was like this [rough drawing of a canoe] with a sharp cut […?] extending out in front.”
Valdez, 20 July 1903: “It is very dull around Valdez – nothing doing – no railroad building yet. They started & worked a week but quiet a week ago. Still people seem to think this will be a good country after a while. Slate creek on the Chistochina River is reported good, but only 8 or 10 claims on this creek. It is 200 odd miles in there & they say it is too late to go in there to work this season. People are coming out of the Nizina Camp every day and say it is no good. Both are summer camps. From all I can learn there is a great deal of ground in the Nizina that would pay well to hydraulic but will hardly pay to work by ordinary methods. There is a strike at a place called Dutch Flats 23 miles from Valdez where they have found a fair prospect of gold. Two parties are working there now & think they can make it pay.”
Tanana Crossing, Alaska, 19 August 1903: “Here at Tanana crossing all kinds of grub are 75 cts. Or 100 per lb. Yesterday we passed a crew of Govt. Men who are completing the pole line to Eagle. Heretofore for about 50 miles there has just been an insulated cable string along on the ground. They now have the pole line completed all except 2 or 3 miles.”
Forty Mile, 23 October 1903: “There are I should say about 60 or 75 people here in Forty Mile, three hotels, three stores, etc., besides quite a number of Indians who live in one end of the town…”
Jack Wade, 5 December 1903: “Have at last found a piece of ground that I believe is good & that I can male some money on this winter. <…> It is on No. 4 above Lover Discovery. I have 200 feet of ground on lower end of claim immediately joining the famous “Dud M’Kinnie Fraction” which produced all kinds of money. My ground comes clear up to where the owners themselves are working & my ground should be just as good as theirs. While down in this drift today & was scratching around in the dirt at the face & picked up a two-dollar nugget. The gold is very coarse…”
Wade Creek, Alaska, 20 December 1903: “I got the first pay out of my shaft yesterday. I panned out 6 pans of dirt & got 57 cts. Out of it. Today I got well down into bedrock & the pay was better. Am very much proud with the prospect. 50 cts. Per bucket (6 pans) was all I expected. Today (Sunday) I took out about 75 buckets of dirt so have got a little pay dump started…”
Wade Creek, Christmas night 1903: “It has not seemed much like Christmas here. They had a dance on the creek last night up at the Store. Jack and I went up but didn’t stay long, just long enough to see the motley gathering & watch a dance or two. There are 8 or 10 women on the creek and quite a lot of men. Today we didn’t work & got up late. Had mush & hot cakes for breakfast (our invariable menu), then went up to the store & got 30 lbs of caribou meat – the first fresh meat we have had & I roasted a piece for dinner. It was real nice & with it we had potatoes, peas, tea & bread pudding with currants in it & a bottle of “hootch” & one of blueberry wine which the storekeeper made us a present of to wash it down.”
Wade Creek, 17 January 1903: “Last night about an hour after going to bed I heard a snapping and got up & wet out to see what it was. The boiler house of our cabin owner situated about one hundred yards from our house was on fire all in a blaze. I dressed and hurried out to fight the fire, we partially tore down the house so if possible to save the boiled from great injury, but that was all we could do & the building was totally destroyed in about half an hour.”
Jack Wade, Alaska, 29 January 1904: “There is not much to write about from here, nothing ever takes place I guess on this creek. The only thing to break the monotony was a wedding a week ot two days ago on Chicken Creek. A merchant over there married a woman known on the creeks as “The Blue Goose.” They came over here on a wedding trip & the people here turned out and “chivereed” them (is that spelled right?). Strange to say another similar affair occurred the other night. Word has brought over that a man named Frank Austen of the Steel Creek Trading Co. Had married Miss Stanley who cooks in a road house on Forty Mile for her brother & had brought her over here. Everybody turned out (I among the rest) armed with tin cans for drums, cow bells & the like & chevereed them & then it turned out they were not married at all but Austen just brought the lady & another lady friend over on a visit. Now they are all after the fellow who started the report that they were married. He thought it was a joke I guess but at cost Austen a good many dollars to buy drinks for the crowd.”
Jack Wade, Alaska, 9 March 1904: “The other day the Marshall found an old man wandering around with a blanket & a pick, in the snow nearly frozen & crazy as a maniac. He thought he was on the road back to Missouri. They finally got transportation for the poor old fellow to Eagle. We also have a corpse here lying in slate in a barn, has been here ever since I have been here, not because they like a “stiff” in camp, but because they cannot seem to get anyone to dig a grave for him.”
Fairbanks, 21 June 1904: “The Tanana is a terror of a river, not dangerous if you are careful, but very wide & split up into innumerable channels, some of which are very shallow. However we got through in five days without any mishap. <…> [Tanana] is going to make a great mining camp. Am well satisfied that there are a number of good creeks here tho. Not equal to Bonanza or Eldorado in the Klondike. It is pretty generally credited here that the creeks produced about half a million last winter which was a good showing considering all things. Machinery is vary scarce, so only comparatively few claims are working yet. <…> Fairbanks is quite a place, quite a lot of people here, perhaps 500 or 1000 & a great many flocking in, but money doesn’t seem to be plentiful although I have seen some 200.000 in dust on deposit in the safe of the N.C.Co. <…> everything in shop of shoes & clothes is very scarce. I tried today to buy a pocket knife, but couldn’t find one in town. Also couldn’t find a pair of shoes (which I badly need as am wearing gum shoes), except some very heave stiff shoes which I cannot wear.”


[Original Watercolour Portrait of a Kwakwaka'wakw Dancer Wearing a Raven Headdress and a Decorated Cedar Bark Cloak, Captioned:] Kwakiutl.

Ca. 1880s. Watercolour and pencil drawing, ca. 31x23 cm (12x9 in), on a paper leaf ca. 42x29 cm (16 ½ x 11 ½ in). Captioned in ink on the lower margin. With a slightly larger pencil sketch of the same person on verso (main outlines only). With several minor tears on extremities, not affecting image, otherwise a very good watercolour.
A vivid watercolour portrait of a dancer from the Kwakwaka'wakw (Kwakiutl) people of the Pacific Northwest. Dated approximately 1880s, before the infamous Potlatch Ban of 1884, the drawing shows a man wearing an elaborate ceremonial raven headdress and a cedar bark cloak – a costume for traditional potlatch gathering.
“Kwakiutl, self-name Kwakwaka’wakw, North American Indians who traditionally lived in what is now British Columbia, Canada, along the shores of the waterways between Vancouver Island and the mainland. Their name for themselves means “those who speak Kwakwala.” Although the name Kwakiutl is often applied to all the peoples of that group, it is the name of only one band of Kwakwaka’wakw. They speak a Wakashan language that includes three major dialects: Haisla, spoken on the Gardner Canal and Douglas Channel; Heiltsuq, spoken from Gardner Canal to Rivers Inlet; and southern Kwakiutl, spoken from Rivers Inlet to Cape Mudge on the mainland and on the northern end of Vancouver Island. <…> The potlatch, a ceremonial distribution of property and gifts unique to Northwest Coast peoples, was elaborately developed by the southern Kwakiutl. Their potlatches were often combined with performances by dancing societies, each society having a series of dances that dramatized ancestral interactions with supernatural beings. Those beings were portrayed as giving gifts of ceremonial prerogatives such as songs, dances, and names, which became hereditary property” (Encyclopedia Britannica online).


[A Very Early Original Pencil Drawing of the Three “Crimean Huts” or the First Hospital Buildings at Duntze Head, Esquimalt Harbour, Captioned on Verso:] Esquimalt Hospital. 1861

Ca. 1861. Pencil drawing on paper, ca. 8,5x16,5 cm (3 ½ x 6 ½ in). Period pencil caption on verso. Paper mildly soiled on verso, otherwise a very good drawing.
Early historically significant pencil drawing of the famous “Crimean Huts” in the Esquimalt Harbour which became the first shore establishment of the Royal Navy in the Pacific Northwest and one of the oldest hospital establishments in British Columbia. Apparently created by a British naval officer or sailor in 1861, the well-executed pencil sketch depicts the three wooden frame structures built in 1855 at Duntze Head, the southern point of the harbor. The construction was carried out under the supervision of James Douglas, the Governor of Vancouver Island, who was asked by the Commander of the RN Pacific Station Rear-Admiral Henry Bruce to provide hospital beds in expectation of casualties from the Pacific theatre of the Crimean War. Since no wounded arrived during the war, only one hut remained as a hospital, with the second one becoming a store for provisions in 1857, and the third one being converted into an office of the R.N. Hydrographic Survey in 1858 (and a residence of Assistant Surgeon Samuel Campbell of HMS “Plumper”). In 1862 the hospital was relocated from the Duntze Head to the former Royal Engineers’ huts at the head of the nearby Skinner’s Cove, and the vacated building became a store for provisions for the Royal Navy. Later the buildings were used as private residences and warehouses and were significantly rebuilt or demolished in 1885, 1936 and 1939. The site formed the nucleus of the Royal Navy Dockyard (modern-day Canadian Forces Base Esquimalt), which is now a part of the Esquimalt Naval Sites National Historic Site of Canada. The drawing shows the original structure and location of the buildings, when the naval hospital was still housed at the Duntze Head.
The following information about the “Hospital Huts” is taken from: Wolfenden, M. Esquimalt Dockyard's First Buildings// BC Historical Quarterly. Vol X., No. 3. Pp. 235-241. The photos of the buildings published in the articles show a very similar picture to the one depicted on the drawing.
“Building No. 1. This building was first used as a store and provision room for the hospital from 1856 until 1859, when it became a hospital ward. From 1862, when the hospital was transferred to Skinner Cove, it apparently was vacant. Presumably from 1871 until 1879, when another residence was built, it was used by the Chief Engineer of the Dockyard. After 1885 and until 1910 it served as a double residence for the Chief Boatswain and Carpenter of the dockyard; in 1891 it was added to. From 1910 and until 1914 the Chief Clerk of the Naval Stores Officer lived in part of it, the other part remaining vacant. During World War I the building became the office of H.M.C.S. Shearwater Shore Establishment. The rear section, originally kitchens, was condemned in 1917 and torn down. The main portion of the building stood empty after the conclusion of hostilities and until 1936, when it was demolished.
Building No. 2. From 1856 until 1862 this was the Naval Hospital proper. In 1865, when Paymaster S. J. Spark was appointed Paymaster-in-Charge of Victualling Stores, it became his office and continued as the office of the Naval Storekeeper until the withdrawal of the Imperial forces in 1905. Quarters were also provided in it for the Commander-in-Chief Pacific Coast, when ashore. Alterations were effected in 1901. From 1905 onwards it was the office of the Naval Agent, and later of the Superintendent of the Dockyard. In 1913 it was in use as the general office of the Dockyard Civilian staff, and during World War I it was enlarged to accommodate a larger staff. Though condemned in 1936 because of the ravages of dry-rot, it was not finally demolished until 1939.
Building No. 3. This building seems to have remained unused until 1858, when it was converted into a drawing office for the use of the officers of H.M.S. Plumper. Upon Doctor Campbell's appointment to the hospital, half of it was used by him as a residence. Between 1867 and 1870 it was converted into a two-story dwelling-house for the Naval Storekeeper. Altered in 1873 to accommodate the large family of Mr. J. H. Innes, it was demolished in 1885, to make room for the brick dwelling now designated " Dockyard House."”


[Historically Interesting Autograph Letter Signed from J.E. Cleveland, an Early Preacher in Sacramento during the California Gold Rush, to his Brother J. Emory Cleveland in Masonville, New York, Describing the Growing Population in Sacramento, the Construction of a Second Church, and a Gang of “Spanish Robbers” in the Region].

23 April 1853. Quarto bifolium (ca. 25,5x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on blue laid paper with “SUPERFINE” watermark on each page. Addressed on verso of second page. Fold marks and some minor small stains on the second page, otherwise a very good letter in a legible hand.
A historically interesting letter that describes the early settlement of Sacramento during the California Gold Rush, including Cleveland’s work as a preacher, the construction of a second church, and the activities of “Spanish robbers.” Cleveland describes the circuit he makes as a preacher in the region, visiting a place with “forty families and nearly one thousand inhabitants” and another with “twenty families and five hundred inhabitants” and explains that “there will be a large emigration this season” (as a result of the Gold Rush). He explains the recent troubles he has faced as the region is “infested with Spanish robbers of the most daring and dangerous description. Several of them have been caught and hung as all murderers ought to be. We don't stop in this country to consider whether capital punishment is proper or not. Men are frequently hung for stealing horses. The leader of this gang has not yet been caught. He is supposed to wear armour under his clothes which protects him from rifle or pistol balls." Cleveland reflects on the development of Sacramento, considering that “four years ago, this was a wilderness which white people had seldom visited.” In particular, he outlines the cost of building a “nearly finished” church which was constructed by Catholic reverend Augustine Anderson and finished in 1854. He also mentions his experience with a disease and ends his letter explaining that he has “enclosed several specimens of gold.” Overall, a very interesting letter describing the early settlement of Sacramento during the California Gold Rush.
“The great California gold rush (1848-1858) began on January 24, 1848, when James W. Marshall discovered a gold nugget in the American River while constructing a sawmill for John Sutter” (Harvard University Library). Sutter’s Mill was located in Coloma, approximately 58 km northeast of Sacramento. Sacramento was itself developed around a wharf, called the Embarcadero, that John Sutter had developed prior to his retirement in 1849. Sacramento is the oldest incorporated city in California, incorporated on February 27, 1850. After a devastating flood in 1850, Sacramento experienced a cholera epidemic and a flu epidemic (Wikipedia).


WOOD, Elijah
[Two Historically Interesting Autograph Letters from Elijah Wood, a California Gold Rush Miner, to his Wife Sally Ann Wood in Wisconsin, Describing his Travels Along the California Trail (Including Conflict with Indigenous People near the Humboldt River), and Details of Working in the Gold Fields, Including the Construction of River Dams].

Fort Laramie, May 28 1850 and California Sept. 11(?) 1850. Quarto bifolia each ca. 25x20 cm (9 ¾ x 7 ¾ in.). 2 pp in each. First letter with brown ink on blue wove paper with watermark, the second with black and brown ink on beige wove paper, each addressed on verso of second page. Additionally, a brown envelope ca. 7.5 x 13.5 cm (3 x 5 ¼ in.) addressed and stamped “SACRAMENTO 28 September.”Envelope is folded and worn but address and stamp clearly legible, fold marks and one letter slightly age toned but otherwise two very good letters.
These interesting letters from a gold miner to his wife describe his experiences on the California Trail and the hardships of labour during the California Gold Rush. He begins one letter by explaining his recent “journey through a barren howling wilderness” on the California Trail, a 4,800 km (3,000 mile) trail across the western half of the United States from Missouri River towns to California that was used by migrants travelling to the California gold fields (Wikipedia). One letter was written from Fort Laramie, WY, which was purchased by the U.S. Army in 1849 “[t]o protect the thousands of emigrants and Argonauts who were flowing up the Platte River Valley from increasingly frequent conflicts with Indians” (National Park Service). He also explains that one man in his group “was shot by an Indian while he was guarding the horses” near the head of Humboldt River, which was first explored in 1848 by John C. Frémont and became part of the California Trail in 1849 (Wikipedia). The author describes his work in the gold fields at the Middle Fork of the American river (a tributary of the Sacramento river), which, he explains, “is said to be the richest in California.” He lists the people working around him, mentions the wages and explains that “the river is dammed at every bar and preparations are being made to work the entire bed of the river.” One letter is written in September 1850, at the time when levees were first being built around the Sacramento River to address the 1850 flooding (Valley Community Newspapers). Overall, two historically interesting letters describing the experiences of a miner in the early years of the California Gold Rush.
The great California gold rush (1848–1858) began on January 24, 1848, when James W. Marshall discovered a gold nugget in the American River while constructing a sawmill for John Sutter” (Harvard University Library). Sutter’s Mill was located in Coloma, approximately 58 km northeast of Sacramento. Sacramento was itself developed around a wharf, called the Embarcadero, that John Sutter had developed prior to his retirement in 1849. Sacramento is the oldest incorporated city in California, incorporated on February 27, 1850. After a devastating flood in 1850, Sacramento experienced a cholera epidemic and a flu epidemic (Wikipedia).


[Two Detailed Manuscript Testimonials of a Voyage of the Merchant brig Jane to the West Indies in 1780, and the Circumstances of Her Shipwreck during the Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane, Notarially Certified in Montego Bay and London; With a Period Copy of Jane’s Portledge Bill for 1781].

Montego Bay (Jamaica) - London, 1780-1781. Three Folio Manuscripts (ca. 44x28 cm, ca. 40x26 cm and ca. 36,5x22 cm) folded to Octavos. 3, 1 and 3 pp each. Each brown ink on watermarked laid paper, each docketed on the last blank page. Two signed by deponents and notaries, one with two tax stamps and a notarial seal. Fold marks, but overall very good and legible documents.
Interesting collection of three original manuscripts revealing the story of the voyage of British merchant brig Jane to the West Indies in 1780 and her experience of the Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane on 3 October 1780, during which she was considerably damaged and a large part of her cargo was lost. The documents include an affidavit, compiled in Montego Bay (Jamaica) on 10 January 1781 and signed by Jane’s Commander James Jones, first mate William Barrey and boatswain Sever Brown. The affidavit was witnessed before Samuel Mottershed, Esq., a Justice for the parish of Saint James; and certified by Ralph Montague, Notary Public in Montego Bay (St. James parish, Cornwall County, Jamaica). The other document is a notarially certified “Declaration of a protest”, compiled after Jane’s return to Britain. The document is signed by James Jones and William Barrey and certified by a London notary on 31 August 1781. The last document is a period copy of Jane’s portledge bill, for the period from 30 January to September 1781, listing twenty-six crew members (including captain), their station, length of service, and amount of wages due and paid.
The affidavit and declaration of protest give a detailed account of Jane’s voyage to the Caribbean and the circumstances of her damage during the notorious Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane which struck Montego Bay where Jane had been moored, on 3 October 1780. Jane arrived to Kingston from London on 1 August 1780, under the escort of HMS Thunderer and other men-of-war; later that month she sailed for the Black River where she received a cargo of logwood, mahogany and pimento. In Montego Bay she was additionally loaded with sugar and rum. Whilst there Jane experienced a severe storm, and in spite of the attempt to find asylum in the mouth of the Great River, the brig drag both anchors and was driven to a reef where she was struck against the rocks many times. The ship was a wreck and couldn’t be taken off the reef for another three weeks. The cargo, anchors and guns were reloaded in order to lighten the ship, and when the time came to reload, it turned out that a large part of the cargo had been “washed about the beach owing to sundry gales of wind <…> and many pieces buried in the sand.” In spite of the “utmost endeavours” some part of cargo were never recovered.
Jane returned to Montego Bay on 27 January 1781 and on 17 March left the West Indies for London, in a convoy of ninety merchantmen, protected by HMS Edmont Graffton, Trident Bristol and Endymion. The long, five-month return trip was perilous, with her taking “a great deal of water <…> so as to keep the pump almost constantly going.” The next day after arrival the captain filed the present declaration of protest at the office of a London notary which solemnly stated: “I do protest against the Seas and bad weather, and particularly against the Violent Hurricane which the said Ship met with in Jamaica when taking on board her said Cargo as above mentioned for all Loss and Damage happened to the said Brig and Cargo;” he declared “that when the said Brig begun to take in her said Cargo at Jamaica aforesaid She was tight Staunch and Strong <…> and provided with all things needful for such a Brig and Voyage. That as well During the time the said Brig was on Shore in Jamaica as aforesaid, as at all other times, he this appearer and the Rest of the said Brig’s Company Exorted [sic!] themselves to the utmost of their Power and used their utmost Endeavours to preserve the said Brig and Cargo from Damage, so that what Loss and Damage hath happened to the said Brig and Cargo was intirely [sic!] occasioned by the means aforesaid and not through any insufficiency in the said Brig neglect of him appearer or any of his mariners.”


[Archive of Over Fifty Documents Relating to the Final Days of the British Schooner "Lima"].

1865. About 50 documents in about 75 pages. The documents in the archive are generally in very good condition, however the auction broadsides printed on poor paper though still readable have many chips and are in poor condition.
In October 1865, the 110 ton British merchant schooner “Lima” encountered heavy weather en route from New York and put into St. Thomas in the West Indies in a damaged condition. Ultimately the cargo was removed and sold, and the ship was condemned and the hull and fittings sold at auction for $764.14. This archive documents the schooner’s final days. It includes shipping manifests of the last cargo, surveys, an instrument of protest, pertinent invoices and bills, insurance forms, correspondence regarding the incident, shipping articles, crew list, and two auction broadsides for the sale of the hulk and fittings. Overall an interesting and unusual archive documenting mid 19th century commercial shipping in the Caribbean.


[Official Autograph Letter Signed to Miguel Tacón y Rosique, Captain General of Cuba in 1834-38, from U.S. Acting Consul in Havana John Morland, Asking for the Release of Eugine Newman, an American Seaman of the U.S. Vessel “Cavalier” who was “confined in the Stocks at the Prison;” [With:] the Official Translation of the Letter into Spanish].

Havana, Consulate of the United States of America, 7 August 1834. Folio (ca. 33x20 cm). 1 pp., with an integral blank leaf. Black ink on paper, legible text in English. Mild fold marks, paper age toned, minor tears at folds, otherwise a very good document. The translation by Luis Paynes [?]: Habana, 7 de Agosti 1834. Folio (ca. 30x21 cm). 1 pp., with an integral blank leaf. Brown ink on laid paper, legible text in Spanish. Mild fold marks, paper age toned, otherwise a very good document.
Interesting historical document relating to a case of imprisonment of an American seaman by Cuban authorities in the 1830s, and moreover of putting him in stocks: “Sir, Application having been made to me by Silvestre P. Fogg, master of the American ship Cavalier, for means of releasing Eugine Newman, a seaman belonging to said vessel, [taken?] up the day before yesterday, and confined in the Stocks at the Prison, & put there as the sd. Master believes in disorderly conduct, and from which situation the said master has in vain applied to other authorities to have been released, which renders it necessary for this application in my part, that your Excellency will be pleased to give order that the said Seaman may be delivered to the said master.” We don’t know whether the appeal by the American acting consul in Havana to the Captain General of Cuba was successful, and arrested “Eugine Newman” (who could be a black sailor) had been released. Nevertheless, the letter gives an intriguing look into Caribbean trade shipping in the early 19th century.
Bark “Cavalier” of 294 tons was launched in Newmarket, Mass. In 1827. In 1833-1835, mastered by Sylvester P. Fogg and owned by Thomas P. Bancroft, she made a number of trade voyages to the West Indies. In 1835-39 she was used as a whaler out of Salem (Ship Registers from the District of Salem and Beverly/ The Essex Institute. Historical Collections. Vol. XL. Salem, Mass., 1904, p. 53). Several of “Cavalier’s” logbooks kept in the 1830-1840s are now deposited in the collections of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, Mass.


[Historically Interesting Autograph Letter Signed to John B. Macy by Businessman John Rinex/Rynix, Written in the Early Days of Coal Mining in St. Louis, Missouri, Mentioning a New Land Acquisition Along the Mississippi River, Coal Transportation Methods, and a Dispute with the Ferry Company over the Mississippi Riverbed].

St. Louis, Mo, January 12th 1841. Quarto bifolium (ca. 24,5x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on white wove paper on pictorial letterhead showing a panorama of St. Louis, “printed and folded at the St Louis Lith. South Main Street.” Addressed and stamped “St Louis” and “Toledo” on verso of second page. Fold marks, a small hole where opening on the second leaf affecting one word, otherwise a very good letter.
Historically interesting early letter from John Rinex/Rynix, a businessman in St Louis (likely a successor of John Reynolds, owner of a railway and coal mine opposite St Louis from 1837-38) to John B. Macy, a possible business associate or competitor (and member of the US Congress from 1853-1855). The letter describes the author’s new coal mine acquisition along the Mississippi river, across from the city of St Louis. He details the size and extent of the parcel, which includes “350 acres of coal land running 2 miles along the bluff and about ¼ mile in the hills, also a strip of excellent river bottom land” and predicts the amount of coal to be extracted: “I will however give you a calculation of the quantity(?) of coal supposed (almost without the shade of a doubt) in the veins or strata – They are 4 feet thick, 3 ½ feet and 3 feet. […] 120,000,000 cubic yards […] of coal and for this […] property I only agreed to pay 50 000 dollars.” The letter also describes the use of the existing “well built rail road” to transport the coal, which “is dumped by a slide or chute direct in the car.” Interestingly, the author describes an apparent controversy over the sale of land on the riverbed, as it will affect the Ferry Company’s operation and explains that “the ferry company now clear about 75 000 dollars per year, therefore you can readily see the fear they have of any opposition.” This letter documents important developments during the early years of coal mining along the Mississippi river in present day St Louis.
Coal development in St Louis began in the 1820s with the Russell Coal Mines in “Oak Hill” (Missouri History Museum). “In 1837, Governor John Reynolds formed a company composed of Samuel B. Chandler, George Walker, Vital Jarrot, and Daniel Pierce, to extract the coal from a property he held on the nearby bluffs. The company, known as the Illinois and St. Louis Line, proposed to freight coal from the bluffs to the market in St. Louis. The sloughs and swamplands that lay between the bluffs and the river bank, made road construction impractical, and the company decided on rail transportation… Time and again, the company verged on bankruptcy and the resources of the stockholders were gradually drained away… In the spring of 1838, the Illinois and St. Louis Line was at last completed and a four-horse team drew a car of coal from the bluffs to the river. This rudimentary railroad, if it can be termed a railroad, was the first in the Mississippi Valley.” (Illinois State Museum) “The next spring, however, the company sold out, at great sacrifice.” (ILGenWeb)
John B. Macy, to whom the letter is addressed was a U.S. Representative from Wisconsin, judge, railroad executive, and businessman who was one of the founders of Toledo, Ohio in 1833. He was also one of the proprietors of the Rock River Valley Union Railroad and was involved in real estate in the 1840s.


MILES, Dixon Stansbury, Lieut.-Col. (1804-1862)
[Autograph Letter Signed by Lieutenant-Colonel Dixon Miles (Commander of the U.S Army Fort Thorn in New Mexico) with the Latest News about the Ongoing Indian War with the Apaches and Various Political Matters].

Fort Thorn, N[ew] M[exico], 4 April 1857. Quarto bifolium (ca. 25 x 20 cm or 10 x 7 ¾ in). 4 pp. Brown ink on laid paper, docketed on the centre section of the last page. Original fold marks, several minor tears on folds, otherwise a very good letter written in legible hand.
Historically interesting content rich original letter written by the commanding officer of Fort Thorn, established just a few years earlier (in 1853), with the details of military expeditions against the Apaches and Native Americans from the Gila River, and remarks on several important figures of the American politics during the years leading to the Civil War (1861-65). Addressed to some M.A. Gordon in “Washington City” - apparently an official in the War Department, the letter starts with some sarcastic remarks about postmasters from the East who don’t know where Fort Thorne is situated which significantly delays the mail delivery: “can’t you speak to your post master about it and let him understand Forts Thorn, Tucson and Fort Fillmore are in the southern part of New Mexico and over 300 miles south of Santa Fe and 20 days behind the arrival of the Texas mail from San Antonio Texas - you will confer a lasting favor on all the expatriated bipeds of this region, if you succeed in learning them a little geographical knowledge, and be entitled to a premium from some learned society for your arduous endeavours.”
Talking about military appointments, Miles discusses a hero of the Mexican-American War and Abraham Lincoln’s military adviser General Winfield Scott (1786-1866): “I often imagine, the confessor of Genl. Scott on his death bed, will be troubled in giving permission for his many acts of prejudice and injustice. It is incredible to me, that any man pretending to honour, high chivalrous soldierly sentiments should avail himself of a high position, to injure an inferior…” He also mentions the end of term of President Franklin Pierce and criticizes his Secretary of War and future President of the Confederate States Jefferson Davis (1808-1889), who is “not esteemed, for his endeavour to ruin the army by his new organization bill and by his gross partialities and vindictive viciousness. There will be I think soon published a history of his administration that will astonish you and bring upon the resentments of a distinguished politician. I think the army is unfortunate in having him in the Senate where no doubt he will be chairman of Mil. Affairs.” Miles expresses his sympathy to “Mr. Buchanan” [James Buchanan Jr., 1791-1868, the 15th President of the United States, serving immediately prior to the Civil War], “as every Democrat should,” and concludes: “let us who have all to lose in a separation, hope for the best and unite in helping with might and main, by all honourable means, to preserve the Union”.
The last part of the letter is dedicated to the ongoing hostilities between the American frontier forts and Native Americans: “The Indians are at open war and we are busily preparing for campaign against them on a scale never before attempted. The plan is admirable and if carried out with energy ought partially to succeed - I say partially for hunting Indians in so extensive a range as they have in this mountainous country, is like seeking needles in a hay stack, you may find them, the probability is, you won’t. I have been selected to lead the southern column and Col. Loring [Colonel William Wing Loring, 1818-1886] the northern, we will have about 350 men each. The scene of our operations will be on the head waters of the Gila River and its tributaries west, into the country of the Coyetans - who it is said can bring over a 1000 warriors in the field - one of the columns with surely have one good fight - and if so you may expect to hear of many <…?> Rifles going under.Capt. Gibbs and Lt. Baker Rifles last month, each had a handsome fight with Indians (Apaches). Gibbs was badly wounded by a lance, across his belly - Baker had one killed and four wounded. Both have been complimented in Dept. orders…” Overall a very interesting content rich letter.
“Dixon Stansbury Miles was a career United States Army officer who served in the Mexican-American War and the Indian Wars. He was mortally wounded as he surrendered his Union garrison in the Battle of Harpers Ferry during the American Civil War” (Wikipedia).
Fort Thorn or Fort Thorne was a settlement and military outpost located on the west bank of the Rio Grande, northwest of present day Hatch, and west of Salem in Doña Ana County, New Mexico, United States. It was named for 1st Lt. Herman Thorn of the 2nd U.S. Infantry drowned in the Colorado River. Originally called Cantonment Garland, Fort Thorn was established December 24, 1853 by Captain Israel Richardson, with a garrison of 3rd U.S. Infantry from abandoned Fort Webster, on the right bank of the Rio Grande at Santa Barbara. The post was built of adobe and served to protect settlers and travelers against attacks by the Apaches and outlaws, before being closed in 1859. It had its own post office from 1855 to 1859. It was located near an extensive marsh, across the river, and malaria among the garrison was a serious problem there, and caused the post's closure in 1859. An agency for the Apache Indians operated nearby even after the fort was closed. One of the main units operating from Fort Thorn were detachments of the Regiment of Mounted Rifles. The site of Fort Thorn was the scene of the Skirmish near Fort Thorn, New Mexico Territory between Union Soldiers and men of the Confederate Sibley expedition on September 26, 1861. The site of most of the fort was washed away by a flooding of the Rio Grande in 1889 (Fort Thorn/ New Mexico History and Genealogy Project).


WALTON, Frederic E.
[Album with 21 Signed "F.E.W." Original Watercolours Titled:] Sketches in the United States of America and Canada.

Ca. 1892. Quarto (ca. 27x24 cm). With 21 monochrome mounted watercolours ca. 12,5x24,5 cm (5 x 9 ½ in). Period dark brown gilt tooled half morocco with brown cloth sides album produced by J. L Fairbanks & Co. Boston. Some minor age-toning of mount leaves but overall a very good album.
This album contains attractive watercolours of a tour through Ontario, New York State and Vermont and includes views of: "The American Fall - July 1892;" "Horseshoe Fall;" "American Fall:" "The Thousand Islands;" "The Sentinel;" "Lotus Island;" "Lake of the Thousand Islands;" a lake scene; a river steamer; "Saranac Inn;" "Little Fish Creek;" "Bowditch Camp. Keene Valley;" "Putnam Camp;" " The Brook. Keene Valley;" "Camp. Ausable Lake;" "Ausable Lake;" "Lake Champlain;" "Lake Champlain(2);" "Adirondack Deer;" ocean view; residence on a lake.


[Interesting Autograph Letter Written by R.B. Guyles, an Emigrant to the Oregon City Talking about His Experience in the City, Plans to go to the Walla Walla Mines, Local Climate etc.]

Oregon City, 25 June 1850. Large Octavo (ca. 25x19,5 cm). A bifolium, written on two pages and addressed on the fourth page. Dark brown ink on bluish wove paper. Original fold marks, minor holes on folds, paper with mild stains, remnants of the original seal on the last page; overall the letter is written in a legible hand and in very good condition.
Interesting letter written by R.B. Guyles, a emigrant to the Oregon Territory, originally from Ira, Cayuga County (New York) to his compatriot Daniel Pierce. Guyles sailed to the Oregon Territory on steamer “Massachusetts,” via Rio de Janeiro, landed at the Strait of Magellan, “but soon came on board again for the Indians was very barbarious;” called at Valparaiso, and the Sandwich Islands. He landed at Fort Vancouver on the 15th of May 1849. “I have worked very hard since I have come here and I think in a short time I shall be able to come back again with a good sum of money. Everything is very dear, but wages are large, most any kind of a machine can make from 1 to 20 dolls a day, and labours from 12 to 15 dolls a day, a man can make money at any thing he is a mind to go at. I think in the corse [sic!] of 2 or 3 months that I shall go to the mines in Walawalla O.T., but I want to hear a little more about it first. The mines are very unhealthy in California or else I should have gone there &c. This is a very healthy country here, the summers are cold here and the winters are mild, scarcely any snow is seen in any season of the year. Horses and cattle live on the green grass all winter, some winters there has not been any snow seen…”


MCGIFFIN, Philo Norton (1860-1897)
[Interesting Content Rich Autograph Letter Signed by Philo N. McGiffin, Famous Graduate of the United States Naval Academy and Later in Life Naval Advisor of the Modernized Chinese Navy, and a Participant of the Battle of Yalu River; the Letter is Addressed to His Mother and Contains a Detailed Description of a Training Voyage from Funchal to Montevideo during McGiffin’s Time in the US Naval Academy].

USS Hartford at sea from Funchal to Montevideo, 10 September – 19 October 1882. Octavo (ca. 22x13 cm or slightly smaller). Eight bifoliums, densely written on all pages, two with the engraved portraits of Admiral David Farragut and his famous device “Damn the torpedoes, go ahead” in the upper left corners (USS Hartford was his flagship during the American Civil War). Dark brown, blue and pink ink on wove and laid paper, original fold marks. With the original envelope (ca. 8x14 cm), addressed with postal stamps, and ink stamps of U.S. Flagship Hartford and the Chilean and U.S. Post offices. First and third bifoliums with minor holes on folds from the ink, the envelope with minor holes after opening, otherwise a legible letter in very good condition.
An interesting letter from a young Philo McGiffin, then a midshipman of the US Naval Academy, written during the 1882-1884 training voyage from Boston to San Francisco on board the USS Hartford, well known for its service as the flagship of Admiral David Farragut during the American Civil War and in 1882 serving as the flagship of the US Navy’s North Atlantic Squadron. The letter is addressed to his mother Mrs. Col. Norton McGiffin and contains interesting details of the voyage, descriptions of Funchal and Montevideo, informs on the next leg of the voyage (to Valparaiso via the Strait of Magellan) and reflects on McGiffin’s future after his graduation.
“I want you to write and tell me what you think of my leaving the service. In case I cannot get a position on a civil engineers corps, R.R. Or other; or cannot get anything above some clerkship I shall go to sea again as 2nd mate in the merchant service, but I am pretty confident of getting something of that nature.” [McGiffin will not find a commission in the US and in 1885 will go on service to the newly modernized Imperial Chinese Navy, will become a professor at the Chinese Naval College in Tianjin, and will command the Chinese battleship Chen Yuen during the Battle of Yalu River in 1894].
While in Funchal McGiffin and his friends went horse riding to the Little Corral along the precipitous cliffs where stones fell and they “could not hear them it was so far down,” visited Santa Clara convent where “the nuns can see a great distance in the Atlantic, but they never see a man,” came down the mountain in a sled and stayed in “a Dago hotel” where they were “nearly eaten up by fleas.” He describes his souvenir purchases, “some pretty girls here,” high quality of the laundry service, local bands that are “a great deal better than the great majority of US bands,” an incident when local police tried to arrest a sailor from USS Hartford, and others.
McGiffin’s lively description of life on board USS Hartford talks about marine exercise with sails and guns (i.e. “we rigged a target and practised firing at it while steaming”), his service on the Quarter deck station, the ammunition of officers and sailors, records winds and squalls, comets, stars, planets, and meteors sighted, various marine wildlife (whales, dolphins, porpoises, marine birds), ships met (British merchant ship “Godiva” from Plymouth to Calcutta, a fleet of Portuguese men of war and others), and mentions various proceedings on board (death of a quartermaster, birthday celebrations, crossing of the Equator and its celebrations, an accident when a gun was put on a man’s foot “and cut his toes off as clean as if it had been done with an axe, the weight of the gun 17,000 lbs,” and others). McGiffin also writes about US politics and elections, and his talk with the Naval Committee of the Congress regarding future commission.
Upon arrival to Montevideo McGiffin went to the Hotel Oriental: “talk about your civilization North – we took baths in rooms fitted up like parlors, the tubs were chiseled out a large single block of marble and the whole hotel is finished in marble – richly carved <…> The city has 150,000 inhabitants and is much better built than a corresponding U.S. Town, the houses are nearly all stone or marble and streets are well laid out. There is an immense Cathedral here. I am going Sunday to hear the singing. The streets are very busy and like in a northern city. There are a number of theatres, but yesterday nothing was opened but Roulette establishments. On Sunday week is the first bull fight of the season, it is to be a grande affair and I will take it in. <…> From here we coast along the land down to the Straits of Magellan and then go thro’, anchoring every night and making a stay at Sandy Point – a convict settlement half way through. We will then go on tho’ and up to Valparaiso, where I think we will take the Admiral on board. <…> There are immense slaughter houses and yards here and thousands of head of cattle are killed and sent to England in refrigerators. The cattle are driven down from the pampas in very large droves – are weeks getting down from the upper part…”
Overall a very interesting lively letter with the detailed description of a training voyage on board the famous American naval ship.
“Philo Norton McGiffin was a late 19th-century American naval officer later serving in Chinese service as a naval advisor during the First Sino-Japanese War. Although primarily skilled as an instructor and administrator, he proved a talented tactician during the Battle of the Yalu as well as the first American to command a modern battleship in wartime.
Arriving in China soon after and seeking employment, McGiffin was able to earn a commission as a lieutenant in the newly modernizing Imperial Chinese Navy under Li Hung-chang in early 1885. In the midst on the Sino-French War, McGiffin was said to have captured a French gunboat in June before the end of the war that same year. A professor at the Chinese Naval College in Tientsin (Tianjin) for the next nine years, McGiffin was also said to have served as naval constructor supervising the construction of four ironclad warships in Great Britain before the outbreak of the First Sino-Japanese War in August 1894.
Assigned to Admiral Ting Ju ch'ang's Peiyang or Northern Fleet (which would be partially organized and trained by McGiffin), McGiffin would serve as an executive officer aboard the Chinese battleship Chen Yuen during the Battle of Yalu River (1894). Severely wounded during the battle however. McGiffin returned to the United States. Suffering from mental instability due to his wounds, McGiffin was eventually committed to the Post Graduate Hospital in New York City where, after tricking hospital orderlies into giving him a revolver from his trunk, he committed suicide on February 11, 1897 <…> At the United States Naval Academy, Philo McGiffin is a folk hero akin to Pecos Bill or Paul Bunyan. <…> In 1947, the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission installed a historical marker outside the Washington County Courthouse, noting the McGiffin's historic importance.” (Wikipedia).


[Historically Important Autograph Letter Signed from J. Leavers, an Early Settler of Port Ludlow, Washington, to Author Joseph Holt Ingraham in Rockland, Maine, Describing Conflicts Between Native Indians and Settlers (Including the Death of Lieutenant Slaughter), a “Gold Excitement” in the Region (One of the First Discoveries of Gold in Washington), and the Early Operation of the Sawyer Lumber Mill].

9 December 1855. Quarto bifolium (ca. 25x19,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink written in a legible hand on blue wove paper. Fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
A historically important letter that describes important conflicts between different Native American tribes and European settlers in Puget Sound, one of the first discoveries of gold in Washington state, and an early lumber mill in the region. Leavers explains that they are “in the midst of an Indian War […]. Some houses were burned, men women and children were horribly murdered” and “all the Indians through the immigrant route are said to be banding together.” He describes the advancement of troops from Oregon, and the cooperation of Indigenous people in his immediate vicinity who “have been ordered into the settlement to give up their arms and canoes.” He also reports the killing of Lieutenant Slaughter, “commander of the station at Steilacoom” which he learned about that very morning. These events took place during the Puget Sound War, an armed conflict between the US military and the Nisqually, Muckleshoot, Puyallup, and Klickitat Native American tribes between 1855 and 1856 (Wikipedia). The conflict began after Nisqually Chief Leschi, who was protesting the Medicine Creek Treaty that forced Indigenous peoples of the region onto reservations, was arrested. After leading as war chief during the conflict, Chief Leschi was eventually convicted and executed in 1858 (Wikipedia). Leavers also describes the discovery of a gold deposit several months ago “in the N.E. Part of the territory,” and explains the difficulty of developing a mine considering the transportation barriers of hostility of Indigenous tribes. Additionally, he describes the buildings in Port Ludlow, including Thorndike’s house and the operation of “Sayward’s Mill.” John R. Thorndike and W. P. Sayward sailed to Puget Sound in 1852 and found the environs of Port Ludlow promising for lumber; they developed its first lumber mill which led to the growth of a settlement (Wikipedia). “It didn't take long for the California Gold Rush to expose the need for a steady, good supply of lumber. Starting in the 1850s, the area around the Puget Sound served this need. For a hundred years, no other industry came close to matching logging in its importance to Washington.” (American History USA).


[Five Indian School Watercolour, Ink and Pencil Portraits Signed “CP,” Showing the Traditional Dress of People and Leaders in the Kingdom of Caubul During the Durrani Dynasty (1747-1842), Perhaps used as the Original Archetype Illustrations for Montstuart Elphinstone's, 1815 Book “An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul, and its Dependencies in Persia, Tartary, and India; comprising a view of the Afghaun Nation, and a history of the Doorauni Monarchy.”]

Ca. 1815. Five cut-out portraits drawn in ink, pencil and watercolour drawings each ca. 21x12,5 cm (8 ½ x 5 in) or smaller, mounted on brown, beige or white leaves each ca. 28,5x22 cm (11 ¼ x 8 ½ in). Two drawings are woven into their leaves with ribbons, two drawings have thin ribbons pasted on top. All are signed “CP” in period manuscript brown ink on drawing or leaves and titled in period manuscript black ink on the leaves, with hand-drawn embellishments in ink. Two leaves have stains along one edge but all drawings are in very good condition.
This historically interesting collection of Indian school portraits were perhaps used the original archetype illustrations for the book by Montstuart Elphinstone (1779-1859) titled “An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul,” which was published in 1815. The preface of the book states that several of the illustrations (including the drawing of an Eusofzye in this collection) were drawn by Lieutenant R. M. Grindlay, while the rest of the illustrations were drawn by Indian artists. They show in great detail costumes of the Kingdom of Caubul and its dependencies (including Tartary) during the Durrani Dynasty (1747-1842). All but one of the drawings show portraits of people standing (one image shows the “Chaous Bauchee” on a horse), however all show clear depictions of dress, shoes, headwear and weapons.
Drawing Captions (book plate #'s in brackets): An Hazurch (PL. XII); An Eusofzye or Chief in the kingdom of Caubul (Pl. VI) ; A Taujik in the summer dress of Caubul (PL. IV); A Khojeh of Uzbec Tartary (PL. X); The Chaous Bauchee in his drefs of office (PL. XIII).
“Elphinstone was appointed ambassador to the Afghan court of Cabul in 1808. He went on to serve as Governor of Bombay and ultimately was offered the Governor-Generalship of India, though he declined. "It is remarkable that a man so skeptical, retiring, unselfish and modest should be one of the chief founders of the Anglo-Indian empire" (DNB).
“The Durrani dynasty was founded in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani at Kandahar, present Afghanistan. He united the different Pashtun tribes and created the Durrani Empire with his Baloch allies which included the most of present-day Pakistan, and the Kashmir and Punjab regions of present-day India. The Durrani dynasty was composed of ethnic Pashtuns and Baloch Durranis were replaced by the Barakzai dynasty during the early half of the 19th century. Ahmad Shah and his descendants were from the Sadozai line of the Durranis (formerly known as Abdalis), making them the second Pashtun rulers of Kandahar after the Hotakis.[3] The Durranis were very notable in the second half of the 18th century mainly due to the leadership of Ahmad Shah Durrani. In 1826, the kingdom was claimed by Dost Mohammad Khan but in 1839 Shujah Shah Durrani was re-installed with the help of British Indiaduring the First Anglo-Afghan War. In 1841 a local uprising resulted in the killing of the British resident and loss of mission in Kabul and the 1842 retreat from Kabul to Jalalabad.” (Wikipedia)


GARDNER, Edward (1784-1861) [Resident in Kathmandu 1816-29]
[Autograph Letter Signed to a Superior (Most likely Governor-General of Bengal, Francis, Earl of Moira, later 1st Marquis of Hastings) Reporting the Latest Intelligence Including Troop Strengths and Movements of the Gurkhas (Nepali Troops) in the Anglo-Nepalese War (1814-16)].

Hawalbagh, 18th Dec. 1815. Quarto (ca. 25x20 cm). 6 pp. Brown ink on beige wove paper Original fold marks, otherwise in very good condition.
An historically important letter written by Gardner from Hawalbagh during the ratification period of the Treaty of Segauli. The letter starts with information about Nepali troop strength in Kumaon which "does not appear to be above four or five hundred men at present" Other Nepalese troops "are said to have gone to the East towards Nepal." Generally of the Nepalese troops "there does not seem to be any of that bustle among them that one would expect on the eve of an invasion notwithstanding the warlike preparations on our side - it certainly has not the appearance of war on the part of the Gurkhas." Also mentioned is a letter Gardner received from Colonel Gardiner from the Gurakhpur frontier where Gardiner says "nobody knows anything about the Gurkhas in that quarter. That they are neither seen nor heard of or appear from what he can learn, to be making any preparations for defence, however in not seeing them he says is no proof that they are unprepared for us."
Gardner "played a crucial role in bringing Nepal into treaty relations with the British in India" (Watson, Lost Botanist of Nepal). For his services Gardner was rewarded by being made Resident (Honoray Consul) to the court of the Rajah in Kathmandu in 1816, where he remained as Resident for the next 14 years; "with his deep understanding and strong liking of the people of Nepal, he was the perfect person for the job and against the odds he largely succeeded"(Watson). Gardner was also a passionate plant collector but his "prolific collections and his pioneering contribution to Himalayan botany are largely unknown to modern botanists" (Watson).


[Original Japanese Manuscript Report on the Kagoshima Incident (15-17 August, 1863), Mentioning the Japanese Naval Commander Naohachi Inoue – future noted Admiral Inoue Yoshika, noting the casualties on the ships of the British Squadron (HMS Euryalus, HMS Pearl, HMS Coquette, HMS Argus, HMS Perseus, and HMS Racehorse), and others].

Bunkyu 3 (November, 1863). Original manuscript in Japanese characters, ca. 27,5x16 cm (10 ¾ x 6 ¼ in), twelve pages, black ink on two-ply leaves of rice paper, stitched with a string. With minor creases and a larger worm hole (slightly affecting a couple of characters), but overall a very good manuscript.
An interesting official Japanese report about the events of the Bombardment of Kagoshima (also known as the Anglo-Satsuma War) on 15-17 August, 1863, and compiled for the Tokugawa shogunate government in Edo apparently to receive instructions on what should be done. The title on the first leaf reads “Anglo-Satsuma War report. British notes/written down to Edo”. This and some features of the text (i.e. One of the dates is written as “1863”, not “Bunkyu 3”) opens up the possibility of this text being translated from a period British report. The text briefly informs about the details of the Kagoshima Incident, mentioning Naohachi Inoue (Inoue Yoshika, 1845-1929, future noted Admiral of the Imperial Japanese Navy), and lists casualties on board the British naval squadron (HMS Euryalus – 20 injured, including one who died; HMS Pearl – 7 injured, including one who died; HMS Coquette - 6 injured, including one who died; HMS Argus - three injured; HMS Perseus - one injured and one died; HMS Racehorse - 2 people injured).
“The Bombardment of Kagoshima, also known as the Anglo-Satsuma War(薩英戦争Satsu-Ei Sensō), took place on 15–17 August 1863 during the Late Tokugawa shogunate. The Royal Navy was fired on from coastal batteries near the town of Kagoshima and in retaliation bombarded the town. The British were trying to exact a payment from the daimyo of Satsuma following the Namamugi Incident of 1862, in which British nationals were attacked (one killed, two wounded) by Satsuma samurai for not showing the proper respect for a daimyo's regent (Shimazu Hisamitsu). <…> The conflict actually became the starting point of a close relationship between Satsuma and Britain, which became major allies in the ensuing Boshin War. From the start, the Satsuma Province had generally been in favour of the opening and modernization of Japan. Although the Namamugi Incident was unfortunate, it was not characteristic of Satsuma's policy, and was rather abusively branded as an example of anti-foreign sonnō jōi sentiment, as a justification to a strong European show of force” (Wikipedia).


CARTHEW-YORSTOUN, Morden, Lt. Colonel (1832 - after 1905)
[Mawlamyine, Burma: Original Double-Page Watercolour Showing a Panoramic View of Moulmein].

Ca. 1853. Watercolour and pencil on two conjoined leaves, total size ca. 25,5x70 cm (10 x 27 ½ in). Weak pencil caption "M. Carthew. Moulmein" on verso. Recent matting. A very good watercolour.
An impressive panoramic view of Mawlamyine or Mawlamyaing (formerly Moulmein), the third-largest city in modern Burma and an important port and trade centre in British Burma and its first capital in 1826-1852. The wide panorama shows the city from the Taungnyo hills on the right to the Thanlwin (Salween) River on the left, with the British ships in the harbor and rice fields, houses and small pagoda also shown. Most likely the watercolour was made from the famous viewpoint on Kyaikthanlan Pagoda located on the hills overlooking Moulmein.
The artist, Lt. Colonel Morden Carthew, was a prominent British colonial officer who served in India and Burma for 12 years and had several important posts in the administration of Moulmein.
General Morden Carthew, C.B., started in 1848 as a cadet in the Madras Presidency of the East India Company. In around 1850 with his own regiment, the 26th Madras Native Infantry, he was sent to Moulmein, Burma. "When the second Burmese war broke out in 1852, young Carthew, then a Lieutenant, was in England on sick leave; but he hastened out and rejoined his regiment just after a capture of Martaban, a fortified town belonging to the Burmese on the opposite side of the river on which Moulmein stands. Some tedious months of garrison work in Martaban followed, which Carthew utilized by setting to work to study the Burmese language." Thanks to his skills he obtained a place in the Civil Department of the British province of Moulmein as an officer assisting "in the pacification and civil administration of the newly annexed territory." "During the course of the war in 1852-53 Carthew saw a good deal of what was going on, and was present at several of the small actions that took place, for there were no pitched battles, the Burmese troops being very inferior in armament and courage." Carthew made the first survey of the town of Sittang and after "obtained a regular certificate for surveying." He was awarded with the Burmese war medal.
"On getting to Moulmein early in 1853, Morden Carthew, at twenty years of age, was appointed Assistant Magistrate of Moulmein, a large town and seaport of over 40,000 inhabitants of every race"; at twenty one he became a Civil Judge in the Civil Court of the Moulmein town and province. In 1855 he was appointed the Senior Magistrate of Moulmein "with all its police duties, with a convict jail chiefly composed of prisoners transported from India to the number of about 1500 men, charge of all the roads and bridges in the town district, and with a multitude of the other duties that only one accustomed to the life and work of an Indian soldier civilian can understand or even count." In 1858 he took the post of the Deputy Commissioner of the Province of Mergui, "the most southern point of British possessions on the Malay Peninsula, under the Indian Government." Altogether he spent 12 years in India and Burma and returned to England in 1860. He afterwards lived in Dumfriesshire (Scotland) and took an active part in the county affairs. He was known of his wood carving skills and exhibited his work in London and Edinburgh”. [Abstracts of the] Carthew Yorstoun family [genealogy] // The Gallovidian: An Illustrated Southern Counties Quarterly Magazine. Spring 1905. # 25. Vol. Viii. P. 1-9 (Open Library on-line).


[HAYASHI, Shihei] (1738-1793)
[Early 19th Century Manuscript Hand Coloured Copy of a Map from Hayashi’s Prohibited Book “Sangoku tsûran zusetsu”, or "Illustrated Outline of the Three Countries” (1785), Depicting Ezo (Hokkaido), Sakhalin Island, the Kurile Islands, Coasts of Kamchatka Peninsula, Russian Tartary and Manchuria, Titled:] Ezo Chi No Zu [Map of the Country of Ezo].

Bunka 4 (1807). Ca. 92x58,5 cm (36 ¼ x 23 ¼ in). Black ink on rice paper, hand coloured in yellow, red, and grey. Extensive captions in Japanese on the body of the map, as well as right and left margins. Brown owner’s stamp on the lower margin reading “Momen Bunko”. Minor tears on extremities neatly repaired, expertly mounted on Japanese paper otherwise a very good map.
Early 19th century “underground” or illegal manuscript copy of a map of Hokkaido, Sakhalin, Manchuria, Russian Tartary and Kamchatka from the prohibited book by a Sendai-based Confucian scholar Hayashi Shihei. Titled “Sangoku tsûran zusetsu”, or "Illustrated Outline of the Three Countries” (Edo, 1785), the book described the three “countries” bordering Tokugawa-era Japan – Joseon Dynasty (Korea), Yezo or Ezo (present day Hokkaido), and Ryükyü (present day Okinawa). The book attempted to present a comprehensive picture of the neighbours of Japan in order to enhance its coastal defense and became "the first attempt to define Japan's position in relation to its neighbors" (Morris-Suzuki, Tessa. Re-Inventing Japan: Time, Space, Nation. M.E. Sharpe, 1998. p. 23). The book was banned shortly after publication, with the woodblocks used for printing the text and maps being broken, and Hayashi Shihei was arrested and died in prison. The Tokugawa government didn’t tolerate the attempts of private individuals to get involved into the matters of national defense or to violate the sakoku policy of isolation from the outside world. Nevertheless, the pressure on Japan in terms of opening its borders slowly increased with the Russian exploration of the North Pacific and Alaska in the late 18th – early 19th century, and the maps from Hayashi’s “Sangoku tsûran zusetsu” started to be copied by hand and studied in secret.
Our copy dated Bunka 4 (1807) was drawn “for protection from the foreign forces” - most likely, after the unsuccessful Russian diplomatic mission of Nikolay Rezanov in 1804-1805 and subsequent raids of Japanese settlements and bread stores on the Sakhalin and the Kuriles by Russian naval sloops under command of N. Khvostov and G. Davydov in 1806-1807. The map is oriented from west to east and shows the northern tip of the Honshu Island, the whole Island of Hokkaido or Ezo (the distances between main settlements show in red lines), Sakhalin Island (southern part is shown as a peninsula named “Karafuto,” connected to the coast of Manchuria, and northern part – as a separate island named “Sagariin”), the Kurile Archipelago (with all islands named and the inhabited ones marked with red dots), a part of Manchuria (with a note about China and the Great Wall), and the coast of Kamchatka (“Kamushikatsutoka”) separated from Manchuria with the wide mouth of the “Big River” (Amur River). The text written on the body of the Kamchatkan peninsula repeats the text from the original map, reading “Since, in recent years, men of Orosha [Russians] have taken possession of the territory east of Tartary, this land is called Orosha, or Kamushikatsutoka... Also since the Russians all wear red coats, the residents of Ezo call it Red Ezo in their dialect." The map still shows the territories of Ezo, Sakhalin and the Kuriles coloured in yellow, and not as a part of Japan, but it was exactly in 1807 when western Ezo and southern Sakhalin were proclaimed the shogunate territory, and shortly before the Mamiya Rinzo’s exploratory expedition to Sakhalin (1808) which discovered that it was an island (European discoverers acting independently proved this point only in 1849). Overall a beautiful early copy of the important Japanese map of the Hokkaido Island and Russian territories in the Far East.
“Local samurai power-holders in Ezo began receiving tribute from (some of) the Ainu of Sakhalin as early as 1475. No Japanese trading post or other formal presence on the island would be established until 1790, however. By 1805, a second trading post had been established. Shortly prior to that, Hayashi Shihei's1785 Sangoku tsûran zusetsu includes a map which is likely the first in Japan to use color to distinguish Tokugawa Japan from other countries. On this map, Sakhalin is represented in yellow, along with the Kurils and most of Ezo, in contrast to Japanese territory in blue, and Russia in red. The arrival of Russian ships at Sakhalin and some of the Kuril Islands in 1806 again inspired the shogunate to take action against Russian encroachment; they declared western Ezo and southern Sakhalin to be shogunal territory (tenryô). Mamiya Rinzô explored and surveyed the island in 1808 to an extent no Japanese had ever done before, and in the process discovered (or confirmed) that it is in fact an island, and not a peninsula of the Asian mainland (Sakhalin/ Samurai Wiki archive online).


TEMPLER, Charles Bertram, Major (1860-1931)
[Album of Twelve Original Watercolours of Ladakh, with a Later Watercolour View of Rochefort, France].

Ca. 1886. Oblong Folio (28x37,5 cm). 5 leaves. Thirteen watercolours mounted on recto and verso of the card album leaves, including eight larger ones, ca. 17,5x25 cm (7x10 in) or slightly smaller, and five smaller ones, ca. 12,5x17,5 cm (5x7 in). All watercolours captioned in ink on the lower margins of the album leaves, all but one are signed “CBT” and dated 1886 and 1909 in the lower left or right corners of the drawings. Manuscript title of the album on the first free endpaper “C.B. Templer. Octr. 1928. Exmouth. With sketches dating from 1886.” With a large cabinet portrait photo ca. 20x15,5 cm (7 ¾ x 6 in), captioned “Charles Johann” [?] in the right lower corner, mounted on the front pastedown. Period black half sheep with green pebble-grain cloth boards. Expertly rebacked in style, card mounts slightly age toned, otherwise a very good album.
An album of interesting watercolours of Ladakh (now a part of the Jammu and Kashmir State, India) executed by Major C.B. Templer of the Indian Army, 19th Regiment of Bengal Lancers (Fane’s Horse). He served in India in 1880-1893 and took part in the second Mirazai Expedition of 1891. During his service with the 19th Lancers Templer participated in the horse races and was the first holder of the Indian Grand National Trophy (Some reminiscences of Indian Sport// The Field, The Country Gentleman's Newspaper, Christmas 1922, p. 5). After the end of his career Templer lived in Execliff (Exmouth), actively travelled around Europe and also visited South Africa.
The album includes eleven accomplished watercolours made in Ladakh in 1886, during Templer's time in the Indian Army, including a view of “Leh, capital of Ladakh” with the Leh Palace in the centre and the Ladakh mountain range in the background, a panorama of a “Tartar Camp” near Ladakh with tents made of woolen blankets, portraits of a Buddhist Lama with the prayer wheel, Ladakh shepherd “Bipari, trader in sheep's wool,” and of a woman coolie. Five watercolours depict local animals, with expressive notes by Templer: “Ladakh Transport!! Yak, goat & sheep,” “Spiti Pony. Very hard, never shod!! Feet as hard as iron!!,” “Fighting Cock!,” “Watch dog - Guards the sheep, goats &c., protected by iron collars against Leopards, wolves &c.,” “Kyang – wild horse of Ladakh.” Another drawing shows the grave of Templer’s charger Sweetheart somewhere in the Ladakh hills, with a note: “She was with me for 18 years, was my Charger and won me eleven races!! She was perfection in every way!!” There is also a beautiful view of snow covered peaks of the Himalayas taken from the Narkanda mountain station near Simla. The last watercolour dated 1903 depicts a small bridge & stream at Rochefort, France. Overall a beautiful illustrative account on Ladakh.


JACKSON, Welby Brown (1802-1890)
[Original Watercolour View of Benares/Varanasi].

Ca. 1856. Watercolour and pencil on cardboard, heightened in white, ca. 42x58 cm (16 ¾ x22 ¾ in). Later pencil caption "Welby Jackson. 1856. Benares" on verso. Recently matted, near fine, bright watercolour.
This beautiful view of Benares shows the River Ganges with white temples and ghats in the background, and clothes washers on the riverbank in the foreground. The right part of the picture details a wooden bridge spanned across the Ganges, with bull carts crossing.
Welby Jackson was an official in British India in the first half of the 19th century. He was noted to be in Calcutta in 1823 and held the office of Judge of Sudder Court there; in 1826 he was appointed Register to the Nizamut Adawlut for the Western Provinces at Allahabad (The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Regicter for British India and its dependencies. Vol. XXII. London, 1826. P. 469). The beginning of 1860's sees him back in Buckinghamshire, England (see The Peerage, A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe, on-line). Two of Jackson’s sepia sketches of the city of Gaya (Bihar, India) executed in 1830 are now in the Asia, Pacific and Africa collections of the British Library.


32. [ASIA - INDIA]
CANNING, Earl (Governor General 1856-1858, First Viceroy 1858-1862)
[The Historically Significant Canning Sunnad of 1862 Concerning the Bhopal Succession].

1862. A Folio (ca. 60x24,5 cm) single large sheet of parchment headed by the large inked seal of the Supreme Government of British India, written in fine palace script. Bound by stab stitching into a half cloth with patterned papered boards folder together with some dozen related pages of letters and documents in Persian script. One of these has some gold leaf additions and is additionally signed by the Political Agent A R E Hutchinson. A covering document is a true copy of a circular from Major R I Meade, Agent to the Governor General at Indore, to Major Hutchinson which accompanied the Sunnad as it was sent from the Viceroy. Some of the other documents are counter signed by Major Hutchinson.
The document sets out the British policy to secure the succession of Princely Houses ruling in the various states: “in failure of natural heirs any succession to the Government of your State which may be legitimate according to Mahomedan Law will be upheld. Be assured that nothing shall disturb this agreement here made to you so long as your House remains loyal to the Crown, and faithful to the conditions of the treaties, grants and agreements which record its obligations to the British Government.” The Sunnad is signed “Canning” at the foot.
In the light of future problems over disputed succession this document proved to be highly important and equally contentious, especially in the 1920’s when Nawab Sultan Begum named her only surviving son Hamidullah as her successor in conflict with accepted laws of primogeniture. The reference to remaining faithful, as Bhopal always had been, is particularly important in this early post Mutiny period when the Crown had just taken over all the East India Company’s powers. This document is one example of the close British attention to matters of succession in Indian states. In Bhopal the British wished to maintain the succession within the Orakzai tribe which had been so loyal to the Company and the Crown. Marriage and succession were to loom large in the relations between the Viceroy and the rulers of Bhopal during the rest of the century.The "Bhopal State was an independent state of 18th century India, a princely salute state in a subsidiary alliance with British India from 1818 to 1947, and an independent state from 1947 to 1949. Islamnagar served as the State's first capital, which was later shifted to the city of Bhopal. The state was founded by Dost Mohammad Khan, an Afghan soldier in the Mughal army who became a mercenary after the Emperor Aurangzeb's death and annexed several territories to his feudal territory" (Wikipedia).


33. [ASIA - INDIA]
GREENE, Captain Dominick Sarsfield, Royal Artillery (1826-1892)
[Album of Ten Original Watercolour Views of India and from the Homeward Voyage back to England].

Ca. 1857-8. Oblong Small Folio (ca. 25,5x32,5 cm). 12 beige album leaves. With ten watercolours, each ca. 17x25 cm (7x10 in) mounted on album leaves with original black ink captions mounted below. Five watercolours initialled "DSG" in pencil and four variously dated in 1858. Period style dark green gilt tooled half straight-grained morocco with dark green cloth boards. Overall a very good collection of watercolours.
The series of sketches in this album was made by Captain Dominick Sarsfield Greene at the same time as his sketches which were later turned into lithographs for his "Views in India, from drawings taken during the Seapoy Mutiny," Thos. Maclean: London, 1859. The ten attractive watercolours include: Ghauts. Bombay. Sunset; The Caves of Elephanta, Bombay; Gibraltar Hill from Rawul Pindee, Sunset; The Jumna Musgid - Delhi; The Taj Agra; On the road to Constantia, 12.5.58; From Sandy Bay Ridge, St. Helena, 3.6.58; The Man's Head Rock - St. Vincent; Bird Island, St. Vincent, St Antonia in the distance, 20.6.58; The Harbour, St. Vincent, Cape Verde, 19.6.58. Provenance: Sir Alexander Moncrieff (1829-1906) and thence by descent.


34. [ASIA - INDIA]
MACLEOD, Sybil Constance [& MACLEOD, George Charles Sholto] (1877-1915)
[Extensive Private Archive of 29 Letters, Describing Her Life as an Upper Class Lady in British India, with Notes on the Vice Roy of India, Lord Hardinge and an Attempt of Hardinge's Assassination, Planning of the Construction of New Delhi, Fort William in Calcutta, Delhi Fort and Chandni Chowk Market, Indian People and House Servants, Mixed Anglo-Indian Marriages, Military Parade in Dalhousie, Indian Mutiny, WW1, etc. One Letter Illustrated with a Photo View “from Dalhousie”; With: Four Photograph Portraits of Charles and Sybil Macleod, and Six Caricature Watercolour Portraits of Native Indians].

17 December 1911 - 2 September 1914. Mostly large Octavo (ca. 25x20,5 cm), with six smaller letters ca. 21x13,5 cm. In all over 250 pages of text. Brown and black ink on various wove paper. The photos: four loose gelatin silver prints (two mounted on card), from ca. 15x8 cm to ca. 28x17,5 cm (5 ¾ x 3 ¼ to ca. 11x7 in), with pencil and ink notes on versos. With six watercolour sketches on album paper, ca. 15x10 cm (6x4 in), all signed “G.E.M.” in the left lower corners. One letter clipped (some loss of text), fold marks, paper slightly age toned, but overall a very good archive.
Extensive collection of fascinating content rich letters written by Sybil Constance Macleod, wife of George Charles Sholto Macleod, Captain of the 2nd Battalion, Black Watch Regiment (Royal Highlanders) during his service in British India. The letters provide thoughtful and smart notes on the upper-class life in Calcutta, Darjeeling, Dalhousie, and Delhi, following Charles’ service as an Adjutant in Fort William (Calcutta) and his later transfer as a Station Staff Officer in Dalhousie (Nov. 1912). Most letters were written from Calcutta (thirteen) and Dalhousie (ten), with a few from a summer house in Darjeeling and during a short stay in Delhi. The first letter was written in December 1911 on the way to India on board S.S. Plassy, near Gibraltar; the last one – in the end of September 1914, shortly before the author’s departure to England in the beginning of WW1; most letters are addressed to Sybil’s mother Amy Constantia Jeffreys (d. 1932); with two written to her sister and aunt.
The letters contain a lot of interesting notes on the British military and civil officials, Indian people and places, i.e. Lord Hardinge (Viceroy of India, 1910-1916); Sir William Henry Clark (the Member for Commerce and Industry of the Council of the Viceroy of India, 1910-1916); Thomas David Gibson-Carmichael, 1st Baron Carmichael (Governor of Bengal in 1912-1917); Sir Edwin Lutyens (the architect of New Delhi); Fort William in Calcutta; several sights of Delhi, including the Fort, Humayun’s Tomb, and Chandni Chowk market (with “most fascinating shops, jewellery, embroideries, china, silks, & all the things that most make you wish you had money to chuck away!”); a trip from Calcutta to Dalhousie by train (up to Pathankot) and from there by an “invalid tonga” cart; landscapes in Darjeeling; officer’s vacation bungalows in Barrackpore. There is also a lengthy description of the “bomb tragedy” – assassination attempt of Viceroy Lord Hardinge which happened in Delhi on 23 December 1912; notes on a session of the Council of the Viceroy which she attended in Calcutta in March 1912; the planning of New Delhi; Christmas celebrations and King’s Birthday Parade in Dalhousie, and others. The letters are full of descriptions of dinners, receptions, and parties (i.e. A ball of Lieut.-Gov. Of Bengal, garden party of “Maharajashiraja Bahadur of Burdwan”, Sergeants’ Ball, a party given “by a native in honour of his nephew’s wedding” with a description of a mansion with lots of copies of old masters and later European paintings, Dresden china, and others). There are also numerous society gossips, passages about her daughter Sheila, dresses and gowns, jewelry, various purchases, house servants and cooks, prices for groceries, local trees and flowers, weather, et al.
One of the letters is illustrated with an ink drawn portrait of a native clothes mender “neatly dressed in a coat of cheap broderie anglais, through the holes of which shone his brown skin; a rather fashionable narrow skirt comes about to his ankles… The only thing is, I generally have to arrange to give him my things to mend just as they’re going to the wash, as he may be seen crouching on the back verandah, holding one end of his work between his toes!” (25 Apr. 1912).
The portraits show Charles and Sybil Macleod in the 1900s and early 1910s, Charles – in the uniform of the Lancashire Fusiliers (served in 1900-1905) decorated with medals received after the Second Boer War, and as an officer of the Egyptian Army (served in 1906-1908); Sybil – in an elaborate gown of the early 1910s. Done with an obvious artistic talent, most likely by Charles’ father George Edmostone Macleod (1851-1910, civil service commissioner in Oudh and Assam in 1870-1890s), the caricatures show “Zubberdust Khan, Budmash;” “Mir Shah – Pathan Sepoy;” “Umbeeka Churun Bose, Bengalee Baboo;” “Hunooman Dass, Jogee” [Jogi]; “Ram Ruttun – Ryot;” and “Gowee Mull – Delhi Jeweller.”
Some excerpts from the letters:
[Fort William]: “This fort is really a very nice place, quite away from Calcutta, separated from the town by the Maidan, an enormous wide open space of grass, which gives one plenty of air and light <…> lots of Generals live inside here, including the Commander-in Chief, who has a charming garden & tennis courts. There are lots of nice grassy bits, edged with trees, where they can play football ect., a native bazar, a post office & two churches, - so it is like a little town right away from the rest” (8 Feb. 1912).
[Indian Mutiny]: “I think somehow the Mutiny which thrills me more than almost anything in history, is apt to make one lose sight of Delhi’s own ancient history, for a time. The church is the same one as in Mutiny days, only restored, of course, while in its gardens close by, you see the battered brass globe & cross that surmounted it then, with bullet holes in dozens of places, but still never absolutely destroyed. The statue of John Nicholson, and the memorials in the church, the battered Kashmir Gate and the bare and open Ridge, all help one to realize those awful times, and the absolutely desperate fighting” (4 Feb. 1913)
[Planning of the New Delhi site]: “I have met Mr. Lutyens & Capt. Swinton, the “New Delhi” architects, & they are all busy squabbling as to the respective merits of two sites. It seems they had to keep the original scheme in such profound secrecy that they couldn’t consult even an expert, or something would have leaked out. & then when the Queen graciously announced her wish to lay the foundation stones of New Delhi, they were rather staggered, as experts had already pronounced the ground entirely unsuitable: however, the stones were duly laid, & will I suppose be removed in the night some time, to the spot which is finally selected. Mr. Lutyens <…> is a queer person, always making would be comic remarks, but much nicer when he’s serious; while Capt. Swinton, who was once in the army, has a long beard, a beautiful strait Greek nose…” (4 Feb. 1913); “There is being much heart-burning & furiously divided opinion in Delhi as to the respective merits of two proposed sites for the new capital, & last Sunday we went to see Mr. Lutyens’ sketches & plans for the new Govt. House, Secretariat etc., which were perfectly charming & so deliciously done, just slight sketches with vivid touches of colour” (13 Feb. 1913).
[Lord Hardinge, Viceroy of India]: “They say he is so self-opinionated & won’t take advice from anyone, although of course he can’t know much about the country; & the new policy & change to Delhi, doesn’t seem popular either” (25 Jan. 1912); “there were a lot of people there, all entirely unenthusiastic & all heartily delighted to see the last of them. He has rather a bad manner, shy & a little stiff, & no small talk <…> There was no cheering & they drove off in dead silence. I wonder if the English papers noticed, what is thrilling everyone out here (the natives of course) – that as he was driving away, almost a vivid flash of lightning shattered the flag over Govt. House. I was really rather extraordinary, & of course to the people out here, the very worst of omens…” (farewell to the Viceroy in Calcutta, a letter from 28 Mar. 1912).
[Assassination attempt of Lord Hardinge on 23 December 1912]: “He seems to be very bad still, 6 weeks later, as it is now; & no one seems quite to know what the effects will really be. Though of course the drum of one ear is cracked, or broken, & I don’t suppose anything can be done to that; while at present the shock to his nerves & whole system seems to be tremendous. He would open the first Council meeting, but they had to drug him pretty heavily first, to present any possible emotionalism (not quite a word I fear!) as he had such a tremendous ovation on entering. Mrs. Clark was telling me Lady Hardinge’s own account of it, to her. It seems they didn’t hear the explosion – apparently you don’t if you are very near; but they were thrown forward on to the front of the Howdah, & she said to him, “Was it an earthquake?” – and he said “No, I’m afraid it was a bomb.” He had such faith in the Indian people, & that anarchy was dying out, that they say the shock of that has hurt him most terribly. He insisted they should go on, & it wasn’t till she looked back & saw the terribly mangled remains of the man who was holding the Sate umbrella over them, that she got the procession stopped. She spoke to the Viceroy, & just at that moment his face became perfectly grey, & he sort of convulsively crumpled up & fell forward unconscious…” (4 Feb. 1913).
[Sir William Henry Clark]: “He is one of 6 Council members who I suppose correspond more or less to the Cabinet at home, & are tremendous people out here, with salutes of 17 guns, deputations & addresses wherever they move, banquets, guards of honour, bands and garlands, to say nothing of special trains with private kitchens, bathrooms, & compartments for their entire staff of servants.” <…> (13 Feb. 1913).
[Indian people, servants, etc.]: “they know from long experience how white people like things done, & are a thousand times better than the ordinary little cook & house parlour maid of England or Ireland” (25 Jan. 1912); “…in Bengal [people] are the most mouldy little rats, with greasy heads, nearly always turban less, the average man is about the size of an English boy of 14, except when they’re enormously fat & oily, & quite disgusting. The women wear one dirty white drapery, & they all look seditious crow brutes, more like mice than men! But these Punjabies really are men, - great tall fine-looking creatures, all in turbans of every imaginable colour, with full white trousers & coats, & the look of a good fighting race…” (5 Nov. 1912); “all cooks in this country live to put spice in everything they touch, & Abdul Rashid is no exception. I have to wage war on nutmeg and cinnamon, but it creeps insidiously in upon the smallest provocation” (30 Dec. 1912); “We have been having terrible domestic scenes in the servants’ quarters, where the dishwasher & kitchen maid came & complained that the bearer had taken his wife from him! (he. The husband, always seemed to be beating her because she would stand outside the door & talk to other men!) Of course, the bearer indignantly denied it, - the dishwasher was under sentence to go already, & Charlie said they must be gone, bag & baggage, within an hour. He said his wife wouldn’t come with him, & then a terrible scene was enacted in front of the house, entirely for our benefit: he dragged her along the ground, she kicking & moaning, & thus they advanced about a yard at a time; till finding we were entirely unresponsive & only ordering them to go a little quicker, they picked themselves up & mournfully departed” (18 Jun. 1913).
[Mixed Anglo-Indian marriages]: “I must say it gave me rather a shock to see an obvious English girl, fair and rather pretty though second-rate looking dressed in a complete native dress; they say sometimes the daughters of houses in London that take in as lodgers these natives studying to be barristers or something, marry them and come out here to live, of course purely native fashion. Rather horrible I think, don’t you?” (27 Feb. 1912).
[King’s Birthday Parade, Dalhousie]: “The solid stodgy red lines of the Manchesters, Connaught Rangers & Lancashire Fusiliers marched past well knowing they were there to make an impression on the rows of dark faces huddled on the opposite hillside, in turbans & clothes of every most brilliant hue, who sat absolutely silent, watching while 3 cheers for the King, & salutes to the Flag, echoed & crackled round the hills & back again. They say there is a good deal of sedition & trouble going on under the surface – people holding disloyal meetings & warlike races like Sikhs trying to stir up the others; but no two of the many races in this enormous country would ever unite. I should imagine, - & we would never be caught so unprepared again as in the Mutiny days” (18 Jun. 1913).
[Reference to Rudyard Kipling]: “There is a “haunted bungalow” close by here, & it certainly has an air of great loneliness & mystery: masses of rock are lying tumbled about in the garden, & big beams that came down when the house was damaged in an earthquake. The house has been rebuilt, but is unlet now, & it is supposed to be the original of Kipling’s story about the man riding to see his love, on a stormy night when the rains had made the soil all loose – his horse bolted down the Khud, past the house, & he was never seen or heard of more, except that now people frequently hear him thundering past – Mrs. Carnegy, the General’s wife, vows and declares she has often heard it!” (20 May 1913).
[Description of a photo attached to the letter from May 20, 1913]: “I send you a photograph of the view from here, which may give you a sort of idea of the country, & the different layers, the nearer & lower slopes thick with rhododendrons, deodars & all sorts of trees, then only pines & gradually up to bare rock & the snows above all; Kashmir is over those mountains I believe.”
[Titanic wreck]: “Wasn’t the Titanic disaster perfectly haunting? I think worse that the shock of going down must have been the icy cold of the water, in which they couldn’t possibly live for more than a few minutes. We haven’t got the English papers account of it yet; but it ought really to make the builders of these luxurious & enormous liners pause & think a bit” (25 Apr. 1912).
[WW1]: “The Divisions from here seem to be going there, at present at any rate, & I suppose they may send farther reinforcements to guard oil fields in Persia, & keep an eye on Turkey. It is announced by Mahomedans out here that the Germans have tried their hardest to stir up the Turks, by representing that they lent them money in their need, while England didn’t help them& & of course if they succeeded in rousing the Turks, the Mahomedans of this country would almost certainly fo in with them, for the triumph of faith. Germans are supposed & I believe known, to have gone about stirring up trouble in the bazars, & many have now been deported to isolated places & guarded, like the Boer prisoners. They say a German either put, or bribed a native to put, this bomb in the Lahore fort, which would have been truly awful thing if it hadn’t been for the courage of a Capt. Rock, I think his name ism who, receiving a letter to say “Beware of fire tonight,” instantly thought of the Fort & rushed off there; seizing the bomb in his hand he fled outside with it ticking away, & flung it from him, but not before his arms & face were burnt” (2 Sept. 1914).
George Charles Sholto MacLeod (2nd Battalion, the Black Watch/ Royal Highlanders) was born at Sylhet, Assam on 28 June 1877. At the age of nineteen he joined the ranks of the army, in which he served for over three and a half years. He served during the South African War from 1899-1900 with the Royal Lancaster Regiment, with whom he gained the award of the Distinguished Conduct Medal (London Gazette 19 April 1901) ‘...for gallantry at Spion Kop, in the absence of stretcher bearers did good work in carrying wounded out of action under hot fire.’ He subsequently took part in the operations on Tugela Heights, where he was severely wounded. He received his commission in the Lancashire Fusiliers in May 1900, and was promoted Lieutenant in April 1901. In April 1905, he obtained special promotion to the Hampshire Regiment, as Captain, and in June 1908 was transferred to the Black Watch with the same rank. He served with the Egyptian Army from 1906 to 1908. Captain MacLeod died in hospital at Bethune, where he was taken after the action at Richebourg on 9 May 1915, suffering from shrapnel wounds. He had been wounded previously in France in November 1914. As well as the D.C.M. And Q.S.A. He is entitled to for his Boer War Service, he was also awarded the 1911 Coronation Medal.
He married Sybil Constance Jeffreys on June 2, 1908, they had two children – Sheila (12 Nov. 1909-1986), and Neil (16 Feb. 1914 - ?).


35. [ASIA - INDIA]
NORTHBROOK, Thomas George Baring, 1st Earl of (1826-1904) (Viceroy of India 1872-1876).
[Formal Autographed Letter Signed "Northbrook" and Dated Fort William the 13th of January 1873, Written in Fine Palace Script and Addressed to Nawab Shah Jehan Begum, Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, Bhopal, thanking the Begum for her letter to his Agent in Central India regarding her pleasure in the ceremonials attached to her investiture as GCSI (Knight Grand Commander Star of India). He promises to forward her "expressions of attachment and loyalty" to the Secretary of State for India for delivery to Her Majesty with her "Petition and accompanying address"].

Fort William (Kolkata), 13th January 1873. Folio (ca. 32,5x21 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on beige wove paper on two sides of a plain bifolium. The letter has needle holes in the gutter margin where it has been stab sewn and stitched into a simple folder. The sewing is now lacking but the folder survives together with a Persian translation, certified true and countersigned C U Aitchison, Secretary to the Govt of India Foreign Dept. With a further ten Persian letters [unresearched], some with inked seals and signatures of Political Officers, one – like the Persian document above – decorated with gold leaf.
"Gladstone appointed [Northbrook] Viceroy of India 1872-1876. His major accomplishments came as an energetic reformer who was dedicated to upgrading the quality of government in the British Raj. He began large scale famine relief, reduced taxes, and overcame bureaucratic obstacles in an effort to reduce both starvation and widespread social unrest"(Wikipedia); "Shahjahan succeeded her mother as Begum of Bhopal upon the death of the latter in 1868. Having been groomed for leadership of the state, Shahjahan improved the tax revenue system and increased state intake, raised the salaries of her soldiers, modernised the military's arms, built a dam and an artificial lake, improved the efficiency of the police force and undertook the first census after the state suffered two plagues (the population had dropped to 744,000)" (Wikipedia).


[Attractive Album with Twenty-three Original Watercolours, Twelve Studio Albumen Photographs and 82 Original Snapshot Gelatin Silver Photographs Taken and Drawn by a Young Woman Who Travelled to Kashmir and Northern India in 1896].

Ca. 1896. Oblong Folio (ca. 26,5x36 cm). 19 card stock album leaves. With 23 mounted watercolour drawings of various size (some cut to shapes), from ca. 25x35 cm (9 ¾ x 13 ¾ in) to ca. 8x4 cm (3 x 1 ½ in); twelve mounted studio albumen photos: nine large ones, ca. 21x27,5 cm (8 ¾ x 10 ¾ in), and four smaller ones, ca. 10x15 cm (3 ¾ x 5 ¾ in); nine studio photos numbered or captioned in negative. Also with 82 mounted original gelatin silver snapshot photos, ca. 7,5x9,5 cm (3 x 3 ¾ in) or slightly smaller; four pieces of printed ephemera and numerous dried flowers and leaves of Kashmir plants. All drawings and most photos with manuscript ink captions and/or dates on the mounts or in the lower corners of the images (mostly for drawings). Period brown quarter sheep album with green cloth boards with gilt lettered title “Souvenir de Voyage” on the front cover. Front cover and the spine detached; a few album leaves with minor chipping on extremities, three leaves detached and loosely inserted, a few images mildly faded, but overall a very good album of interesting photos and watercolours.
Attractive keepsake album from a travel to Kashmir compiled by a young female traveller who was closely connected to the family of Lieutenant-Colonel John Stratford Collins (1851-1908), the Commander of the 1st battalion of the Queen’s Royal Regiment (West Surrey) stationed in India. Elaborately arranged original photos, watercolours, small printed ephemera and dried Kashmir plants create a picturesque illustration to the travels of the Collins’ family taken in spring-summer 1896, shortly before Stratford Collins became the Commander of the Queen’s 1st battalion in September that year. The album starts with five watercolours and sixteen snapshots from a trip to the Lolab Valley and Lake Wular, showing the travellers’ camps at Awatkoola and Lalpora villages, views of the Wular Lake near Alsoo, portraits of the album compiler, John Stratford Collins, his wife Margaret, their daughter Sibyl, family friends and native servants. There are also five large watercolours and eleven original snapshots illustrating the trip from Srinagar up the Sindh River Valley to Ganderbal and Sonamarg, showing “Camp Kangan,” Sindh River at Ganderbal, mountain peaks at Sonamarg, travellers’ dunga boats, a portrait of a “Ladaki,” a lady from the travelling party mounted on a horse etc. Five watercolours and over twenty snapshots depict a trip up the Lidar Valley, showing the Lidar River and mountains near Pahalgam, temples of Islamabad (Anantnag), the travellers resting in camp beds on a “veranda at Gund,” a female traveller sleeping in a camp bed on a boat, camping grounds near Pahalgam and in the Aru valley, the mergs (mountain slopes), the ruins of the Hindu Martund Sun Temple, group portraits of the “coolies” and Hindu pilgrims to the Amarnath Temple etc. There are also a nice watercolour view and four original snapshots of Srinagar, watercolours views of the interior of the traveller’s tent in Ambala, and the exterior of the Lumley’s Hotel in Ambala; portraits of “Jabul Khan, Papier Mache man,” local “boat girl and child,” and Sybil Stratford Collins mounted on a pony in front of the gate to “Col. Stratford Collins’ Kidunnah Cottage” (most likely, in Ambala), a humorous watercolour scene showing a wild bear and a cub visiting the travellers’ camp in Pahalgam, and others. The large studio photos include a group portrait of the officers of the 1st battalion of the Queen’s Royal Regiment (West Surrey) with John Stratford Collins as the Commander (taken in Dagshai), views of Ambala and nearby Kasauli resort, Shimla, Pahalgam, Lidar Valley “on the way to Aroo,” and Dagshai, including an interesting view of the elaborately decorated altar of the Anglican church in the Dagshai cantonment during the “harvest festival.” The smaller studio photos are mostly portraits of the local people, including “native messenger,” “chatti carriers,” “Indian Ekka, native cart,” etc.
The album is supplemented with two printed menus from dinners in Kalka and Shimla, and a program to the comedy “Charley’s Aunt” performed in the Gaiety Theatre, Simla on October [1896]. Numerous dried specimens of dried plants mounted next to the watercolours and photos on the leaves include those of the “small blue iris,” “wild rose, Alsoo,” “leaf from the Wolar Lake,” cotton flower, jessamine, “yellow violets Sonamerg,” colombine, and many others. Overall a fascinating album compiled by a female traveller to Kashmir.
Major General John Stratford Collins served in the Burma Expedition (1886-89) and commanded the Queen’s 1st battalion in 1896-1901, leading them during the Tirah Expedition on the North-West Frontier (1897-98). He was promoted as Major General in 1903 and in 1906 served as Inspector General of Volunteers; in 1907 he took command of the 2nd division at Rawalpindi, but died of cholera the next year. He was made a Companion of the Bath in 1905 and was twice mentioned in Despatches.


WALKER, William Henry
[Historically Important Manuscript Logbook Documenting the Third Trade Voyage of the East-India Company’s Ship “Repulse” from London to Whampoa (Pazhou) Island near Canton (Guangzhou), with the Stops at Saint Helena Island, Bencoolen (Bengkulu, Sumatra), Penang, Malacca and Singapore, Titled (printed form completed in manuscript):] Journal of the Proceedings of the Honourable East-India Company’s Ship Repulse, on her 3rd Voyage to St. Helena, Bencoolen and China, Kept by W.H. Walker, 2nd Officer.

[Various places at sea], 23 November 1824 - 3 April 1826. Folio (ca. 38x24 cm). 125 leaves (24 blank) with printed forms of the East India Company, filled in brown ink. Legible manuscript in English. Period brown reversed full calf, sewn in the original sail cloth with a brown ink title “H.C. Ship Repulse, 3rd Voyage” on the front cover; marbled endpapers. Paper label of “I.W. Norie & Co., Chart & Map Sellers to the Admiralty and the Hon.ble East India Compy.” on the front pastedown endpaper. With a typewritten letter signed by the head of the India Office Library (London) to the owner of “Maggs Bros.” antiquarian bookshop (dated 14 January 1966), attached to the verso of the front free endpaper. Paper slightly age toned, canvas cover soiled and with minor tears on the bottom, but overall a very good journal in very good condition.
Historically interesting complete logbook from a classical East Indiaman’s trade voyage to China in the first quarter of the 19th century. This logbook documents the third voyage of the ship “Repulse” which in 1820-1832 made six or seven voyages to China in the service of the “Honorable East-India Company”. Under command of Captain John Paterson (Edward Ford as the first officer and W.H. Walker, the log’s compiler, as the second mate), the ship sailed from London to the Whampoa/Pazhou Island – the gateway of the foreign trade in Canton/Guangzhou, where she took a large cargo of teas, and made several stops on the way, delivering East-India Company’s goods and troops to Saint Helena, taking the cargo of pepper at Bencoolen/Bengkulu (former British post on Sumatra which had just been ceded to the Netherlands in accordance with the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824), and calling at Penang, Malacca and the recently established British post in Singapore (founded in 1819).
The logbook opens with the entries documenting the ships’ preparation for the voyage in November-December 1824. Having received the Company’s cargo of lead, timber, flour, beer, malt, “three horses” (12 January 1825) and other goods, as well as officers and recruits for the Company’s garrison at St. Helena, “Repulse” left the port of Gravesend in the Thames estuary on 22 January 1825. The first leg of the voyage went quietly, with the sighting of Madeira and Porto Santo on January 30, the western Canary Islands on February 1, and crossing the Equator on February 23. After a month-long stay at St. Helena (16 March-13 April), and exchanging cargo and passengers, “Repulse” sailed across the Indian Ocean to Sumatra, sighting the Amsterdam and Saint Paul Islands (southern Indian Ocean) on May 17, and arriving to Bencoolen on June 3. There the “Repulse” took a cargo of pepper and “staves” (7 and 15 June onward), as well as carried on some “private trade;” on July 2, the ship’s surgeon S. Symes died; the “Repulse” left for the Strait of Malacca on July 5.
The ship sailed to the Penang Harbour and stayed there for about two weeks (27 July-12 August), loading “Staves & goods on account of the Honble. Company,” including “Betel Nut on account of Captain Paterson” (August 1); there are also notes about other British ships, i.e. HMS “Larne” which arrived from Madras on July 30 and left for New South Wales on August 5. After that the “Repulse” proceeded south through the Malacca Strait, stopping at Malacca town (17-20 August) and Singapore (24-30 August). In Malacca the “Repulse” again delivered the Company’s cargo, passengers and luggage, and in Singapore received “Rattans on account of Captain Paterson” (Aug. 25 and 27). The entry from August 25 first mentions the growing problem with the crew’s health: “we have 40 men on the sick list”; two days later (August 27) “our sick list still continues to increase, we have this day 50 men unfit to work.” The sickness escalated to the point that “twenty-two Chinese came on board to assist in working the ship on account of the magnitude of our sick list” (August 29); the situation released a couple of days later when the number of sick people decreased (September 1).
“Repulse” arrived at the Pearl River Delta on September 10 and three days later anchored at Whampoa. During a two-month stay the ship unloaded the cargo of pepper and lead (September 29 onward) and got a large cargo of teas for the Company (October 18 onward). On November 18, the “Repulse” started her homebound voyage, leaving the Perl River’s Second Bar together with several East Indiamen, including the “Bridgewater” which would accompany her almost to the English shores. The return voyage was routed through the Sunda Strait – a popular link between the China Sea and the Indian Ocean, with the Mount Raja Bassa being seen on December 2, the Peak of Krakatoa on December 6, and Saradong Islet on December 7. The “Repulse” called at St. Helena for replenishing water and other supplies on 2-7 February 1826, and on Ascension Island on 12-13 February, where a boat was sent on shore and “procured 9 Turtles averg. 300 pounds weight.” The logbook closes with the “Repulse” nearing the Warp sandbank in the Thames estuary on April 3rd, 1826.
William Walker, the “Repulse’s” second mate, included in the logbook all the typical data required to be recorded in such documents – astronomical observations, ship’s course and distances passed, wind directions and operations with the sails, geographical objects and vessels sighted, main events on board (including military exercises, punishments, desertions, cases of illness or death of the crew members), first crossing of the Equator (23 February 1825) etc.; there is also an attractive pencil sketch of "the appearance of Porto Santo" as seen on 30 January 1825. One of the entries made while in the Atlantic, recorded “…a similar phenomenon to that we observed in the parallel outward bound was observed, the sails & rigging being covered with a thick coat of brown sand, the distance from the nearest shore 400 miles, the atmosphere so dense from its effect as scarcely to discern objects mile from…” (February 24, 1826). The first nine leaves of the logbook contain the list of the “Ship’s Company” (145 names, with the notes about departures, arrivals, desertions and deaths), and five lists of different classes of passengers: British officers and their families travelling to Saint Helena (11 names), Asian passengers taken on St. Helena (Francesca – a “native woman, Penang,” “”Seedan – do. Of Samarang”, and twenty Chinese people), British civil servants travelling from Bengkulu to Penang, Malacca or Singapore (28 names, including five kids), “Honorable Company’s Recruits” proceeding to St. Helena (120 names) and “Women Attached to the Military” (12 wives and five children of the military men from the previous list).
Overall an interesting historically important original document describing an East Indiamen’s trade voyage to China and South-East Asia. Usually there were several logbooks kept on board a ship during such a voyage, but although containing similar “technical” information, they never coincide in detail. Thus, our logbook’s contents differ from that of the logbook compiled by the “Repulse’s” Captain John Paterson (British Library shelf mark IOR/L/MAR/B/51C, transcript at http://www.bosunslocker.info/315303265).


[Manuscript Copy of Several Important Japanese Documents Related to Commodore Perry’s Landing in Kanagawa in March 1854, Including a Detailed Description of the Funeral of Robert Williams (a Marine from U.S.S. Mississippi), List of Names of Perry’s Party, Lists of Presents Prepared by Both the American and Japanese Sides, etc., Titled:] Koshi taru nami ki [Record of Overcoming Difficulties].

Slightly later early Meiji period copy. Octavo (ca. 24x17 cm). 41 leaves. Manuscript in Japanese, black ink on paper, with occasional notes in red ink, main text twelve vertical lines; with nine pages of ink-drawn sketches in text. Original Japanese fukuro toji binding: brownish paper covers with leaves sewn together with thread and original paper title labels on the front cover. Housed in a later Japanese blue cloth folder with a paper title label. Title labels on the manuscript with minor losses not affecting the text, overall a very good manuscript.
Interesting manuscript collection of several important Japanese documents relating to Matthew Perry’s second voyage to Japan, which resulted in the Signing of the Treaty of Kanagawa in March 1854. This manuscript, likely copied a few years later, starts with a detailed description of the negotiations about the funeral of Robert Williams (1830-1854), a young marine who had died aboard the USS Mississippi shortly after the arrival of Perry’s fleet the Edo Bay. Written in a diary style and starting from “10 [February]” (21 February 1854), the description also covers the funeral and is illustrated with hand-drawn sketches of Williams’ coffin and tomb stone. Williams’ grave on the grounds of the Zotokuin temple near Yokohama village started what later became known as Yokohama Foreign General Cemetery, one of the biggest in Japan. The manuscript also includes a detailed lists of people and ships from Perry party (noting people’s professions, i.e. Translators or artists), presents from the American president to the Japanese emperor (steam train, electric telegraph, a map of the United States, tea, perfume, swords, guns, “American white liquor,” and an entry which seems to refer to Audubon’s “Birds of America”) and vice versa, as well as copies of reports to Matsudaira Noriyasu (1794-1870), a senior advisor of the Shogunate. The manuscript includes two hand-drawn portraits of Commodore Perry and Commander Henry A. Adams, copied from original drawings by the official artist of the Japanese side Takagawa Bunsen. The first leaf of the manuscript lists the main documents included: “Yokohama Ijin Hunbo no ki” (Report about a foreigner's grave in Yokohama), “Ni gatsu to ka Yokohama Joriku Meisei” (List of names of the landing [party in] Yokohama on Feb 10th), and “Ijin Kenjyobutsu Kudasaremono Hinmoku” (List of gifts to the foreigners and from the foreigners). The paper is marked “Seikyu Yakushitsu” in the margin which refers to the medical practice of Murakami Bansetsu (1815-1877), the doctor of the Shogun’s elder brother Ikeda Yoshinori (1837-1877). Overall an interesting manuscript containing important details of Perry’s landing in Kanagawa in March 1854.
“In 1853, Commodore Matthew C. Perry, with his four kurofune (black ships) Mississippi, Plymouth, Saratoga and Susquehanna suddenly appeared off Uraga in Edo Bay (Tokyo Bay) and surprised the people of Japan. Perry landed at Kurihama, south of Yokosuka in the Miura peninsula and delivered a letter from President Millard Fillmore and demanded the bakufu (the shogun government) to open the ports to the American vessels. The next year (1854), when Perry returned with a squadron of seven warships the Mississippi, Susquehanna, Powhatan, Macedonia, Saratoga, Vandalia, Southampton, Lexington and Supply (joined the Squadron after the actual landing on March 8) for the negotiations, Robert Williams, a 24 year-old marine, died aboard the USS Mississippi, one of the steam frigates. Perry requested for a piece of land to be used as a cemetery for the Americans in which to bury Williams. After negotiations, bakufu offered a place within Zotokuin temple in Yokohama village, with a view overlooking the sea (a special request by Perry). This was how the Yokohama Foreign General Cemetery started on the Bluff. Three months latter the grave of Williams, the first man buried at the gaijin bochi (foreigner's cemetery), was moved to Gyokusenji Temple in Shimoda on the Izu Peninsula. The Americans were offered burial plots through the U.S. Japan Peace and Amity Treaty of 1854. Five Americans, mainly from Perry's voyage and three Russians were buried at Gyokusenji” (Yokohama Foreign General Cemetery online).


[Original Manuscript Plan of the First Russian Trading Post on Sakhalin Island – Fort Muravyovsky, Now the Town of Korsakov in Southern Sakhalin].

Ca. 1859. Ca. 54x75 cm (21 ¼ x 29 ½ in). Black ink on rice paper, hand coloured in yellow, red, black, and grey. Extensive text in Japanese on the right and left margins. Fold marks, otherwise a very good plan.
Interesting early detailed Japanese plan of the first Russian settlement on Sakhalin Island - Fort Muravyovsky, founded by a Russian navigator and explorer Gennady Nevelskoy on 21 September O.S./ 3 October N.S. 1853. The fort was erected on the site of the Ainu village Kushinkotan in southern Sakhalin (according to the Russian sources, the name of the village was Tomari Aniva), on the shore of the Salmon Inlet of the Aniva Bay. The first commander of the fort was Russian military officer Nikolay Busse (1828-66). In May 1854 the fort was relocated to the Emperor’s Harbour (on the mainland shore of the Strait of Tartary), due to the beginning of military actions against Russia by Britain and France during the Crimean War. The fort was rebuilt in 1869, under the name of Korsakovsky, and quickly became the centre of the Sakhalin penal colony of the Russian penitentiary system. It was handed over to the Japanese government in 1905 after Russia’s defeat in the Russo-Japanese War, and was returned to Soviet Union in August 1945, after World War II. Renamed Korsakov in 1946, it is now an important administrative centre of Russia’s Sakhalin Oblast.
The plan states that it was copied in Ansei 6 (October 1859) from the original sheet drawn in Kaei 6 (September 1853), i.e. Shortly after the construction of the Russian fort. The plan depicts a rectangular fort with two watch towers (each with a guard on top, one is mounted with a flag), tall fence and several buildings, including the commander’s house and the barracks. The inner yard houses two cannons and piles of coal; two small buildings outside the fort walls are the trade house and Russian banya (steam bath house, a fire is seen above the small chimney). The plan has an extensive explanatory text on the left and right margins, as well as captions above most of the objects, detailing the location of the fort, the story of its foundation, features of the buildings and the amount of weapons, there is also a note that the Russians trade with the “Santan jin” people (Tungus-speaking tribes from the Far East mainland) who travel to Karafuto (Sakhalin). Overall a very interesting historically significant plan.


TISSANDIER, Albert (1839-1906)
[Twenty-One Original Drawings by Albert Tissandier Showing Buddhist Temples, Sculptures, Ruins, Local People and Landscapes in Sri Lanka and India, Several of Which were Published in the French Scientific Journal “La Nature” and Tissandier’s 1892 Book “Voyage Autour du Monde”].

1887-1890. Collection of twenty-one original drawings including ten large pencil drawings ca. 26x32,5 cm (10 ¼ x 12 ¾ in), six smaller pencil drawings between ca. 12,5x20,5 cm (4 ¾ x 8 in) and ca. 24,5x17 cm (9 ½ x 6 ¾ in), several heightened in white, and five pencil, ink and/or watercolour sketches each ca. 24x26,5 cm (9 ½ x 10 ¼ in) and smaller. All are mounted on 14 stiff card leaves each ca. 34,5x42,5 (13 ½ x 16 ¾ in), all dated and captioned in French in period manuscript ink, one drawing is outlined with a gold frame. Housed in a custom made oblong folio green cloth box ca. 44x35,5 cm with a green gilt tooled morocco label titled «Ile de Ceylan / Voyages de M.A. Tissandier / En 1887 et en 1890 / Dessins d’Après Nature» with the original paper manuscript title page included. Drawings and mounts in very good condition.
This historically important collection includes views of Ceylon (present-day Sri Lanka) and India, drawn by Albert Tissandier, a talented architect and artist who travelled around the world and drew illustrations for a French scientific journal called “La Nature.” The drawings show sights during his voyage to Sri Lanka and India in 1887 and 1890, including Buddhist temples, a vatadage (a Buddhist structure unique to Sri Lanka), sculptures, ruins, scenes of local people and landscape views. The majority of the images depict Sri Lanka, including Matale, Maskeliya, Dambulla, Kalutura, Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Kalami and Sigiriya. However, three images show India, including an animal hospice in Mumbai, women walking to the water source in Ajmer and the Bhaja temple. Three of the drawings in this collection were featured in Tissandier’s book « Voyage autour du monde: Inde et Ceylan, Chine et Japon, 1887-1890-1891 » published in 1892, including the Bhaja Temple, the animal hospice and the very tall Buddha made of granite in Vikara Aukana near lake Kalewewa. Also included are several plans of ruins and sketches of sculptures with notes indicating the measurements as well as detailed and explanatory captions. Overall, a collection of interesting and artistically gifted drawings showing sights in Sri Lanka and India during the late 19th century.
Captions: Temples boudhists à Matelé; Degrés de granit pour monter au tombeau de Mahindo; Pierre sculptée représentant un petit palais Cynghalais; Passage d’un Torrent sur le dos de mon guide Cynghalais près de Maskeliya; temple de Bhaja et son monastère (Vihara); Intérieur de Maha Dewa Dewal, Dumballa village; Maison de pêcheur au bord de la mer à Kolatura; Les cocotiers et la mer à Kalatura; Ruines d’un ancien aqueduc Cynghalais à Mnimithale; Lac de Pollonarua; Plan des ruines d’un pavillon d’été à Anuradhapura; Hospice des animaux à Bombay; Ornement en pierre sculptée; Ruines du Wata Dagé à Pollonarua; Ajmère – les femmes allant chercher le matin leurs provisions d’eau aux sources de la montagne; Le lac à Colombo; Grand Buddha de granit situé près du Vikara Aukana Kalewewa; Grand rocher de la forteresse Cynghalaise de Sigiri; Grand temple de Kalami.
Albert Tissandier was a French architect, aviator, illustrator, editor and archaeologist. He was the brother of adventurer Gaston Tissandier with whom he collaborated in writing the magazine La Nature, a French language scientific journal aimed at the popularization of science. He was heavily involved in it from the very first issue in 1873 until his retirement in 1905, less than a year before his death. In 1881, the brothers Tissandier demonstrated the world's first electric powered flight at an electricity exposition by attaching an electric motor to a dirigible. They then developed the Tissandier air ship, the first electric powered dirigible (for which Albert drew the blueprints), which departed from Auteuil, Paris, on October 8th, 1883 (This Day in Aviation).


CLEATHER, William H., Captain‚ 1st Ceylon Regiment (1783-1820)
[Two Extensive Autograph Letters Signed “W.H. Cleather” to his Sister Mary Littlehales, Describing his Early Service in the Military Regiment in British Ceylon, with notes on His Travel to Ceylon on Board HMS Thalia, Colombo Garrison and Officers, Local Society, Day Schedule et al].

HMS Thalia, “18 leagues to the North of St. Jago”, 20 October 1805 and Colombo Fort, 21 June (completed 2 September) 1806. Both Octavos (ca. 23x18 cm and 25x20 cm). Each 3 ½ pp. Both addressed and sealed on the last pages. Brown ink on watermarked laid and white paper. Fold marks, both letters with minor holes on the 4th pages after opening, affecting several words; second letter with tears and minor holes on folds, but overall very good letters.
Two extensive letters giving an interesting firsthand account of the early British rule in Sri Lanka (the British occupied former Dutch possessions on the island only ten years earlier, in 1795). The first letter describes Cleather’s voyage to Ceylon from England on board HMS Thalia, with the notes on the heat of the gun room‚ the frigate’s captain Walker, Santiago Island (Cape Verde) where they got fresh supplies and water, social life on board the ship et al. “I sleep every night in the most tantalizing situation you can possibly imagine, Rayner having strung my cot in the after gun room in the midst of <…> chests of dollars to the amount of 40.000 £ which they are taking out for the Company, there is 400.000 £ standing more below.”
The second letter completed almost a year later gives an inside look into the life of British military and civil society on Ceylon, shortly after the end of the First Kandyan War (1803-1805). Cleather praises the Colombo garrison’s chaplain Reverend W.H. Heywood in whose house he started writing the letter, notes that he has dined with the “Chief Secy. Mr. Arbuthnot (the 2nd personage in the Island),” and mentions “innumerable” balls and suppers to which “I am constantly invited.” His regiment “is stationed about ten miles from the Fort <…> I have a small house but very comfortable near the parade & not far from a pretty little Cot.[tage] of Heywoods where he generally resides – for this I pay two guineas a month (nothing here).” Cleather mentions that the Regiment which consists of sepoys trains a lot because it is expected to be reviewed shortly; notes on his relation with his colleague officers – Lieut.-Col. T.W. Kerr who “has an unfortunate disposition to talk scandal,” Fort Adjutant Mr. Stewart, officers wives and daughters and others. “I do not much …[?] the heat and have never had a day’s illness since I landed in the Island. I had no duty for two or three months at first being laid up with hurts in my legs. This is common enough & is thought nothing of, it is long since over…”
Captain W.H. Cleather of the first Ceylon Regiment, was educated at Exeter College, Oxford, and arrived in Ceylon in 1805. Through his sister Mary Littlehales (to whom the letters are addressed) he was a brother-in-law of Vice-Admiral Bendall Robert Littlehales (1765-1847), a participant of the Napoleonic Wars, and Captain Edward Littlehales (1805-1888), a commander of HMS Dolphin on the coast of West Africa during the suppression of the slave trade in the 1840s. During his career in the British Ceylon, he served in different Ceylon Regiments, was the Fort adjutant at Galle, Jaffna, and Colombo. He took part in military actions during the Uva Rebellion (1817-1818) and for many years served as Deputy Judge Advocate in Ceylon.


EDWARDES, David Jones (d. 1878)
[Autograph Letter Signed by David Jones Edwardes, a British Diplomat in the Kingdom of Siam, Talking about the Funeral of a Siamese Prince (with a Separate Interesting Four-page Manuscript Account of the Funeral), the Delimitation of Siamese-Burmese Boundary, American Baptist Missionaries in Bangkok, Including Ms. Adele Fielde, etc.; the Manuscript Account is Titled:] Account of Burning the Remains or Skeleton of the Son of the First King.

British Consulate, Bangkok, 8 February 1868. Two Quarto bifoliums (ca. 26,5x21,5 cm). Brown ink on bluish paper. 4 + 4 pp. of text. Fold marks, paper mildly age toned, but overall a very good pair of manuscript documents.
Historically interesting content rich letter written by a British diplomat in the Kingdom of Siam to his father. The narration starts with a description of the arrival of the “Commissioner for the delimitation of the boundaries between Burmah and Siam” (the Convention between the Governor-General of India and the King of Siam, defining the boundary between Siam and the Burmese province of Tenasserim, treaty signed on February 8, 1868, and ratified on July 3 the same year): “…[the Commissioner] brought with him a letter from the Viceroy of India and this letter was received by the King, en grand audience, with all honours. This was the usual procession of boats with from 50 to 100 men in each and on landing there was a guard of honour and military band. The letter was received with a salute. The bearers of the sedan chairs almost fought for the possession of the two small men of our party, the acting Consul Alabaster & Kennedy, but a <…> rattan cane wielded by a Siamese official soon restored them to a sense of propriety”.
A passage in the letter and an additional extensive four-page manuscript describe the funeral or “hpra-men” [Phra Men] of a son of the first king of Siam which took place on February 3-5, 1868. Well-written, the account gives a vibrant picture of the funeral procession and ceremony, with interesting observations which reveal Edwardes’ role and attitude to the event. “… the gold urn <…> occupied the middle of the procession, before it walked <…> companies of soldiers in native and European costume, fabulous griffins & monsters in wood drawn by men, behind it came the relatives of deceased and some soldiers and a dusty perspiring semi naked crowd… [During the Phra Men ceremony] Siamese and Chinese theatricals were being carried on with much noise & vigour. The groaning & shouting of a large crowd which surrounded two men playing at double stick (each had two bludgeons) increased the effect. The proceedings at an English theatre will give you no idea of the barbarous & gorgeous dresses, the beating of gongs & tom toms, the shouting and blowing of pipes which accompany the performances of Siamese & Chinese actors.
A passage from the Hpra-men to the east gate of the palace was formed by Amayons. These Amayons are ugly women dressed very slovenly in red coats and caps and armed with bayonet rifles. They guard the women of the Palace, but are more for show that use. <…> We pushed our way up towards the shed and were escorted into the presence of royalty. Into the very focus as it were of the great Sun of Siam and luminary of the world. Happy mortal that I am, the rays of light which were then directed to me still play round my head <…> His Majesty with words of condescension bestowed on those with me tokens of his esteem & mementos of the ceremony. The Acting Consul got two bunches of fruit and two gilt animals. On me were bestowed by royal hand one bunch of fruit (made of cork) and a gilt animal – a mouse. He then turned to his prime minister who was seated a little below him and said in Siamese: “You see I know all the men of the British Consulate, both big & little.” <…>
One or two gas lamps had also been put up. The whole scene at night was wonderfully interesting. Just in front of where we were sitting near the King was a large square lined by soldiers, and in this some fifty boys each with two coloured lamps were chanting and dancing. Then the dense crowd, their faces illuminated by the lurid glare of the fireworks, then the building in which the funeral pile had been erected with its illumination & gilt roof, and outside of the crowd rose five high wooden towers, festooned with lamps and illuminated at different points.
When I have opportunity, I will send home my gilt mouse and bunch of fruits. Each fruit contains a silver coin and the mouse is supposed to have five shillings worth of gold in it…”
Very interesting are Edwardes’ notes about American Baptist missionaries in Bangkok. First, he wrote about “a new missionary and his wife here, Mr. & Mrs. Lisle” (Rev. William M. Lisle and his wife Anna Lisle, arrived to Bangkok in January 1868 in order to join the American Baptist Mission, but had to leave in June that year due to serious health implications): “I am going to call on them next week. He preached in church last Sunday, a rather better sermon than the missionaries here (with the exception of Dr. House [?]) are capable of. But he looks wonderfully young, has not a hair on his face and I should have taken him to be only 18, but I hear he is getting on for 28. If Siam is not to be converted it won’t be for want of missionaries”. Then Edwardes contemplated about the essence of missionary work and its development at the time: “In my younger days I used to think from the way they were talked about that missionaries were very superior beings or at least men far great on account of their self sacrifice and self denial. This was the idea I derived from platform speeches, but practically it is very different. I hear that they have misrepresented or need to misrepresent (it would be rather difficult now) the state of society in England and America. That certain vices were very uncommon and amongst other things that there were no whores in the country”.
Edwardes also left an interesting comment of the activity of a young female Baptist missionary Adele M. Fielde (1849-1916), who arrived to Siam in 1865, just to discover that her fiancé, young Baptist missionary Cyrus Chilcott had died a couple of months earlier. Miss Fielde stayed on and started to work in the mission, but “did not fit in with the Baptist missionary community. Her dancing, card-playing, and associations with the diplomatic community resulted in her dismissal from the mission” (Fielde, Adele, M. Baptist missionary to China known for her work with Bible women/ Boston University School of Theology, History of Missiology http://www.bu.edu/missiology/missionary-biography/e-f/fielde-adele-m-1839-1916/). She had to return to the United States but was reinstated in the Baptist Mission in Swatow (China), where her 20-years work with the native women earned her a title of “the mother of our Bible women and also the mother of our Bible schools” (ibid.) Edwardes wrote in the letter: “Miss Field, a missionary lady instead of confining herself to Bangkok & living in the family of Dr. Dean [Rev. William Dean, 1807-1895, early Baptist missionary in Bangkok and Hong Kong] goes away to teach the Chinese some thirty miles from here all alone by herself. This shocks European prejudices and is not consistent with native notions of propriety.” In the end of the letter Edwardes mournfully contemplates about the decline of morale in the Old England which “is very rotten,” and that “in this present thirst for money what can we expect but that tradesmen… dishonest, officials corrupt & companies untrustworthy…”


43. [ASIA - TIBET]
FILCHNER, Wilhelm (1877-1957)
[A Collection of Seven Original Ink Drawings (Three initialed "C.A.") Used as Illustrations in Wilhelm Filchner's Book " Das Kloster Kumbum in Tibet. Ein Beitrag zu Seiner Geschichte (The Monastery Kumbum in Tibet. A Contribution to its History)" Berlin: Mittler & Sohn 1906].

Ca. 1905. Seven ink drawings on thick paper ca. 27x23 cm (11x9 in) and slightly smaller. The original ink drawings are recently matted together with the corresponding printed text illustration leaves from the book. Housed in a custom made black cloth portfolio with a printed paper title page label and silk ties. One drawing with an expertly repaired corner chip, but overall the ink drawings are in very good condition.
This historically important collection of ink drawings show 1. A Tibetan Rosary (p.47); 2. Lama d Ge ss Long with yellow hat and cloak etc. (p.48); 3. A travelling lama (p.63); 4. Illustration of an Indian legend (p.85); 5. A prayer drum partially made with human skull parts (p. 103); 6. A water-powered prayer wheel (p.104); 7. Tibetan cairn with prayer flags on mountain top (p.128). The illustrations are supplemented with the matted title page and map of the monastery from the book. The preface states that the ink drawings were created by an artist under Filchner's direction based on photographs made by Filchner. The purpose of Filchner's 1903-5 "expedition to Tibet [was] to carry out geomagnetic and topographical surveys on the high plateau. In addition to its scientific work the expedition carried out a significant intelligence-gathering role and was contemporaneous with similar missions by Francis Younghusband and others"(Howgego, 1850-1940 Polar Regions etc., F6). "Kumbum Monastery is a Buddhist monastery in present day Qinghai, China. Kumbum was founded in 1583 in a narrow valley close to the village of Lusar in the Tibetan cultural region of Amdo. Its superior monastery is Drepung Monastery, immediately to the west of Lhasa. It was ranked in importance as second only to Lhasa" (Wikipedia).


CASPARI, Chrétien Edouard (1840-1918)
[Album of Ten Original Watercolour Views of Saigon and Environs].

1877-1878. Watercolour and ink on paper; six larger sketches, ca. 13x21 cm (5x8 in), and four smaller ones, ca. 10,5x14 cm (4 x 5 ½ in). All captioned and dated in ink in the lower margins of the images, with additional pencil captions or notes on the mounts. Period style maroon gilt tooled half morocco with cloth sides. Watercolours mounted laid paper leaves. Album overall in very good condition.
Beautiful sketches taken from life by a French colonial engineer, while serving in Indochina. The collection includes several interesting views of Saigon showing the La Sainte Enfance School, St. Joseph Seminary (‘Seminaire annamite’), the house of the director of the French arsenal, a horse-driven carriage or ‘Malabar’ et al. The watercolours include some nice portraits of the locals, including a sketch of a Chinese merchant followed by a servant carrying his goods, portraits of Vietnamese women with children, people driving oxen carts, villagers et al. There is also a great view of Dong Nai River near Bien Hoa city (32 km east from Saigon) – a peaceful picture of a river with two people paddling in a boat and several village houses amidst lush tropical greenery on shore. One sketch shows local plants – mango tree, bamboo and an Erythrina tree covered with bright red flowers.
Chrétien Édouard Caspari was a French hydrographer and astronomer. He graduated from École polytechnique in 1860, and in 1862-1902 he worked as a hydrographer and engineer in France, the Caribbean and French Indochina (the Gulf of Siam, Annam and Tonkin). Caspari was the author of an astronomy textbook for the Service Hydrographique de la Marine, and of numerous scientific papers, some relating to Indochina. He was awarded with the Prix Montijon of the French Academy of Sciences (1878), and in 1905 he became President of the Astronomical Society of France.


BORNAS, Aug[ust?]
[Album of Ten Original Pen and Wash Sketches of Military Fortifications, Villages and Mountainous Views of Tonkin (North Vietnam) Taken by a Participant of the French Military Campaign on Pacification of Tonkin (1886-1896)].

Ca. 1891. Oblong Quarto (ca. 21x29 cm). 12 leaves. With ten sketches in pen and wash on beige paper each ca. 13x21 cm (5 ¼ x 8 ¼ in) and mounted on album leaves. All but one captioned in ink in the lower margins of the sketches, five signed “Aug. Bournas” in the lower corners (three additionally dated February or December 1891), one signed “Diesenhosen”(?) in the right lower corner Period style maroon gilt tooled half morocco with maroon cloth boards, Several drawings with very minor corner creases, but overall a very good album of sketches.
Interesting album of original drawings made by a participant of the French Pacification of Tonkin (1886-1896) - one Aug[ust?] Bornas who served in the column of Commandant Fournier (XI Legion) during the 1891 campaign. Tonkin (in the north-east of modern Vietnam) became a part of French Indochina in 1887, but it took French authorities almost ten years to completely subdue the region, especially its northern mountainous areas. These skillful sketches document the steady and painful advance of French troops into the hilly interior of rebellious Tonkin, showing small villages and French posts, barricades destroyed during the advance, mountains and valleys, streams et al. The drawings include:
1. A view of the bridge across the Tra Linh River dated February 1891 and signed “Aug. Bournas”.
2. A view of the barricade (made of bamboo) at Lung Giao, destroyed by the column of Commandant Fournier on 27 March 1891.
3. A view of the barricade (made of bricks and bamboo) at Lung Kett, which closes the entrance to Thien Sang (view taken from inside), the barricade was destroyed by the column of Commandant Fournier on 3 April 1891.
4. A view of the Lung-Phai village with three watch towers, dated December 1891 and signed “Aug. Bournas”.
5. A view of Dong Khe fort, facing west, with French tricolor waving above. Dated December 1891 and signed “Aug. Bournas”.
6. A view of the French post in the town of Ngan Son (Bắc Kạn Province, Northeastern Vietnam), with French tricolor waving above.
7. A view of the market in Tan Bon (on the route from Nam-Nang to Dong Khe, Northeastern Vietnam).
8. Camp in Nai Phung and the Pac Giai valley.
9. A view of the Lung Che circue taken from above, signed “Diesenhosen” (?).
10. Untitled drawing portraying French officers taking rest on a river bank (two are talking, one is cooking on a camp stove), with two Vietnamese boats landed on shore nearby.
“The Pacification of Tonkin (1886-96) was a slow and ultimately successful military and political campaign undertaken by the French Empire in the northern portion of Tonkin (modern-day north Vietnam) to re-establish order in the wake of the Sino-French War (August 1884 – April 1885), to entrench a French protectorate in Tonkin, and to suppress Vietnamese opposition to French rule” (Wikipedia).


GOLDSMITH, George, Admiral RN (1806-1875)
[Album of Over Thirty Watercolour, Pen and Wash, and Pencil Drawings of the Mediterranean Done Shortly after the End of the Greek War of Independence, Including Views of “Morea near Cape Mapatan”, Temple of Aphaia on the Aigina Island, Nafplio, “Plains of Troy,” Harbour of Rhodes, Smyrna, the Scene of Blowing up of Greek Frigate Hellas in August 1831, General and Close-up Views of HMS “Madagascar” (including a Bare-Breasted Female Bust as a Figurehead), a portrait of Greek General Theodoros Kolokotronis, Views of Temple at Selinunte (Sicily), “Ruins of Alexandria Troas” etc.]

Ca. 1828-1831. Oblong Quarto (ca. 18,5x27 cm). 23 leaves. With over thirty watercolours and drawings, including three double-page panoramas, a dozen full-page watercolours and several pages with smaller watercolour and pencil sketches placed together. Most drawings and watercolours with period pencil or ink captions and notes. Period pencil inscription “George Goldsmith, July 23, 1828, Plymouth” on the inner side of the front cover. With three additional watercolours on loose album leaves inserted at rear. Original brown quarter sheep album with marbled paper boards. Binding rubbed and weak on hinges, several leaves detached and loosely inserted, a few mildly soiled on margins, but the watercolours and drawings and the album are overall in very good condition.
Attractive collection of watercolour and pencil views and panoramas, drawn by a skillful amateur artist, British naval officer George Goldsmith, during his service in the Mediterranean as a lieutenant on HMS “Madagascar” (commanded at different times by Capts. Sir Robert C. Spencer and Edm. Lyons) and HMS “Samarang” (commanded by Captain Wm. F. Martin) in 1828-1831. The album contains interesting references to the Greek War of Independence, i.e. Three historically important drawings depicting the destruction of Greek frigate “Hellas” on August 13, 1831, in the harbour of the Poros Island. As Goldsmith correctly noted in the album, “Hellas was blown up by order of Admiral Miaulis [Andreas Miaoulis, 1769-1835, commander of Greek naval forces during the War of Greek Independence] at 10 am 13 Augt. 1831 to prevent her falling into the hands of the Russians under vice Adm. Ricord [Pyotr Ricord, 1776-1855, Russian naval officer and traveller, in 1828-33 Commander of Russian naval squadron in the Mediterranean] who had moored his squadron across the entrance of Poros harbour.” The tragic incident was the result of political struggle between the “English” and “Russian” parties of the First Hellenic Republic. The drawings show the “Blowing up of the Hellas, 1831” and floating remains of the ship – “Wreck of the Greek Frigate “Hellas” as she appeared the morning after she was blown up by “Miaulis.” August 14, 1831”. There are also several drawings of HMS “Madagascar” (which was stationed in the Mediterranean and brought Bavarian Prince Otto, who became the new king of Greece, to his new capital Nafplion in 1833), showing it with raised and folded sails, with the close-up views of the “Madagascar’s Bow” and a bare-breasted female bust as a figurehead. Other war-related drawings show several British and French naval ships in the harbour of Naphlio and at sea, and portray General Theodoros Kolokotronis (1770-1843), the leader of the Greek War of Independence.
The album also includes three beautiful double-page panoramas of “Morea near Cape Matapan” (Mani Peninsula, the southernmost point in mainland Greece), “Temple of Jupiter Panhellenius, Aegina, 1829” (Temple of Aphaia, Aigina Island, Saronic Gulf), and “The harbour of Napoli di Romania” (Nafplio, Peleponnese). Very interesting are full-page colourful views of the “Plains of Troy”, and “Temple of Aeolus, Athenes,” and two panoramas of the harbour and port on Rhodes (placed on one leaf). The album also includes partly coloured views of a “Remarkable Position of a column in the Southern temple at Salinuntum [Selinunte], Sicily”; “Ruins of Alexandria Troas, Mount Ida in the distance”; Mount Edgcumbe House (Cornwall); “Devonport town hall, Column Chapel & Library”; “Dover Castle and port” (brown sepia), “fishing boats at Corfu”, “Turkish boats at Smyrna,” etc. A later pencil sketch depicts West African natives in a “Canoe of “Grand Jack,” Gulf of Guinea, Oct. 17, 37” (dates back to the time of Goldsmith’s service at the RN West African Station in the late 1830s). Overall a historically significant album with original drawings of the Mediterranean done shortly after the end of the War of Greek Independence.
George Goldsmith joined the Royal Navy in 1821 and was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant (1828), Commander (1841), Captain (1842), Vice-Admiral (1867) and Admiral (1875). Goldsmith served in the Mediterranean, West Coast Africa and the East Indies. He took part in the 1st Anglo-Chinese War, with HMS Hyacinth; and the Crimean War, with HMS Sidon under his command. Upon return to Britain he became Superintendent of the dockyard at Chatham and was created Companion of the Bath for his services in the Crimea.


[Collection of Twenty-eight Very Attractive Original Watercolour Views of the Holy Land; [With:] Two Watercolours from the Same Travel Showing Surghaya village in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains (Syria) and the Acropolis in Smyrna/Izmir (Turkey)].

March-May 1893. Thirty original watercolours on paper, from ca. 8,5x17,5 cm (3 ¼ x 7 in) to ca. 8,5x12,5 cm (3 ¼ x 4 ¾ in), mounted within ink-drawn frames on the original white, greyish and greenish album leaves ca. 21x27,5 cm (8 ¼ x 11 in). All but one captioned and dated in period ink on the mounts. Several leaves with minor stains on the lower right corners of the mounts, not affecting the watercolours, otherwise a very good collection of bright watercolours.
Attractive collection of bright watercolour views drawn by a British traveller to the Holy Land in the spring of 1893. Dated between March 4th – April 27th, 1893, the watercolours include two views of Jaffa (city waterfront and the house of Simon the Tanner where St. Peter stayed during his missionary voyages), a street in Lydda (Lod), a distant view of the Mizpah of Benjamin (often identified with the modern-day Tell en-Nasbeh, 8 miles north of Jerusalem), Jerusalem Gate in Ramleh (Ramla), four views of Jerusalem (Jaffa Gate, Tomb of David, Garden of Gethsemane, and hospital of the Knights of S. John), two views of Bethlehem (Church of the Nativity, Rachel’s Tomb), Mountain of the Temptation near Jericho (usually identified with Mount Quarantania near Jericho, West Bank), Jordan River, Dead Sea, St. George Greek Orthodox Monastery near Wadi Qelt, mosque at Mizpeh, the site of the Biblical Bethel, Mount Gerizim near Nablus (West Bank), ruins of ancient Samaria and Jezreel, views of Mary’s Well in Nazareth, the bay of Acre, a well in the Cana of Galilee, two views of the Sea of Galilee, and two views of Mount Hermon on Lebanese-Syrian border. Two last watercolours drawn in May 1893 depict a Syrian village of Surghaya in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains, and a Greek Acropolis in Smyrna (Izmir, Turkey). Overall a beautiful collection giving a picturesque overview of some of the iconic sites of the Holy Land as seen through the eyes of a 19th-century English traveller.
Captions: Jaffa. The Holy Land. March 4th 1893; House of Simon the Tanner. Jaffa. March 4th 1893; Lydda. March 7th 1893; Mizpeh of Benjamin. March 8th 1893; Jerusalem Gate. Ramleh. March 8th 1893; Jaffa Gate. Jerusalem March 15th 1893; Church of the Nativity. Bethlehem. March 16th 1893; Rachel’s Tomb. Bethlehem. March 16th 1893; Tomb of David. Jerusalem. March 17th 1893; Mountain of the Temptation near Jericho. March 20th 1893; Fords of the Jordan. March 21st 1893; The Dead Sea. March 21st 1893; Greek Monastery. Brook Cherith. March 22nd 1893; Garden of Gethsemane. Jerusalem. April 4th 1893; Mosque at Mizpeh. April 7th 1893; Hospital of the Knights of S. John Jerusalem. April 11th 1893; Bethel. April 12th 1893; Mount Gerizim. April 14th 1893; Samaria. April 16th 1893; Jezreel. April 18th 1893; The Virgin’s Well. Nazareth. April 19th 1893; Bay of Acre. April 20th 1893; Well at Cana of Galilee. April 22nd 1893; Sea of Galilee. April 23rd 1893 (2 different views with the same title); Mount Hermon. April 24th 1893; Mount Hermon. From road to Damascus. April 27th 1893; Village of Surghaya. Anti-Lebanon. May 2nd 1893; The Acropolis. Smyrna. May 10th 1893; [Untitled view].


BARTLETT, William Henry (1809 -1854)
[Original Unsigned Watercolour With Faint Title in Pencil:] Petra.

30 October 1845. Watercolour ca. 23x36,5 cm (9 x 14 ½ in). Very faintly titled "Petra" in manuscript pencil on right bottom edge and with (later?) manuscript pencil notation "by W. H. Bartlett" on verso. Verso with a few signs of removal from old mount, outer upper left edge with a mild crease, a couple of small very mild water stains, but overall a very attractive watercolour.
This watercolour is from Bartlett's 1845 journey from Cairo to Mount Sinai and Petra. The watercolour is a slight variation of the engraving titled "Approach to Petra from Mount Hor," which was used as the title-vignette for Bartlett's book, "Forty Days in the Desert on the Track of the Israelites," London 1849, which describes his journey. The scene that Bartlett sketched is described in the book as: "I was hurrying along the rocky road towards Petra. From a solitary group of tombs, the outskirts of its vast necropolis, I obtained my first view of the rock bound city --- a broken down camel, one of a passing caravan, protesting against an insupportable load, which at the expense of his last remaining strength he had dragged up the long ascent, was a characteristic object in the foreground. (See title-page.) This narrow pass was probably guarded in the palmy days of Petra, and blocked up when an attack was expected. Hence begins a long descent by the side of a ravine, leading to the vacant site of the old city, of which one solitary column appears like the ghost of its past splendour, girdled round by rocks of the most rugged and fantastic outline, and pierced with innumerable excavations, their colouring, as it were, run mad with a blending of all hues. No idea can be given of the first impression of such a place, --- its strangeness and remoteness, the utter desolation, the silence, broken only by the groans of the distressed, overburdened camels, and the fierce yells of their savage conductors."(p.124). "Bartlett travelled widely in the Middle East, Europe and America, making hundreds of sketches for engravings in more than 40 books, 13 of which he wrote and illustrated himself. His popularity owed much to his architectural training which, when combined with his penchant for the picturesque and the sublime, guaranteed that the reader saw scenes he could recognize as charming, impressive and representational" (thecanadianencyclopedia.ca).


MACLEAY, Alexander (1767-1848)
[Period Manuscript Copy of the Government Order Issued by McLeay as the Colonial Secretary in Sydney, Regarding the Assassination of Captain Patrick Logan, the Commander of the Moreton Bay Penal Colony, in October, 1830].

[Sydney]: Colonial Secretary’s Office, ca. 1830. The original dated “17 November 1830.” Folio (ca. 33x20,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on bluish laid paper. Written in a legible secretarial hand and docketed on the 4th blank page. Fold marks, paper slightly browned, but overall a very good document.
A period manuscript copy of the Government Order. No. 22, issued on November 17, 1830 by the Colonial Secretary's Office in Sydney. The order refers to the murder of Captain Patrick Logan, the Commander of the Moreton Bay penal colony, notorious for his harshness to convicts and Aboriginal people alike to the point of cruelty. He managed the penal colony from 1826 until his death, having explored and mapped vast territories in South East Queensland. Logan was the first European explorer to visit the upper reaches of the Brisbane and Bremer Rivers, Mount Barney; he named a number of geographical locations in the area. He was killed, apparently by Aboriginal Australians during a survey trip in October 1830.
The text of our manuscript copy almost completely coincides with the official order published in the “Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser” on Thursday, 18 November, 1830 (vol. 28, Issue 1294, p. 2). The minor variances include a different verb tense in the sentence “It will [“would” in the newspaper publication] be painful to dwell on the particulars of this distressing event,” the absence of the phrase “and eight months” in the sentence “He had held for a Period of four Years [and eight months] the Command at Moreton Bay” in the newspaper publication; the difference in the sentence “a situation from the character of the settlement, of the most troublesome and arduous nature [“description” in the newspaper publication];” and the difference of spelling the word “risqué” (“risk” in the newspaper publication).
“His Excellency the Governor publishes, with Feelings of deep Concern, the following Copy of a Letter from Captain Clunie, 17th Regiment, conveying Intelligence of the melancholy Fate of Captain Logan, 57th, late Commandant at Morton Bay, who was murdered by the Natives, when completing a Survey which he had commenced last Year. <…>
He had held for a Period of four Years [and eight months] the Command at Moreton Bay - a Situation, from the Character of the Settlement, of the most troublesome and arduous Description. He did not, however, confine himself to the immediate Duties of his Command; but had on several Occasions, at great personal Risqué, explored the Country to a Considerable extent; and on one of these discovered a River, which, in Compliment to his Services, was named the "Logan" as will be seen by the Government Order of the 16th July, 1827, No. 27.
The Circumstances of Captain Logan's death, prove that the Ardour of his Character was not to be restrained by personal Considerations. His Life was devoted to the Public Service. Professionally he possessed those Qualities which distinguish the best Officers; and in the Conduct of an extensive Public Establishment, his Services were highly important to the Colony. The Governor, though he deeply regrets the Occasion, is gratified in expressing his Sentiments of Captain Logan's Character and Services. He is assured that every feeling Mind will sympathise with the afflicted Widow, who, with her infant Family has, by an Act of savage Barbarity, sustained a Loss which cannot be repaired. As a Tribute to the Memory of this meritorious Officer, His Excellency requests that the Gentlemen of the Civil Service will join the Military in attending the Funeral, of which due Notice will be given. By His Excellency's Command. [Signed] Alex. M'Leay”.


[Journal of H.M.S. Lily on her Homeward Voyage to England, from Melbourne Around Cape Horn via Rio de Janeiro just After the Eureka Rebellion in Ballarat, Victoria].

18th Jan. - 7th May 1855. Quarto ca. 25,5x22 cm (10 x 8 ½ in). 15 pp, each page numbered in pencil. Brown ink on blue laid paper. With three folding manuscript charts drawn in ink each ca. 25x74 cm (9 ¾ x 29 in), ca. 52x36 cm (18 ¾ x 14 ¼ in), and ca. 40x30,5 cm (15 ¾ x 12 in) and two black and white wash watercolours ca. 12,5x17,5 cm (4 ¾ x 6 ¾ in) and ca. 19,5x25 cm (7 ¾ x 9 ¾ in), one mounted on a leaf and both captioned in period manuscript black ink. Period style brown gilt tooled full polished calf with a maroon gilt title label “JOURNAL H.M.S. LILY JAN-MAY 1855.” Journal, maps and watercolours in very good condition.
This Journal was kept from January to May 1855 by Midshipman W. Howorth on the H.M.S. Lily, a 16-gun Racer-class brig-sloop built for the British Royal Navy in 1838. It documents geographical coordinates, daily activity, wind and weather conditions along the route, as well as detailed accounts of meteorological conditions during the passage around Cape Horn, including unusual animal sightings [“Observed two strange birds unlike any seabirds with which I am acquainted – plumage dark brown with two white marks on the wing – shaped like a hawk but with the regular seabird’s beak – about the size of a small eagle and flying like one. They were about the ship the whole day and frequently attacked the Albatross…all the other birds seemed afraid of them” p. 3] and icebergs [“I was much struck at beautifully delicate transparent blue of the ice never having seen any so close before, after looking for any lengths of time at it, it makes the eyes very sore” p. 5]. The manuscript charts show the voyage in three segments: Track of HMS Lily from Melbourne round Cape Horn, Cape Horn to Rio Janeiro, and Rio Janeiro to England. Lines trace the precise route of the ship on each day of the journey, arrows are drawn to show the wind direction, and geographical coordinates are also noted. Additionally, the watercolours show views of the H.M.S. Lily between icebergs off the Diego-Ramírez Islands (southwest of Cape Horn) and the coastal profile of the Azorean islands of Flores and Corvo. Howorth apparently joined the HMS Lily from the HMS Electra. Six weeks before the departure of HMS Lily, in late November 1854, HMS Electra was involved in the suppression of the armed gold miner Eureka Rebellion (also referred to as the Eureka Stockade) against the colonial authority of the United Kingdom at Ballarat, Victoria. HMS Electra sent officers, seamen as well as artillery pieces to Ballarat. An interesting manuscript documenting the H.M.S. Lily’s voyage from the Australian gold fields back to England around Cape Horn.
“Cape Horn island […] is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of southern Chile. Cape Horn is widely considered to be the most southerly point of South America, and marks the northern boundary of the Drake Passage; for centuries it has been regarded as a major milestone by which sailing ships carrying trade goods around the world marked their passage. Cape Horn was noted as the halfway point from England to Australia during the nineteenth century clipper route. The waters around the cape are particularly hazardous, owing to strong winds, large waves, strong currents and icebergs. These dangers have made Cape Horn notorious as a sailors' graveyard. […] From the 1700s to the early 1900s, Cape Horn was a part of the clipper routes which carried much of the world's trade. Clipper ships sailed round the Horn carrying wool, grain, and gold from Australia back to Europe.” (New World Encyclopedia)


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