October 2015 - Letters, Manuscripts, Drawings and Watercolours
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[De La MOTTE, Edward]
[Typewritten Manuscript Account of the Fifth Ascent of Aconcagua, by British Climber Edward de la Motte and American Mountaineer James Ramsey Ullman, Being also the First American Ascent of Aconcagua, Titled:] Horcones Valley and Aconcagua. February/March 1928.
Ca. 1928. Quarto (ca. 28,5x22 cm). 25 numbered leaves of typewritten text. Occasional period ink corrections in text. Vertical centrefold, first and last leaves with mild creases and traces of old staples removed, otherwise a very good manuscript.
Original typescript of the diary of Edward de la Motte, one of the participants of the fifth ascent of Aconcagua, the highest peak in the Americas, with his manuscript corrections in text. De la Motte’s climbing partner was a famous American mountaineer and writer James Ramsey Ullman (1907-1971), thus the expedition became the first American ascent of Aconcagua. The expedition party included two other members, named in the manuscript “Bromley” and “Mrs.” (a female). De la Motte gives a detailed description of the whole expedition from arrival to Retiro (Buenos Aires) on 25 February to the final arrival to Buenos Aires (on the way back) on 12 March 1828. The manuscript describes the mountaineers’ arrival in Mendoza, preparation and supplying of the expedition, trip to the Uspallata town and Puente del Inca, the long hike up the Horcones Valley, and all proceedings in the high camps on the mountain, including an acclimatization hike to the Buena Vista ridge and the summit day. The entries note the altitudes gained, pulse levels, experienced symptoms of mountain sickness, weight of loads carried, menus and preparations of the meals, frostbites et al. There are also several mentions of previous British expeditions to Aconcagua – by E. Fitzgerald and S. Vines (1897) and by J. Cochrane and M.F. Ryan (1925).
Some entries: “February 27th. Mrs. Togs up a la “complete mountaineer” in heavy boots and breeches, but fearing the populace slips out by a back entrance and gets nearly eaten by a yard full of dogs.” (p. 3).
“March 3rd. Base, night min. 28° 18,000 max. Pulse before starting: Ram 68, me 100. This is being written in Ryan’s tent with a snow storm outside, luckily the tent in perfectly sound, and apart from a little fine driven snow, all is snug inside. There is enough food for a week and between us we have 7 blankets, and eiderdown and a Jaeger sleeping bag. <…> Ram and I are comfortable with our feet tied in rucksacks and are able to laugh at the weather” (pp. 9-10).
“March 4th. Up at 8.30, rising consisting of putting on boots and balaclava and extricating oneself from the sleeping bag – in itself a laborious process and only to be performed with much gasping. This gasping is an altitude effect which neither of us can get over – headaches are things of the past, our appetites are tremendous, but the least exertion such as tightening a rope, leaving or entering the tent, opening a tin of sausages and even eating makes us gasp for breath” (p. 12).
“March 5th. [Summit Day]. Up 5 a.m. <…> Ram wearing his Ventana boots could only get on two pairs of socks – same as myself, so that to avoid frostbite we both tried to keep out toes moving inside our boots as far as possible. <…> Both of us were fairly near the limits of our endurance but the top was in view and at 4.30 we stepped out on the summit, very glad at being finished with the hard work of climbing. Driving snow clouds prevented the view to the South and what was worse, Ram could not find Ryan’s thermometers – the only object visible being an empty beer bottle. The top is of triangular shape with the Northern apex at the highest point. Photos were taken from the West tower which should identify the summit alright, at any rate, so far as Ryan and other climbers are concerned.
Ram got busy with a self timer – which like the meta cooker failed to work, the resulting messing about with which gave Ram four frostbitten fingers (unnoticed until considerably later). An ice axe with E.M. And A.R. Carved on the shaft was left, also a card with our names on was left in a small Yerma tin with one plasmon biscuit (sustenance for the next party that reaches the top)” (pp. 14-15).
James Ramsey Ullman was a noted American writer and mountaineer, official historian of the American Mount Everest Expedition 1963, the author of “The White Tower” (1945), “Banner in the Sky” (1954), “The Age of Mountaineering” (1954), “Tiger of the Snows” (together with Tenzing Norgay, 1955), “Americans on Everest” (1964), and others. Most of Ullman’s papers are now deposited in the Princeton University Library.
“The Andean career of Edward de la Motte apparently began in 1928 with Aconcagua, highest of all Andean peaks, and ended probably in 1946 with Sajama, highest of Bolivian mountains. With the well-known American novelist James Ramsey Ullman (author of the White Tower), he accomplished on 5 March 1928 the fifth ascent of Aconcagua” (Echevarria, E. Early British Ascents in the Andes, 1831-1946 // The Alpine Journal. 1987. Vol. 92. P. 63).


WHYMPER, F[rederick] (1838-1901)
[Original Signed Watercolour of an Russian American Company Fort in Alaska, Almost Certainly St. Michael’s or Mikhailovsky on St. Michael Island, Norton Sound].

Ca. 1865-1866. Watercolour on paper, ca. 24x32 cm (9 ¼ x 12 ¾ in). Signed by the artist “F. Whymper del.” in the right lower corner. 19th century wooden frame ca. 30x39 cm (11 ¾ x 15 ¼ in), slightly rubbed on extremities and with some minor chips. Paper of watercolour slightly age toned, four very small holes on the image, otherwise a very good watercolour.
Historically important watercolour view of a Russian American Company’s fort in Alaska drawn by British artist Frederick Whymper who extensively travelled across Alaska in 1865 and 1866 – during the Russian-American Telegraph Expedition. With high certainty the fortified settlement on the hill above the sea shore with the Russian flag flying over it and an Orthodox church nearby is fort Mikhailovsky (now St. Michael city, located on St. Michael Island, Norton Sound). A canoe with two rowers and a passenger is approaching the shore where a couple of boats and a burning fire are seen. The Russian flag is still flying over the fort, indicating that the watercolour had been made before the official transfer of Alaska to the United States on October 18, 1867. The view depicted by Whymper is very similar to the description of fort Mikhailovsky given by Whymper in his book “Travel and Adventure in the Territory of Alaska...” (London, 1868):
“Redoubt St. Michael’s, or Michaelovski, the principal station of the Russian American Fur Company in this northern section of “Walrus-sia,” deserves something more than just a passing notice. It is not merely the best point for a vessel to touch at, in order to land goods for the interior, including that great tract of country watered by the Yukon; but it has been, and is, to a great extent, a central post for Indian trade, and for the collection of furs from distant and interior posts. <…> St. Michael <…> is situated on the south-east side of the island of the same name, and was founded in 1833, by Michael Tebenkoff, an energetic employee of the Russian Fur Company.
The station is built on the model of a Hudson’s Bay Co.’s Fort, with enclosure of pickets, and with bastions flanking it. Inside are the store-houses and dwellings of the employees, including the “casine” (caserne), or general barrack, bath and cook-houses. These painted yellow, and surmounted by red roofs, gave it rather a gay appearance. <…> Outside the post, besides other buildings, there was a small chapel, in which on “Prazniks,” or holidays of the Church, and on each Sunday, a service was performed. A priest of the Greek Church, resident at the “Mission” on the Lower Yukon, comes down occasionally to baptize the natives. <…> The island is thick with moss, covering up, in some places, a bed of clay; berries in summer are abundant, and can be obtained fresh in winter by digging through their thick covering of snow. There are no trees whatever, and the fort is dependent on drift-wood from the mouths of the Yukon or Kwich-pak, which is fortunately landed in large quantities by the prevailing winds and currents, all over the shores of Norton Sound” (pp. 127-131).
“Whymper arrived in Victoria in the autumn of 1862, and the following summer he travelled to the Cariboo district of British Columbia on what he described as “a sketching and pedestrian tour.” <…> After a second winter in Victoria, Whymper set out in March 1864 for Bute Inlet (B.C.), in order to publicize through his drawings the road that Alfred Penderell Waddington was attempting to build to the Cariboo. He dutifully gave good reports of the enterprise, but attracted more attention from his account of the background to the killing of workers on the project by Indians, which had occurred while he was leaving the region. <…> Soon after he arrived back in Victoria, Whymper applied for the position of artist on the Vancouver Island Exploring Expedition. Of wiry build, he accepted the rigours of an expedition which covered much of the southern part of the island. An exhibition of 33 of his drawings from the exploration was held in Victoria in November 1864.
In 1865 Whymper joined the Russian-American Telegraph project, which intended to construct a telegraph line linking the United States and Europe through British Columbia, Alaska, and Siberia. As its artist he went to Norton Sound (Alas.) during the summer and then crossed to Petropavlovsk (Petropavlovsk-Kamchatskii, Russia). Following a winter in San Francisco, he again set out for Petropavlovsk and subsequently travelled around the Gulf of Anadyr (Andadyrsky Zaliv, Russia). Near the end of October 1866 he crossed to Mikhailovski (St Michael) on Norton Sound, and after a winter at Nulato he ascended the Yukon River to Fort Yukon, where he received news of the successful laying of a transatlantic telegraph cable. On his return to Mikhailovski in August 1867 he was told of the abandonment of the Russian-American project” (Dictionary of Canadian Biography online).


NORDENSKJÖLD, [Nils] Otto [Gustaf] (1869-1928)
[Autograph Note in German on Verso of a Postcard Signed Otto Nordenskjöld and Addressed to Economist Professor E[ugen Peter] Schwiedland (1863-1936), a Tenured Professor at the Technische Hochschule in Vienna, Regarding a 7000 Word Article for Publication and its Honorarium Which Nordenskjöld had just Finished and sent Later than Expected to New York, Dated Upsala, 11th June 1905.]

June 11, 1905. Swedish postcard with red printed ten Ore stamp and three postmarks. Note written in a legible hand and overall in very good condition.
Nordenskjöld was the leader of the 1901-1904 Swedish Antarctic Expedition. "The expedition [Despite being rescued by the Argentine Navy] was considered a scientific success, with the parties having explored much of the eastern coast of Graham Land, including Cape Longing, James Ross Island, the Joinville Island group, and the Palmer Archipelago. The expedition, which also recovered valuable geological samples and samples of marine animals, earned Nordenskjöld lasting fame at home.., In 1905 he was appointed professor of geography (with commercial geography) and ethnography at University of Gothenburg" (Wikipedia). As the present note was written shortly after Nordenskjöld return from Antarctica, it is with high likelihood regarding an article on scientific observations made in Antarctica.


4. [AUSTRALIA] ASHTON, Sir John William (Australian, 1881-1963) [SYDNEY HARBOUR: Watercolour Signed with Initials and Dated "W.A. 98" (lower right)].
1898. Watercolour ca. 24 x 33cm (9 ½ x 13 in). Watercolour in very good condition. Recently matted.
This atmospheric attractive watercolour shows the Sydney waterfront with a docked sailing vessel in the foreground. The prolific artist produced many landscapes of Australia as well as of Europe and the Middle East and travelled widely in his life.
"Sir John William "Will" Ashton OBE, ROI was a British-Australian artist and Director of the National Art Gallery of New South Wales from 1937 to 1945" (Wikipedia).


EARL CANNING (Governor General 1856-1858, First Viceroy 1858-1862)
[The Historically Significant Canning Sunnad of 1862 Concerning the Bhopal Succession.]
A single large sheet of parchment headed by the large inked seal of the Supreme Government of British India, written in fine palace script, setting out the British policy to secure the succession of Princely Houses ruling in the various states. It promises that, “in failure of natural heirs any succession to the Government of your State which may be legitimate according to Mahomedan Law will be upheld. Be assured that nothing shall disturb this agreement here made to you so long as your House remains loyal to the Crown, and faithful to the conditions of the treaties, grants and agreements which record its obligations to the British Government.” The Sunnad is signed “Canning” at the foot. Bound by stab stitching into a half cloth with patterned papered boards folder together with some dozen related pages of letters and documents in Persian script. One of these has some gold leaf additions and is additionally signed by the Political Agent A R E Hutchinson. A covering document is a true copy of a circular from Major R I Meade, Agent to the Governor General at Indore, to Major Hutchinson which accompanied the Sunnad as it was sent from the Viceroy. Some of the other documents are counter signed by Major Hutchinson.
In the light of future problems over disputed succession this document proved to be highly important and equally contentious, especially in the 1920’s when Nawab Sultan Begum named her only surviving son Hamidullah as her successor in conflict with accepted laws of primogeniture. The reference to remaining faithful, as Bhopal always had been, is particularly important in this early post Mutiny period when the Crown had just taken over all the East India Company’s powers. This document is one example of the close British attention to matters of succession in Indian states. In Bhopal the British wished to maintain the succession within the Orakzai tribe which had been so loyal to the Company and the Crown. Marriage and succession were to loom large in the relations between the Viceroy and the rulers of Bhopal during the rest of the century.The "Bhopal State was an independent state of 18th century India, a princely salute state in a subsidiary alliance with British India from 1818 to 1947, and an independent state from 1947 to 1949. Islamnagar served as the State's first capital, which was later shifted to the city of Bhopal. The state was founded by Dost Mohammad Khan, an Afghan soldier in the Mughal army who became a mercenary after the Emperor Aurangzeb's death and annexed several territories to his feudal territory" (Wikipedia).


6. [BOER WAR] ZOUCHE, Lieutenant Lord Robert Nathaniel Cecil George Curzon (1851-1915)
[Diary kept During the Second Boer War, by Lieutenant Lord Zouche of the 'Rough Riders', serving under Captain H.W.M. Bonham's 78th Company (for whom Zouche has very little time, and dubs 'Napoleon').]

South Africa, in the field, 1899-1901. Octavo, 2 vols. More than 250 pages. With a loose photograph of a military parade. Two black oilcloth bound notebooks, hinges cracked and one with stain of upper margin of last quarter of the note book. But overall in very good condition and written in a legible hand. The 20th Battalion of the Imperial Yeomanry, who took their name 'Rough Riders' from the US cavalry regiment in which Theodore Roosevelt famously served, was formed in early 1900, after the succession of defeats suffered by the British army under Redvers Buller early in the war. Lord Zouche, joined when he was nearly fifty years old, receiving a lieutenant's commission; his diary beginning on 18 October 1900 (rather confusingly he provides no information as to years, noting that Tuesday 1 January marks the start of the 20th century; by which he means 1901: a note on the fly-leaf in another hand stating that the diary runs from 1899 to 1901 being in this respect incorrect). Early entries of the diary are made in pencil, some inked-over, while most of the remainder are written in ink. The author describes skirmishes with the Boers and when 'sweeping' Boer farm houses: "... Speaking roughly there seems to be an average of about one man per farm who is or has been fighting where there are no grown up sons – where there are such sons then say 2 or 3 to each farm. The great majority of those whom I have hitherto visited have returned from the war. The following are the questions we ask... Then, Warn against moving off their farms to visit each other even next door neighbours the only moves allowed being to market towns... Warn against riding in any case, only carts allowed & same with Kaffir servants... All this of course to prevent as far as possible any assemblies..." The author was the son of Robert Curzon, fourteenth Baron Zouche of Harringworth (1810–1873) and a famous traveller and collector of manuscripts.


7. [BRAZIL] HERNDON, William Lewis (1813-1857)
[Autograph Manuscript Letter Book of U.S. Naval Lieutenant William Lewis Herndon, Containing Copies of Thirty-Two Documents Written on Board USS Iris during the Mexican-American War, and a Copy of a Letter to Lardner Gibbon during the US Expedition to the Valley of the Amazon].

[U.S.S. Iris at various locations (Vera Cruz, Pensacola, Laguna); and Tarma (Peru), 1847-1851]. [44] pp. Folio (ca. 33x20 cm). Black ink on lined paper; text clean and legible. Original quarter sheep note book with marbled boards; contemporary bookplate on the front pastedown. Housed in a custom made cloth clamshell box with an olive gilt title label on the spine. Hinges cracked, spine partially perished, corners worn, but overall a very good letter book.
Original letter book of noted American naval officer, Amazon explorer and naval hero William Lewis Herndon; it contains the original draft of Herndon’s instructions to the expedition member Lt. Lardner Gibbon regarding his further exploration of the Amazon following their separation at Tarma, Peru on July 1, 1851. The text of the manuscript differs slightly from the one published in volume I of Herndon and Gibbon's “Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon” (Washington, 1854, pp. 33-34), and has some manuscript corrections, which makes it an important historical source.
Herndon assigned Gibbon a different route of discovery so that "while I gave my own personal attention to the countries drained by the upper Marañon, Mr. Gibbon might explore some, and gather all the information he could respecting others, of the Bolivian tributaries of the Amazon." This letter provides Gibbon with guidance as to the route he is to follow and the importance of minimizing risk to himself to ensure that the results of their exploration might be preserved. “Lt. Herndon pushed into the upper Amazon. Lt. Gibbon traveled south through Bolivia and then into the selvas of Brazil. The two groups met in Serpa, Brazil, and then continued down the Amazon River to Para” (Hill 803).
The letter book also contains thirty two letters and documents written on board USS Iris which was under Herndon’s command during the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). The correspondence is primarily on various day to day issues including the engineering problems and administrative issues. However, also included is a five-page letter dated aboard the Iris at Laguna in March of 1848 to an unidentified recipient, but probably Matthew C. Perry, Commanding the Home Squadron off Mexico during the Mexican-American War. The letter reports the results of Herndon's meetings at Sisal with Military Commandant Don Alonzo Azuar regarding Indian involvement in the conflict, and with the senior Spanish Naval Officer present, Don Francisco Garcia di Salas, commander of the brig Nervian, regarding the landing of guns and munitions.
In 1857, as a captain of the ill-fated U.S. Mail Steamer Central America, Herndon showed the utmost heroism while saving lives of the passengers during the hurricane of Cape Hatteras, having evacuated all women and children. 426 passengers and crew, including Herndon perished with the ship, thus making the wreckage the largest loss of life in a commercial ship disaster in United States history. Herndon's heroism prompted the construction of the Herndon Monument at the U. S. Naval Academy in 1860.
Overall this Letter book represents an important primary source on the history of the US expedition to the Amazon (1851-1852) and the Mexican-American War (1846-1848).


8. [BUKHARA] HEDIN, Sven (1865-1952)
[Autograph Note Signed “Sven Hedin” to Johan Abraham Björklund, Chief Editor of the “Nya Dagligt Allehanda” Newspaper].
Friday, 10 [April 1891]. 12mo (ca. 16,5x12,5 cm). 1 p. Black ink on a folded card Swedish postal letter form, addressed and with a postal stamp (Stockholm, 18.4.91) on verso. Text in Swedish. Original centrefold, otherwise a very good note.
A short note signed by a noted explorer of Central Asia Sven Hedin regarding his article about the meeting with the Emir of Bukhara which was apparently published in the “Nya Dagligt Allehanda” newspaper (Stockholm) on 25 March 1891.
Hedin visited Bukhara during his second trip to Persia and Central Asia in October 1890 – March 1891. During the first part of the trip he worked an interpreter for the Swedish-Norwegian mission to Naser al-Din, shah of Iran (1890), and later on “he traveled on the Silk Road via cities Mashhad, Ashgabat, Bukhara, Samarkand, Tashkent and Kashgar to the western outskirts of the Taklamakan Desert. On the trip home, he visited the grave of the Russian Asian scholar, Nikolai Przhevalsky in Karakol on the shore of Lake Issyk Kul. On 29 March 1891, he was back in Stockholm. He published the books King Oscar's Legation to the Shah of Persia in 1890 and Through Chorasan and Turkestan about this journey” (Wikipedia).


9. [BURMA] CARTHEW-YORSTOUN, Morden, Lt. Colonel (1832 - after 1905)
[MAWLAMYINE, BURMA: Original Double-Page Watercolour Showing a Panoramic View of Moulmein].
Ca. 1853. Watercolour and pencil on two conjoined leaves, total size ca. 25,5x70 cm (10 x 27 ½ in). Weak pencil caption "M. Carthew. Moulmein" on verso. Recent matting. A very good watercolour.
An impressive panoramic view of Mawlamyine or Mawlamyaing (formerly Moulmein), the third-largest city in modern Burma and an important port and trade centre in British Burma and its first capital in 1826-1852. The wide panorama shows the city from the Taungnyo hills on the right to the Thanlwin (Salween) River on the left, with the British ships in the harbor and rice fields, houses and small pagoda also shown. Most likely the watercolour was made from the famous viewpoint on Kyaikthanlan Pagoda located on the hills overlooking Moulmein.
The artist, Lt. Colonel Morden Carthew, was a prominent British colonial officer who served in India and Burma for 12 years and had several important posts in the administration of Moulmein.
General Morden Carthew, C.B., started in 1848 as a cadet in the Madras Presidency of the East India Company. In around 1850 with his own regiment, the 26th Madras Native Infantry, he was sent to Moulmein, Burma. "When the second Burmese war broke out in 1852, young Carthew, then a Lieutenant, was in England on sick leave; but he hastened out and rejoined his regiment just after a capture of Martaban, a fortified town belonging to the Burmese on the opposite side of the river on which Moulmein stands. Some tedious months of garrison work in Martaban followed, which Carthew utilized by setting to work to study the Burmese language." Thanks to his skills he obtained a place in the Civil Department of the British province of Moulmein as an officer assisting "in the pacification and civil administration of the newly annexed territory." "During the course of the war in 1852-53 Carthew saw a good deal of what was going on, and was present at several of the small actions that took place, for there were no pitched battles, the Burmese troops being very inferior in armament and courage." Carthew made the first survey of the town of Sittang and after "obtained a regular certificate for surveying." He was awarded with the Burmese war medal.
"On getting to Moulmein early in 1853, Morden Carthew, at twenty years of age, was appointed Assistant Magistrate of Moulmein, a large town and seaport of over 40,000 inhabitants of every race"; at twenty one he became a Civil Judge in the Civil Court of the Moulmein town and province. In 1855 he was appointed the Senior Magistrate of Moulmein "with all its police duties, with a convict jail chiefly composed of prisoners transported from India to the number of about 1500 men, charge of all the roads and bridges in the town district, and with a multitude of the other duties that only one accustomed to the life and work of an Indian soldier civilian can understand or even count." In 1858 he took the post of the Deputy Commissioner of the Province of Mergui, "the most southern point of British possessions on the Malay Peninsula, under the Indian Government." Altogether he spent 12 years in India and Burma and returned to England in 1860. He afterwards lived in Dumfriesshire (Scotland) and took an active part in the county affairs. He was known of his wood carving skills and exhibited his work in London and Edinburgh.
[Abstracts of the] Carthew Yorstoun family [genealogy] // The Gallovidian: An Illustrated Southern Counties Quarterly Magazine. Spring 1905. # 25. Vol. Viii. P. 1-9 (Open Library on-line).


10. [CALCUTTA] MEYNELL, Francis, RN, Lieutenant (1821-1870) [Original Watercolour Titled:] Calcutta from Garden Reach. HMS Calliope Saluting.
1841. Watercolour on paper, ca. 31x54 cm (12 x 21 ¼ in). Signed in ink "G. Meynell" in the left lower corner. Captioned and dated in pencil on verso by the artist. Recently mounted and matted. A very good watercolour.
The watercolour shows the British warship HMS Calliope going through the Garden Reach - the entrance to the port of Kolkata on the Hooghly River. "The port of Kolkata is the oldest operational port in India, having originally been constructed by the British East India Company, and it was the premier port in British India in the 19th century" (Wikipedia). The port’s buildings and a grand residence on the bank to the left, as well as a boat carrying two Europeans being rowed by Indians, are shown in the watercolour.
The time of the event shown by the artist is known to be August-September 1841 when HMS Calliope arrived to Kolkata from Canton with $6 million of ransom money taken during the marine operations of the First Opium War (1839-1842). HMS Calliope (28 guns, built in 1837) participated in the blockade of the mouth of the Pearl River and operations at Canton in 1841. Circa Aug 1841 it departed for Calcutta with the bulk of the Canton ransom money (See: Clowes, W.L. The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the Present. In 7 vols. Vol. 6. London, 1901. P. 294).
The artist, Francis Meynell, was a midshipman on Calliope (See: Allen, J. The New Navy List and General Record of the Service of Officers of the Royal Navy and Royal Marines. London, 1853. P. 146).
"Meynell entered the navy as midshipman during the campaign in China, on board the Calliope. He was mentioned for the assistance rendered at the capture on 13 March 1841 of the last fort protecting the approaches of the city of Canton" (National Maritime Museum (Greenwich) on-line). [Later he served as] mate in the Penelope during anti-slavery operations off the west coast of Africa, [and was promoted Lieutenant in 1846]. During the Crimean War 1853-55 he served on HMS Royal George. His illustrated journal mostly dedicated to the Baltic campaign of the Crimean War (1853-55) is now in the collection of the National Maritime Museum (Greenwich).


AYMERICH, Joseph Gaudérique (1858-1937)
[Original French Manuscript of Aymerich’s Book “La conque^te du Cameroun, 1er aou^t 1914-20 fe´vrier 1916” (Paris, 1933), with Seven Additional Maps not Present in the Printed Edition, Supplemented with Five Lectures on the French Colonization of North and West Africa in 1880-1900s, Read by Aymerich at the Academie du Var Society in the 1920s; With a Historical Overview of the Defense by the French of Fort du Camp des Romains south of Saint-Mihiel (Lorrain) in September 1914].

N.p., n.d. [ca. 1925]. Folio (ca. 34x22 cm). T.p., 269 numbered pages. Blue ink on lined paper; text clean and legible, occasional pencil and ink manuscript corrections in text. With 22 manuscript ink maps in text, several partly hand coloured. Original note book with marbled boards and cloth spine; paper label with manuscript ink title on the front board. With a hand drawn plan of Brazzaville (Republic of Congo), ca. 14x21 cm loosely inserted at rear. Paper slightly age toned, the notebook loose on hinges and rubbed on extremities, spine with minor tears; but overall a very good manuscript.
Important and extensive manuscript, illustrated with twenty-two hand drawn charts, by General Joseph Aymerich, Commandant-superior of French Equatorial Africa (AEF) in 1913-1916 and the administrator of French Cameroons in 1916. Most of the text (pp. 1-179) is occupied with the original manuscript of Aymerich’s book “La conque^te du Cameroun, 1er aou^t 1914-20 fe´vrier 1916” (Paris, 1933, with 9 maps). Divided into 16 chapters, it contains a detailed account of the Kamerun Campaign of WW1 – the invasion of German Kamerun by the Allied forces in August 1914 - February 1916. An Anglo-French column landed in Douala (1914), and by 1916 reached the new capital of the colony in Jaunde where it met with the English and Belgian columns coming from Nigeria and Congo. When the Germans were expelled from the colony, the territory was divided between France (nine-tenths) and England.
Among the chapters are: Opening of the Hostilities, Early Success, M'Birou Massacre. - Operations on Various Fronts. – Capture of Nola, N'Zimou Combat, Rapid Advances of the Lobaye Column. - Defense Council of 6 February 1915, First Conference of Douala. - Interruption of Expeditionary Operations, Misunderstandings. - Second Conference of Douala, General Offensive Plan for October 1915. - My Journey, Arrival to Doumé, Operations of detachment of East Kamerun to Nanga Eboko. - Fierce Struggle around Mugan-Si, Gathering of the Allied forces in Jaunde. - Continuation of the Hostilities, Occupation of Ebolowa. - Junction with South Columns, Retreat of Germans to the Neutral Territory, End of the Campaign. - Organization of the Country, Anglo-French Demarcation of the Area.
The manuscript is illustrated with thirteen hand drawn maps, including six later reproduced in the printed edition, and seven unpublished. Among the unpublished maps are: sketch of N'Zimou; plan of fights near Ebom and M'Boulenzork (26 October 1914); large maps of the operations of the Lobave and Sangha column (August-December 1914); map of the advance of the Expeditionary corps in June 1915; map of the combined advance to Jaunde in October 1915 – January 1916; and a map of the operations under command of Nord, Brinet and Cunlif.
The second part is titled “Fragments of the Colonial epic” (pp. 183-253) and consists of 5 chapters: 1) Our civilizing influence in Africa; 2) A mission to Fouta Djallon in 1888-89 (Guinea, West Africa, with a map); 3) Military operations against the Baoule people in 1900-1 (Ivory Coast, with 4 maps); 4) The drama of Mayjirgui (description of the tragedy during the French military expedition to Lake Chad in 1898 under command of captain Voulet, near the village of Maijirgui, Niger; with 2 maps); 5) Two months in the Sahara (account of a travel from Agadez to Zinder (both in Niger, Southern Sahara) in 1904, with a map). The first three texts are excerpts from communications or lectures at the Academy of Var (Toulon) in 1923 and 1924. Finally, the last part (pp. 255-265) under the title "The Agony of a fortress (Le Camp des Romains)" recounts the heroic resistance of the French troops besieged by the Germans in a fort located south of Saint-Mihiel (Meuse, Lorraine) between 23 and September 25, 1914. The narration is illustrated by a plan of the Meuse heights and the Woëvre plain. The manuscript is supplemented with a detailed table of contents at rear and a hand drawn plan of Brazzaville (the capital of French Equatorial Africa in 1910-1958, now the capital of the Republic of Congo) loosely inserted at the end.


12. [CANADA]
OMMANNEY, Erasmus Austin, Commander, RN (1850-1938)
[Collection of Twelve Autograph Letters Signed to His Father and Mother (Including two letters by his Superiors), Related to His Naval Service in the West Indies and Quebec, and with Travel Notes about Halifax and Saint John’s, Newfoundland].

Various locations: Gosport Royal Academy, HMS Britannia, Chew Magna, HMS Aurora (at Port Royal and Quebec), SS Hibernian, Halifax, SS Alpha, St. Thomas (Barbados), 1 April 1863 – [26 June 1876]. Twelve Octavo letters (from ca. 18x11,5 cm to ca. 21x13,5 cm). In all 67 pp. of text. Brown or black ink on letter paper (white, blue or green); ten letters by E.A. Ommanney and two by his superiors. Fold marks, some letters weak on folds, with minor tears; two with traces from old staples being removed. Overall a very good collection.
Twelve autograph letters related to the naval career of Commander Erasmus Austin Ommanney, a son of distinguished Arctic explorer Admiral Sir Erasmus Ommanney (1814-1904), who commanded the "Assistance" on the first Franklin Relief Expedition of 1850 and was responsible for discovering the first traces of Franklin's party. Covering the period of thirteen years, the letters contain interesting notes about Quebec, Saint John’s (Newfoundland), Halifax, and naval service in the West Indies.
Nine early letters date back to the time of Ommanney’s studies in the Gosport Royal Academy (1863) and his service as a midshipman on HMS Britannia and Aurora (1864-1867), including a superior’s note about him successfully having passed the summer exam (16th out of 64; 1863); and news of him becoming a midshipman “with a first class certificate, <…> a good conduct certificate and a gold compass” (Sept. 30, 1864). Two letters written on board HMS Aurora tell about his service in the West Indies - Barbados, Trinidad, La Guaira (Venezuela) and Port Royal (Jamaica), with a detailed description of the recovery of the wreck of HMS Bulldog which ran aground near Cap-Haitien in 1865, whilst attacking the port as part of a punitive raid against local revolutionaries. The recovery was conducted using “diving dresses;” and later Ommanney went on shore to witness the destruction of the city: “the shot had great effect upon the town, the houses knocked about a great deal <…> The forts are in ruins, the guns are in a most ludicrous state, some turned right over others on their sides & I should not care to be close to them when they were fired off as I think they might chance to burst, they look so rotten” (March 18, 1866).
Three letters written while a midshipman on HMS Aurora stationed in Quebec contain an interesting description of Ommanney’s ten-day trip “into the woods,” down the Murray River to the Murray Bay (La Malbaie, north shore of St. Lawrence River). The party of three went down the river in bark canoes, accompanied by four Indians, slept in wigwams and enjoyed “capital fishing” and “magnificent scenery <…> we were sitting in canoes being moved along quickly but swiftly among tremendous high steep mountains, they were like a lot of “Gibraltars” all together, but thickly wooded.”
The letter from Ommanney’s superior on HMS Aurora informed his father that he had received a first class certificate and had been sent temporarily to a gunboat “Prince Albert” stationed between Windsor and Sarnia on the Great Lakes, “as it is expected that the Fenians intend giving some more trouble out here.”
Three letters written by Ommanney in May-June 1876, during his travel to his new ship - HMS Rover stationed in Port Royal (Jamaica), have some distinct notes on Saint John’s (Newfoundland) and Halifax. The houses in St. John’s “are of wood and very irregularly built, the streets are badly paved & very dirty and a strong smell of fish pervades the whole place; whalers and seal ships come here a great deal.” When entering St. John’s harbour Ommanney’s steamboat struck an iceberg, and “fortunately no damage was done <…> it only grazed along the side. It had such a peculiar appearance, with the light shining on it <…> Female passengers were greatly agitated & thought their last moments had arrived.”
“I find Halifax very dull & it seems quite different to what I remember it in former days <…> The country is not very pretty, all the trees seem so stunted, the roads are disgraceful everywhere, both town & country <…> Fog seems to be the great feature of the place, it has hardly been fine one whole day since I have been here.”
The collection is supplemented with a later card inscribed by E.A. Ommanney’s son, stating that it was his father who found relics of Franklin’s expedition while on board Aurora under Sir Leopold McClintock. In fact, it was E.A. Ommanney’s father, Sir Erasmus, who found the first Franklin relics while commanding HMS ‘Assistance’ on Horatio Austin’s Admiralty search for Franklin in 1850.
Ommanney was appointed to HMS corvette “Rover,” Commander Thomas Barnardiston, on 28 April 1876 (The Navy List, Corrected to the 20 June 1877. London: John Murray, 1877, p. 169). He retired from the navy with the rank of Commander in 1879. He took Holy Orders in 1883, serving his ministry as a vicar in the South seas.


PEACOCK, [Alfred?]
[Historically Important Album with Fourteen Original Watercolours of South Eastern British Columbia Including the Canadian Pacific Railway Titled on the Spine:] B.C. & C.P.R. Album.

1886. Oblong Folio (ca. 29x40 cm). Fourteen album leaves with fourteen mounted watercolours ca. 20,5x31 cm (8 x 12 ½ in.) and slightly smaller, all titled and two dated. Recent period style blue half morocco album with cloth boards, spine with raised bands and gilt lettered title. A very good album with beautiful watercolours.
Attractive album with fourteen watercolours of south-eastern British Columbia including the Canadian Pacific Railway including:
1) Moberly Peak. - 1st Columbia Crossing. - Kicking Horse Pass; 2) Moberly Peak. - Mouth of Kicking Horse Pass. - Rocky Mountains. -Valley of Columbia, Selkirks. Columbia R.; 3) Graves alongside the dump. C.P.R.; 4) C.P.R. Snow Sheds in the Mountains.; 5) Kicking Horse Pass. Canadian Pacific Railway; 6) Packing over the Mountains; 7) Selkirks from high ground near "1st crossing of Columbia R.;" 8) Bit of the Rockies near mouth of Blackberry R. - Columbia R. In foreground; 9) Going down the Columbia - Oct. 1886; 10) On the Columbia R.; 11) Law’s Ranche - Head of Columbia River Oct. 1886; 12) Engineers Office - Gaol - Court House - Stoess[Stores?]; 13) Landing at Golden City - Columbia River; 14) Kicking Horse River - Selkirk Range - Golden City (Pig - Queens Hotel - R. Lang's Store - Pat's House). Peacock was no doubt one of the transcontinental passengers who travelled and documented the C.P.R. In 1886, the first year of its operation.
"The last spike in the CPR was driven on 7 November 1885, by one of its directors, Donald Smith, but so many cost-cutting shortcuts were taken in constructing the railway that regular transcontinental service could not start for another seven months while work was done to improve the railway's condition (part of this was due to snow in the mountains and lack of snow sheds to keep the line open).., The first transcontinental passenger train departed from Montreal's Dalhousie Station, located at Berri Street and Notre Dame Street at 8 pm on 28 June 1886, and arrived at Port Moody at noon on 4 July 1886" (Wikipedia).


GREENE, Captain Dominick Sarsfield (1826-1892), Royal Artillery and Aide-de-Camp
[Original Mounted Watercolour Signed "DSG" and Titled in ink on Mount:] On the road to Constantia / 12.5.58.

1858. Pencil, watercolour and bodycolour on paper ca. 17x25 cm (7x10 in). A very good watercolour.
Original attractive watercolour sketch from a series of sketches made by Captain Dominick Sarsfield Greene for his "Views in India, from drawing taken during the Seapoy Mutiny," Thos. Maclean: London, 1859. "Constantia is a suburb of Cape Town, South Africa, situated about 15 kilometres south of the centre of Cape Town. The Constantia Valley lies to the east of and at the foot of the Constantiaberg mountain. Constantia Nek is a low pass linking to Hout Bay in the west"(Wikipedia). Provenance: Sir Alexander Moncrieff (1829–1906) and thence by descent.


15. [CEYLON]
CLEATHER, William H., Captain‚ 1st Ceylon Regiment (1783-1820)
[Two Extensive Autograph Letters Signed “W.H. Cleather” to his Sister Mary Littlehales, Describing his Early Service in the Military Regiment in British Ceylon, with notes on His Travel to Ceylon on Board HMS Thalia, Colombo Garrison and Officers, Local Society, Day Schedule et al].
HMS Thalia, “18 leagues to the North of St. Jago”, 20 October 1805 and Colombo Fort, 21 June (completed 2 September) 1806. Both Octavos (ca. 23x18 cm and 25x20 cm). Each 3 ½ pp. Both addressed and sealed on the last pages. Brown ink on watermarked laid and white paper. Fold marks, both letters with minor holes on the 4th pages after opening, affecting several words; second letter with tears and minor holes on folds, but overall very good letters.
Two extensive letters giving an interesting firsthand account of the early British rule in Sri Lanka (the British occupied former Dutch possessions on the island only ten years earlier, in 1795). The first letter describes Cleather’s voyage to Ceylon from England on board HMS Thalia, with the notes on the heat of the gun room‚ the frigate’s captain Walker, Santiago Island (Cape Verde) where they got fresh supplies and water, social life on board the ship et al. “I sleep every night in the most tantalizing situation you can possibly imagine, Rayner having strung my cot in the after gun room in the midst of <…> chests of dollars to the amount of 40.000 £ which they are taking out for the Company, there is 400.000 £ standing more below.”
The second letter completed almost a year later gives an inside look into the life of British military and civil society on Ceylon, shortly after the end of the First Kandyan War (1803-1805). Cleather praises the Colombo garrison’s chaplain Reverend W.H. Heywood in whose house he started writing the letter, notes that he has dined with the “Chief Secy. Mr. Arbuthnot (the 2nd personage in the Island),” and mentions “innumerable” balls and suppers to which “I am constantly invited.” His regiment “is stationed about ten miles from the Fort <…> I have a small house but very comfortable near the parade & not far from a pretty little Cot.[tage] of Heywoods where he generally resides – for this I pay two guineas a month (nothing here).” Cleather mentions that the Regiment which consists of sepoys trains a lot because it is expected to be reviewed shortly; notes on his relation with his colleague officers – Lieut.-Col. T.W. Kerr who “has an unfortunate disposition to talk scandal,” Fort Adjutant Mr. Stewart, officers wives and daughters and others. “I do not much …[?] the heat and have never had a day’s illness since I landed in the Island. I had no duty for two or three months at first being laid up with hurts in my legs. This is common enough & is thought nothing of, it is long since over…”
Captain W.H. Cleather of the first Ceylon Regiment, was educated at Exeter College, Oxford, and arrived in Ceylon in 1805. Through his sister Mary Littlehales (to whom the letters are addressed) he was a brother-in-law of Vice-Admiral Bendall Robert Littlehales (1765-1847), a participant of the Napoleonic Wars, and Captain Edward Littlehales (1805-1888), a commander of HMS Dolphin on the coast of West Africa during the suppression of the slave trade in the 1840s. During his career in the British Ceylon, he served in different Ceylon Regiments, was the Fort adjutant at Galle, Jaffna, and Colombo. He took part in military actions during the Uva Rebellion (1817-1818) and for many years served as Deputy Judge Advocate in Ceylon.


16. [CHILI]
[Historically Significant and Important Period Manuscript Report of the Naval and Military Actions in Chile and Peru]: Estado que en el dia de la fecha tiene el Vireinato de Lima; Provincias del de Buenos Ayres recuperadas y concervadas por el Ejercito del alto Peru; y finalmente en el que ce halla el Reyno de Chile [The State at this date of the Viceroyalty of Lima, the Provinces of Buenos Aires, taken back by the Army of Alto Peru; and finally the State of the Kingdom of Chile].
Lima, 1 November 1818. Small folio (ca. 31x21 cm). 6 pp. Brown ink on laid paper with watermarks ‘A’ and ‘PLA’. Text in Spanish in legible hand writing. Later marbled paper wrappers. Manuscript in very good condition.
Historically significant and important period report of the final stage of the Chilean (1810-1826) and Peruvian (1811-1824) Wars of Independence, compiled by Spanish colonial authorities. Our copy apparently belonged to Joaquín de la Pezuela, 1st Marquis of Viluma (1761–1830) who was a viceroy of Peru during the War of Independence: there is a handwritten remark “Es copia Pezuela” in the end of the text.
The document is divided into three parts (“Vireinato de Lima”, “Egéreito del Perú”, and “Reyno de Chile”) and starts with the report of advance of the Royalist forces (3400 men under command of General Mariano de Osorio) from Callao to Talcahuano in order to regain Chile. Then follow the descriptions of Battle of Cancha Rayada (18 March 1818), Battle of Maipú (5 April 1818), San Martín’s famous Crossing of the Andes (January-February 1817) et al. A large part of the text is dedicated to the actions of the Royalists’ army in Alto Peru under command of José de la Serna e Hinojosa (1770-1832). The author reports on the numbers of armed forces in different provinces of the Vireinato de Lima and gives a picture of the wartime Peru from north to south.
Very important is the extensive material on the naval war near the coast of Chile and Peru, and the actions of the First Chilean Navy Squadron which was formed in 1817-1818 and eventually “terminated Spanish colonial rule on the south-west coast of South America” (Wikipedia). The report lists 12 vessels of the Royalists’ naval forces (Las fuerzas de mar): frigates Esmeralda, Cleopatra, Presidenta and Venganza, brigantines Pezuela and Potrillo, corvet Sebastiano et al. There are notes on the condition and amount of guns of each vessel. A separate list is dedicated to the enemy vessels and also details their artillery: Lautaro and Cumberland (bought from the British East India Company); corvette Coquimbo (bought from the US), four brigantines, and seven corsairs (Anglo-American and French).
The document reports on the blockade of Valparaiso in March-April 1818, and naval actions, e.g. The attack on Spanish corvette Resolution near Callao by the corsair force consisting of the British, American, Portuguese and Irish sailors (19 October). The text is concluding with the news that the naval reinforcement for the Royalists has departed from Spain: frigate Especulation left Cadiz on the 21st of May with 6 officials and 200 men from the Regiment of Cantabria, a part of a larger force which will embark in Callao and will go immediately to reinforce the army of Alto Peru. Frigate Maria Isabel will increase the maritime forces destined to blockade Valparaiso. The author has no doubt that “Our maritime force should succeed in destroying the rebels and will give us advantage in the reconquista de Chile”.


THRING, Alicia Anne (1783-1862)
[Twenty Watercolours of Chinese Subjects, the Majority Showing Chinese Costumes, Mounted on Seven Album Leaves].

Clifton, Bristol, June 25th 1824. Watercolours on card ca. 11x10 cm (4x4 in) or slightly smaller mounted on seven large quarto (29x22,5 cm) album leaves, all but three captioned in manuscript ink. One watercolour and caption loose, loose watercolour signed and dated "Alicia Anne Thring June 25th 1824." Overall the collection is in very good condition.
Thring is an artist known for her fine botanical studies. The present charming Chinese costume watercolours are of a similar quality and the subjects include: Kien Long Emperor of China; Grand Lama; Mandarin; Chinese Soldiers; A Tartar Soldier; Another Tartar Soldier; Riding Barrow of a Tartar Lady; Cormorants Fishing; Chine Working Man - Chinese Peasant; Mahometan Woman & Son; Mandarin of the Fifth Class; Chinese Stage Cart; A Bonze Performing his Vow; A Chinese Lady; A Young Licentiate, Sedan Chair of the Prime Minister; Tartar Woman & Child, Tao-Tse.


18. [EGYPT]
PIETSCHMANN, Richard (1851-1923)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Richard” to a German Historian Eduard Meyer; With: a Printed Obituary of Wilhelm Spitta (Director of the Khedival Library in Cairo), Authored and Inscribed by Meyer].
Breslau, 2 April, 1884. Octavo (ca. 22x14 cm). 12 pp. Brown ink on six folded cream paper leaves. Fold marks, two pages slightly soiled, otherwise a very good letter written in legible hand.
The obituary: MEYER, E. Wilhelm Spitta, Director der viceköniglichen Bibliothek in Kairo: Nekrolog. Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz, [1883]. Offprint from the “Centralblatt f. Bibiliothekswesen.”Octavo. 7 pp. Original publisher’s wrappers. Inscribed by the author on verso of the front wrapper. Wrappers slightly soiled and with minor tears and losses on the corners, but overall a very good copy.
Important primary document illustrating German Oriental and ancient history studies in the latter half of the 19th century. This extensive letter by a prominent German Orientalist and Egyptologist Richard Pietschmann is addressed to his colleague and friend Eduard Meyer (1855-1930), a German historian, a specialist in ancient history. In the letter Pietschmann thanks Meyer for the obituary “you have done for our poor Spitta” and discussed several works of German Orientalists and historians – Wilhelm Spitta (1853-83), Meyer himself, Gaston Maspero (1846-1916), and Wolfgang Helbig (1839-1915).
The letter was written when Pietschmann was the university librarian in Breslau, later he also served as the librarian in the universities of Marburg, Göttingen (where he was also a Professor of Egyptology and ancient Oriental history), Greifswald, and the Royal Library in Berlin. Eduard Meyer was a professor of ancient history at Breslau in 1885, at Halle in 1889, and at Berlin in 1902. He lectured at Harvard in 1909. Honorary degrees were given him by Oxford, St. Andrews, Freiburg, and Chicago universities. His major work is Geschichte des Altertums (1884-1902)” (Wikipedia). Wilhelm Spitta was a German linguist who for the first time described the grammar of the Egyptian colloquial in his book “Grammatik des arabischen Vulgärdialects von Aegypten” (1880).


[Pictorial Lettersheet Titled:] "The Pictorial News Letter of California. For the Steamer Golden Age June 5, 1858 [No. 6];" [WITH: Four letters in various inks to his daughter back home in Bangor, Maine written between January and July 1858. In one dated Jan. 14 1858 he alludes to his own success in the California gold fields by mentioning two rings he sent her, "I dug the gold they are made from myself."]

San Francisco: Charles F. Robbins, Printer, June 5, 1858. Folio sheet ca. 28x45 cm, folded once to make four pages. With a pictorial title and half page wood engraved view of Fort Vancouver and a half page wood engraved "Correct Map of the Gold Diggings on Frasers and Thompsons Rivers Compiled from Recent Surveys." Four letter with total of eleven written pages. Lettersheet with original fold marks, and some very mild age toning, otherwise in very good condition. Letters in a legible hand, with original fold marks but generally in very good condition.
Very rare Gold Rush ephemera. Streeter V, 2840 (listing No. 7).
The newsletter in five columns tries to lure prospectors aboard the steamer 'Golden Age' headed towards the Fraser River by beginning with news that: "A gentleman named Parsons, direct from the Fraser River, confirms the story about the extent of the gold fields, and says there is plenty of gold, but so scattered that the miners only make from $6 to $8 per day." The lettersheet includes an autograph 2 1/2 page content rich letter in dark brown ink signed from J. P. Hooper (a retailer in Stockton, California) to his sister dated Stockton Oct. 3, 1858, where Hooper questions the validity of the claims made about the Fraser River Gold Fields by saying: "Fraser River has proved the greatest humbug of the times. We were most fortunate to be unwilling to go there. I did in the start want to go but very soon I saw that the reports did not gingle and therefore looked suspicious. The two last steamers from N.Y. Brought nearly 3 thousand, many of them infected with the Fraser fever. O! We know how their hearts will sink within finding the humbug so complete and they can find nothing to do. Men can find little employment."
"Issued exactly one month after the first steamer left San Francisco headed for the Fraser (Bancroft p. 359), this appears to be the first separate publication relating to the Fraser River Gold Rush, and the first map published to illustrate the area for potential gold-seekers"(UBC Notes on the Lettersheet for the Steamer John L. Stephens San Francisco May 20th, 1858, presumably No. 5 making this present lettersheet the second issue of the map). "Pictorial lettersheets are illustrated with lithographs or wood engravings depicting California and Western themes. Intended to be used as stationery during and after the California Gold Rush, these lettersheets served as a kind of reportage, depicting important events and popular stories of the day. Common illustrated topics and scenes include: murders and executions; the San Francisco Vigilance Committee; natural disasters, especially fires (San Francisco) and floods (Sacramento); the Gold Rush; mining life (from perspectives sentimental, cautionary, and comic); festivals, holidays, and parades; buildings and street scenes; and views of San Francisco, Sacramento, and towns throughout the state's mining region" (Online Archive of California).


[Original Untitled Watercolour prepared for the “Graphic”, Titled]: Combating the Difficulties of a new Route to Kumassi.
1 July 1899. Grisaille watercolour on cardboard, heightened in white, ca. 16x22 cm (ca. 6 ¼ x 8 ½ in), within hand drawn ink frame. Signed “F.C.D.” in watercolour in the left lower corner. Ink stamp “1 Jul 99” on verso. Mounted in a recent mat, overall a very good watercolour.
This captivating watercolour was published in “The Graphic” (# 1544, 1 July 1899, p. 8), as one of the four illustrations to "Railway enterprise in West Africa: With a surveying expedition to Kumassi”. The scene shows a European explorer on his way through the deep jungle of the “Dark” Africa, knee-deep in black mud and armed with a sword and a revolver. His white military uniform and pith helmet are shown in strong contrast with almost naked native porters, who are carrying heavy expedition supplies, including a surveyor's distance wheel.
The explorer shown was British railway engineer Frederic Shelford (1871-1943), who undertook the very difficult task of surveying the previously impenetrable jungle of the Gold Coast (Southern Ghana) for the prospective railroad from the gold mines of Tarkwa to Kumasi.
“The Graphic” described his expedition in these words: “We reproduce this week some sketches by Mr. Frederick Shelford, who has made many trips to some most outlandish parts of the African and American continents for the Colonial Office, seeking for desirable routes for the construction of light railways to open up and render accessible some of our beautiful and fertile, but very remote tropical possessions. <…> The sketches refer to Mr. Shelford’s latest exploration – namely, through the great West African forest belt to Kumassi, not by one of the well-known routes from the coast to the capital of Ashanti, but in a bee line from the Turkwa Gold Mines through unknown country, a journey involving a five weeks’ tramp of 360 miles. There being no road, and no native being found capable of guiding the expedition, Mr. Shelford had to pick his way through the forest by compass and such information as the few natives encountered were able to afford, and was compelled to follow bush hunters’ tracks densely overgrown and frequently knee deep in water and black, oozy mud.
Kumassi, so long a thorn in the side of Great Britain, was found now to be a smart up-to-date military station, with the only draw-back that a three-shilling bag of rice costs twenty-five shillings more to get there. There is a large fort, from which centre of the whole country for many scores of miles in every direction is administered by the British Resident, a post now ably filled by Captain Donald Stewart, C.M.G. <…> Mr. Shelford was accompanied during this trip by Dr. J.C. Matthews and sixty carriers” (# 1544, 1 July 1899, p. 7).


TURNER, Captain Henry A. Royal Artillery (Active 1849-1853)
[Two Watercolour Panoramas each on four Joined Sheets Titled: "St. Georges, Grenada from Hospital Hill," & "View of the Harbour, St. Georges, Grenada, from Belmont Hill." Dated on verso 1852.]

1852. Each panorama ca. 18x54 cm (7 ½ x 21 ½ in). Both watercolour panoramas consisting of four sheets of paper joined with strips of linen and overall in very good condition. Recently matted.
These two attractive and skillfully executed pencil and watercolour panoramas, each on four sheets of paper, are part of a series of studies by Captain Turner for two hand coloured lithograph views:"View of the Town and Harbour, St. George's, Grenada, West Indies taken from the hill above Belmont, showing the barracks and Richmond Hill on the right and Fort George on the left," & "View of the Harbour, St George's, Grenada, W.I. Taken from Fort George," both published by Ackermann & Co., London 1852. The panoramas are from larger collection of watercolours and drawings of which several were signed with initials 'H.A.T.' on the mounts, and the majority were titled and dated 1851-52. "St. George's is the capital of Grenada. The city is surrounded by a hillside of an old volcano crater and is on a horseshoe-shaped harbor" (Wikipedia).


[Official Certified Transcript of Documents Relating to the Franciscan Mission of Iti and the Guaricaya Indians in Southern Bolivia].

[La Plata (Bolivia), 1784-1789]. Folio (ca. 31x21,5 cm). 31 pp., stitched with a string. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper, text in Spanish. Housed in a recent navy blue half morocco box with gilt lettered title on the spine. Manuscript with minor soiling and wear, old folds and creasing. Faint damp stain on final few leaves, causing very minor loss to five or six leaves, primarily in the margin, with only a few words affected. Overall a very good manuscript.
Official collection of documents relating to missions in the Viceroyalty of La Plata in present-day Bolivia, specifically the Reduccion of Iti. Written on certified paper dated 1780-1781, with official certification stamps dated 1784-1785 and 1790-1791, the documents are in a neat secretarial hand. Included is a list of the accounts and explanations of expenses for the Reduccion of Iti, detailing items and their costs, as well as correspondence concerning their staffing and running. The Guaricaya Indians, the tribal group of the immediate area are also mentioned in the document. A significant record of an Indian mission in the foothills of the Andes, at a time for which little documentation exists.
The Iti mission, founded by the Jesuits, is one of a group of missions which survived as such into the 19th century; those immediately to the north are now designated a World Heritage site. After the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spanish America in 1767, most of their missions were taken over by Franciscans or secularized. The missions at Iti, Fayarenda, and Azero, all discussed in the manuscript, were among those which became Franciscan. All were in the same region of southern Bolivia, just north of the Argentine provinces of Salta and Jujuy, in what is today the Chuquisaca Department. Under Spanish rule this area had been administered by the Viceroyalty of La Plata, which controlled what are now the lowlands of Bolivia, while the highlands to the west were governed by the Viceroyalty of Peru. Iti sits along the ancient Incan road, now Route 9 in Bolivia and northern Argentina.
Provenance: Maggs, Bibliotheca Americana 3239, issued in 1924.


RYDER, Sir Alfred Phillips (1820-1888)
[Period Copy of Two Official Documents “Reporting circumstances attending Her Majesty’s Ship Hero touching the ground,” Submitted to Vice Admiral Alexander Milne, Commander-in-Chief].
HMS Hero, Halifax, 14 October 1862. Folio (ca. 32x21,5 cm). 10 pp. On six leaves, glued together. Brown ink on blue paper. Fold marks, minor tears on extremities, outer leaves soiled at edges, but overall a very good manuscript.
Detailed official report of the curcumstances of HMS Hero touching the ground while entering the Chebucto Bay (Halifax harbour) on a foggy day of 14 October 1862. The ship’s captain, Alfred Ryder gave a detailed report to his commander, Vice Admiral Alexander Milne (1806-1896) about the difficult weather and the ship’s course chosen for the passage into the Chebucto Bay. The account gives a good description of the navigational hazards found on the approach to the bay: “Your orders were that I should be with your Flag today. I was desirous of being punctual. For a steamer to remain outside a harbor in Nova Scotia, because the weather is foggy, would, as all navigators on these waters are well aware, result in their remaining at sea for days, and sometimes weeks, after the day ordered for their return, and as there are no good land marks, the runs by Patent log, confirmed by Sounding, must be vainly depended on, even in the occasional clearing of the fog. <…> The extent of the injury appears to be very slight. There are two slight weeps, discovered by careful search in the Fore magazine, and one further forward, but whether arising from the accident, or not we are not certain <…> In conclusion I beg to state that I have commanded four of H.M. Ships in the West Indies, the Baltic, the Mediterranean and Black Sea, and necessarily for many years, and that this is the first occasion on which any one of these has touched the shore…”
The report is supplemented with the “Statement in compliance with Printed Instructions, part 3, p. 160 regarding the circumstances attending H.M.S. Hero striking the ground off the Harbour of Halifax, Nova Scotia, at 3.5. p.m., Tuesday, the 14 Oct. 1862;” the original statement is signed by Ryder and the ship’s master J. Sullivan.
“Admiral of the Fleet Sir Alfred Phillips Ryder KCB joined the Royal Navy in 1833. He was the captain of the HMS Dauntless in 1853-1857, of HMS Hero since 1862; Comptroller of the Coastguard in 1863-1866, Second in Command of the Channel Squadron, Naval attaché in Paris; Commander-in-Chief of the China Station in 1874, Commander-in-Chief, in Portsmouth in 1879. He was decorated with the award of Knight, Order of the Medjidie and gained the rank of Admiral of the Fleet” (Wikipedia).


[PATERSON], Admiral Charles William] (1756-1841)
[Collection of Two Original Manuscripts Related to Paterson’s Service as the Commander of Famous HMS Gorgon, Compiled a Year Later, After Her Return from New South Wales as a Part of the Third Fleet, with a Mixed Passenger List Including Mutineers from HMS “Bounty”. The collection includes: an Autograph Note Signed by Rear Admiral John Dalrymple Addressed to Paterson, and an Incomplete Note of Paterson’s Autobiography, Mentioning his Service on HMS Gorgon].

The note: [HMS] Sandwich at the Nore, 2 August 1793, ca. 16,5x20,5 cm. Written in secretarial hand, signed “Jh. Dalrymple” and docketed on reverse. The autobiography: ca. after 1825, Folio (ca. 32,5x20 cm). Both brown ink on watermarked laid paper (the autobiography on laid paper watermarked “R. Barnard, 1825”). Documents with fold marks and creases, paper slightly age toned, with occasional marginal tears, otherwise a very good collection.
The official note from Rear Admiral Dalrymple addressed to Paterson as the Commander of HMS “Gorgon” instructs him to “immediately discharge John Marsh from he being an apprentice, and give him a Certificate of it’s being done by my order.” The note relates to an apprentice unlawfully pressed into service on a Royal Navy ship - the Navy were bound to release such individuals on appeal from their masters. The second manuscript is an incomplete piece of Paterson’s autobiography, covering his naval career from 1793 to 1819 when he became a Vice Admiral. The first complete sentence relates about his service on HMS Gorgon: “On the commencement of the French Revolution I was appointed to the command of H.M. Store Ship the Gorgon and was sent to the Mediterranean under Lord Hood who promoted me to the rank of Post Captain in 1794 into H.M.S. ‘Ariadne.'” The autobiography also contains some facts not included in Paterson’s biography published in the New Oxford DNB, e.g. That he had 'the honour of attending His late Majesty two seasons at Weymouth', and that he 'went up the Mediterranean with a large Convoy, delivered it safe and on my return joined the Blockade of Havre de Grace until the peace of 1802'.
HMS Gorgon (1785) a 44-gun fifth-rate two-decker troopship. “Under Commander John Parker, she went to New South Wales, along with the Third Fleet, arriving on 21 September 1791. She carried six months provisions for 900 people in the starving colony. She also carried about 30 convicts, and Philip Gidley King who was returning to the colony to take up the post of lieutenant-governor of Norfolk Island. On 18 December 1791 the Gorgon left Port Jackson, taking home part of the marine contingent, sent by the First Fleet to guard the convicts, including Watkin Tench, Robert Ross, William Dawes, and Ralph Clark. Gorgon also carried samples of animals, birds, and plants from New South Wales. At the Cape of Good Hope Gorgon took on board Mary Bryant, her daughter Charlotte, and the four surviving male convicts involved in an escape from the penal colony. She also took on board ten of the mutineers from HMS Bounty that HMS Pandora had seized in Tahiti and who had survived the wreck of that vessel. During the voyage many of the children on board, including Charlotte Bryant, died of heat and illness. Gorgon arrived at Portsmouth on 18 June 1792, discharging her mixed passenger list of marines, escaped convicts, and mutineers” (Wikipedia).
Charles William Paterson was a British naval officer, an active participant of the American Revolutionary and French Revolutionary Wars. He “served on the home and Newfoundland stations as able seaman and midshipman in the Flora, Rose, Ardent, and Ramillies, before passing his lieutenant's examination on 4 October 1775. In 1776 Paterson was in Howe's flagship, the Eagle, in North America, and on 3 February 1777 Howe promoted him lieutenant of the fire ship Strombolo. In Howe's engagement with d'Estaing on 11 August 1778 Paterson commanded the galley Philadelphia. In June 1779 he joined the Ardent (64 guns), which, on 17 August, was captured off Plymouth by the combined Franco-Spanish fleet. In April 1780 he was appointed to the Alcide (74 guns), which joined Lord Rodney in the West Indies in May; Paterson went to New York with him during the summer, returned to the West Indies in November, and in the following January was present at the capture of St Eustatius and the other Dutch islands.
In February 1781 Paterson joined the Sandwich, Rodney's flagship; he went home with the admiral in the Gibraltar, and returned to the West Indies with him in the Formidable. He was appointed acting captain of the armed ship St Eustatius in February 1782 and on 8 April was promoted to command the fire ship Blast, in which he returned to England on the conclusion of the peace. In 1793 Paterson was appointed to the store ship Gorgon, in which he served under Hood at Toulon, and on 20 January 1794 he was made captain of the Ariadne (20 guns). On the surrender of Corsica he was moved into the frigate Melpomène, before returning to England in 1795. In 1797 he was inspecting captain of the quota men in Kirkcudbright and Wigtownshire, and in 1798 superintended the fitting of the Admiral de Vries, until she was turned over to the transport board. He commanded the Montagu in the channel in 1800, and from 1801 to 1802 he commanded the San Fiorenzo.
Paterson had charge of the French prisoners of war in Portchester Castle in 1810, and from 1811 to 1812 he commanded the guard ship Puissant at Spithead. He was promoted rear-admiral on 12 August 1812, vice-admiral on 12 August 1819, and admiral of the white on 10 January 1837" (Oxford DNB).


CHARLES, John, Chief Factor at Fort Chipewyan (d. 1849)
[Autograph Letter Signed to Alexander Christie, Chief Factor of the York Factory, Reporting of the Brigade’s Affairs Before Leaving Norway House to Fort Chipewyan for the Season].

Norway House, 1 August 1830. Quarto (ca. 25x20 cm). 3 pp. Addressed, sealed and docketed on the last blank page. Fold marks, minor hole on the last page after opening, slightly affecting the text, otherwise a very good legible letter.
An interesting letter from John Charles, a leader of the Hudson’s Bay Company’s Athabasca Brigade and Chief Factor at Fort Chipewyan (1830-1834), written on the eve of the brigade’s departure to the interior for the winter trade. The letter is addressed to Alexander Christie (1792-1872), chief factor of the York Factory, subsequently considered one of the most influential factors of the Hudson’s Bay Company.
Charles reports on the departure of the Athabasca Brigade, as well as conditions and supplies at Norway House: “We have now nearly made an end of our Business here and expect to move off at the latest in a Day or so. Our four Boats for Athabasca were away Yesterday with an Ample Supply for the Season to meet all Demands. The Goods forwarded by Messrs. Meler & Hargrave for the Men’s Equipment were most ample <…> the Men appear quite Satisfied with these Advances, which are the best they ever got.”He hopes that when “the Athabasca Brigade will henceforth return from the Plain [?], if we could have a Building of some kind erected for transacting our Business it will be of great Advantage, for at present the want of Sufficient Room even to make a temporary Shop, creates much Inconvenience, and I may add not a little Confusion. I would also be obliged to you to give Orders to have the Boats built for us at this Place, for the New Boats brought from the other Places we generally get the Worst.” Charles reports that “in order to prevent too much of some Articles and too little of others being forwarded for Men’s Equipment next Spring, I have made out a Requisition, both for Advances and Outfit, which if it can be complied with will be fully Sufficient.” He also complains of hard conditions on the Winter Road, resulting in sickness and injury among the Indian accompanying the brigade. Overall a very interesting informative letter.


D’OYLY, Sir Hastings Hadley (1864-1948)
[Two Original Watercolours of the Andaman Islands, Titled on Verso]: 1) Ross Islands from the Aberdeen District Officers’ House, Port Blair; and 2) Government Rest House, Mount Harriet – Port Blair.

Ca. 1890s. Two watercolours on paper, each ca. 14x22,5 cm (5 ½ x 8 ¾ in). Period manuscript captions in pencil on verso. Later matting. A very good pair.
Interesting original watercolour views of Port Blair, the capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) and the centre of the infamous penal colony during the British rule. Apart from an unsuccessful attempt to establish a colony on the islands in 1789, Britain hadn’t risen territorial claims to the Andamans until the 1850s. In 1858 a British penal colony was set up for dissenters and independence fighters from the Indian subcontinent. Since 1972 the Andaman and Nicobar islands were administered by a chief commissioner at Port Blair. The infamous Cellular Jail was constructed in Point Blair in 1896-1906.
Drawn in the midst of the colonial period, the watercolours present interesting views of the Andaman Islands, including “Government Rest House” – summer headquarters of the British administration located on a beautiful Mount Harriet, the third highest peak of the islands. Another watercolour is taken from the Aberdeen District Officers’ House and has a great view of the Ross Island where the British administrative headquarters were settled. The artist, Sir Hastings Hadley D’Oyly, 11th Baronet of Shottisham (succeeded in 1921) lived and served in the British India. He gained the rank of Captain in the service of the Bihar Light Horse and later served as a deputy commissioner of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.


[Two Detailed Manuscript Testimonials of a Voyage of the Merchant brig Jane to the West Indies in 1780, and the Circumstances of Her Shipwreck during the Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane, Notarially Certified in Montego Bay and London; With a Period Copy of Jane’s Portledge Bill for 1781].

Montego Bay (Jamaica) - London, 1780-1781. Three Folio Manuscripts (ca. 44x28 cm, ca. 40x26 cm and ca. 36,5x22 cm) folded to Octavos. 3, 1 and 3 pp each. Each brown ink on watermarked laid paper, each docketed on the last blank page. Two signed by deponents and notaries, one with two tax stamps and a notarial seal. Fold marks, but overall very good and legible documents.
Interesting collection of three original manuscripts revealing the story of the voyage of British merchant brig Jane to the West Indies in 1780 and her experience of the Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane on 3 October 1780, during which she was considerably damaged and a large part of her cargo was lost. The documents include an affidavit, compiled in Montego Bay (Jamaica) on 10 January 1781 and signed by Jane’s Commander James Jones, first mate William Barrey and boatswain Sever Brown. The affidavit was witnessed before Samuel Mottershed, Esq., a Justice for the parish of Saint James; and certified by Ralph Montague, Notary Public in Montego Bay (St. James parish, Cornwall County, Jamaica). The other document is a notarially certified “Declaration of a protest”, compiled after Jane’s return to Britain. The document is signed by James Jones and William Barrey and certified by a London notary on 31 August 1781. The last document is a period copy of Jane’s portledge bill, for the period from 30 January to September 1781, listing twenty-six crew members (including captain), their station, length of service, and amount of wages due and paid.
The affidavit and declaration of protest give a detailed account of Jane’s voyage to the Caribbean and the circumstances of her damage during the notorious Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane which struck Montego Bay where Jane had been moored, on 3 October 1780. Jane arrived to Kingston from London on 1 August 1780, under the escort of HMS Thunderer and other men-of-war; later that month she sailed for the Black River where she received a cargo of logwood, mahogany and pimento. In Montego Bay she was additionally loaded with sugar and rum. Whilst there Jane experienced a severe storm, and in spite of the attempt to find asylum in the mouth of the Great River, the brig drag both anchors and was driven to a reef where she was struck against the rocks many times. The ship was a wreck and couldn’t be taken off the reef for another three weeks. The cargo, anchors and guns were reloaded in order to lighten the ship, and when the time came to reload, it turned out that a large part of the cargo had been “washed about the beach owing to sundry gales of wind <…> and many pieces buried in the sand.” In spite of the “utmost endeavours” some part of cargo were never recovered.
Jane returned to Montego Bay on 27 January 1781 and on 17 March left the West Indies for London, in a convoy of ninety merchantmen, protected by HMS Edmont Graffton, Trident Bristol and Endymion. The long, five-month return trip was perilous, with her taking “a great deal of water <…> so as to keep the pump almost constantly going.” The next day after arrival the captain filed the present declaration of protest at the office of a London notary which solemnly stated: “I do protest against the Seas and bad weather, and particularly against the Violent Hurricane which the said Ship met with in Jamaica when taking on board her said Cargo as above mentioned for all Loss and Damage happened to the said Brig and Cargo;” he declared “that when the said Brig begun to take in her said Cargo at Jamaica aforesaid She was tight Staunch and Strong <…> and provided with all things needful for such a Brig and Voyage. That as well During the time the said Brig was on Shore in Jamaica as aforesaid, as at all other times, he this appearer and the Rest of the said Brig’s Company Exorted [sic!] themselves to the utmost of their Power and used their utmost Endeavours to preserve the said Brig and Cargo from Damage, so that what Loss and Damage hath happened to the said Brig and Cargo was intirely [sic!] occasioned by the means aforesaid and not through any insufficiency in the said Brig neglect of him appearer or any of his mariners.”


28. [JAPAN]
NAKAYAMA, Takashi (JAPANESE, 1893-1978)
[Four Framed Signed Japanese Watercolours Showing a Farmer in Winter; (Probably Same) Farmer and his Wife; A Woman with a Child in Winter; and (Probably Same) Woman and a Child].
Ca. 1920. Each watercolour ca. 31x16 cm (12x6 in) and signed T. Nakayama in lower right or left. Framed in simple gold gilt wooden frames, gilt with some minor rubbing, Watercolours (not examined out of frames) in very good condition.
Nakayama is well known for his watercolours showing rural Japanese people in everyday life scenes. These four attractive watercolours are good examples of his work.


ATKINSON, James (1780-1852)
[Collection of Three Original Watercolours from the "Sketches in Afghaunistan" (1842)].
[1841-42]. Brown and black watercolours heightened in white. Housed in a custom made green cloth portfolio with a black gilt titled sheep label and silk ties. A very good collection.
These three watercolours were mostly likely used as the original archetypes for the lithographed plates ? 2, 3 and 19 in "Sketches in Afghaunistan," one of the earliest collections of views of Afghanistan.
As a Superintending Surgeon to the Army of the Indus, Atkinson participated in the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839-42) and completed many sketches portraying the military skirmishes of the campaign as well as landscape views and the lives of local people (British Library). Atkinson's "Expedition into Affghanistan provides an interesting personal narrative, supplemented by his Sketches in Afghanistan (1842) containing a series of lithographed drawings which complete the picture of what was then an unexplored country" (Oxford DNB).
The colors of our set (mostly brown-black tones heightened in white) and the quality of the detailed work differs from same Atkinson watercolour made on the spot which are now in the collection of British Library. Our set is notable for sharp lines and thorough detail work while the watercolours made on the spot are more like sketches. Thus our group of watercolour are most likely later reworked versions especially for use as archetypes for the lithographs.
The watercolour include:
The Town of Roree and the Fortress of Bhukker on the Indus. 44x27 cm (17x10 ½ in).
A fine view presents the town of Rohri (in Sukkur district, Sindh province of Pakistan) - the encampment ground of the British Army during the campaign, the Fortress of Bukkur and the shore of Sukkur on the Indus on the background.
The fortress of Bukkur was on a strategically important island in the Indus river, between Rohri and Sukkur. The walls of the fortress enclosed the entire island, ending the water's edge. In 1831, the fort was obtained by the British from the Emir of Khirpur, Mir Rostum, after lengthy negotiations conducted by Sir Alexander Burnes, the Political Agent of the East India Company. It was agreed that the fort should remain in British hands, as long as they feared attack from the west. During the 1st Afghan War (1839-1842) it was used as a depot for Sir John Keane's Army of the Indus. (British Library. Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections on-line).
The watercolour also shows a group of travellers in Native dress in the foreground, together with the renowned local camels which were sold by Singh Maharaja at considerable profit to the British for their Afghan expedition.
The Encampment at Dadur, with the entrance to the Bolan Pass. 43x29 cm (17x11 ½ in).
Atkinson depicted the British troops’ encampment at the entrance of the Bolan Pass, about a mile from the town of Dadhar. On their march to Afghanistan the Army of the Indus had opted for the longer southern route round through the Bolan Pass rather than the shorter route through the Khyber Pass. By the spring of 1839 they arrived at the 60-mile long Bolan, which was in the heart of rough terrain controlled by Baluchi chieftains.
Atkinson wrote: "On the foreground is Khalik Dad, Belooch, governor of Dadur and his attendant, and some of the wearied camp-followers preparing their scanty meal. As far as the eye can reach from the camp, desolation has marked this arid spot, and the progress to it was a most arduous one; water rarely met with, but in small quantities, and forage equally scarce" (British Library).
The Main Street in the Bazaar at Caubul in the Fruit Season. 41x26 cm (16x10 in).
The watercolour depicts a market square in Kabul, with fruits in abundance, falling over small stores, with food sellers, traders and customers, dog and donkeys and a young man in the European clothes with a bunch of grapes and a fruit on the foreground.
In 1839, the strongest fortress of Afghanistan, Ghazni, having fallen, the Army of the Indus advanced to Kabul, 80 miles north. Dost Mohammad had retreated even further north, abandoning Kabul, so the British had a relatively peaceful entry into the city and enthroned their new Emir, Shah Shuja. Atkinson wrote, 'The entrance into Caubul was by a narrow street, presenting to the view a scene of the most busy description. The numerous shops, little better than sheds, exhibited fruit, not only surprising for its beauty, but for its prodigious abundance... Other articles are also presented for sale. Cooks are preparing kabobs and confectioners sweetmeats; cutlers and farriers, guns, swords, and horseshoes; silk-mercers, dealers in carpets, furs, lace, chintz, saddlery, &c., are all attentive to their several occupations.' Lithographs: Abbey Travel 508; Tooley 73; Colas 173; Lipperheide 1493.


[Anonymous Manuscript Titled:] The Early History Of Kilwa.

Ca. 1870. Octavo (ca. 20,5x13 cm). 44 pp. Stitched manuscript written in a legible hand on the recto of the leaves, without a front cover. First page with some toning and a few small ink spots, but overall the manuscript is in very good condition.
Historically important chronicle of the Kilwa Sultanate, from the third century to the year 908 according to the Hijri calendar (ca. 10th to 16th centuries in the Gregorian Calendar), drawn from the chronicles collected by the nephew of Fakih Mufalih, a Kilwa dignitary. "The chronology of rulers of the Kilwa Sultanate is reported in a chronicle translated into Portuguese in the 16th century, and recorded by the chronicler João de Barros. There is another surviving chronicle by an unknown author, written in the early 16th century, and compiled in 1862 by (or for) sheikh Moheddin (Majid) of Zanzibar"(Wikipedia). It seems likely that this present chronicle is an early English translation or at least based on the Zanzibar chronicle of 1862. The chapter headings of the present chronicle are as follows: Chapter I: Of the first coming to Kilwa and its foundation by Persian princes of the district of Shiraz; Chapter II: Concerning the troubles of the people of Kilwa with the Matamandili; Chapter III; Concerning the rule of Abu Il Mawahib and giving a short account of his history; Chapter IV: Of the government of the Priest King whose surname was "The Early Rain;" Chapter 5: Of the return of the Sultanate to the house of Abu Il Matthhab; Chapter VI: Of the government of Hassan the son of the Wazir Suleman bin Malik Il'adl the of the Wazir Yarik, and therein the story of the Wazir Mohammed Kiwabi the son of the Sultan the Injured; Chapter VII: Of the government of the Sultan Jathil the son of the Sultan Suleman the Just King the uncle of the Sultan Mohammed Ibu Hosein..,
"The Kilwa Sultanate was a Medieval sultanate, centered at Kilwa (an island off modern-day Tanzania), whose authority, at its height, stretched over the entire length of the Swahili Coast. It was founded in the 10th century by Ali ibn al-Hassan Shirazi, a Persian prince of Shiraz. His family ruled the Sultanate until the year 1277. It was replaced by the Arab family of Abu Moaheb until 1505, when it was overthrown by a Portuguese invasion. By 1513, the sultanate was already fragmented into smaller states, many of which became protectorates of the Sultanate of Oman.., At the zenith of its power in the 15th century, the Kilwa Sultanate owned or claimed overlordship over the mainland cities of Malindi, Inhambane and Sofala and the island-states of Mombasa, Pemba, Zanzibar, Mafia, Comoro and Mozambique (plus numerous smaller places) - essentially what is now often referred to as the "Swahili Coast".
Kilwa also claimed lordship across the channel over the myriad of small trading posts scattered on the coast of Madagascar (then known by its Arabic name of Island of the Moon). To the north, Kilwa's power was checked by the independent Somali city-states of Barawa (a self-ruling aristocratic republic) and Mogadishu (the once-dominant city, Kilwa's main rival). To the south, Kilwa's reach extended as far as Cape Correntes, below which merchant ships did not usually dare sail"(Wikipedia).


31. [LADAKH]
TEMPLER, Charles Bertram, Major (1860-1931)
[Album of Twelve Original Watercolours of Ladakh, with a Later Watercolour View of Rochefort, France].
Ca. 1886. Oblong Folio (28x37,5 cm). 5 leaves. Thirteen watercolours mounted on recto and verso of the card album leaves, including eight larger ones, ca. 17,5x25 cm (7x10 in) or slightly smaller, and five smaller ones, ca. 12,5x17,5 cm (5x7 in). All watercolours captioned in ink on the lower margins of the album leaves, all but one are signed “CBT” and dated 1886 and 1909 in the lower left or right corners of the drawings. Manuscript title of the album on the first free endpaper “C.B. Templer. Octr. 1928. Exmouth. With sketches dating from 1886.” With a large cabinet portrait photo ca. 20x15,5 cm (7 ¾ x 6 in), captioned “Charles Johann” [?] in the right lower corner, mounted on the front pastedown. Period black half sheep with green pebble-grain cloth boards. Expertly rebacked in style, card mounts slightly age toned, otherwise a very good album.
An album of interesting watercolours of Ladakh (now a part of the Jammu and Kashmir State, India) executed by Major C.B. Templer of the Indian Army, 19th Regiment of Bengal Lancers (Fane’s Horse). He served in India in 1880-1893 and took part in the second Mirazai Expedition of 1891. During his service with the 19th Lancers Templer participated in the horse races and was the first holder of the Indian Grand National Trophy (Some reminiscences of Indian Sport// The Field, The Country Gentleman's Newspaper, Christmas 1922, p. 5). After the end of his career Templer lived in Execliff (Exmouth), actively travelled around Europe and also visited South Africa.
The album includes eleven accomplished watercolours made in Ladakh in 1886, during Templer's time in the Indian Army, including a view of “Leh, capital of Ladakh” with the Leh Palace in the centre and the Ladakh mountain range in the background, a panorama of a “Tartar Camp” near Ladakh with tents made of woolen blankets, portraits of a Buddhist Lama with the prayer wheel, Ladakh shepherd “Bipari, trader in sheep's wool,” and of a woman coolie. Five watercolours depict local animals, with expressive notes by Templer: “Ladakh Transport!! Yak, goat & sheep,” “Spiti Pony. Very hard, never shod!! Feet as hard as iron!!,” “Fighting Cock!,” “Watch dog - Guards the sheep, goats &c., protected by iron collars against Leopards, wolves &c.,” “Kyang – wild horse of Ladakh.” Another drawing shows the grave of Templer’s charger Sweetheart somewhere in the Ladakh hills, with a note: “She was with me for 18 years, was my Charger and won me eleven races!! She was perfection in every way!!” There is also a beautiful view of snow covered peaks of the Himalayas taken from the Narkanda mountain station near Simla. The last watercolour dated 1903 depicts a small bridge & stream at Rochefort, France. Overall a beautiful illustrative account on Ladakh.


TROTTER, A[lexander] M[ason] (1891-1946)
[Watercolour, Apparently Used as an Illustration in 'The Graphic,' Titled on Verso:] Death of Livingstone.

London, 1917. Matted watercolour on Whatman board ca. 27x38 cm (11x15 in). With an old fold (cracked at margins) on lower margin not affecting the main image, otherwise a very striking watercolour in very good condition.
This striking watercolour is a latter reworking of the famous scene of the death of David Livingstone. "David Livingstone died in that area in Chief Chitambo's village at Ilala southeast of Lake Bangweulu in present-day Zambia on 1 May 1873 from malaria and internal bleeding caused by dysentery. He took his final breaths while kneeling in prayer at his bedside. (His journal indicates that the date of his death would have been 1 May, but his attendants noted the date as 4 May, which they carved on a tree and later reported; this is the date on his grave.) Britain wanted the body to give it a proper ceremony, but the tribe would not give his body to them. Finally they relented, but cut the heart out and put a note on the body that said, "You can have his body, but his heart belongs in Africa!". Livingstone's heart was buried under a Mvula tree near the spot where he died, now the site of the Livingstone Memorial. His body together with his journal was carried over a thousand miles by his loyal attendants Chuma and Susi to the coast to Bagamoyo, and was returned to Britain for burial. After lying in repose at No.1 Savile Row "then the headquarters of the Royal Geographical Society, now the home of bespoke tailors Gieves & Hawkes" his remains were interred at Westminster Abbey" (Wikipedia).


GREENE, Captain Dominick Sarsfield (1826-1892), Royal Artillery and Aide-de-Camp
[Original Watercolour Titled in Pencil:] From Funchal.

Ca. 1857. Pencil, watercolour and bodycolour on paper ca. 20x35 cm (8x14 in). Watercolour recently matted. Some very minor foxing in the upper margin but overall a very good watercolour.
Original attractive watercolour sketch looking along the coastline from Funchal, the largest city and capital of Madeira, from a series of sketches made by Captain Dominick Sarsfield Greene for his "Views in India, from drawing taken during the Seapoy Mutiny," Thos. Maclean: London, 1859. Provenance: Sir Alexander Moncrieff (1829–1906) and thence by descent.


34. [MEXICO]
TEN EYCK, Samuel
[Important Autograph Letter Signed from Samuel Ten Eyck to O.B. Throop, giving a Description of Guaymas, Mexico, his Impressions of Mexicans, and Briefly Relating his Experiences During the Fraser River Gold Rush].

Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico: April 27th, 1859. On a folded double quarto leaf. [4] pp. Brown ink on bluish paper. Blind stamp of a papermaker (Rolland Freres, Bordeaux) in the upper left corner. Housed in a later custom made blue quarter morocco clam shell box with gilt lettered spine. Old fold marks, otherwise a near fine letter.
In this letter Samuel Ten Eyck writes to his friend, Origin B. Throop, back home in Schoharie, New York, offering a description of the Mexican port city of Guaymas, Sonora, giving his assessment of Mexican attitudes toward Americans, and describing his experiences in the Fraser River Gold Rush.
Samuel Ten Eyck came from a prominent family in New York's Schoharie County. He left Schoharie in the early 1850s, went to California in search of gold, took part in the Fraser River Gold Rush in British Columbia of 1858-1859, and then arrived in Guaymas, Mexico in the spring of 1859. He apparently went to Sonora in anticipation of that state and the surrounding Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sinaloa being annexed to the United States. The Gadsen Purchase Treaty, ratified in 1854, brought a part of northern Sonora into the United States, and there appears to have been some agitation for the United States to take more territory in the region. Such a thing did not occur, and it is unknown for how long Ten Eyck stayed in Guaymas waiting for it to happen, or where his travels took him next.
The letter begins by Ten Eyck asking Throop to make discreet inquiries to some of his friends as to why they have not corresponded with him. "I suppose you will be astonished to learn I am in this God-forsaken country. I must confess, I am astonished to find myself here, but here I am and what is still more pleasant, have a mighty fine prospect of, as it is termed in California, making my pile. I have been here but a month. On my arrival I found the country all excitement, and a revolution going on in the three states, 'Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa,' they being, I think, the tail end of creation, but they are full of silver mines and in saying that I say all that can be said in their favour. The Mexicans are the most hostile people in the world and think no more of killing an American than of taking a drink and as this is the scene of Walker's exploits and also where the unfortunate H.A. Crabb & followers were massacred, I am obliged to keep a pretty sharp look out. The women, however, are very kind & affectionate, and in case of difficulty invariably give you a warning and find a place of concealment for you. At least I have found it so on two occasions. <..,>
Guaymas, the seaport of Sonora & an old city, contains perhaps eight thousand inhabitants and being an earthquake country the houses are but one story high and mostly built of adoby [sic], which is the building material of mostly all houses in Mexico and on entering one is reminded more of a large brickyard than of a large city. <..,> I would not have come here but that the three states above named will without doubt be annexed to the U.S. - if so your humble servant is all right. I have had five years experience in California and any chance that may offer here I am on hand, in fact the pioneer."
Ten Eyck also briefly describes his experiences in British Columbia during the recent Fraser River Gold Rush: "It is as hot as blazes [in Guaymas]. I feel it more perhaps than others just having come from a northern country, as the year past I have been at Vancouver's Island & British Columbia. You of course heard of the Fraser River excitement. I was almost the first of the many thousands that rushed to that cold country. It did not prove as profitable as was anticipated, still it paid me very well, as I was able after nine months hard work to leave with a five hundred more than I took with me."
In the end Ten Eyck gives his assessment of the qualities of the women he has encountered in Guaymas, "beautiful, full of life and spirit", "very positive to us Americans" etc. A very interesting important letter, with provocative views on Mexico and a bit of information on one American's experiences in the Fraser River Gold Rush.
O.B. Throop was the owner of the only drug store in the county which still exists today as the Schoharie pharmacy, and a Secretary of the Board of Directors of the Albany and Schoharie plank road (1862).


[Original Watercolour Panorama of Mombasa].

Mombasa, ca. 1880. Watercolour and ink on paper, ca. 11,5x29,5 cm (5 ½ x11 ½ in). Mounted on period beige laid paper and recently matted. Captioned in ink "Mombasa through the Glass from the Anchorage" in the left lower corner; additional ink caption on the laid paper "Mombasa - a town on the coast north from Zanzibar." Minor creases on the left corners, with a minor stain, otherwise a very good watercolour.
A tranquil view of Mombasa, likely just before the time when it came under the administration of the British East Africa Association.


[Anonymous Period French Manuscript Account of Napoleon’s Invasion of Russia in 1812 Titled:] Campaigne de Russie. Toujour victorieux depuis 19 ans, Napoleon revait la conquete du monde, et les limites de la terre semblaiens trop rapprochee, pour fixer le terme de ses exploits!...

[Ca. 1820-1825]. Folio (ca. 32,5x22 cm). 73, [2] pp. stitched with a string. Brown ink on watermarked lined paper, text in French. Housed in a later laid paper cover with the manuscript title: “Campagne de Russie. Manuscrit anonyme,” inside a recent red quarter morocco folder with gilt lettered title on the spine and a marbled paper slipcase. Paper slightly age toned, with minor soiling and wear on the first and the last pages, but overall a very good manuscript.
Historically important period manuscript of Napoleon’s Invasion of Russia, or Russian Campaign of 1812. The narration begins on May 9, 1812 which marks the departure of the emperor to Königsberg, and ends on February 8, 1813 with the entrance of the Russians in Warsaw. Day by day the account details the main events of the campaign (crossing of the Niemen, capture of Smolensk on August 18, the Battle of Borodino on September 7, taking Moscow, etc.) and life in the French army during the advance towards Moscow. The author describes marches, battles, bivouacs, fire scenes and looting, hunger, heat, and lack of organization. There are also numerous notes that paint a portrait of Napoleon: "Napoleon was 43 years old and enjoyed robust health, he was little, fat, with high shoulders, short neck, big head, Greek profile and ponderous gait; his face was broad and pale, he had straight black hair, tawny gray eyes and thick eyebrows, his teeth were beautiful; his penetrating gaze, his motionless features, he was naturally taciturn, although only two passions painted on his face: anger, which made him momentarily lose reason, and the joy he expressed the contrary, by a very gracious smile; [...] At the beginning of a fight, the first cannon shots were giving to Napoleon an unbridled joy; then he remained impassive: generals, soldiers, fell dead before his eyes, nothing disturbed him." The narrator criticizes the emperor’s harsh judgment he wore on his defeated army, as he himself was "covered with furs, locked in a good car, always sleeping in a good bed and drinking Bordeaux wine with all his meals…"
The entry from the 7th of September described the Battle of Borodino "the bloodiest we have seen since the invention of gunpowder," which resulted in 70 000 killed on both sides, including 40 generals. Then came the invasion of Moscow "against all the rules of art,” where the governor general Fedor Rostopchin allegedly inspired the inhabitants to start the fire the following night. There is a note about frenzied looting during the fire, led by soldiers who had "braved death in the hope of owning Moscow’s wealth and abundance." On the 20th of September the army included 90,000 men and 20,000 wounded or sick, the supplies became scarce because "everything had burned or ravaged." Napoleon turned "from the offensive to the defensive and remained inactive in Moscow for 34 days in the midst of the ashes and disorder", and was forced to order the retreat which began on October 23, after he had decided to burn the Kremlin out of a “senseless revenge.”
Thus begins a detailed account of the retreat, with forced marches, starvation, cold, injuries and diseases, harassment by Russian troops, dropping of the wounded and weapons. The imperial army disintegrates, orders and rumors contradict, completing the disaster. Several pages are devoted to the crossing of the Berezina River, construction of bridges, Russian attacks and the tragic crossing on November 29. "There ended the destiny of this great army, which had made Europe tremble." On December 5 Napoleon left the army for Paris, leaving the command to Murat, who in turn passed it to Prince Eugene on January 16, 1813. The army, which after crossing the Berezina numbered only 8800 fighters, was still halved near Wilno on December 10, facing the army of Tsar Alexander, consisting of 100,000 men.
The manuscript ends with the overview of various bulletins of the campaign, the list of major French commanders, and a table showing the number of different divisions of Napoleon’s army: 647,158 men composed the imperial army in the beginning of the campaign (including Prussian and Austrian troops), and only 10,396 remained upon the retreat from Moscow. As indicated in the note at the end of the manuscript, it is according to the papers found in a carriage of Napoleon "we have feebly sketched the picture where the glory of French arms and misfortunes is so astonishing that posterity will be confused one day with the fabulous stories that have come down to us."


[SMITH, Admiral Sir William Sidney] (1764-1840)
[Collection of Five Original Documents Related to the Career of Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith, Including a Naval Pass Signed by Smith as Minister Plenipotentiary at the Ottoman Porte and Commander of the British Naval Squadron in the Levant; Autograph Letter Signed by Smith to French General Duc de Maillé Regarding a Frenchman Relieved from Slavery in Algeria, and Three Other Original Notes and Letters Written by Smith or Addressed to Him; With: a Large Stipple Engraved Portrait of Smith printed on the same leaf with a Copper Engraved Scene of the Siege of Acre].

[Mediterranean] & Paris, ca. 1799, 1818, 1835-1838. Five documents of different size from Octavo (ca. 21,5x14 cm) to Folio (ca. 34,5x22,5 cm). In total 6 pp. of text. All documents in French. Brown ink on woven and laid paper, one note on decorative printed letterhead. Fold marks, paper slightly soiled and age toned, but overall a very good collection.
The portrait: London: Anthony Cardon, 1804. Stipple engraving by A. Cardon after the portrait by Rober Ker Porter. Printed on the same leaf with the “Siege of Acre” scene, engraved by James Mitan. Size of both images together: ca. 40x21 cm (15 ¾ x 8 ¼ in). Paper slightly soiled around edges, with minor creases on the right margin, otherwise a very good engraving.
Interesting collection of original manuscripts and a printed document authored by or addressed to Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith, famous British naval commander of the Napoleonic Wars. The earliest document dating ca. 1799 relates to the peak of Smith’s naval career – his service in the Mediterranean and successful defence of the fortress of Acre against the troops of Napoleon (20 March – 21 May 1799). The Siege of Acre was one of Napoleon’s few defeats and became the turning point in the French invasion of Egypt and Syria. The document is a naval pass, printed in French and signed by Smith who is titled as a Minister Plenipotentiary at the Ottoman Porte and a Commander of the British Naval Squadron in the Levant. The pass is unfilled, it bears an official Ottoman stamp, and a red wax seal under paper embossed with the British stamp; according to the note on the bottom margin it was issued by the order of Smith’s secretary John Keith. Noteworthy is the fact that Smith’s title given to him in 1799 and endowing him with both political and naval authority caused a conflict with his direct superiors Lord St. Vincent and Admiral Nelson.
Another interesting document is Smith’s recommendation letter written in 1818 and addressed to French General Charles-François-Armand, duc de Maillé (1770-1837). The letter discusses one Dumont, a French mariner who was released from slavery after being held captive in Algeria for many years. Smith asks for a possibility of a pension for Dumont, sharing his impression of the mariner: “His story is so simple and so detailed, his character even if simple, is so candid and truthful in all that I could check of him, that I have no doubt that he had been a castaway as he says on the coast of Africa onboard the Corvette Le Lievre, then a boy of 14 years of age, and a servant to the aide-de-camp of Mr. Duc de Maille…” The letter illustrates Smith’s active involvement in the anti-slavery and anti-piracy movement against the Barbary pirates of the southern Mediterranean in the 1810s.
Among the other documents related to the time of Smith’s residence in Paris later in life, is a manuscript note from Smith requesting for an audience with the Minister of Foreign Affairs regarding an urgent and important matter; a note to one “Mr. Sasa” who “has been invited by Admiral Sir Sidney Smith to review some lifesaving machines of his own inventions <…> He has also been granted permission to bring along with him some acquaintances of his who might take an interest in those devices” (dated 1838 and signed “W.S.S.”), as well as a letter to Smith, from his friend, apparently a free-mason who was unable to attend a gathering in the lodge owing to professional duties. Overall an interesting collection from the archive of a renowned hero of the Napoleonic Wars.
"Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith was the British admiral of whom Napoleon Bonaparte said, "That man made me miss my destiny" (Wikipedia).


NOYES, William R.
[Original Manuscript Logbook Titled:] August 14 1803. Journal Kept on a Passage to Antwerp in the Ship Friendship of Newport [Rhode Island], Geor[ge] Shearman [1766-1829] Master.

At Sea and in Various Ports, 1803-1805. Small Quarto (ca. 19x17,5 cm). 132 pages total: 55, [56-126] pp., 9 blank leaves, [6] pp. Brown ink on laid paper, the text is in English, written in a legible hand. Original brown quarter sheep journal with papered boards. Bookseller’s paper label ca. 1930s with typewritten description of the journal attached to the front paste down endpaper. Binding rubbed at extremities, first hinge cracked and repaired with old tape, paper slightly age toned, but overall a very good journal.
A historically interesting account of how American merchant vessels trying to maintain trade with Europe were treated during the Napoleonic wars. The "Friendship" left Newport, Rhode Island on Sunday the 14th of August 1803 and on "Mon 24th of Oct we arrived in Antwerp after a passage of 71 days." The manuscript gives a detailed account of the merchant voyage, with the usual entries relating position, weather, sail handling, ships spoken, and events on board (sailors getting sick, dolphins and a shark caught by captain Shearman, northern lights seen et al.). In addition, the “Friendship” found herself embroiled in the Napoleonic Wars. She was repeatedly harassed by English vessels, sometimes posing as Frenchmen in hopes of finding English subjects among the crew. “She then sent her boat on board of us with three officers in it & all of them pretended to be Frenchman & wanted to sea our papers & seaman's protection. They then told us that […?], Amsterdam, Rotterdam & Emden were all blockaded. This ship was the same won that boarded us yesterday. As we suppose they try’d very hard to get some hold of the Friendship crew by questioning them, but could not, so they bid us good night & went on Board” (the entry from 14 September 1803). A couple of weeks later they were fired upon and boarded by another English frigate that “has been out two months & has taken 8 prizes.” They spoke other American ships that had been treated roughly. But the English were after other game. On October 3 they “saw a privateer Brig in chase of a smuggler cutter.” Finally on October 5, they were boarded by an English cutter who told them that Antwerp was not blockaded. So they made for that port with crew and cargo intact.
The journal continues with this level of detail at Antwerp, naming names of crewmen and ships, and adventures ashore – “Many curiosity. Saw a man & woman fight – the man came up 2nd.” They discharged their cargo of coffee and sugar, and took on a cargo of bricks. Then, just before they departed, they heard “the news of Peace between France & Great Britain.” They stopped at Flushing to take on more cargo, then crossed the wintry north Atlantic and worked their way up the east coast of America, with stops at Charleston and Baltimore, finally returning to Newport on Monday June 11th,1804.
At the end of the journal are several pages of accounts by the journal keeper, who signs himself as William R. Noyes, and who was probably the supercargo on the voyage. According to a note from a genealogy, typed and tipped onto the front pastedown, Noyes rose to become captain of the brig “Seraph” in 1829, and in 1831 he was captain of the sloop “Independence” which sailed around the Horn on a fishing expedition to Juan Fernandez. “Among other things he brought home were some pumpkin seeds which are said to have been used on a farm ever since and are of very fine quality.”


MUDGE, Alfred A.
[Journal of a Near Circumnavigation from San Francisco Round the World, via Hawaii, the Maluku Islands, Straits of Sunda, Calcutta and Cape of Good Hope Titled:] Journal Kept on Board Ship Huron, from San Francisco to Calcutta (and Calcutta to Boston), by Alfred Mudge. Thomas Cunningham, Master.

At Sea, May 18, 1853 - March 4, 1854. Folio (32x21 cm). Lined journal of ca. 400 pages of which 93 have been filled in manuscript in dark brown ink in a very legible hand. Period brown diced half sheep with marbled boards. Extremities rubbed, but overall a very good journal.
Mudge kept a detailed journal of the position, weather, sail handling, events on board, land sighted and ships – including American whalemen – spoken. The Huron left San Francisco on the 18th of May and then arrived in Honolulu after a passage of three weeks, and the crew was surprised to be held in quarantine until they could be inspected for small pox. The captain took umbrage and “we steered off SW by W.” Six weeks later they reached the Maluku Islands in the Halmahera Sea and then steered south towards the Banda and Java Seas. Then seventy-seven days out they spoke a Dutch brig. The captain wished communication and signaled her. However, “our signal halyard parted and the ensign came down. The Dutchman, not knowing what to make of it, braced up his after yard and steered off.” He gives an excellent account, a few days later, of being swarmed by Malaysian trading craft in Sunda Strait: "manned with about a dozen half naked Malays, such hooting when they handle their oars, they have everything to sell and will ask you a good if you see fit to give. The Captain bought about 30 doz. Fowls with yam sweet potatoes, banas (sic) &c also Monkey and mongoes (sic)."And, on August 11, their 85th day out, “One incident I have neglected to mention… we came very near to losing the Captain’s Monkey…” which event he then narrates. They reached Calcutta September 1st, and Mudge writes a ten page port log, as they repaired the ship, discharged ballast, and took on a cargo of gunny bags, linseed, cow hide, jute, hemp, goat skins, and shellac. Then they took on 3700 gallons of water, and “Pigs, Fowl, Duck, Geese, Potatoes, Onions, &c.” They were in Calcutta for seven weeks and then got underweigh for Boston October 20th 1853. They rounded the Cape of Good Hope and then the journal ends March 4, 1854 – 130 days out, most likely the day before they reached Boston judging by the Huron's position.


[Album of Sixteen Watercolours and one Brown Crayon Drawing of New Caledonia Titled on Spine:] Nouvelle Calédonie - Aquarelles. [With : No. 8 of La Petite Lune (1878-9) - Dessins de Gill - Le Mot du Canaque laid in].

Ca. 1878. The sixteen captioned (in French) watercolours each ca. 20x14,5 cm (8 x 5 ½ in.) on album leaves (one mounted), with a slightly larger brown crayon drawing tipped in. Recent marbled papered boards with red gilt titled spine label. A couple of watercolours strengthened at lower blank margin and a couple with minor edge wear, but overall in very good condition. “La Petite Lune” with some minor wear on edges but overall very good.
This interesting and unusual watercolour album was made by an anonymous French settler or visitor to New Caledonia which was at the time a French penal colony. These paintings were most likely made during the period of native revolt, "a violent reaction [to French colonization] in 1878 as High Chief Atal of La Foa managed to unite many of the central tribes and launched a guerrilla war which cost 200 Frenchmen and 1,000 Kanaks their lives" (Wikipedia); The subjects of these attractive watercolours are: Ouenia waterfall; In the lagoon rocks at Hienghène; A native coastal settlement (crayon drawing); Calciferous Islet; Ouamini? River valley; View of Ponérihouen from the river; In the reefs; View of Kuto, Ile des Pins; Forest fire; Tontouta waterfall; Habitation of a rancher; Mouth of La Foa River; A boat and a ship sailing in the Huon Islands; Ship Notre Dame in the Bay of Hienghène; View of a farm, Yaooe?; Coulee in the rocks by Hienghène; Grotte de Hortense, Ile des Pins.


WALTON, Frederic E.
[Album with 21 Signed "F.E.W." Original Watercolours Titled:] Sketches in the United States of America and Canada.

Ca. 1892. Quarto (27x24 cm). With 21 monochrome mounted watercolours ca. 12,5x24,5 cm (5 x 9 ½ in). Period dark brown gilt tooled half morocco with brown cloth sides album produced by J. L Fairbanks & Co. Boston. Some minor age-toning of mount leaves but overall a very good album.
This album contains attractive watercolours of a tour through Ontario, New York State and Vermont and includes views of: "The American Fall - July 1892;" "Horseshoe Fall;" "American Fall:" "The Thousand Islands;" "The Sentinel;" "Lotus Island;" "Lake of the Thousand Islands;" a lake scene; a river steamer; "Saranac Inn;" "Little Fish Creek;" "Bowditch Camp. Keene Valley;" "Putnam Camp;" " The Brook. Keene Valley;" "Camp. Ausable Lake;" "Ausable Lake;" "Lake Champlain;" "Lake Champlain(2);" "Adirondack Deer;" ocean view; residence on a lake.


WINTERBOTTOM, Thomas, Rear Admiral (1847-1928) C.B.E.
[Small Archive of Documents Relating to the Naval Career of Rear Admiral Thomas Winterbottom but Focusing on the 1867 Niger River Expedition of H.M.S. Investigator: Including an 18 1/2 page Manuscript Very Content Rich Journal of the Day to Day Events of the Expedition of the H.M.S. Investigator up the Niger from the 27th July to the 14th August 1867; [With] Winterbottom's Admiralty Commission as Assistant Paymaster Dated 25th November 1868; [With] Winterbottom's Admiralty Commission as Paymaster-in-Chief Dated 1st October 1903; [With] Winterbottom's Envelope and note from the Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood; [With] Winterbottom's 1928 Obituary Clipped from a Newspaper.]

Folio manuscript journal (ca. 33x21 cm) dark brown in on brownish wove paper on five bifoliums for a total of 20 pages written on 18 1/2 rectos and versos. Journal with original folds and toning and minor chips to margins, not affecting text, written in a legible hand and overall in very good condition. Commission folios on vellum and paper completed in manuscript, with original fold marks and the paper one with some minor staining and tears not affecting text, but overall the documents are in very good condition as are the envelope, note and obituary also included in the collection.
"Paymaster Rear-Admiral Thomas Winterbottom.., entered the Navy as a clerk in the 'Sixties, and during his early career saw much war service on the West Coast of Africa. He served through the Niger Expedition of 1867, and was specially promoted [commission included in this archive] to Paymaster for his gallantry. During the Ashanti War of 1873-4 he was serving in H.M.S. Druid, and was present at the bombardment of Elmina and other operations on the Gold Coast, for which he received the Ashanti Medal. The Egyptian war of 1882 found him serving in H.M.S. Thalis, and he secured the Egyptian Medal and the Khedive's Bronze Star. Twelve years later, whilst Fleet Paymaster of H.M.S. Raleigh, the flagship of the West Africa Station, he was present at Bathurst during the landing of the Naval Brigade for the Gambia Expedition. He was promoted to Paymaster-Captain in 1903 (Commission included in this archive), and shortly afterwards retired from the active service. In the Great War he was again actively employed and for his services he was awarded the C.B.E. he was advanced to the rank of Paymaster Rear-Admiral on the retired list" (Obituary).
HMS Investigator was a two gun wooden paddle survey vessel of the Royal Navy, launched in 1861 to carry out expeditions in West Africa. On "28 Jul 1867 under the command of Lieut. A. E. Kay [H.M.S. Investigator] proceeded up the River Niger, with the pinnace Vindictive in tow, to carry wood and to assist with laying out anchors, the Investigator's boats being too small.., The expedition to last for 60 days should provisions last or to return earlier in the event severe sickness attacking the crew. 6 Sep 1867 a report was received by the Commodore in the Bristol, then in the Bights, that the Investigator was aground for 5 days off Mebhanna and that the natives had fired on the vessel killing a krooman and wounding 4 others. Stores and provisions were thrown over-board to get off, the provisions being replaced by the steamer Thomas Bazley : Mr. McLeod, H.M. Consul in the Niger was reported to be sick" (Naval Database).
The journal chronicles the day-to-day events of the H.M.S. Investigator's 1867 voyage up the Niger from the 27th July to the14th August when they reach Osamari and includes descriptions of the grounding of the Investigator and the many sometimes deadly skirmishes with hostile natives.
Excerpts from the manuscript include:
"July 27th. "Arrived at the mouth of the Nun and anchored for the night, sent Pinnace per signal from 'Espoir' with empty coal bags. Went on board 'Espoir' & reported to Captain Peile , that being battened down, ship straining and leaking, it would be impossible to coal that night."
July 31st. "... Passed the hostile villages Aloberi, Kiamah, & Opotolo which fired just after passing, 6 guns - 10. Passed the hostile villages of Imblamah, a canoe pulling off with wood. 11:45 grounded suddenly on a sand bank, marked on the chart as I thought an island... Two canoes came alongside, one with a goat... The other canoe containing about 15 men making demands for drink... I deemed it advisable to lighten her forward, having 15 tons of coal... Landed coal, about 4 tons... When suddenly a heavy fire of musketry was opened on us, and the ship, the krooman guarding coal attacked and driven into the water, natives swimming after him, severely wounding him on head with some sharp weapon...
...most of my kroowmen having jumped overboard, I hailed the ship to open fire... Having only one man left with me... The krooman who had been attacked floating down the River - Sent Sub-Lieutenant [Mallory] to pick him up, a heavy fire being opened on the boat... I used ten rounds of ammunition to each white man & armed the kroomen with cutlass, pikes, knives & every available weapon...
... Casualties - 1. Kroomen on shore badly wounded... But as they [natives] saw the paddles in motion they kept up heavy fire", my korromen being very frightened, I was obliged to draw my sword on some who would not work under fire... When the natives saw no men on deck they ceased firing. Water rising a little, commenced lightening the ship, & heaving overboard everything heavy... Unfortunately they pitched two more bread pancheons overboard than I intended...
2 August. "... 9.10. Departed this life from wounds Mr Grants - Engineer Steward... 2.20 PM. Committed to the deep the remains of Mr. Grants deceased... Having been up since the ship grounded, over exertion & anxiety produced a feverish attack...the men also beginning to feel the effects of want of rest... "
3 August. "... The ship still aground... Coal getting short, drew fires & blew out boiler, intending to try and dig the sand clear of paddle wheels. Employed heaving overboard private gear, got Bickford's fuze ready for blowing the ship up... I see no possible chance of getting the ship off, as I find less water every day... The natives being reinforced every day... "
"... At about 2 PM heard natives on shore hailing & shewing a white flag, I returned it by shewing a handkerchief, when a Boast with four men came alongside, by means of an interpreter the following intercourse took place. - It appears by their statement that ...when the krooman was left to look after the coal, he strayed as he states 'to go to the rear' but the natives on shore say he went into their plantation...
... The saw either the body of the deceased man or us burying him, and being afraid of the consequences... The hostile villages had sent them a message that if they hurt any white men next year large steamers would come up & take their country - They said they wished for us peace, but in my own belief they were short of ammunition... Frightened of what they had already done... They also said that another steamer had passed up the river a short time back, near this place, & that for a dash, they had dug her out... They would do the same for me, they then wanted me to give a present for their chief, which I did & also a bottle of Brandy, they promised to return..."
4th August. "... Captain beginning to get very weak, also men gradually getting weaker after four days hard work, & exposure I deemed it advisable to give them a little rest. A canoe came alongside with fowls to barter and a present... Mr. Mallory also presented the chief with a new coat... They then left promising to bring 20 men & dig us out, natives coming freely round the ship, the greater part of them being females. 1 PM. Natives came off & commenced digging ship out... I deemed it advisable to send them away for the night & to have an interview with the chief on shore...
...I then informed him that I came to see King Masaba, that I would not hurt him, or any of his people... If he would dig the ship out... To come onboard & see what he would like, for having thrown overboard nearly everything, I was placed in a very strange position... "
5th August. "... Lighted fire, got up steam, kroomen having dug trench deeper... Ship still hard aground... I fear my only chance of getting ship off will be to wait until the River flows, or with the assistance of the steamer 'Thomas Bazley' returning...
... Canoe going to and for with messages from chief concerning what I would give him to get me off & he wanted rum... I would not give a single thing more until the ship was afloat... Received a message requesting to know if I would send one man, as hostage for the 20 he would send, and a guarantee for the present... I immediately send the man, (one krooman John Brown who volunteered), not fearing treachery... Canoe left with cowries (5 bags) and John Brown Krooman (Benin Boy)... Suddenly a heavy crop fire with large guns & musquets was opened on us from the bush... I returned do. With both Howitzer loaded... & rifles... When the shell from the Howitzer burnt among them I heard screams as though some of them had been killed, or wounded, them firing also... Eventually ceasing about 3.30 PM...
I find it almost impossible, my crew being mostly composed of Kroomen, & they having been under fire before, to heave the ship off. I fear very much that John Brown krooman is killed, but being a Benin Boy they may sell him..."
7th August. "... Only 1/2 ton of coal left... Water still falling... 12.12 foremost Howitzer dismounted by recoil... Heavy firing still going on down the river... A canoe was observed pulling for the ship, holding up an umbrella, I shewed a white flag... The man informed me had come from his father, at a place near Onitsha, having heard that a man was aground in the river, & also to enquire the reason of the natives firing on us, that he was going on shore immediately to hold a palaver... I asked him if it were possible to get back my Benin Boy... He said that with the aid of a bottle of rum he might be able to restore the Benin Boy, & sent his canoe with the rum, for that purpose, himself remaining on board... The canoe in a short time returned, bringing back the rum, not having seen anyone... I then gave them food, observed four musquets & several swords in the Boat. About 4:30 they left the ship, being called by the natives on shore & did not return."
9th August. "... This being the 10th day we have been on shore, water having left us... The same who informed us he had come from his father at Onitsha... He had held palaver... Tried to bring off the man they had made prisoner... Is I would give him a tail-coat he would bring off my man... As the man was taken prisoner as an hostage, not in a fight, I would not..."
10th August. "... Kroomen over side digging away sand... Ship slightly started, draught of water about from 6ft to 10ft, forward 3 feet 8 inches... Weather threatening & at noon commenced to rain. 1.45 sent kroomen to dig away sand, heaving in on cables... 2. ship floated, opening on starboard cable... Got up steam, clearing pinnace & stowing chain ... Sent pinnace for the coals that were landed before reaching shore, a fire was opened on her & ship... Returned do. With rifles, but ship swinging stern on the guns would not bear, most of the kroomen jumped overboard from boat but pinnace got alongside, mostly by the aid of the gunner's mate... Went in gig & brought off canoe, natives deserting her as I approached..."
11th August. "... Proceeded towards hostile villages with white flag at fore. 11.20 anchored off ditto & informed them that if they did not deliver up my man, I would open fire in them. White flag responded to by villages on shore... 2 PM. Natives took man over to the opposite shore, abreast the ship, in an unarmed boat, send boat to communicate with do. But boat having waited over half an hour, & kroomen not coming towards the gig & finding they would not give up the man, & not being the least alarmed about his safety, weighed & steamed up river, it being my intention to recover him by force, on my return down the river..."
12th August. "... 6.15 Weighed, proceeded slowly up the river, soundings very irregular, numerous sand spits not shown in chart... 10. Touched ground, backed astern, sent gig to sound a canoe... 10.40 Allowed a canoe with pilot Jack flying, pilot came alongside, hoisted his canoe up... He knew very little about river... 12.50 Stopped & anchored off Ebo. 1.20 Chief from Ohaghi[?] visited the ship, gave him a dash... Informed him that I had come to visit chiefs & also that I wanted wood, which I would pay for, he swent the canoe for ditto. 3. The chief of Ebo & his wife came on board, presented him with gifts which seemed to please him very much... The next day both chiefs still remaining on board, their great desire being to get rum, I gave them as much as I thought proper. 5. Chief of Odaghi's canoe came off with a little wood, promising more in the morning & wishing to be paid for what he already brought off. I gave him 1 bag of cowries =25/. The chief of Ebo presented me with a Bullock providing I came on shore, the first thing in the morning, to shoot it.
14th August. "... Anchored off Osamari... 9.30 Chief came off, presented him with Government Present... 2 PM. Passing Oki village... 4.10 anchored at Onitsha, laid out warps to steamer Thomas Bazley to keep ship from swinging into the eddy... At Mission House the Bishop kindly offered his services to go with us. Presented chief with his present... Heard from Mr. Jervis, that the steamer Thomas Bazley had been on shore... For 9 days, but natives were friendly, she also grounded on the same spit that I had been on shore on,, but being a powerful steamer, backed off, they also informed me that the river being so low, the charts could not be relied on…"


TAYLOR, B[en] P.
[Autograph 4 1/2 page Content Rich Letter in Pencil on Lined Paper with the Original Stamped Envelope, Signed B. P. Taylor Addressed to C. M. Lockwood, Salem, Oregon and Dated Nome July 9, 1900, Describing in Vivid Details the First Months of the Gold Rush at Nome.]

Nome, Alaska, 9 July 1900. The four page letter with twenty-five lines per page. The first three pages with the pencil text written recto only and the fourth also with seven lines written on verso, Taylor's signature underneath. Letter accompanied by addressed & stamped envelope, postmarked. Sheet size: "Received / Jul 23 1900 / C. M. Lockwood" red stamp to top of first page of letter. First page of letter and envelope with 'pin' holes to top left, otherwise, both written in a legible hand and in very good condition.
Ben Taylor had travelled to Nome from Oregon with Fred Lockley (later famed journalist) and together they were both appointed Nome's and also Alaska's first mailmen on June 21st, 1900. In this letter Taylor, less than a month on the job, vividly describes the growing Gold Rush town of Nome which at that point was barely a year old: "Saloons are thick. One place has 15 in one row all side by side they run open as a grocery store at home and are full of every gambling game you can think of. Women go in just the same as men just like saloons at fair time. Every one has music of some kind. Some have dance halls. You dance with a girl then they take her up to the bar and treat costs 50 cents and that is the way it goes on that line. To try to describe it proper would be impossible. Ever since I been here you could count 50 ships in the harbor any day and they are coming and going every day. When we landed on the beach there was the worst jam you ever saw. Freight piled 10 feet high as far as you can see millions of dollars laying on the beach in everything you can think of, and everyone trying to get their stuff first, and only 4 or 5 feet from the water and that space filled with wagons and dog teams, men with carts and any old thing you could ask for. I wish you could see the power plants on the beach they are stretched out for miles up and down the beach. Steam, gasoline, coal, oil, windmills etc. I wish you could see them and all the different kinds of machines for saving gold. Everyone has a different idea. And talk about your boat building, the people are making thousands of them to go to the different streams prospecting and mining. Tents on the beach are as thick as they can stick for 20 miles most all camped on the sand from 20 to 60 feet from the water. This town is a mushroom town, sprang from 5 thousand to 30000 in a week or two, such a jam on the street you can hardly push yourself along sometimes. The streets is so narrow in some places I can step across the street from side walk to side walk in two steps hardly as wide as out alleys at home. I have seen one team block the whole street. A drunk man can lay down on the side walk or in the street and sleep all day people walk around him and never bother him at all. I could write for a week if I had the time to spare but will tell you all when I get home. I am making from 5 to 7 dollars a day now working in the Post Office. Am going mining in a few days."
"When the Nome, Alaska, post office opened in June 1899, Joseph Wright was named postmaster. By that fall, over 3,000 people were in Nome, with thousands more on the way. Clum had returned to Alaska in April, and concentrated his efforts on Western Alaska and the Bering Sea, extending postal service to the north Bering Sea coast, and establishing semi-monthly postal service between Nome and Point Blossom. By the summer of 1900, the Nome rush had reached its peak. Over 20,000 people crowded the city and beaches of Nome, looking for gold--and mail. Clum, who assumed charge of the Nome post office for much of the summer of 1900, employed 23 men in that tiny building. Fortunately for him, among the gold-seekers that summer were two letter carriers from Salem, Oregon. Fred Lockley, Jr. And Ben Taylor, after obtaining temporary leaves of absence from their jobs, had arrived in Nome looking for gold that summer. When it became apparent to both that there were no available claims, they approached Clum with an interesting offer--their service as free city delivery carriers. The pair were hired, and their work was deeply appreciated by the astonished citizens of Nome. Lockley wrote about their work in a small book, "Alaska's First Free Mail Delivery in 1900" (Smithsonian Postalmuseum).
"In the summer of 1898, the "Three Lucky Swedes": Norwegian-American Jafet Lindeberg, and two naturalized American citizens of Swedish birth, Erik Lindblom and John Brynteson, discovered gold on Anvil Creek. News of the discovery reached the outside world that winter. By 1899, Nome had a population of 10,000 and the area was organized as the Nome mining district. In that year, gold was found in the beach sands for dozens of miles along the coast at Nome, which spurred the stampede to new heights. Thousands more people poured into Nome during the spring of 1900 aboard steamships from the ports of Seattle and San Francisco. By 1900, a tent city on the beaches and on the treeless coast reached 48 km (30 mi), from Cape Rodney to Cape Nome. In June of that year, Nome averaged 1000 newcomers a day" (Wikipedia).


[Collection of Four Related Autograph Letters Signed by John Franklin, Frederick William Beechey, John Richardson and John D. Hunter, Apparently Addressed to Nicholas Garry, Deputy Governor of the Hudson’s Bay Company).

Four ALS, all dated by days of the week but without a year, but 1824. Three Small Octavos (ca. 18x11,5 cm), and one small note ca. 9,5x11 cm. Each 1 page, brown ink on paper. One with a pencil written list of names on verso. All with old identical guards on verso, indicating that the letters were mounted together in an album. Very good letters.
An interesting collection of original letters by noted Arctic explorers, apparently all related to meetings to make preparations for the 1824-25 voyages to find the Northwest Passage. Three letters were written by the members of two corresponding expeditions to the region: John Franklin and John Richardson, who explored the shores of the Arctic Ocean west and east of the Coppermine River in 1825-1827, and Frederick William Beechey, who explored the Bering Strait from the west in 1825-1828, in an attempt to meet Franklin’s expedition. In his letter Franklin also mentions George Francis Lyon who was to sail on HMS Griper to the Repulse Bay in June 1824. The author of the fourth letter, John D. Hunter, also mentioned in Franklin’s letter as a participant of one of the meetings, was apparently an organiser or a member of one of those expeditions. Dated by days of the week, the letters refer to several meetings in March 1824. John Richardson’s letter was written at “55 Devonshire Street,” which was John Franklin’s London address.
Beechey’s and Hunter’s letters are addressed to “Mr. Garry,” most likely Nicholas Garry (ca. 1782-1856), deputy governor of the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1822-1835. Fort Garry (now Winnipeg) was founded and named after him in 1822. Several places in the Northwest Passage were named after him during the expedition season of 1825-27. John Franklin gave his name to the Garry Island in the delta of the Mackenzie River “for all his active kindness and indefatigable attention to the comfort of myself and my companions” (Franklin, J. Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea, 1825, 1826, and 1827. London, 1828, p. 36). William Parry named Cape Garry in the Somerset Island, Prince Regent Inlet “after by worthy friend Nicholas Garry, Esq., one of the most active members of the Hudson’s Bay Company, and a gentleman most warmly interested in everything connected with northern discovery” (Parry, W. Journal of a Third Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific; Performed in the Years 1824-25 in His Majesty's Ships Hecla and Fury. London, 1826, p. 140).
In his letter to Mr. Garry, John D. Hunter also mentions “Mr. Halkett”, who was most likely, John Halkett (1768-1852), director of the HBC and a member of its London Committee.
The texts of the letters:
Franklin: “My dear Sir, I shall have great pleasure in joining your party on Thursday the 25th but you must let me off early as I am engaged to an Evening party. I was just going to write to you when your note came, to say Mrs. Franklin and I will be glad to have the pleasure of your company at dinner on Tuesday 30th March at six. I hope Mr. Hunter will be with us also. I will send your letter to Capt. Lyon and I shall probably take the opportunity of seeing Parry tomorrow. Ever sincerely & faithfully yours, John Franklin. Tuesday Eveng.”
Richardson: “Dear Sir, I shall with much pleasure dine with you on Wednesday next at 7. I am dear Sir yours sincerely, John Richardson. Saturday, 55 Devonshire Street.”
Beechey: “Captain Beechey presents his compliments to Mr. Garry and will have the pleasure of accepting his polite invitation for the 6th inst. Harley Street, March 21st.”
Hunter: “I sincerely thank you my dear Mr. Garry for the book you were kind enough to send me, but my engagements will I fear render it out of my power to read it through. I will dine with you on Tuesday if I return from Brighton in time. I shall start at 11 this morning, & contemplate to return on Monday evening, I am much pleased to hear that among other friends Mr. Halkett will be one. Believe me very sincerely yours &c. John D. Hunter. Saturday morning.”


TAILER, Gillam, Assistant Commissary at Passamaquoddy, New Brunswick
[Official Report Signed “Gillam Tailer” to Major General John Campbell, “Commanding His Majesty’s Troops in the Province of Nova Scotia,” Regarding Lack of Provisions for the Loyalist Troops and Residents in Passamaquoddy].

N.p., n.d. Ca. after May 1784. Folio (ca. 32x20 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on C. Taylor watermarked laid paper. Numbered in ink in different hand in the upper left corner. Fold marks, tears on extremities and along the folds, paper aged, worn, and with some soiling, but overall a very good letter written in legible hand.
Interesting report about the early years of St. Andrews, New Brunswick, compiled shortly after the end of the American Revolutionary War. The Assistant Commissary at Passamaquoddy Gillam Tailer informs Major John Campbell (ca. 1727-1974) of the lack of provisions and extreme distress experienced by the disbanded corps in the settlement, and implores Campbell to provide adequate food and relief to the people: “many of the settlers there are reduced to the most Extreme Distress having neither Provision or Clothing, and some of them have no other sustenance than Water, and have not strength to help themselves; <…> those Settleres have never Received any Meat, for the Sixty Days Extra allowance which was Graciously intended, and that 2600 weight of the Flour which was sent from St. John’s intended to be delivered to your memorialist, was issued at Bever [sic!] Harbour before it got to his hand, by which means the Settlers at St. Andrews and that District fell short that quantity of the Flour for the Sixty days. Your memorialist humbly prays you would take the Very Deplorable Case of these unhappy people into your Consideration and order such Relief as may be in your Power to Grant.”


[Early Interesting Unsigned Autograph Letter by a Resident of British India, addressed to One of the Strachey Baronets, with the Recommendations to his Cousin on the Best Way of an Overland Travel from England to India, via Vienna, Bucharest, Constantinople, Baghdad and Basra, Advising on the Routes, Dress, Luggage and Ways of Dealing with Native Guides].

[British India], ca. 1803-1806. Octavo bifolium (ca. 23,5x18,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on laid paper watermarked “1803.” Mild fold marks, but overall a very good letter.
Interesting content rich letter advising on the best way to travel overland from England to India via the Middle East. Compiled in India, most certainly compiled by an officer of the East India Company, the letter contains some noteworthy comments on one of the two main overland routes to India – via Vienna, Constantinople, Baghdad, Basra and hence by sea to Bombay. Compiled relatively early for such a route, the letter is addressed to “Dear Strachey” (apparently one of the Strachey Baronets) and provides “a few hints for the purpose of enabling your cousin to get hither by land & I trust with less inconvenience than he would experience was he to start without being possessed of my information on the subject.”
The author advises to choose a route from Vienna to Constantinople via Hermannstadt and Bucharest, not the usual route via Prague and Belgrade as the latter one is unsafe. He also recommends to procure recommendation letters to the Governor of Hermannstadt and the British Agent in Bucharest, and to “not encumbering himself with much luggage, as there are parts of his trip where he will find it totally impossible to convey it; two small portmanteaus ought to contain all that he starts with from Vienna.”
“At Constantinople the Company’s Agent will provide him, with a Tatar’s dress (and I strongly recommend him to adopt it for many reasons) and also a Tatar to attend him. With this Tatar a bargain must be made to provide Horses, provisions and every thing required on the road, a part of which Sum is advanced at Constantinople, and the remainder paid at Bagdat, together with a present if the Tatar behaves well. He should on no account carry any money or any thing of value with him from Constantinople, for in his poverty consists his safety, or rather in the expectation of the Tatar to gain more by landing him is safety at the end of his journey that by destroying him on the road. He will obtain letters of credit at Constantinople to Sir Harford Jones at Bagdat, and Sir Harford will procure boats or other conveyances for him from Bagdat to Bassorah from where he will have many opportunities of coming to Bombay…”
“He must be prepared to meet with many difficulties, to undergo considerable fatigue, as he will be obliged to ride from Constantinople to Bagdat, and during which he will fare very badly indeed, - neither he can carry above six changes of linen in addition to his European stock in the before mentioned two portmanteaus. I carried no change!!! And never was any one so miserable, but I believe I should have suffered more from the encumbrance of much baggage.
From Constantinople he might take the route by Antioch to Aleppo and thence over the Great Desert to Bassorah, but I found this so much worse than that by Bagdat, that I do not recommend his attempting it. The route by Diarbekin, Mosul and Merd in to Bagdat is far preferable, villages and caravanserais are met with the whole way”.
Overall a very interesting letter.
Sir Harford Jones (1764-1847) mentioned by the author, was an East India Company assistant and factor at Basrah (1783-94), and its president in Baghdad (1798-1806). “He acquired great proficiency in oriental languages, and with the assistance of Robert Dundas's patronage he was appointed envoy-extraordinary and minister-plenipotentiary to the court of Persia, where he remained from 1807-1811. He was attached to the first Persian mission lead by Sir John Malcolm (1801). He remained in Tehran from 1809 to 1810, in the service of the Dundases. During this time his main achievement was the Preliminary Treaty of 1809 that effectively barred France from the route to India” (Harford Jones Collection/ Online Archive of California).


[Collection of Three Original Signed Watercolours Showing a Female Soemmering’s Copper Pheasant, an Australian Lorikeet, and a Leadbeater’s or Pink Cockatoo].

24 December 1860. Three watercolour and pencil drawings on laid paper ca. 19x11 cm (7 ¼ x 4 ½ in), mounted on period album leaves within ink drawn frames. Each titled in Latin, dated and signed “Dr. Sg. Ad viv. [or ad nat.] pinx.” on the mounts. Collection in very good condition.
Fine example of the mid 19th century ornithological drawings, representing three exotic species of birds: Australian Lorikeet and Leadbeater’s or Pink Cockatoo (both native to Australia), and Soemmering’s Copper Pheasant, endemic to Japan. These drawings executed from nature by a European ornithologist, showcase the popularity of the study of exotic ornithology at the time as in the 19th century many scientific expeditions to tropical regions brought home new species of birds.


BRUCE, Sir Henry William, Admiral (1792-1863)
[Collection of 32 Autograph Letters Signed “Henry Bruce”, Including 16 Complete, Addressed to his Daughter Jane, the wife of a RN Officer John Alexander, Discussing Bruce’s Appointment to the RN Pacific Station, Crimean War, Various Naval Topics, South American Affairs, and Social News; with Four Original Envelopes and a Letter to Bruce from his Friends in Santiago Inviting him for Dinner].

London, Oxenford, Liverpool, HMS “Monarch” et al., ca. 1854-1859. Of those dated: 31 May 1858 – 20 December 1859. With four original envelopes, two with postal stamps dated ‘1848’ and ‘1852’. 12mo. In total over 120 pages of text. Brown and black ink on different writing paper (white, pale blue, laid paper). With a large folded undated letter to Bruce from his friends in Santiago (ca. 1854-57). Sixteen of the thirty-two letters incomplete, fold marks, paper of some letters slightly age toned, otherwise a very good collection.
Interesting collection of private letters written by Admiral Sir Henry William Bruce, KCB, a Commodore of the RN West African station in the early 1850s, Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Station (25 November 1854 – 8 July 1857), and Commander-in-Chief in Portsmouth (since 1860). During his service on the West coast of Africa, Bruce took part in the Bombardment of Lagos (1851) and signed the Treaty between Great Britain and Lagos suppressing the slave trade (1 January 1852). When the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Navy Pacific Station, Bruce initiated the construction of a military hospital in Esquimalt which became the first on-shore establishment of the Esquimalt Royal Navy base; which in its turn became the headquarters of the Pacific Station in 1865.
The collection includes Bruce’s private letters to his daughter Jane Letitia Troubridge Alexander (nee Bruce) written during his service at the Pacific Station and after his return; the Admiral confides to Mrs. Alexander his plans and thoughts, and shares the latest news from the British navy and high society.
The earliest letters written in 1854 announce Bruce’s appointment to the Pacific Station: "I have got the Pacific Command and must go by the next W. Indies packet and over the Isthmus. The packets are now uncertain being taken up for Troops. The Brisk is to sail from Portsmouth in a few days; will Alexander [Jane’s husband, a naval officer, see more below] like to go in her round the Horn or to accompany me? <…> The Indefatigable is to be my Flagship <…> Your loving father Henry Bruce Pacificus" (undated, incomplete). “I am to proceed on the 9 Decr. In the Cunard Steamer which goes direct to New York from Liverpool, where it is desirable that I should see Mr. Crampton (the English Minister) and thence to Panama, Alexander will accompany me…” (25 Nov. [1854]).
The second letter also contains an interesting note on the Crimean War and the fate of Sir Thomas St. Vincent Hope Cochrane Troubridge, who was severely wounded during the Battle of Inkerman: “I send you Col. Egerton’s account of St. Vincent. He was not with his Regt. Being Field Officer of the day on duty in a battery; he was sitting with his legs crossed, a round shot came and torn off both feet and part of one leg; he was operated on immediately under the influence of chloroform most successfully, and Graham saw him “so patient, so noble, and so brave, it brought tears to his eyes”; tho’ just come from tending his own numerous wounds. <…> St. Vincent himself writes that one foot will be saved. <…> The Russians seem to have had enough for a time".
Another letter relates to his service as the Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Station: “The Trincomalee has gone on from Hilo bay; the Packet is expected on Tuesday, and is of importance for Public News; the Monarch will await the mail here and then proceed direct to Vancouver Is.” (ca. 1855-1858).
Several letters relate to various South American affairs – “Castilla has landed in safely and […] in full pursuit of […]" (undated, regarding the Ecuadorian-Peruvian territorial dispute of 1857-60); “Logan tells me that Loyd is reinstalled in the Railway &c. Which shews good sense on the part of the Chilean Govt. That […?] Petrie managed to displace Roses; Logan went to the Comy. Here about it, and told them Rose was the most valuable servant of the two; he was told he came too late, but that Petrie must be at Callao, not Valpo. As he intended” (19 November 1858; regarding the Lima and Callao Railway Company); regrets about not being able to go to Lima - “my correspondence much increased by the late events” (undated, written on board HMS “Monarch”).
Other subjects include promotion of Jane’s husband John Richard Alexander (31 May 1858); naval career of Bruce’s youngest son “Jimmy” (future Rear Admiral James Minchin Bruce, 1833-1901); Bruce’s intentions to ask for a flagship “in the beginning of the next year” (20 December 1859); naval promotions, movements and deaths, i.e. “Fremantle gets the Channel fleet: a very bad and favouritism appointment. I am very glad it is not me,” “I see Tryon is appointed second of the Queen’s yacht…”; “If Alexander is not perfectly satisfied of the soundness of the ship, he ought to give her up and return to seek[?]; and not burthen himself with the responsibility of the valuable lives of so many men"; criticism of the Admiralty; Lord Palmerston "was twice in minorities, but they say will not retire”; notes about numerous social events – balls, “fetes,” dinners, pleasure trips; social gossip; family news; doesn't want to visit a house when "old Mother Stinkpot" is there; and others. One letter is supplemented with a poem praising life in Lamington written by Bruce; another one – with his humorous self-portrait made in ink.
John Richard Alexander (1829-1869) was a British naval officer and a flag lieutenant to Henry Bruce in 1852-54 (HMS Penelope, West African station) and in 1854-57 (HMS President and HMS Monarch, Pacific Station). In the early 1860s he was appointed the Captain of the screw sloop HMS Ariel off the coast of Africa. Alexander married Bruce’s daughter Jane in Sierra Leone in 1853.


[Very Attractive Original Manuscript Autograph Book of Members the Pennsylvania House of Representatives Titled in Calligraphy:] Autographs of the Members and Officers of the Members and Officers of the Legislature of Pennsylvania, Session 1843. Designed by J. A. Reigart for Mr. Isaac G. McKinley, State Printer.

1843. Large Octavo (21x16,5 cm). Ca. 100 leaves. Ca. 40 unnumbered leaves of autographs, some leaves with hand drawn coloured vignettes and decorative borders for the autographs in calligraphy, and additionally illustrated with four steel engraved city views and one page with two lithographed oval portraits of James K. Polk and George M. Dallas. Attractive period brown elaborately gilt and blind stamped full straight grained sheep. Expertly rebacked in style, first few leaves with very mild water staining but overall a near fine autograph book. Originally bound by Hickok & Cantine Binders, Harrisburg, P.A., with their blind stamp on the front pastedown.
Original Manuscript Autograph Book of Members the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, Including the Autograph of Pennsylvania's Ninth Governor David R. Porter (1788-1867), and the Autographs of the Electors who Voted for James K. Polk in 1844.
An important piece of Pennsylvania Legislature history, an album signed by the state's representatives from each county, during the 1843 session. Also signed by the Electors who voted for the James K. Polk, in 1844. The City of Philadelphia and then Philadelphia County are the first two pages, each signed by 7 and 8 representatives respectively. Most notably signed by David R. Porter, the ninth Governor of Pennsylvania from 1839-1845 and his chief staff. Porter was the first Governor under the State Constitution of 1838. He was elected for two terms, and was denied a third term by the Legislature. Porter was a proponent of improving roads and canals to expedite transport of iron works, an industry in which he was a financier and manager prior to politics. The state went into heavy debt as a result of his aggressive spending, but eventually recovered.


BARBOSA, Januario da Cunha (1780-1864)
[Protocols and Procedures for Burials in the Churches of Rio de Janeiro] Exposição do Padre Januario da Cunha Barbosa a El-Rei D. João VI sobre as sepulturas nas Egrejas do Rio de Janeiro.

Ca. 1813-1816. Folio (ca. 33x20 cm). 4 pp., with two integral blank leaves, tied with two pink ribbons. Brown ink on laid paper watermarked “1813”, legible text in Portuguese. Paper tag ("Avulços") glued to final leaf. Laid into later ruled paper folder (typed title as given above). Paper slightly age toned, mild fold marks, otherwise a near fine document.
Unpublished manuscript on church burials in Rio de Janeiro by one of the earliest Brazilian literary critics and an important figure in the independence movement. An apparently unpublished work on the protocols and procedures for burials in churches of Rio de Janeiro, written at a time when such burials were becoming an important public health issue. Cunha Barbosa was appointed prégador for the royal chapel in Rio de Janeiro in 1808. There he became involved in deciding which tombs in the church could be opened when a member of a family or of a religious order died. Apparently Cunha Barbosa had been reprimanded for opening one tomb, and in this work he explains his decision at greater length than he had previously done. He also states the procedures for opening a tomb and notes which church officials had to authorize it. Cunha Barbosa refers to the addressee as "V.A. R." throughout, and once as "Principe." This suggests that the addressee was D. João VI during his tenure as Prince Regent (i.e., before 1816).
Two works dealing with burials as a public health matter were published by Brazilians before independence: Vicente Coelho de Seabra Silva e Telles' Memoria sobre os prejuizos causados pelas sepulturas dos cadaveres nos templos, e methodo de os prevenir (Lisbon, 1800), and José Correa Picanço's Ensaio sobre os perigos das sepulturas dentro das cidades, e nos seus contornos (Rio de Janeiro, 1812; See Guerra, Bibliografia medica brasileira 20.)
Januario da Cunha Barbosa took orders in 1803 and soon earned such a reputation as a religious orator that in 1808 he was named prégador for the royal chapel in Rio de Janeiro. One of the leading spirits in the Independence movement, he founded and edited (along with Joaquim Gonçalves Ledo) the periodical Reverbero Constitucional Fluminense from September 1821 to October 1822. At the end of 1822 his rival from the liberal party, José Bonifácio, had him deported without trial, but a year later - as Bonifácio himself was being deported - Cunha Barbosa returned to Brazil. There he was simultaneously elected deputy to the new legislature for Minas Geraes and for Rio de Janeiro. He later served as director of the Imprensa Nacional and the Biblioteca Nacional.
Cunha Barbosa published numerous sermons, some poetry, and articles on a wide range of subjects in the journals of various learned societies. His anthology Parnaso Brasileiro (Rio de Janeiro, 1829-30) is a major literary contribution. With its publication Cunha Barbosa became one of the earliest Brazilian literary critics and preserved much poetry of the colonial period which would doubtless otherwise have been lost. (See Verissimo, História da literatura brasileira [1969] p. 119.) He also co-founded, with Raymundo José da Cunha Mattos, the Instituto Historico e Geographico Brazileiro in 1838. The Instituto had much wider interests than its name suggests, and came to serve as a forum for all Brazilian writers. Work done under its auspices set the direction for much of the historical, geographical and ethnological research later done in Brazil. (See Verissimo, p. 127).
On Cunha Barbosa, see Innocêncio III, 254; VI, 127; VII, 71; X, 117. See also Sacramento Blake III, 294-300. OCLC: No printed version or other manuscript version located. No printed or manuscript version located in Porbase, Copac, or OCLC.


[OGDEN, Richard Livingston] (1822-1900)
[Private Diary Describing Sailings of the Yachts Restless and Peerless in San Francisco Bay]: A concise and condensed history of the goings & comings & voyages of the Sloop Yacht "Restless" by a reliable not contraband but highly respectable gentleman, slightly tinctured with a fondness for salt water, a piscatorial weakness and the pursuit of ducks under difficulties...

[San Francisco], ca. 1860-1870s. Quarto (ca. 25x20 cm). 25 pp. of text and fifty blank leaves. Brown and blue ink on laid paper, with several newspaper clippings and an ink drawing of the yacht “Restless” mounted on the leaves. Original violet full sheep notebook with raised bands and blind stamped decorative borders on the boards. Binding rubbed on extremities, hinges cracked, foot of spine chipped, but overall a very good internally clean manuscript.
Fascinating private account of the sailings of the yachts Restless and Peerless, both belonging to San Francisco industrialist and keen yachtsman Richard Livingston Ogden. Ogden came to California in 1852 as a major of the US army and subsequently established the firm of Ogden and Hayes; he was one of the founders of the Kimball Carriage and Car Manufacturing Company in the 1860s, the first president of the reorganized San Francisco Yacht Club (1874-1878) and one of the founders of the Jekyll Island Club, Georgia, in 1886.
The manuscript starts with a detailed description of the yacht Restless: "31 feet long, 16 feet beam, 3½ deep centre board, 10 feet long 12 feet wide 5 feet high, finished a la raeveaux gilt mouldings, stained glass windows, velvet cushions forming very comfortable sleeping accommodations..." Various voyages are described, such as "The first voyages of the Restless were to Sausalito on pic-nics, fishing trips, to Angel Island on clambakes, to Alcatraz on Offish-al business, to Benicia, to Martinez, and on the 3rd of July [1863] to Sacramento in 18 hours against the tide & with calm weather to contend with beating 14 schooners & sloops... On the opening of the Ducking season she was put in shooting trim and some half dozen successful voyages with glorious results..." Later on, as years passed, "The Restless was sold on the departure of the owner for the East for $1000 to a gentleman of the Lager Bier line of business who put her into service as a Ferry Boat between 3rd St. Wharf and the Potrero..."
The second half of the journal is a record of the little schooner "Peerless," another of Ogden’s yachts, launched in 1869. “Length on water line 53, length on deck, beam 17 feet, depth 5 ½. Schooner rigged, built of <…> Eastern oak, bent timber (frames), cedar & Oregon, galvanized fastenings, cabin Oregon maple & cedar, all built in best manner.” The manuscript describes Peerless’ sailings to Belmont, Martinez and Antioch. The first free endpaper bears an amateur ink sketch of the yacht Restless resting on shore and a man shooting a duck from a log nearby.
Commodore Richard L. Ogden, was “the oldest and best known yachtsman of San Francisco Bay <…>. He was in the fifties the owner of the then famous sloop Restless, the first pleasure yacht seen on these waters. It was brought from New York on a ship's deck. In 1868 he built the large schooner-yacht Peerless, one of the handsomest yachts ever built here and one that took part in the first regular regatta ever sailed on this coast. She was sold by him to the King of Samoa and became the "Samoan Navy." When the San Francisco Yacht Club was reorganized in 1875 he was elected commodore, an office he held for several years. About that time Commodore Ogden also built the fine steam yacht Quickstep and the steam launch Hi-Yah.” (San Francisco Call, October 7, 1900, 23:4)


WYNNIATT, Commander Robert James (1830-1860) R.N.
[An Autograph Content Rich Letter Signed Robert Wynniat Addressed to his Sister Lot, from on Board H.M.S. “Nimrod”, Shanghai, Dated Sunday July 15th [1860], Talking about Recent Events in the Second Opium War (1856-1860)].

H.M.S. “Nimrod”, Shanghai, July 15th [1860]. A bifolium (ca. 25x20 cm), written on 3 pages and addressed on the fourth page, Cirencester cancel dated Sp. 20 1860. Dark brown ink on bluish wove paper, original fold marks, some mild toning of address page but overall written in a legible hand and in very good condition.
This letter, written from H.M.S. Nimrod at Shanghai, discusses the war in China: "Operations have not yet commenced in the North so that until then it is impossible to say how long it will take before peace is restored but however I do not yet despair of being able to leave China before the end of the year. I fancy Lord Elgin is just as anxious to get matters over as anybody else that has spent any time in China.., The Rebels have been making great progress near here lately and the bloodshed & murder has been according to all accounts something frightful."
In 1857 Wynniatt became Lieutenant-Commander of HMS Plover, an Albacore-class wooden screw gunboat launched in 1855, serving in the Far East. In 1859, during the Second Opium War (1856-1860), he was given acting command of HMS Nimrod (a six-gunner). Nimrod took part in at the Second Battle of Taku Forts (1859), an unsuccessful attack on heavily defended forts at the mouth of the Pei-ho river (in which Wynniatt's former posting HMS Plover was sunk). Wynniatt was mentioned in Rear-Admiral James Hope's dispatches. At the end of the war Nimrod sailed for England, first taking the news of the successful negotiations at the end of the War to Australia. However Wynniatt died on route and was buried at Galle, Sri Lanka. He was only 30 years old, apparently weakened by his earlier adventures in the Arctic.
As a young lieutenant in 1850 he was mate during Robert McClure's expedition in search of Franklin and the Northwest Passage. When their ship became ice-locked, Samuel Gurney Cresswell and Wynniatt "accompanied a sledging party led by Richard Roche, a mate on the resolute, back to the North Star at Beechey Island. [They] and a few invalids from the investigator found their way back to England the same year in the supply ship Phoenix under Edward Augustus Inglefield, effectively becoming the first Europeans to travel through the Northwest Passage"(Howgego 1850-1940, Polar Regions B15). Wynniatt won an Arctic Medal for his service. Poulsom & Myres p. 342. However during the expedition he was badly affected by scurvy; both he and Cresswell suffered ill-health for the rest of their careers and died at a young age.


BERENGER-FERAUD, Laurent Jean Baptiste (1832 -1900) & POQUET, A. (artist)
[Album of Seventeen Original Watercolours Titled:] Vues et types du Sénégal [Views and Types of Senegal].

1873. Large Quarto (31x21 cm). 14 pp. The seventeen captioned (in French) watercolours each between ca. 9,5x21 cm and 16x9 cm are mounted on thirteen pages. Booklet with original beige paper wrappers with manuscript French title in red and the name of Berenger Feraud in ink crossed out in pencil on front cover with a list of illustrations and the name of the artist A. Poquet (Del.) 1873 in ink on verso. Rear cover creased and with small tears and a small hole in the last watercolour mounted on recto of rear cover.
In 1872-3 Bérenger-Féraud was Director of Health Services in Senegal, and most of these attractive watercolours must have made by the accompanying artist Poquet on Bérenger-Féraud's Senegal River expedition to inspect the medical facilities at the various French outposts along the River. The subjects of the watercolours include: View of the town of Dagana; View of the town of Richard-Toll; View of Fort Bakel; Moorish Princess, Emirate of Trarza; Moorish Goldsmith, Emirate of Trarza; Mandingo Costume; Bambara Man; Bambara Woman; Fula Woman; Mandingo Woman; Young Darmanko Moor; Wolof woman carrying her child; Ronier Palm; Second dam above Felou Falls; Mountains of Maka Gnian; View of Koundian, Mali; View of Dabou Outpost, Ivory Coast. In 1879, Bérenger-Féraud published "Les peuplades de la Sénégambie. Histoire. Ethnographie. Moeurs et coutumes. Légendes, etc. (Paris: Ernest Leroux)." In that work he announced the preparation of a book on Senegal, which was never published. Most likely the paintings in this present booklet had been prepared by Poquet for the publication of that unpublished book on Senegal.


54. [SPAIN]
[WILLOUGHBY, Avarilla]
[Eight Attractive Original Watercolours of Seventeen Spanish Costumes].

[Warwickshire?], ca. 1829-31. Folio (ca. 39,5 x 25 cm). Five leaves of Whatman paper watermarked “1821” with three large drawings directly on the leaves, and five smaller mounted drawings (ca. 15,5x15,5 cm and 12x7 cm or slightly smaller), all in pencil, ink and gouache. Period ink captions in French and English, dated 1829-31. Period style red straight-grained half morocco with gilt tooled spine and marbled boards and endpapers. A very good collection of watercolours. Charming collection of eight colourful watercolours showing seventeen costumes of the Spanish county of Aragon, including Vallée de Gistain (de Chistau), Valle de Broto and Riviere de Broto. Details are shown in a masterly manner; the gouaches show peasants, musicians, a mountain shepherd, a water bearer, a woman with a child, and even a contrabandist from Gavarni with a gun.
Apparently (from a note which was included with other items from this estate) drawn by Avarilla Willoughby after she was 46 for her affectionate daughter Cecilia.


[Autograph Content Rich Letter Signed by Midshipman James Hunt, Written from on Board H.M.S. Stromboli "off Beyrout" Dated September 27th to October 4th, 1840, to his Father back home, Giving an Eye-witness Account by, one of its Most Famous Participants, of the Capture of Sidon and Beirut During the Egyptian-Ottoman War (1839-41)].
H.M.S. Stromboli "off Beyrout", 1840. Four Folio pages (each ca. 32x21 cm) on a folded leaf comprising more than 1500 words on 205 lines. Paper with a Britannia watermark dated 1839. Brown ink on laid paper with period fold marks. Letter largely separated at centre fold, but written in a legible hand and overall in very good condition. James Hunt, "the Midshipman, who so greatly distinguished himself by being the first to plant the Union Jack on the heights at the taking of Sidon, is the eldest son of Mr. James Hunt, the Sheriff of Oxford" (Patison, Vol. 2, p.305).
The Egyptian-Ottoman War (1839-41) "was the climax of the long power-struggle between the Ottoman Empire and the Pasha of Egypt, Mehmet Ali, which had reached a point of crisis that threatened to destabilize the whole of the Levant" (Wikipedia). An alliance of the Ottoman Empire, the British Empire, the Austrian Empire, the Russian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia fought against the Pasha of Egypt, Mehmet Ali to restore order. "Open war broke out on September 11, when Napier bombarded Beirut and effected a landing at Jounieh with 1,500 Turks and Marines to operate against Ibrahim, who was prevented by the revolt from doing more than trying to hold the coastal cities..., Napier was instructed to command the land force and made a successful sortie against a force of Albanians at Nahr-el-Kelb (Kelbson). He then, with a mixed squadron of British, Turkish and Austrian ships, bombarded Sidon on September 26 and landed with the storming column. Sidon capitulated in two days. While preparing to attack the Egyptian positions on the heights of Boharsef.., Meanwhile, the Egyptians had abandoned Beirut on October 3" (Wikipedia).
Hunt's content rich letter describes in details the events leading up to and including the capture of Sidon and Beirut. On the fight for Sidon he says:
"We sailed from Alexandria and arrived off a place called Sidon yesterday morning. We found there the Thunderer, Captain Berkeley, Wasp Brig, and we towed in a Turkish Frigate and an Austrian and we had also two steamers. Commodore Napier sent a flag of truce on shore to ask them to give up the town which was refused, and at 10 the signal was made to engage and of course I had the firing of two 32 lb. Guns to look after. I had very little time to look at what was going on except to see the effect of my own shot. Our two 10 inch guns fired shell alive which did dreadful mischief - I had the credit of knocking one of the minarets down. Spence was captain of our 10 inch gun and got credit for skill. At ½ past one the signal was made to prepare to land and we landed with 16 large boats about 700 in all including Turks & Austrians.
Now I must tell you that during the whole cannonade there was no firing from the shore and of course we thought foolishly that the town was evacuated but were mistaken. I landed in the second boat with our 1st Lieut. And had the honor of bein/ the first to plant the colours on the beach which I had no sooner done than the boats gave three cheers. The Egyptians then opened a raking fire on the sand around the colours and as soon we could we formed and charged up the beach. The Officer that carried the Austrian colours took advantage of my stumbling with my colours to get up the beach before me but I was quick up and we arrived at the top together. Unfortunately, we were too quick for our men and the Austrians being too rash we were about a dozen in all left exposed at the top of the breach under a galling fire from the loop holes and archways. But however I could not for the honour of England let our colours be behind so was obliged to dash on. Our marines then seeing our colours in danger immediately cheered and rushed up. In turning the first street the 2nd Austrian before me was shot dead and the Austrian that carried the Austrian Colours had his colour staff shot through. Several then were slightly wounded. At this eventful moment Spence from the gun on board threw a shell into the house that galled us and brought down house and enemies with it. Those that ran out were bayoneted. We then proceeded, I went with the Marines to the left and another party to the right. One of our Marine Officers through being too far ahead of his men was next that lost his life, and one and one seaman his arm, our men the got enraged at the treacherous way they had of fighting and spared no man. We had at last got possession of the centre of the town and my poor self and the Austrian Officer and the Arch Duke’s son Prince Frederick of Austria planted the respective colours on the heights and were cheered by the party in the town and the ships at anchor.
I wished much for my gun as I could have saved some of our people if I had had it. Some men were shot on the beach but I was in the town at the time. I do not think we lost 12 men in all the 500 English. The Turks and Austrians lost more. In the evening we embarked and are now off Beyrout waiting orders. The Admiral is here and a large party of marines. Austrians and Turks are encamped on shore. We captured about 2000 prisoners at Sidon. Our ship killed the Egyptian General and all his staff round him. I believe we shall attack Acre soon but we are going to have a stronger party next time and to fight more cautious..." Full transcript available on request.


BRINE, Lindesay [Commander R.N.] (1834-1906)
[CHINA: A Panoramic Signed and Dated Watercolour of Chefoo (Yantai) During the Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864)].

23rd June 1860. Watercolour ca. 23x38 cm (9x15 in) mounted on larger card. Overall a very good painting. Recently matted.
An attractive and skillfully executed pencil drawing heightened with watercolour. The artist, who entered the Royal Navy in 1847 was the author of "The Taeping Rebellion in China; a narrative of its rise and progress, based upon original documents and information obtained in China" (London: Murray, 1862). This watercolour was made on the spot during his service as commander in the China Seas. The painting is captioned in ink on the image: "HMS Gunboat Opossum - Junk by Chefoo - The French Troops are Encamped on the Hill." "While serving in the Far East, [Brine] took much pains to collect accurate information on the troubles then prevailing, and in 1862 published the results of his observations and inquiries in a volume entitled ‘The Taiping Rebellion in China’" (Obituary in The Geographical Journal 27,3 (March 1906)).


57. [TIBET]
FILCHNER, Wilhelm (1877-1957)
[A Collection of Seven Original Ink Drawings (Three initialed "C.A.") Used as Illustrations in Wilhelm Filchner's Book "Das Kloster Kumbum in Tibet. Ein Beitrag zu Seiner Geschichte (The Monastery Kumbum in Tibet. A Contribution to its History)" Berlin: Mittler & Sohn 1906].

Ca. 1905. Seven ink drawings on thick paper ca. 27x23 cm (11x9 in) and slightly smaller. The original ink drawings are recently matted together with the corresponding printed text illustration leaves from the book. Housed in a custom made black cloth portfolio with a printed paper title page label and silk ties. One drawing with an expertly repaired corner chip, but overall the ink drawings are in very good condition.
This historically important collection of ink drawings show 1. A Tibetan Rosary (p.47); 2. Lama d Ge ss Long with yellow hat and cloak etc. (p.48); 3. A travelling lama (p.63); 4. Illustration of an Indian legend (p.85); 5. A prayer drum partially made with human skull parts (p. 103); 6. A water-powered prayer wheel (p.104); 7. Tibetan cairn with prayer flags on mountain top (p.128). The illustrations are supplemented with the matted title page and map of the monastery from the book. The preface states that the ink drawings were created by an artist under Filchner's direction based on photographs made by Filchner. The purpose of Filchner's 1903-5 "expedition to Tibet [was] to carry out geomagnetic and topographical surveys on the high plateau. In addition to its scientific work the expedition carried out a significant intelligence-gathering role and was contemporaneous with similar missions by Francis Younghusband and others"(Howgego, 1850-1940 Polar Regions etc., F6). "Kumbum Monastery is a Buddhist monastery in present day Qinghai, China. Kumbum was founded in 1583 in a narrow valley close to the village of Lusar in the Tibetan cultural region of Amdo. Its superior monastery is Drepung Monastery, immediately to the west of Lhasa. It was ranked in importance as second only to Lhasa" (Wikipedia).


RITCHIE, Joseph (ca. 1788-1819)
[Interesting Autograph Letter to John Whishaw, Secretary of the African Institution, Written at the Beginning of Ritchie's Ill-Fated Expedition to Africa, to Introduce Sidi Hassuna D'Ghies, who was a son of the Prime Minister of the Pasha of Tripoli, and Later Would Become the Pasha’s Foreign Minister, and Additionally he was Later also Connected to the Fate of Alexander Laing].
Marseilles, 28 August 1818. Quarto (ca. 25,5x19,5 cm). 1 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Mild fold marks and light chipping of the top margin, ink slightly faded, but overall a very good legible letter. Rare historically important letter by Joseph Ritchie, an English surgeon and African explorer, written during his ill-fated expedition to Northern Africa in 1818-1819, which tried to ascertain the course of the Niger and the location of the fabled Timbuktu. Ritchie and George Lyon followed the route of Frederick Hornemann’s expedition of 1797, crossing the Sahara via Murzuq. “The expedition was underfunded, lacked support and because of the ideas of Barrow departed from Tripoli and thus had to cross the Sahara as part of their journey. A year later, due to much officialdom they had only got as far as Murzuk, the capital of Fezzan, where they both fell ill. Ritchie never recovered and died there” (Wikipedia).
The letter, written in Marseille shortly before Ritchie's departure for Malta was addressed to John Whisham (1764-1840), the secretary of the African Institution and the biographer of Mungo Park. Ritchie introduced to him 'Sidi Hassuna D'Ghies, a Tripolitan who has passed some time in this Town - & son of the present Minister of the Pacha. I am anxious in some measure to repay the Services which he has rendered me during a tedious detention here (waiting for a passage to Malta) by giving me much useful information respecting Africa; the interest which has been so kindly taken in the Attempt I am about to make, emboldens me to hope that his liberality & goodness will be well-appreciated in England'.
Hassuna D’Ghies was appointed the foreign minister of the Pasha of Tripoli in 1825. He “came from a wealthy merchant family with commercial interests in Ghadamis, Fazzan, and various European countries. Having spent seven years in London and Paris on business and diplomatic missions, he was familiar with European ways. [British consul in Tripoli] Warrington, who had most to lose from Hassuna D’Ghies insistence on conducting business with the consuls in a way which prevented their intervention in local affairs, used the death near Timbuktu in 1826 of the English explorer Major Laing as an occasion to force the pasha to dismiss his foreign minister. <…> Warrington claimed, without any substantial evidence, that Laing’s assassination had been plotted by the Pasha and D’Ghies, that the latter had given Laing’s papers to the French consul in return for a forty per cent reduction of a debt which he owed him and that Caillie had never set foot in Timbuktu and the diary he had published under his name was compiled from Laing’s papers.” As a result in 1829 D’Ghies was announced by the pasha responsible for Laing’s death and replaced as foreign minister by his brother Muhammed (Abun-Nasr, Jamil M. A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period. Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 202).
Ritchie was involved into scientific and literary circles of London. He foretold the exceptional literary future of John Keats, and “possibly from some association of ‘Endymion’ with the Mountains of the Moon, promised to carry a copy of the poem with him to Africa and fling it into the midst of the Sahara” (Oxford DNB).


[PEACOCK, Alfred?]
[Original Two Unsigned Watercolours, One Titled:] Quarantine Station - Flores Island - off Montevideo.
Ca. 1889. Watercolours each ca. 9x17 & 20 cm (4x7 & 8 in). Recently matted, overall very good watercolours.
The watercolours show a lighthouse and quarantine station and an official camp with a British merchant navy flag. "Isla de Flores is a small island in the Rio de la Plata, 21 miles southeast of Punta Carretas, Montevideo, Uruguay.., Flores was named by Sebastián Gaboto, who discovered it on Easter Sunday 1527.., It has a historic lighthouse, which was the subject of an 1819 treaty, by which Uruguay lost the Misiones Orientales. This lighthouse, of Portuguese origin, entered service in 1828. It was dubbed "the world's most expensive lighthouse" . The lighthouse is now under the jurisdiction of the Uruguayan Navy. It is 37 meters high and flashes twice every 10 seconds" (Wikipedia).


JACKSON, Welby Brown (1802-1890)
[Original Watercolour View of Benares (Varanasi)].

Ca. 1856. Watercolour and pencil on cardboard, heightened in white, ca. 42x58 cm (16 ¾ x22 ¾ in). Later pencil caption "Welby Jackson. 1856. Benares" on verso. Recently matted, near fine, bright watercolour.
This beautiful view of Benares shows the River Ganges with white temples and ghats in the background, and clothes washers on the riverbank in the foreground. The right part of the picture details a wooden bridge spanned across the Ganges, with bull carts crossing.
Welby Jackson was an official in British India in the first half of the 19th century. He was noted to be in Calcutta in 1823 and held the office of Judge of Sudder Court there; in 1826 he was appointed Register to the Nizamut Adawlut for the Western Provinces at Allahabad (The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Regicter for British India and its dependencies. Vol. XXII. London, 1826. P. 469). The beginning of 1860's sees him back in Buckinghamshire, England (see The Peerage, A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe, on-line). Two of Jackson’s sepia sketches of the city of Gaya (Bihar, India) executed in 1830 are now in the Asia, Pacific and Africa collections of the British Library.


CASPARI, Chrétien Edouard (1840-1918)
[Album of Ten Original Watercolour Views of Saigon and Environs].
1877-1878. Watercolour and ink on paper; six larger sketches, ca. 13x21 cm (5x8 in), and four smaller ones, ca. 10,5x14 cm (4 x 5 ½ in). All captioned and dated in ink in the lower margins of the images, with additional pencil captions or notes on the mounts. Period style maroon gilt tooled half morocco with cloth sides. Watercolours mounted laid paper leaves. Album overall in very good condition.
Beautiful sketches taken from life by a skilful amateur artist, a French colonial engineer, while serving in Indochina. The collection includes several interesting views of Saigon showing the La Sainte Enfance School, St. Joseph Seminary (‘Seminaire annamite’), the house of the director of the French arsenal, a horse-driven carriage or ‘Malabar’ et al. The watercolours include some nice portraits of the locals, including a sketch of a Chinese merchant followed by a servant carrying his goods, portraits of Vietnamese women with children, people driving oxen carts, villagers et al. There is also a great view of Dong Nai River near Bien Hoa city (32 km east from Saigon) – a peaceful picture of a river with two people paddling in a boat and several village houses amidst lush tropical greenery on shore. One sketch shows local plants – mango tree, bamboo and an Erythrina tree covered with bright red flowers.
Chrétien Édouard Caspari was a French hydrographer and astronomer. He graduated from École polytechnique in 1860, and in 1862-1902 he worked as a hydrographer and engineer in France, the Caribbean and French Indochina (the Gulf of Siam, Annam and Tonkin). Caspari was the author of an astronomy textbook for the Service Hydrographique de la Marine, and of numerous scientific papers, some relating to Indochina. He was awarded with the Prix Montijon of the French Academy of Sciences (1878), and in 1905 he became President of the Astronomical Society of France.


62. [YEMEN]
[Large Panoramic Unsigned British School Watercolour of Aden].
[Aden], ca. 1845. Recently matted watercolour on thick paper ca. 26x77 cm (10 x 30 ½ in). Margins strengthened and with a couple of repaired tears and some old crease marks, but still an attractive and impressive watercolour.
An interesting and historically important early and large panoramic watercolour view of Aden including the port, British military installations and town from the early period of British control.
"In 1609 The Ascension was the first English ship to visit Aden, before sailing on to Mocha during the Fourth voyage of the East India Company. After Ottoman rule, Aden was ruled by the Sultanate of Lahej, under suzerainty of the Zaidi imams of Yemen.
Aden was at this time a small village with a population of 600 Arabs, Somalis, Jews and Indians housed for the most part in huts of reed matting erected among ruins recalling a vanished era of wealth and prosperity. Haines stated that it could become a major trading centre and the latter part of the British period proved him correct with Aden growing to become one of the busiest ports in the world. In 1838, Sultan Muhsin bin Fadl of the nearby state of Lahej ceded 194 km² (75 sq. Miles) including Aden to the British. On 19 January 1839, the British East India Company landed Royal Marines at Aden to occupy the territory and stop attacks by pirates against British shipping to India. The port lies about equidistant from the Suez Canal, Bombay (now Mumbai), and Zanzibar, which were all important British possessions. Aden had been an entrepôt and a way-station for seamen in the ancient world. There, supplies, particularly water, were replenished. So, in the mid-19th century, it became necessary to replenish coal and boiler water. Thus Aden acquired a coaling station at Steamer Point. Aden was to remain under British control until 1967" (Wikipedia).


BURTON, I[nger] M[aria] (1828-1897)
[Two Signed Stone Town, Zanzibar Watercolours Created at Around the Time When David Livingstone was There Preparing for his Last Expedition].
[Zanzibar], ca. 1865. Two matted watercolours each ca. 14x37 cm (5 ½ x 14 ½ in). The upper watercolour with some mild foxing, otherwise very good watercolours.
The two well executed and scenic watercolours show port scenes in Stone Town, Zanzibar.
"In 1840, Sultan Said bin Sultan moved his seat from Muscat, Oman, to Stone Town, which thus entered an era of quick development as the new capital of the Sultanate of Oman and Zanzibar. In 1861, as a consequence of a war of succession within the Omani royal family, Zanzibar and Oman were separated, with Zanzibar becoming an independent sultanate under Sultan Majid bin Said. In the 19th century Stone Town also flourished as a trading centre. It was especially renowned for the commerce of spices (mostly cloves) and slaves. Around middle of the century, the sultanate had a close relationship with the British; David Livingstone, for example, is known to have stayed in Stone Town in 1866 while he was preparing his final expedition into the interior of East Africa. In the same period, several immigrant communities from Oman, Persia and India formed as a consequence of the town's intense commercial activity" (Wikipedia).


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