May 2013 - Exploration, Travel and Voyages: Autographs, Letters and Manuscripts
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1. [19TH CENTURY GRAND BANKS FISHERIES]
[MCINTOSH, Roderick, Captain] (1845-?)
[Manuscript Journal of the Voyage of the Fishing Schooner Ocean From Provincetown, New England, to the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, May 15 - Sept 29, 1867, Titled]: Journal of a Voyage from Provincetown to the Grand Banks.
[At sea], 1867. Octavo (20,5x16 cm). [38, 1] leaves. Ruled. Ink on laid paper, in legible hand writing. Period style brown quarter sheep with marbled boards using original end papers. Some minor scattered foxing, otherwise a very good manuscript.
A rare early journal of an American commercial fishing voyage, the manuscript notes the weather, the schooner’s course, and names of vessels they met or sighted (including "lots of Frenchmen"). At first fish was "very scarce" (May 27th), but the next day the Ocean "came across lot of Cape Ann men catching halibut." The entry for the July 10th when the schooner was at the Virgin Rock noted "Catching fish quite fast <..,> Seen a large fleet of vessels to the Southerd, see them coming for us. Lots of them anchored with us"; the note for July 26th: "All the Doarys come aboard loaded with fish, then we commenced <..,> to make a birth and parted our Chain." The note from August 19th: "Got our Anchor and stood to the Westerd in company with the John Simons. Struck the fish and came to an Anchor." The vessels started returning home in the middle of September: Mary E. Nason and Almira Cloughtman on the 15th, and the Ocean itself on the 17th. The journal ends September 29th; it is supplemented with a "Remark for the fish that we caught on board the Ocean for the year 1867" (2 leaves after the main text).
The Ocean’s journal includes 24 leaves and is followed by a short note on McIntosh’s fishing schooner Bucephalus which went from Provincetown to the Grand Banks in May 1872 (1 page). Fifteen pages are occupied by the accounts of freight and supply coasts for the merchant schooner Freeman which was cruising along the coast of New England in 1879-1881.
"Roderick McIntosh born in 1845, at Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, was the seventh son of Roderick McIntosh. He has lived in Provincetown since 1862, and since 1866 he has been master of vessels" (History of Barnstable County, Massachusetts, 1620-1890/ Ed. By S.L. Deyo. New York, 1890. P. 1004).
The case of McIntosh was included in the report of the Committee on Claims after he claimed a compensation of expense suffered after he had rescued the master and crew (9 men) of the schooner Astoria of Buckport on the 8th of July, 1885. McIntosh, master and owner of the schooner Bucephalus of Provincetown, was fishing on the Grand Banks of Newfoundland. The rescue of the crew significantly changed his schedule, "his voyage was prolonged fifteen days, and he encountered a severe storm, which damaged his vessel and compelled him to enter a provincial port and repair damages at considerable expense>" McIntosh claimed USD 346, and the Committee found it "reasonable" and that it should be paid, also noting: "It would appear to be good policy not to discourage acts of humanity by failing to reasonable reimburse the masters and owners of vessels for services rendered in saving shipwrecked crews" (See: Reports of Committees of the House of Representatives for the second session of the 49th Congress, 1886-87: in 3 vols. Vol. 2. Washington, 1887. № 4080).
New York Times from September 12, 1888 informed about loss of McIntoch’s schooner Carrie Bonnell at sea. The schooner "was 96 years old register, was 16 years old and was owned by her Captain <..,> [it] was abandoned at sea in a sinking condition. [McIntoch and his crew of 14 men] were taken off by another Provincetown fisherman and landed at St. Pierre on Sept. 3. They saved all their effects and gear and set the vessel on fire before they left her."
2. [AMERICAN FUR COMPANY’S VOYAGEUR CONTRACT]
[A Signed Contract Engaging Jean Sonnet of Montreal or La Prairie with W.W. Matthews for Two Winters to Perform Various Tasks, Including Barrel Making].
Montreal: 17 March, 1818. One page folio (32x20 cm). Printed document in French, filled out in manuscript; laid paper. Margins with a couple of minor tears, otherwise a very good document.
A contract between William Wallace Mathews, a manager of the American Fur Company from Montreal, and a local man Jean Sonnet who promised to "well and properly care for the roads and being at the said place, goods, food, pelts, utensils at all things necessary for the journey; serve, obey and execute loyalty to the said Sir." Sonnet was entitled to the wages of 900 livres, ten piastres and some equipment in advance. Jean Sonnet has signed with an “X”.
"In 1817-18, the American Fur Company brought a large number of clerks from Montreal and the United States to Mackinaw, some of whom made good Indian traders, while many others failed upon trial and were discharged. <..,> To William Mathews was entrusted the engaging of voyageurs and clerks in Canada, with his head-quarters in Montreal. The voyageurs he took from the habitants (farmers); young, active, athletic men were sought for, indeed, none but such were engaged, and they passed under inspection of a surgeon. Mr. M. Also purchased at Montreal such goods as were suited for the trade, to lead his boats. These boats were the Canadian batteaux, principally used in those days in transferring goods to upper St. Lawrence river and its tributaries, manned by four oarsmen and a steersman, capacity about six tons.
The voyageurs and clerks were under indentures for a term of five years. Wages for voyageurs, $100, clerk from $120 to $500 per annum. These were all novices in the business; the plan of the company was to arrange and secure the services of old traders and their voyageurs, who, at the (new) organization of the company were in the Indian country, depending on their influence and knowledge of the trade with the Indians; and as fast as possible secure the vast trade in the West and North-West, within the district of the United States, interspersing the novices brought from Canada so as to consolidate, extend, and monopolize, as far as possible, over the country, the Indian trade.
The first two years they had succeeded in bringing into their employ seven-eights of the old Indian traders on the tributaries as far north as the boundaries of the United States extended. The other eighth thought that their interest was to remain independent; toward such, the company selected their best traders, and located them in opposition, with instructions so to manage by underselling to bring them to terms" (Hurlbut, Henry H. Chicago Antiquities: Comprising original items and relations, letters, extracts, and notes pertaining to early Chicago, embellished with views, portraits, autographs, etc. Chicago, 1881. P. 30-31).
"The American Fur Company (1808-1842) was founded by John Jacob Astor and by 1830 grew to monopolize the fur trade in the United States, becoming one of the largest businesses in the country. The company was one the first great trusts in American business. During its heyday, the American Fur Company was one of the largest enterprises in the United States and held a total monopoly of the lucrative fur trade in the country. The company provided the income for the land investments that catapulted John Jacob Astor to the position of richest man in the world and the first multi-millionaire in America. The German-born Astor remains the eighteenth wealthiest person of all time, and the eighth to create that fortune in the United States. He used part of his fortune to found the Astor Library in New York City. Later it merged with the Lenox Library to form the New York Public Library.
On the frontier, the American Fur Company opened the way for the settlement and economic development of the Midwestern and Western United States. Mountain men working for the company improved Native American trails and carved others that led settlers into the West. Many cities in the Midwest and West, such as Astoria, Oregon and Fort Benton, Montana, developed around American Fur Company trading posts. The American Fur Company played a major role in the development and expansion of the young United States" (Wikipedia).
See also: Matthew’s Adventures in the Columbia: A Pacific Fur Company Document/ Ed. By J.E. Douglas// Oregon Historical Quarterly. Vol. 40. № 2. Jun., 1939. P. 105-148.
3. [ARCTIC EXPLORERS]
[Album Sheet with the Signatures of Naval Commander Admiral Northesk, and the Arctic Explorers: James Clark Ross, his Uncle John Ross, and William Parry]. "Northesk Admiral; Left London on the 23 May 1829 and returned from the Arctic Regions on the 19th Oct 1833 Ja. Clark.Ross; John Ross; W. Parry, hydrographer."
[London?], ca. 1833. Album sheet; Quarto, ca. 27 x 22cm (10 ½ x 8 ¾ in). The signatures on paper mounted on a light blue album leaf. Signatures and album leaf in fine condition.
"Admiral William Carnegie GCB, 7th Earl of Northesk (1756-1831) was born in Hampshire to Admiral George Carnegie, 6th Earl of Northesk and Anne Melville..,
Sir James Clark Ross (1800-1862), was a British naval officer and explorer. He explored the Arctic with his uncle Sir John Ross and Sir William Parry, and later led his own expedition to Antarctica..,
Sir John Ross, CB, (1777-1856) was a Scottish rear admiral and Arctic explorer..,
Sir William Edward Parry (1790-1855) was an English rear-admiral and Arctic explorer, who in 1827 attempted one of the earliest expeditions to the North Pole. He reached 82°45′ North latitude, setting the record for human exploration farthest North that stood for nearly five decades before being surpassed at 83°20′26″ by Albert Hastings Markham in 1875-1876" (Wikipedia).
4. [BARBARY PIRATES IN THE 17TH CENTURY]
CHARLES EMMANUEL I, Duke of Savoy (1562-1630)
[Period Manuscript Copy of a Patent given by the Duke of Savoy to Jean-Louis du Mas de Castellane, baron d’Allemagne, Appointing him the General of the Galleys in the port Villefranche with the duty of Protection of the ‘Seas of Nice’ from the Pirates and ‘Corsaires Infidelles’].
Turin, 24 December 1626. On a double quarto leaf (ca. 25,5x18 cm). 3 pp. Text in French. Black ink on watermarked laid paper, period stamp on the upper margin of the 1st page. Period inscription with the brief contents of the patent on the 4th page. Fold marks, worn on edges, overall a very good letter.
This manuscript copy is most likely a secretarial copy produced at the same time as the original. The patent appoints Jean-Louis du Mas de Castellane the commander of the galley fleet in Villefrache as “a remarkable and experienced person”, giving him “complete prerogatives and advantages”. There are notes on the navigators, merchants and other inhabitants of the French Mediterranean coast who should be protected from all sorts of invasions; the Duke of Savoy’s “natural son don Felice, our Lieutenant General in the Coast of Nice”, “our beloved Council and the people of our Senat”.
“Charles Emmanuel I, known as the Great, was the Duke of Savoy from 1580 to 1630. He was also nicknamed Testa d'feu (“Head of Fire”) for his rashness. He participated in several military campaigns, including the attempt to capture Geneva (1602), the First Genoese-Savoyard War (1625), the War of the Mantuan Succession (1628-31) et al.” (Wikipedia).
Jean-Louis du Mas de Castellane, Vicomte d'Allemagne et de Salerne, Baron d'Oise et de Cuers, Seigneur de Saint-Martin, de Garcin et de Cavalaire (d. 1661) was a French naval officer. He served as a General Lieutenant of the French Mediterranean fleet, General of the galleys of Duke of Savoy, and later as a commander of the French naval forces attacking the Lérins Islands (See more: Weiss, G. Captives and Corsairs: France and Slavery in the Early Modern Mediterranean. Stanford University Press, 2011, p. 239).
“The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, operated from North Africa and based primarily in the ports of Tunis, Tripoli and Algiers. This area was known in Europe as the Barbary Coast, a term derived from the name of its Berber inhabitants. Their predation extended throughout the Mediterranean, south along West Africa's Atlantic seaboard and even South America, and into the North Atlantic as far north as Iceland, but they primarily operated in the western Mediterranean. In addition to seizing ships, they engaged in Razzias, raids on European coastal towns and villages, mainly in Italy, France, Spain, and Portugal, but also in the British Isles, the Netherlands and as far away as Iceland. The main purpose of their attacks was to capture Christian slaves for the Islamic market in North Africa and the Middle East.
Corsairs captured thousands of ships, and long stretches of coast in Spain and Italy were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants, discouraging settlement until the 19th century. From the 16th to 19th century, corsairs captured an estimated 800,000 to 1.25 million people as slaves. The European pirates brought state-of-the-art sailing and shipbuilding techniques to the Barbary Coast around 1600, which enabled the corsairs to extend their activities into the Atlantic Ocean, and the impact of Barbary raids peaked in the early to mid-17th century” (Wikipedia).
5. [BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY]
SMITH, Edward (Neddy)
[Historically Important Archive of High Level Correspondence Revealing much British East India Company Insider Information for the Period 1769-1774, Particularly Relating to the Bengal Famine of 1770 and Warren Hastings (1732-1818) Becoming Governor-General of Bengal in 1772].
London, 1769-1774. Quarto. 19th century brown half sheep with brown cloth boards. Letters mounted on paper stubs, some letters with thin paper reinforcement on outer margins and corners, but overall in very good condition.
132 letters from England to India from 1769 to 1774. These letters, on high quality rag paper, were sent to W. Edward (Neddy) Smith, a young “Writer” of the East India Company, residing primarily in Calcutta, and the Bengal region, India. The number 132 includes some individual lists or notes which have been bound into a journal with the letters. These letters were all originally folded into an envelope, and either have addresses on one side, or are free of addresses. There are also 19 separate single sheets, not counted in the number 132, which are addressed envelopes. These envelopes are significant from a postal history point of view. A selection of the addresses are as follows:
- W. Edward Smith, Calcutta, Bengal, per Europa [ship]
- Mr. Edward Smith, a Writer in the Honourable East India Company service, Calcutta, via Dolphin, Bengal.
- Mr. Edward Smith, a writer in the service of the Honourable East India Company at Calcutta, Bengal, via Nottingham.
The majority of letters are written by Smith’s father, Thomas Smith (1701-99), who, is the Receiver of Christ’s Hospital (or Christ’s Church Hospital) in London, which was (and is) a famous school for poor children started by Henry the Eighth. Thomas Smith appears to be very wealthy although he complains about not having enough money. He refers to many high society individuals and is connected in some way at the highest levels of the East India Company, although he does not appear to be a director. He has two sons employed by the Company one who was once in India, and is now back, and the other—Neddy—who has just gone out. (His other son and a daughter go out again to India). He is intimately associated with a man named Rosier who at one point is referred to as working in the Treasury. (Rosier is a brother-in-law to Thomas Smith). Thomas Smith travels back and forth to India House in London regularly and receives much insider East India Company information, and passes it on to his son. Mr. Rosier also seems intimately associated with the doings at India House.
At this time the Company had become (since the battle of Plassey in 1764), the revenue collector of Bengal, Bihar and Orissa, becoming the de facto ruler of large areas of India. There was sporadic warfare going on between England and the Mysore areas, as well as, from 1772, the Maratha area, so Neddy Smith was in the thick of a constant ebb and flow of soldiers, refugees, sailors, travellers, commerce, and huge numbers of starving wretches. An enormous famine took place in India from 1769-1773 largely caused and perpetuated by the East India Company. Forcing high rents on a population that couldn’t pay, forcing cash crops instead of food to be grown, and outlawing the storage of any food, were some of the Company’s harsh measures. It is estimated that this caused the deaths of 10 million people.
According to a letter dated 1771 Neddy Smith is also a soldier in the employ of the E.I.C. And is not on half pay, even though there is no war. He also keeps servants. He suffered jaundice some time around 1770. He gets married some time in 1773.
As a writer and chronicler in the employ of the East India Company, in Bengal, Neddy Smith must have seen the death toll registers and East India Company decrees at close hand. He might even have been forced to compose the decrees which tightened the death grip on the Indians. As such, he must have voiced his concerns to his family and friends.
His father later writes to him regarding this situation:
“I wrote to you by the man of war sailed for India, December last, and now shall give this in charge to my particular friend, Colonel Monson, [George Monson 1730-1776, a key military and ruling figure in India] who is appointed one of the superior council at Bengal. This gentleman has promised to serve you to the utmost of his power and I beg leave to recommend to you to be careful by every means in your power to cultivate a friendship with him… I must acquaint you that the company are now entirely in the Government’s hands and that no man will ever reach a seat in the Superior Council that should oppose or__[?] the manoeuvre [?] of the Governor General and Superior Council; therefore I recommend to you to be particularly careful not to give them any opposition or to join any party that may choose to oppose their measures; on the contrary I wish you to support them with all your abilities…”
Thomas Smith was both extremely pious and extremely avaricious, exhorting his son to make as much money as he can, as will be seen in excerpts below. (For instance, in London, Feb 8, 1772 he relates that the “Nabobs” of the company are making great sums; that the government is jealous of this, and that anyone in India should make as much as they can as soon as they can.)
He also was acquainted with Warren Hastings, the eventual ruler of Bengal and most of British India. He writes a great deal about Hastings, telling Neddy often that he has sent letters to Hastings on Neddy’s behalf. He also writes to other important people on Neddy’s behalf, including Mr. Daines, Barwell and Van Settart. William Barwell and Henry Van Settart, (also spelled Vansittart in recent records) were earlier Directors of the East India Company.
Examples of Thomas Smith comments on Hastings:
London, April 11, 1771:
“…on Monday Mr. Hastings was elected Governor of Bengal; he is a man of very good abilities and it’s plain the Directors thought so, when unasked they preferred him to this high post in preference to a Mr. Rombould, who had been making personal application for some time past…Mr. Hastings it is said, understands the Oriental languages as well as any European in the world and whilst at Bengal was minister to the several courts from the Co. And grand negotiator of their foreign affairs.”
London, April 22, 1773:
“I have hinted in a former, I do now again, which is that Governor Hastings, by all parties is in the highest esteem, therefore I really believe he will be appointed, (perhaps both by the Ministry and Company) Deputy Director and Gov. General in India, therefore my life [my son] pray be on your guard, for at all wants his friendship is, and may be of the utmost consequence in the present situation of your affaires.”
May (?) 1773
Mr. Rosier can inform you what steps the parliament have taken towards setting the affairs of the India Co. Which remain a profound secret to every body, on this side of temple bar…I may venture to say that Mr. Hastings will have great share, if not be the principal Gov. [ernor or ment] in India.”
London, June 24, 1774
“[I] have the pleasure to inform you that with the joyful consent of the parliament and Com’y Mr. Hastings will be appointed Gov’r General of all India, with a salary of twenty-five thousand pounds a year, to be paid out of the Comp’ys Territorial Revenues.”
Smith also gives advice and information about the society in England and in India, as well as the political situation. A selection of some of Thomas Smith’s other comments include:
London April 20, 1771 (Thomas Smith)
“I hope to be informed by the Prince of Wales [i.e. The letters brought by the ship Prince of Wales] that the calamities in India are at an end, and that God Almighty has blessed the poor with plenty of food, and I earnestly pray that he will be graciously pleased to add universal Peace to Plenty. We have had here violent political disputes…”
Church Hospital, London, Oct. ? 1771 (Thomas smith)
“…Very few people are acquainted with the views and transactions of the India Co. (ours I mean) and fewer with those of the French; therefore it can’t be expected I can say any thing to the great sale [?] at Chandernagore. With regard to our East I. Co. There is much reason to expect, at a proper time (but when is not known the government will take into their hands the principal management, such as the appointment of all Governors and to every post [or port] of profit__ [?]. The Co. Have lately applied for a number of ships; to which I am told, the Government are consenting but I have a notion the Compy’s affairs will be enquired into by parliament; therefore my life [he calls his son this], you see the absolute necessity of making hay, the little time the sun has to shine; and tho’ the present mode with you is extravagance; this foolish fashion should be followed as little as possible for the above reason…I give you joy on your appointment in the customs house with regard to the ship Varelst [?] and all aboard her.”
“…whether we shall have peace or war is still undetermined. If what I am told is true it is reduced to this determination, viz. We say the Spaniards shall secede to us this barren rock near Cape Horne called Falkland Island, but we insist that they shall evacuate...”
Many of the letters talk about transporting items back and forth between England and India. For instance, one of Smith’s friends, John Church, writes: “I have sent you some of the best colours and pencils I could procure, and [a dozen] [?] of Gallipots, which are not made exactly like the pattern they had, they are too deep, but the manufactory is as far off as Nottingham and I thought perhaps if I ordered more they might not be better so have sent them as they are. I should have sent 6 dozen as you desired, but as the colours are already rubbed into gallipots I thought you would not have occasion for more…I have tied bladders[?] over the colours and packed them carefully with tow, having first glued them to the box, so that I hope they will travel safer. The lump of colour in the box with the gallipots is Jap Green.”
John Church also asks for insects to be sent out to him, and describes the difficulties. Thomas Smith and others often speak of violins and the latest violin news and publications. For instance: “I long to know the latitude of the tropic agrees with your fine violin…Kammell’s quartettes are not yet published.”
Many ships are mentioned, and their routes and Captains. A one page list is enclosed with one of the letters, with the names of 14 ships, their captains, and their destinations, for 1773. (This is in excellent condition).
There are also several letters from Captain W. E. Brereton, and Captain James Stewart, both of which seem to have a relationship with the East India Company. Captain Brereton in particular gives us fascinating information, as he was one of the officers (he appears to be a ship’s captain), who took part in the capture of Manila in the Philippines from Spain in 1762-64. As the British were never paid the full ransom they demanded from Spain, and as most of the officers never received the money they were promised, the issue is a festering one for Brereton, and he gives great insight into the relationship between the East India Company and the British government, in a case where neither one wanted to pay for the debt. Overall an important and Historically Significant Archive.
6. [BRITISH GARRISONS ON MINORCA AND GIBRALTAR]
[Two Certified Period Manuscript Copies of the Financial Statements Regarding Wages of the Staff of the British Garrisons in Minorca and Gibraltar]: 1) Establishment of the Forces and Garrison in the Island of Minorca; 2) Regulation of Subsistance [sic!] to be paid to every Officer & Soldier in the foregoing Establishment.
Ca. 1730. Two leaves, both Folio (ca. 27,5x46,5 cm or 18 ½ x 11 in). Filled in on both sides. Brown ink on laid paper. Paper slightly browned, with some staining and tears on margins; both documents rolled. Overall in good condition
Two period 18th century manuscript copies of historically important documents regarding the wages of the staff of the British garrisons in Minorca and Gibraltar. The papers contain copies of the signatures of George II, and politicians William Clayton, Sir George Oxenden, and Sir William Yonge; they are both certified as “A true copy” by government official. Richard Arnold.
The first document lists the wages for the garrison of Minorca, showing per diem and annual figures separately. The document accounts for wages for a regiment of foot (commanded by Col. Cosby), including field and staff officers, for a company of infantry, and a company of grenadiers. The final figure which includes wages for eight more infantry companies and three more regiments of foot (commanded by Col. Kane, Brig. Tyrrell, and Col. Handasyd) adds up to 51,136 per year.
On verso are "The Charge of the Garrison of Minorca" which accounts daily and annual payments to the officials and servants, from Governor to Signal Man; and gives separate lists of wages for the staff of Fort St. Anne and Fort St. Phillip. There is also a total figure (57,336 per year).
The second document contains a “Warrant for deducting one day's pay yearly” from the British forces in Minorca and Gibraltar for the “Royal hospital near Chelsea”, for the reason of "maintenance of such Superannuated & disabled Officers and Soldiers as shall be provided for therein". The official document under the signature of George II was “Given to Our Court at St. James this 4th May 1730”. On verso there is a "Regulation of Subsistance [sic!] to be paid to every Officer & Soldier in the foregoing Establishment” (Minorca and Gibraltar); it lists due wages for fifteen ranks of personnel, from Colonel to Private.
Overall very interesting documents detailing military matters in the recently annexed British possessions in the Mediterranean. "Under the terms of the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht Gibraltar was ceded to Britain in perpetuity, [and] Britain took possession [of Minorca] under the terms of the Article XI of the [same treaty]" (Wikipedia).
7. [CHILEAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE]
[Historically Significant and Important Period Manuscript Report of the Naval and Military Actions in Chile and Peru]: Estado que en el dia de la fecha tiene el Vireinato de Lima; Provincias del de Buenos Ayres recuperadas y concervadas por el Ejercito del alto Peru; y finalmente en el que ce halla el Reyno de Chile [The State at this date of the Viceroyalty of Lima, the Provinces of Buenos Aires, taken back by the Army of Alto Peru; and finally the State of the Kingdom of Chile].
Lima, 1 November 1818. Small folio (ca. 31x21 cm). 6 pp. Brown ink on laid paper with watermarks ‘A’ and ‘PLA’. Text in Spanish in legible hand writing. Later marbled paper wrappers. Manuscript in very good condition.
Historically significant and important period report of the final stage of the Chilean (1810-1826) and Peruvian (1811-1824) Wars of Independence, compiled by Spanish colonial authorities. Our copy apparently belonged to Joaquín de la Pezuela, 1st Marquis of Viluma (1761–1830) who was a viceroy of Peru during the War of Independence: there is a handwritten remark “Es copia Pezuela” in the end of the text.
The document is divided into three parts (“Vireinato de Lima”, “Egéreito del Perú”, and “Reyno de Chile”) and starts with the report of advance of the Royalist forces (3400 men under command of General Mariano de Osorio) from Callao to Talcahuano in order to regain Chile. Then follow the descriptions of Battle of Cancha Rayada (18 March 1818), Battle of Maipú (5 April 1818), San Martín’s famous Crossing of the Andes (January-February 1817) et al. A large part of the text is dedicated to the actions of the Royalists’ army in Alto Peru under command of José de la Serna e Hinojosa (1770-1832). The author reports on the numbers of armed forces in different provinces of the Vireinato de Lima and gives a picture of the wartime Peru from north to south.
Very important is the extensive material on the naval war near the coast of Chile and Peru, and the actions of the First Chilean Navy Squadron which was formed in 1817-1818 and eventually “terminated Spanish colonial rule on the south-west coast of South America” (Wikipedia). The report lists 12 vessels of the Royalists’ naval forces (Las fuerzas de mar): frigates Esmeralda, Cleopatra, Presidenta and Venganza, brigantines Pezuela and Potrillo, corvet Sebastiano et al. There are notes on the condition and amount of guns of each vessel. A separate list is dedicated to the enemy vessels and also details their artillery: Lautaro and Cumberland (bought from the British East India Company); corvette Coquimbo (bought from the US), four brigantines, and seven corsairs (Anglo-American and French).
The document reports on the blockade of Valparaiso in March-April 1818, and naval actions, e.g. The attack on Spanish corvette Resolution near Callao by the corsair force consisting of the British, American, Portuguese and Irish sailors (19 October). The text is concluding with the news that the naval reinforcement for the Royalists has departed from Spain: frigate Especulation left Cadiz on the 21st of May with 6 officials and 200 men from the Regiment of Cantabria, a part of a larger force which will embark in Callao and will go immediately to reinforce the army of Alto Peru. Frigate Maria Isabel will increase the maritime forces destined to blockade Valparaiso. The author has no doubt that “Our maritime force should succeed in destroying the rebels and will give us advantage in the reconquista de Chile”.
8. [FALL OF LUCKNOW]
CAMPBELL, Sir Colin, First Baron Clyde (1792-1863)
[Autograph Letter Signed “C. Campbell” to the Duke of Cambridge (Commander-in-Chief of the British Army) Reporting on the Latest Situation in Oudh after the Capture of Lucknow by Campbell’s Troops; [With] a Small Original Photo of Campbell in Uniform and with Sword].
Lucknow, 4 April 1858. Octavo (ca. 23x18,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on blue watermarked “J. Green and Son” laid paper. 76 lines of text, clear and complete. With a period addressed envelope ca. 7x11 cm. The letter written in a legible hand, paper aged and slightly worn on folds, otherwise a very good letter. Photo: albumen print ca.5,5x4,3 cm (ca. 2 ¼ x 1 ¼ in), mounted on a paper leaf. Light silvering and a small round stain on the lower margin, otherwise a very good photo.
Significant historical firsthand account of the Indian Rebellion 1857. The letter written by the Commander-in-Chief in India, Sir Colin Campbell to Prince George (1819-1904), Commander-in-Chief of the Forces (military head of the British Army), gives a comprehensive report on the situation in Lucknow and surroundings after the city had been captured by the British troops in March 1858.
First of all, Campbell reports that “two petty defeats have been sustained by small parties of our troops which were engaged at the requisition of the civil authority, the one being at Azimghur, and the other not far from Allahabad”. He also informs of the movement of the brigade of Sir Edward Lugard and of the victory of Sir Hugh Rose “over a large body of Insurgents”.
Regarding the future strategy, Campbell suggests to use “the troops which had been engaged in the Siege for the immediate and thorough reduction of the country between the Cogra and the Ganges, and so to avoid all chance of future insult to Lucknow by the rebel chiefs”. The Governor General, Lord Canning “however considers the occupation of Rohilcund paramount to every consideration, and arrangements, the first combinations of which took place six weeks ago, are now in a forward state for entering that Province from three points”.
The British troops in Lucknow “are perhaps better off than if they were in regular barracks”, and the engineers has already started working on establishing defences. Campbell writes that if the situation stabilizes he might go to Rohilcund and “superintend the operations in that quarter”, leaving Sir Hope Grant in charge of Lucknow. He states that “there are yet no great signs of pacification in Oudh, and all his [Grant’s] vigilance and energy will be required to assist the civil authority in the reestablishment of Government and order”.
9. [FIRST ANGLO-BURMESE WAR 1824-1826]
[DUNLOP], [William?] (1806-1827)
[Manuscript Diary of a Cadet of the Infantry, Bengal Establishment, East India Company, Giving an Extensive Eye-Witness Account of the First Anglo-Burmese War].
February 19, 1824 - March 5, 1826. Octavo (ca. 20x15,5 cm). 99, , [39 blank] pp. Brown ink on laid paper watermarked 1817-1818; ruled. Complete text in legible hand writing. Period full vellum with marbled endpapers. Binding soiled and damaged at head of the spine, otherwise a very good manuscript.
This private diary of an East India Company Cadet of the Infantry gives a detailed eye-witness account of the First Anglo-Burmese War 1824-1826, with contemporary reports about the Barrackpore Mutiny (November 2, 1824), the latter is "generally regarded as a dress rehearsal for the Indian Mutiny of 1857 because of its similar combination of Indian grievances against the British, caste feeling, and the ineptitude of its handling" (Encyclopaedia Britannica).
The narration starts with the author’s departure from England and after a captivating description of the voyage and the stay in Cape Town proceeds to the events of the Burmese war, covering it to the end and further (the war finished on February 24, 1826). The young author, only 18 years old, was attached to the 52nd regiment Native Infantry of the Bengal Establishment of the Company’s Army and spent the war years in Sylhet and Chittagong. He vividly discusses all news and troop movements, and speculates about the forthcoming events, eagerly waiting for the moment when he will "have a share in the glorious struggle" (5 November 1824, p. 49). The diary gives interesting notes on the War’s main events, including the defeat of Burmese by the army under Archibald Campbell and the taking of Arracan, with a grave remark about the Barrackpore Mutiny: "The Stability of out possessions in Hindustan depend so much on the fidelity of the Sepoys, that if the least appearance of Mutiny or disaffection is not followed with instantaneous and inevitable punishment to the aggressors, and rewards are not the constant concomitant of fidelity on their parts, we may very soon see our own discipline and bayonets turned against us, endeavoring to wrest from us our dominions" (p. 50).
The author’s notes about garrison life are dispersed with interesting observations about local landscape, rivers and unhealthy climate, he reports about numerous depredations by tigers, native Sepoys dying in great quantities, and an earthquake; and often reflects on difficulties of the war for the Company and its military consequences: "The several states on our western frontier are equally disposed to throw off their allegiance to our Government, and at the least reverse of fortune in the Burmah War, the whole of India will be in flame" (p. 54).
Interesting is his remark on the rivers of the region which are "the natural boundaries of our immense empire, & which I think ought not to have been crossed by us, for the possession of a few paltry districts. There are natural Military boundaries for almost every state" (p. 86-87)
The probable author of the diary is William Dunlop, who according to "Alphabetical List of the Officers of the Bengal Army" became a Cadet of the Bengal Establishment of the East-India Company in 1825; cornet, ensign or second lieutenant - on 28 Dec, 1825 and died in November 1827 at Jubbulpore (See: Alphabetical List of the Officers of the Bengal Army; with the dates of their respective promotion, retirement, resignation, or death - 1760-1834. London: Longman, Orme, Brown and Co, 1838, p. 92-93).
The author of the diary gives his exact date of birth: ‘17 June 1806’ (entry from 17 June 1824) and mentions his uncle, ‘Major Dunlop’ (30 December 1824), who could be Colonel William Dunlop (1785-1841), Quarter-Master General of East-India Company. According to the "Alphabetical List of Officers of the Bengal Army," he was promoted to Major on 1 May 1824 (p. 86-87), thus the person mentioned by the author of the diary could be him.
10. [GORDON OF KHARTOUM], Charles George, Major-General (1833-1885)
[Two Items Relating to General Gordon Including: Printed Pamphlet]: SULLIVAN, Edward. The Truth About Gordon; [With: Signatures of Gordon's Sister ('M. A. Gordon') and Sister-in-Law ('M. F. M. Gordon').
Pamphlet: [London: National Union of Conservative and Constitutional Associations, 1885]. Series A. - No. 1.]. 1885. Octavo (ca. 21,5x13,5 cm). 4 pp. Paper worn, with creases, stains and tears on extremities. Overall a good pamphlet. The signatures are cut from letters, and laid down on part of an octavo leaf from an autograph album, ca. 17,5x15 cm. The signatures are captioned in a contemporary hand. Both aged, but in good condition.
The very rare pamphlet is by Sir Edward Robert Sullivan (1826-1899), Lord Chancellor of Ireland, with only one electronic copy found in Worldcat. The pamphlet is a sharp criticism of the government of William Gladstone which is blamed for the death of Gordon. The initial paragraph reads: 'Before the British Elector makes up his mind as to whom he will entrust the honour of his country at the General Election, it will be well for him to "read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest" a plain, unvarnished history of the betrayal and death of one of the noblest heroes of this or any other age - GENERAL GORDON.' The text consists of several paragraphs, namely: 'Why he was sent', 'What he demanded', 'The hope that ended in despair', 'The end', 'Interest before duty' and 'Our duty and interest'.
The autograph note by Gordon's sister is on a slip ca. 4x10,5 cm, and reads 'Believe me yours very truly – M.A. Gordon'. The autograph of his sister-in-law (the wife of his brother General Samuel Enderby Gordon, 1824-1883) is on a slip ca. 4,5x7 cm, and reads 'Believe me Truly yours M. F. M. Gordon'.
"Gordon withstood a siege of 317 days supported by two white officers with native troops wasted by famine and disease. Then, on 26 January 1885, a fall in the level of the Nile enabled the Mahdists to succeed in a final assault on Khartoum. Gordon was speared by dervishes in his palace, and his dissevered head was displayed in the Mahdists' camp. Wolseley's river steamers came in sight of Khartoum on 28 January, then withdrew. Gordon's body was never found" (Oxford DNB).
11. [ICE TRADE VOYAGE FROM BOSTON TO BUENOS AIRES]
[DONATI’S COMET] [Manuscript Journal of the Bark Augusta Mayhew's (Captain Thorpe) Voyage from Boston to Buenos Aires in 1858].
[Primarily at sea]: September - December, 1858. Large Quarto. Ink on laid paper, legible writing. 32 pp. And over 100 blank leaves, ruled. Contemporary black half sheep with marbled boards and gilt tooled spine. Rubbed at extremities, minor scattered foxing, otherwise a very good journal.
Important account of one of the first ice trade voyages from New England to Argentina; The journal describes a voyage of the Bark Augusta Mayhew from Boston to Buenos Aires (September 5th - December 1st, 1858). As we get to know from the text, the ship was deeply loaded "with ice and tan" (see p. 18 of the journal), and had some passengers including children on board (p. 9 et al).
At the beginning of the trip the winds were very weak so the ship moved very slowly crossing the equator only two months after departure; which caused numerous remarks in the journal about the dreary weather and their slow progress (e.g. "Ye gods! Are we destined to spend our days and finally lay our bones, within these latitudes... Oh dear! It is indeed tiresome, tedious to be compeled [sic] to remain in the same place, day after day night after night, with no prospect of ever getting out of it").
Then the author mentions Cape São Roque on the northeastern tip of Brazil, which latitude the bark passed on the 10th of November. On Nov 29th they started going to Rio de la Plata, passed Cape St. Mary, English Point, at night noticed the lighthouse on the Isla de Flores and in the morning a pilot from Montevideo guided them to the port. The entry for the 30th of November gives a vivid description of the Buenos Aires: "As we passed by the city, some 7 miles distant, we could not have so good a view as we wished. However, at this distance it has the appearance of a very clean and healthy place, large number of church spires. The land in general is low, well wooded and the homes are nearly all painted white, which peep out beneath the foliage look quite well. The shipping is small, there are at present some 6 or 7 men o’war at anchor."
The journal contains a description and several notes of Donati’s Comet which was first observed by Giovanni Battista Donati on June 2, 1858, and "was the most brilliant comet that appeared in the 19th century" (Wikipedia). First notes about the comet are dated September 17 and 23 and mention "a comet with a long tale"; the entry from Oct 3rd says: "The Comet has been is sight all the last week, and each night it appears larger, with its fiery tail increasing, both in length and width, last night it was 20 to 24 degrees long, and about 4 wide at its extreme length." The sailors ascribed to it their misfortune with weak winds and calm weather, noting "I wonder if it has anything to do with our having so much light air and calm sea for the last 10 days; at the rate we are going, or have been going, it will take a year or more to get at our port of destination." The Comet became "quite faint" on the 10th of October. It is interesting, that "Abraham Lincoln, then a candidate for a seat in the U.S. Senate, sat up on the porch of his hotel in Jonesboro, Illinois to see "Donti's Comet" on September 14, 1858, the night before the third of his historic debates with Stephen Douglas" (Wikipedia).
The journal also registers several ships encountered on the way: Bark Nimrod from Boston bound to Rio, with quite a number of passengers (Oct 14); Schooner Flirt also bound for Buenos Aires (Oct 25); Bark Atlantic Coleman, from Nantucket on a whaling voyage to Rio de la Plata and then around the Cape (Nov 15); ship Humboldt bound from New York to Singapore (Nov 19). He does record latitude and longitude and the winds, though, at least what winds there are; the numerous sea birds and animals encountered (including a sketch of a sea perch which the author caught, p. 12).
The keeper of the journal most likely was a crew member of the bark. He says at one point, "I manage to pass the time away quite agreeable. What, with reading, keeping Capt. Thorp's Abstract Log, according to the directions of Lieut. Maury, and lending a hand on deck at times, I get through the hours of the day very well. So, when the night comes, and eight bells are rung, some the watch of night attentive keep, while I, profoundly in my hammock sleep." He also mentions that his first voyage he made on Mary Mitchel bound to California about 10 years ago (1848).
Apart from registering nautical details the account is very poetic. First it includes numerous quoting of William Falconer’s poem The Shipwreck (1762); and the author’s own rhapsodizing: "Lo - Once more I am afloat on the fearce [sic] rolling tide the ocean is my home, and the Bark is my bride, and as the high land fades fast from our view I cannot feel but sad, sad to think that year's must pass ere I again behold these well known scenes, or revisit the haunts of my childhood, yet such is my fate, ever to be roaming in some foreign clime."
There is a very nice description of a storm in mid-Atlantic: "Nothing could look more dreary than the weather this morning. Pile on pile of dark and ominous clouds are heaped together in wild confusion off the N.E. The sea is running mountain high, and as we settle down between them, to look up, and gaze at those huge billows, towering high-high above us, with its foam covered head, and expecting every moment to be engulfed within its dark embrace is indeed terrible" (September 20). There is also a chance for the readers to acquaint themselves with a sailor’s folklore: "A rainbow in the morning sailor take warning, a rainbow at night is the sailor’s delight" (p. 5). The journal ends abruptly, mid-sentence.
As to Augusta Mayhew, it belonged to the New York firm Simpson and Mayhew and was lost on January 27th, 1860: "This bark, which left New York some time since, in ballast, bound to Sagua la Grande, ran on the Cauy del Padre reef, at 2 a.m. Of this day. The Augusta Mayhew was built at Millbridge, in 1857, 433 tons register, rated A2, and was owned by Z. Mayhew, of New York, and insured in Wall street for about $18,000. She will prove a total loss" (Vincent’s Semi-Annual United States Register. January 1st - July 1st, 1860. Philadelphia, 1860, p. 67).
12. [ILE DE CUPIDON, MARINERS’ EROTIC JOKE]
[Humorous Erotic Manuscript Patent Given to “M. Pantelm” to Travel through the Cupid Island with Extensive Description of his Rights in the Domain of Legs and other Seductive Parts].
1843. Folio (ca. 32x19,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on white paper. Signed by four “officials” and with four “official” stamps. Worn and mildly soiled, fold marks, overall a very good document.
A humorous fictional patent given to a young mariner “Pantelm” by “Us, Ministers and Officers of Equatorial parties” allows him to travel like a butterfly (“parcourir en papillon”) in their domain of legs and other seductive parts. Other paragraphs “enjoin all individuals of female sex between 18 and 26 years old to shelter him properly and to go with him with or without a candle”; and “pray the janissaires les regime to let the bearer of this certificate to circulate freely in our cities”.
The patent is written in “Our fortress of the Line and sealed on March 1843”. The “Officials” are: “Minister-protector of pregnant women and orphans” (La Chaleur), “Chief Intendant of the Pleasures of the Line” (Lajoie); “Extraordinary courier, the Chief of country roads the Line” (Brule pave), and “Monsier en chef of the Line” (Pousse moulin). A very unusual document.
WILLIAMSON, Adam, Sir (1736-1798)
[Manuscript Permit, Allowing Lieutenant Colonel John Perry "to go to Europe and to be absent from this Island for Twelve Months," signed by Adam Williamson, "Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief of His Majesty’s Island of Jamaica & Territories thereon depending on America, Chancellor & Vice Admiral of the same." Countersigned by William Shaw, Secretary].
Saint Jago de la Vega [Jamaica], 20 July 1794. 1 p. On a folded double folio leaf (ca. 32,5x20 cm). Brown ink on laid paper, water seal affixed. Short period note on verso on the contents of the document "Lieutenant Colonel Perry. Twelve months leave of absence." Horizontal folds, paper slightly browned, but overall in very good condition.
Sir Adam Williamson, Governor of Jamaica and St. Domingo, fought in America in 1755-57, at the siege of Quebec (1759), at the capture of Martinique and Guadeloupe (1762), and at the Battle of Bunker Hill (1775). This official document was written in his office in Saint Jago de la Vega (now Spanish Town), the capital of English Jamaica in 1665-1872. At the time the British had invaded St. Domingo, then a French colony, to establish a protectorate there, which resulted in a five-year military occupation (1793-1798). Port-au-Prince had been captured a month earlier (4 June 1794), and Williamson to be made a knight of the Bath on 18 November and the governor of St Domingo.
The permit concerns Williamson’s aide-de-camp, Lieut.-Col. John Perry, who was later a judge in Jamaica and died there in 1809 (American Vital Records from the Gentleman’s Magazine, 1731-1868; reprint, Baltimore, 2007, p. 222).
14. [MCCLURE'S VOYAGE TO CHINA]
PHILLIPS, Arthur Noel
[Logbook of McClure's First Command After his Discovery of the Northwest Passage]: Log of the Proceedings of H.M.S. "Esk" 21 Guns - Captain. Sir Robert McClure - kept by Arthur Noel Phillips, Master's Assistant. Commencing March 13th 1856 - Ending [November 6th 1857].
[At Sea], 1856-7. Folio Logbook. 210 pages used and the rest blank. Manuscript title page decorated with flags, four inserted original pencil drawings of coastal profiles captioned in ink: Cape Frio (Brazil), Horoti in the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii), Grigan and Pagan Islands (Mariana Islands), Bashee Islands and Richmond Islands (Philippines), one large and three folding, and a mounted recommendation certificate signed by McClure dated July 1857. Original sail cloth covered flexible covers, with ink title LOG of HMS “ESK” in manuscript on front cover. Covers frayed at head and tail of spine and with a split of rear joint and with some minor damp staining and soiling. Front hinge with a split and some text leaves loose but overall the logbook is in very good condition.
An interesting and important naval logbook which documents McClure's first command after his discovery of the Northwest Passage which saw him sail to China to reinforce the British Squadron on the Canton River during the Second Opium War (1856-8). The logbook includes four very good drawings of interesting points on his voyage to China. "In 1856 McClure was appointed to the Esk for service on the Pacific station. In the following year he brought her to China to reinforce the squadron there, and in December commanded a battalion of the naval brigade at the capture of Canton (Guangzhou)"(Oxford DNB). His voyage commenced at Sheerness and continued via Spithead, Devonport, Madeira, Rio de Janeiro, rounding the tip of South America to Valparaiso, and on up the west coast of South America to Panama. Then along the coast of Central America and on to China via the Sandwich Islands (Hawaii) and the Marianas. The final twenty-seven pages of the log contain details of the ship's activities on the Canton River and includes much information about the daily doings aboard ship during that period of intense actions between Royal Navy ships and Chinese forces ashore during the Second Opium War.
The logbook ends just before the Battle of Canton which "was fought by British and French forces against China on 28-31 December 1857. Although the British Royal Navy had destroyed the Chinese junks during the summer, an attack on Canton was delayed by the Indian Mutiny. British and French troops reconnoitred the city on 22 December. The battle began with a naval bombardment on 28 December and the capture of Lin's Fort one mile inland, and the next day troops landed by Kupar Creek to the south-east of the city. The Chinese had thought that the attacking forces would try to capture Magazine Hill before they moved on the city walls, but on the morning on 29 December after a naval bombardment ending at 9am French troops climbed the walls with little resistance. They had arrived at the wall early so faced fired from their own guns. Over 4700 British and Indian troops and 950 French troops scaled the city walls, with 13 British and two French dead. The walls were occupied for a week, then the troops moved into the streets of the city on the morning of 5 January. Some reports estimate tens of thousands of Chinese were killed or captured and nearly 30,000 homes were burned down, although other sources put Chinese casualties at 450 soldiers and 200 civilians" (Wikipedia).
15. [MOSQUITO COAST, SAN JUAN DE NICARAGUA]
[Manuscript Report, Titled]: At a meeting of the Citizens of San Juan de Nicaragua held at the American Hotel on the Evening of February 28th 1852 in Pursuance of the Following Notice. San Juan de Nicaragua, 21 February 1852.
28 February 1852. On a folded folio leaf (ca. 32,5x20 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on paper. Stitch holes in inner margins and outside margins with edge wear, otherwise a very good manuscript.
Important manuscript of the minutes of a meeting which attempted to incorporate Greytown (now San Juan de Nicaragua) on the Caribbean Mosquito Coast into Nicaragua. An almost identical document was published in the British and Foreign State Papers (1851-52, vol. XVI. London, 1862, p. 830-832; after an extract in the “New York Herald”).
The minutes document the preliminary procedures, such as the election of a Chairman (William H. Deforrest), a Vice-President (Benjamin Mooney), secretaries and an interpreter. The objective of the meeting is defined as “to obtain a Government for this Town that would be satisfactory to its Citizens and afford that protection to persons and property to which all are alike entitled”. The speech of Mr. W.P. Kirkland, included in the document reveals the main reason of the dissatisfaction of the citizens: “the present so-called authorities of this town was a temporary Government […] they themselves were in doubt and uncertainty who and what they were, and how to act”; the authorities were subdued to the “King of Mosquito” who was acknowledged only by England and no other nation.
The committee elected during the meeting came up with four resolutions, with the main one – to send a delegation to the Government of Nicaragua to obtain “a charter [of incorporation] empowering the citizens of San Juan to establish a free port, and territorial and local Government”. Mr. W.H. Deforrest was appointed the chairman of the delegation, and he picked 15 other members (names were listed). The way of transportation was suggested by Captain Banker who offered his steamer to take the delegation to Granada. A Spanish version of the resolutions was read to the meeting by M. Beres.
Greytown, founded by the Spanish in 1539 and fallen under the British influence in 1740, was officially ceded to the British protectorate, the Misquito Kingdom in 1849. This time the town was an attractive investment ground functioning as “the eastern terminus of a transport operation owned by American Cornelius Vanderbilt's Accessory Transit Company that carried thousands of travelers each month from the Atlantic to the Pacific side of Central America on their way to San Francisco during the California Gold Rush” (Wikipedia). But the bombardment of the town by the USS Cyane in 1854, several changes of authorities, as well as the end of the transport operations in favour of the Panama route – all that lead to decline of Greytown.
“The town was legally placed under the sovereignty of Nicaragua and removed from Miskito control in 1860 but remained de facto under British protection through much of the remainder of the century. In 1894, Nicaraguan President José Santos Zelaya fully incorporated the region into the state, at which time Greytown had 1482 inhabitants” (Wikipedia).
16. [NAVIGATION IN THE CARIBBEAN]
[PATTERSON?, Charles William, Admiral RN (1756-1841)]
[Early Manuscript Report on the Navigation in the Caribbean, in Particular near Isabela, Aguada Bay, Mona Island (Puerto Rico), and Saona Island (Dominican Republic)].
1787 (entry on the Mona Island is dated “13 June, 1787”). Folio (ca. 32x20 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Manuscript is written in a very legible hand; paper aged and lightly-stained, with two neat stab holes in the margins, otherwise a very good manuscript.
Apparently compiled for the use of the British mariners sailing in the Caribbean, the manuscript gives a detailed and captivating account of navigation near the coasts of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola. There are complete descriptions of the waters of Aguada Bay and Mona Island, and incomplete texts regarding Isabela (Puerto Rico) and Saona Island (Dominican Republic). The manuscript derives from the family archives of Captain George Anthony Tonyn and his nephew, Admiral Charles William Paterson (1756-1841).
The manuscript is written with particular reference to navigation and thoroughly marks distances, geographical coordinates of the islands, bays et al., points of good anchoring sites, sea depths and currents, as well as all sorts of supplies available on shore. Thus the note on Aguada Bay starts: 'An open Bay and deep, requires no particular directions, coming from the North and Eastwd. You may round the North point at 1 Miles distance and keep as near the North Shore as you please, you do not get Soundings till you are within a Mile of the Town in 40 faths.'
About the provisions on Mona Island: “There are abundance of Wild Bullocks, which the Turtlers who come here occasionally hunt with dogs and shoot, also abundance of Goats which they hunt and shoot in the same manner. Very good line fishing, but no place sits to haul the seine”.
"Aguada is a municipality of Puerto Rico, located in the western coastal valley region bordering the Atlantic Ocean, west of Rincón, Aguadilla and Moca; and north of Anasco. Mona is the third largest island of the archipelago of Puerto Rico, after the main island of Puerto Rico and Vieques. Saona Island is located a short distance from the mainland on the south-east tip of the Dominican Republic, near La Altagracia Province" (Wikipedia).
17. [PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND]
HANSON, Joseph, Lance-Corporal, Royal Engineers
[Autograph Letter Signed 'J. A. Hanson, Explorer for the Palestine Exploration Fund' to his Parents Regarding the Excavations in Old Jerusalem].
Jerusalem, Palestine, 31 May 1868. Quarto (ca. 26,5x21 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on paper. 105 lines of text, clear and complete. Paper aged and sometimes mildly worn on folds, otherwise a very good letter.
Important eye witness account of the first major excavation of Jerusalem’s Temple Mount undertaken in 1867-1870 by Captain Charles Warren (1840-1927) on assignment of the Palestine Exploration Fund. This is a private letter by a member of the excavation party Lance Corporal J. Hanson who was mentioned in Warren’s account of the mission “The recovery of Jerusalem: a narrative of exploration and discovery in the city and the Holy Land” (New York, 1871). The letter is semi-literate, and all quotations are given according to the original.
First of all, Hanson witnesses the troubles caused to the Warren’s party by the Muslim Governor of Jerusalem who often stopped the excavations. The permission letter from Constantinople authorized Warren “to excavate anywhere, except in the Haram Area, and sites sacred to Christians and Moslems” (See: Our work in Palestine: an account of the different expeditions sent out to the Holy land by the committee of the Palestine exploration fund. London, 1873, p. 97), which in fact didn’t allow any works on the Temple Mount (Haram Ash-Sharif). Hanson reports that Warren had embarked for England “also to make a complant against the Governor, the "Pasha" of this City who is interfering with our Excavations without us Giveing Him Any couse whatsowever. He couse us a very great del of trouble in trying to stop our works […] I trust he [Warren] will gain us permit ‘that is the Palestine Exploration Fun [sic] is atplieing to Constantinoble for permission from the "Sulton" to proceed further in our Excavation within the "Walls" of this "Holy City"”.
Hanson gives very interesting notes about the progress of the excavation: “I am now excavatin to the west of mount "Sion" and also out Side of the east Walles of the City. I have found a great number of peaces of Pottery also carved Stones Marble Glass of all colors also a number of ancient Monny &c. Those ar found at the depth of 60 feet and apward and at this depth from the Surface it is very dangerious Work”. Hanson reports that he is excavating “the ancion wall of the city of Jerusalem […] with 40 [or 70?] Laborers”, many of whom he has lost to “the ferver”. He also notes that he has '”dellings with a great Number of Criston Jews” and has them employed “as overseers on the works”.
Hanson vividly describes the new harvest in Jerusalem: “Ere this Avineyard is looking most Magnificence also the apricots Trees this Fruit is very plentifull in Palestine you can by apricots 14lb. For one penny very fine the Figs also is very fine. Vegtable-Marrow and cucumbers come into this City in cartlodes from Jaffa, and the surrounding Villigis”. He mentions a “Great fested with the "Jewes" of all nacsions in this City on the 27th. Of this Month”, complains about the heat, and bright sun in Jerusalem, so strong that there are “a very great number of people of all nactions totally Blind in this city”; as well as about “confounded Miscakco” [moscitos?] who “bit very hard”.
Overall a very interesting historical document adding nice details to the history of the first major excavation in Jerusalem.
18. [PALESTINE, CUSTODY OF THE HOLY PLACES]
ROBLES, Alonso de, Fray
[Most Likely the Preliminary Draft with Corrections of a Letter by Fray Alonso de Robles, “Comisario General de Jerusalem” Regarding the Restitution of the Holy Places to the Custody of the Franciscans from the Greeks]: La maravilla que Dios ha obrado en favor de la Religion serafica y de los Santos Lugares restitutiendo los a su Antigua possession y verdadero Culto; pide sobre continuas alabanzas…
[PALESTINE?], ca. 1691. On a double Folio leaf (ca. 30x21 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Text in Spanish, in legible hand writing. With some period corrections in text and marginalia. Overall a very good letter.
Historically significant document showing the rivalry between the Orthodox and Catholic Churches for the custody of the Holy Places in the 16th-17th centuries. The letter was written after a long period of hostilities in the 17th century when at first the Orthodox Church became the only custodian of the Golgotha (1634) and ousted the Catholics from the Sepulchre (1676), but eventually the Latins recovered their exceptional rights for the Sepulchre and Golgotha (1691).
The author praises God who acted in favor of the “Religion Serafica” (Franciscans) and returned the Holy Places to the “ancient possession of the true faith”. At the same time he points to his addressee to the necessity of dealing with Greeks with “Grande moderacion”. [Rough translation]: “We should show them kindness and friendship and give them places where they could have their service, by shortening ours. We should focus on the mission in Cypress and teach Greek language to some of our brothers, so that we can understand them in Jerusalem. It will help with the conservation of the Holy Places instead of disputing about them”.
Then he talks about the necessity of expanding the Franciscans’ presence in the Hebron area, so that the local Christians could be protected from the Muslims; construction of “hotels” and hospitals on the way from Constantinople to Jerusalem; setting up a convent on Monte Libano, so that Franciscans could learn Arabic language, et al. A large part of the letter is dedicated to the “conquista spiritual de los Drusos” – the author gives a brief description of the Druze spiritual movement (it derived from the Ismailism school of Shia Islam), and notes that “they consider themselves Christians and they want to remain so”. Then follows a lengthy description of the Druze’s history in the 17th century, including a story of “Emir Frekedrin” (Fakhreddine), who “was beheaded by the Grand Turco in 1635”, and certain “De Sidonia Joseph Maronita […] hombre docto y piadosissimo” who visited Druzes many times in the 1650-1660s and “was welcomed with great love”.
The letter has a period manuscript title (summary) in the end, written in another hand: “Carta del P[adr]e Fr[ay] Alonso de Robles Comisario gen[era]l de Jerusalem al P[adr]e guardiary […?], y […?] religios de aquella Custodia, en la occasion de […?] restitucio los Santo Lugares y usurpacion los Griegos Scismaticos”.
19. [PHILIPPINE-AMERICAN WAR]
[Autograph Letter Signed by a Lieutenant “Albert” of the American Army to His Mother Describing the Military Actions During the Capture of Taal, Batangas].
Batangas, P.I., 22 Jun 1899. Folio (ca. 31x20,5 cm). Three double sided leaves of ruled paper, five numbered pages. Brown ink on aged paper, worn on folds and with adhesive strengthened old tears; overall the letter is in good condition.
Important first-hand account of the Americans taking the city of Taal (Batangas province) during the first stage of the Philippine American war (June 2, 1899 – July 4, 1902). This letter from an American Lieutenant is dated 22 June 1899 which is a little less than three weeks after the beginning of the war.
Albert tells his mother that he has returned “yesterday from Taal, a town about 15 miles from here. We were ordered to go there to reinforce a battalion of the 46th who had the niggers in the town, strongly fortified and very ugly”. He proceeds with an emotional description of his company’s charge which he led together with another officer, Captain Jordan.
“With a yell like Comanch Indians we ran towards the bullets raining about us […] and the insurrectors ran. With yells, and I must admit some rather strong words I urged the men forward. […] I was met with a terrible fusillade of bullets” which “whizzed by me at a terrible rate and threw dust into my face”. When his men were ready, the Lieutenant “yelled out: “Charge!” At first the men hesitated to face the terrible fire, but I yelled again and on we went with a loud yell. The fire then was something fearful and I never will understand how I, or any of us escaped being killed or wounded. <…> as we neared them [the enemies] they fired one more ragged volley and fled. We took the trenches with a hurrah – I was the first commissioned officer in them”.
The military actions were finished, and the company proceeded to Taal. But on the way “one very peculiar incident” happened “which resulted seriously for one of our men. While passing through a cane field a caribou (they are ferocious creatures when mad) got in our lines, became wild and charged one of our men before we could kill the beast. Later we killed another which charged us. They are braver by far than the Insurgents”. The misfortunes weren’t finished though: “In crossing, or rather trying to cross a marsh and jungle I got separated from the company with about thirty men, and got hopelessly tangled up. I couldn’t find the trail and it was long after dark (we took the last trench after sun down) so I had to try for about two hours to find the way to the city”. Eventually Albert managed to get to Taal at 8:30pm.
He finished the letter talking about his health and the casualties amongst the Americans: “I got out of it all right, getting nothing worse than a half black eye from a flying piece of debris. We lost only five men wounded and one wounded by a cariboo”. Overall an interesting first-hand account of the Philippine-American War.
20. [ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN & IRELAND]
[Founding Documents of the Royal Asiatic Society, Including: In Manuscript: The Asiatic Society Prospectus; With: Printed List of Members of the Asiatic Society of London; with Inscriptions by Henry Thomas Colebrooke (1765-1837), the Marquis of Lansdowne and poet Rev. George Crabbe (1754-1832)].
London, Jan./Feb. 1823. List of Members: Quarto ca. 23x18 cm (9x7 in). 2 pp. Folded, weak on folds, red seal with chip to blank of left margin. Prospectus: Quarto ca. 23x19 cm (9 x 7 ½ in). 4 pp. Watermarked laid paper; small tear and chipping at centrefold, text complete and clear. Overall both in very good condition.
A pair of important documents relating to the founding of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Printed list "Original Members of the Asiatic Society of London" contains 27 names including Sinologist Sir George Thomas Staunton (1781-1859), colonial official in Ceylon Sir Alexander Johnston (1775-1849), Orientalist and Society’s mastermind Henry Thomas Colebrooke, administrator in India Sir John Malcolm (1769-1833), et al. The list has a manuscript note by Colebrooke "with Major Colebrooke's sincere regards 24 Jany 1823" likely from one of the first Society’s preliminary meetings. There’s also a superscription to the Rev. G. Crabbe by the Earl of Lansdowne dated 1823, and manuscript poetical jottings by Crabbe, a total of 37 lines. A later note on reverse describes the item: "On the outside is written in the handwriting of the Marquis of Lansdowne the address of the Revd George Crabbe, the poet, who filled up the vacant space with a short unpublished piece of poetry (in his own handwriting)".
The prospectus informs about the date, place and agenda of the Society’s first General Meeting (15 March 1823); describes the procedure of Election of a Council and Officers, Council’s composition; the ballot; resolutions (name, designation of members, evolution of statutes and next general meeting). Noteworthy is the description of the functions of the Director’ Office, which is "proposed to be instituted expressly for the purpose of effectually sustaining and promoting Oriental Literature <..,> one of the leading objects, which the Society has in view." It was Henry Thomas Colebrooke who became the first Director of the Society.
"Colebrooke was the individual who played the greatest part in founding and establishing the (later Royal) Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. He took the chair at all the preliminary meetings; the first, on 9 January 1823, was held at his house. It was evidently felt that the president should be someone of higher rank and greater influence; but it was unanimously decided to appoint, immediately below the president, a director, ‘under whose particular care and protection Asiatic literature should be placed’. In this capacity Colebrooke was ‘called to the chair’ at the society's first general meeting on 15 March 1823. In his address he said that England had a special mission to repay a debt of gratitude to India. For the next three years he presided at most meetings both of the society and of its governing council; evidently it was he who really ran the society" (Oxford DNB).
21. [ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN & IRELAND]
OUSELEY, Gore, Sir (1770-1844)
[Autograph Letter Signed, Regarding Ouseley Activities in the Royal Asiatic Society and Mentioning George FitzClarence and the First Edition of "The Travels of Ibn Batuta"].
Woolmers, Hertford, 22 October 1829. Octavo (ca. 20,5x16 cm). 1 pp. Brown ink on paper. Mild folds, light toning, remains of guards, but overall a very good letter.
An interesting letter from Sir Gore Ouseley, British diplomat and orientalist, noted for preparing the Treaty of Gulistan (1814) between Russia and Persia while serving as ambassador in Persia in 1810-1815. The letter relates to the Royal Asiatic Society which was founded in 1823 with the close participation of Ouseley:
"He was one of those responsible for the founding of the Royal Asiatic Society in London in 1823 and was associated with the formation of the oriental translation committee, of which he was elected chairman. He became president of the Society for the Publication of Oriental Texts, formed in 1842" (Oxford DNB).
In the letter Ouseley thanks his addressee for "information about Col. FitzClarence" - obviously, meaning George Augustus Frederick FitzClarence (1794-1842), a military officer who served in India and also became an orientalist and a founder of the Royal Asiatic Society. Noteworthy is the fact, that FitzClarence "was a member of the society's committee preparing plans for publishing translations of oriental works, and was subsequently deputy chairman and vice-president of the Oriental Translation Fund" (Oxford DNB). It explains Ouseley writing that "in the course of a day or two I shall have a letter ready for the Ambassador at Constantinople to accompany the Copy of Ibn Batuta for the Sultan." He obviously meant "The travels of Ibn Batuta" - a history of travels of a famous Medieval Muslim explorer Ibn Battuta (1304-1368 or 1369) which has just been published by John Murray "for the Oriental Translation Committee" where Ouseley and FitzClarence were both members.
At the end of the letter Ouseley gives his opinion on the circulation of the reports, probably of the Society: "I think 40 or 50 might be selected to have them sent to, but certainly not more! And I [?] find that the number I have mentioned is much greater that those who would take the trouble of reading them." A nice letter revealing details of the history of the Royal Asiatic Society.
22. [ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY]
[Official Diploma Acknowledging Professor Jean Du Fief an Honorary Corresponding Member of the Royal Geographical Society; Signed by the Society President the Marquess of Lorne, and Secretaries Clements R. Markham and Douglas W. Freshfied].
[London], 12 April 1886. 1 p. Elephant Folio (ca. 55,5x40 cm). On the official engraved form of the Society, with the obverse and the reverse sides of the Founder’s Medal reproduced above the text. Finished in brown ink, signed on foot. Slightly soiled, Lorne’s signature smudged, minor creases, otherwise a very good document.
This diploma, signed by the President of the Royal Geographical Society John Campbell (“Lorne”), and the secretaries Clements Markham and Douglas Freshfield, recognises the services of Belgian Professor Jean du Fief (1829-1908) to geography. Du Fief was one of the founders and the general secretary of the Belgian Royal Geographical Society (Société belge de géographie, Bruxelles). While on service he was closely involved with the Belgian exploration of Congo and promoted Henry Morton Stanley’s expeditions to the region. Du Fief compiled “Carte de l'État indépendant du Congo et de l'Afrique centrale” (Brussels, 1892). He also contributed significantly to the organization of the Belgian Antarctic expedition (1897-99) lead by Adrien de Gerlache, and the Sierra DuFief, or Fief Mountains, in the south part of Wiencke Island off the Antarctic peninsula, was named after him.
The diploma states that it had been given to du Fief “in order to mark the high estimation which they [the Society] entertain” of his services “in promoting the science of Geography”.
23. [RUSSIAN EMBASSY TO VENICE, 1656-1657]
[REMARKABLE PRIMARY SOURCE ON 17TH CENTURY RUSSIAN-WESTERN EUROPEAN RELATIONS]. Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi de’Sig.i Ambasc. Moscoviti, che ora si trovano in Livorno per passare all’Ambasciata di Venezia [Autograph Letter by an Anonymous Author from Livorno Witnessing the Muscovite Embassy to Venice (1656-1657) and Containing Vivid Observations and Remarks About Russians].
Livorno, ca. 1656. Quarto, ca. 27x19,5 cm (10 ½ x 7 ¾ in). Four pages; brown ink on cream laid paper with fleur-de-lis watermark, written in a legible hand. Paper aged and slightly faded, with fold marks, but the text is still bright and easy distinguishable. Beautiful period style crimson elaborately gilt tooled custom made full morocco clamshell box with cloth chemise. The letter in very good condition.
Remarkable and Very Important Primary Source for Russian-Western European relations in the 17th century, an anonymous letter: “Curiosissimi Costumi de’Sig.i Ambasciatori Moscoviti, che ora si trovano in Livorno per passare all’Ambasciata di Venezia.” According to the historians who worked with two other known copies of the letter (see below: Attribution of “Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi”) it was written by a first-hand witness of the embassy, somehow involved with it, most likely between the 19th and 23rd of December, 1656. The written dialect of the letter’s language indicates that the author was a common person from Livorno, possibly of Sicilian origin.
The letter vividly describes the Muscovite diplomatic delegation, staying in Livorno on its way to Venice in the winter of 1656. It was an official embassy to the Doge of Venice from the Russian Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich (1629-1676) sent in 1656-57 and headed by the Pereyaslavl governor Ivan Ivanovich Chemodanov (before 1618 - after 1657) and Deacon A. Postnikov. The goal of the embassy was to strengthen political and commercial relations with Venice, to negotiate the joint struggle against the Turks, to give Venetians the permission to trade in Archangelsk, and to borrow money from the Doge. A small “side task” was to: “to sell a hundred poods (1600kgs) of rhubarb and some sable furs for a thousand roubles.” Overall the embassy didn’t achieve its goals as it didn’t manage to get the money from the Doge and to successfully sell the state rhubarb and the sable furs (some of which were damaged during the voyage to Italy and some were sold to feed the embassy itself). The embassy left Venice in March 1657 and went back to Russia through Switzerland, Germany and Holland.
In spite of a lack of diplomatic skills, Chemodanov’s embassy left its trace in history. Its members became the first Russians to travel to Italy by sea, around northern Europe. They left Archangelsk on the 12th of September, 1656; passed the “Northern Nose” (North Cape), the “land of the Danish king,” “Icelant, or Icy island (Iceland),” “the lands of Hamburg and Bremen,” Scotland, Holland, “possessions of the English King,” French and Spanish lands - “all those countries we passed from the left,” and arrived in Livorno on the 24th of November the same year. During the voyage they suffered from storms in the Atlantic, when most of the state goods were damaged.
The embassy’s appearance in Italy was met with great interest and curiosity; the official relations from both the Russian and Italian sides noted crowds of people accompanying the Muscovites wherever they went. Our letter “Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi” reveals what impression the Russian diplomats made on the Italians, e.g. “they are dressed in cloth of cotton wool as they are afraid of cold, which is very common in their country”; “they beat their servants with their own hands, and so brutally that four of five of them was on the verge of death, and one ran away and is still not found”; “they have sable skins for 100 thousand skudi and also a big amount of rhubarb, caviar and salted fish, and it stinks so much, that people get sick, and where they were for one hour it stinks afterwards for twelve hours.”
The Muscovites often seemed barbaric to the inhabitants of Livorno, as they all slept together, “and the Ambassador with them too, as he was afraid to fall off the bed”; they liked wine, but “put it all in one barrel, not distinguishing whether it is white or red or any sort of wine”; when the Governor took them around the city in a carriage, local people were astonished to see that the Muscovites didn’t open the doors, but climbed over them. There are also descriptions of their table manners which indicate that the Muscovites didn’t know how to use forks, also descriptions of how balls and festivities amused them, how “all small houses seemed to them as Gran Palazzos.” Amusing also is the note that the Muscovites liked “Belle Donne” a lot, and spent many sable furs on them. A separate story describes how the chief Ambassador got attracted to the wife of a local doctor and tried to get her attention.
The letter concludes with a note of the embassy’s coming departure to Florence, where they will be met as Royal ambassadors, and “comedia redecolosa” and that a big feast will be given in their honour, as “they like it more than anything else.”
Attribution of “Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi”:
There are two other known copies of “Curiosissimi Costumi,” the older one is found in the Vatican Library (Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana) as a part of “Codex Vaticanus Latinus” № 8891. It was first published in printed form in 1890 as a part of “Spicilegio Vaticano di Documenti Inediti e Rari, Estratti Dagli Archivi e Dalla Biblioteca della Sede Apostolica” (Roma 1890, p. 381-383). The editor of the book, Monsignor I. Carini attributed that the Vatican letter was written in the middle of the 17th century by a first-hand witness of the Muscovite Embassy. Based on the written dialect of the letter’s language, Carini attributed the author as one of Livorno’s common people, a Sicilian by origin.
The second of the two other known copies of “Curiosissimi Costumi” is deposited in Russia, in the archive of the Saint Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The text of the letter is included in the Italian manuscript collection titled “Storie Diverse.” Soviet historians also published a printed version of their copy of the letter and thoroughly analysed it (see special articles by S. Anninskii, 1934, and I. Sharkova, 1972); The Saint Petersburg copy was attributed to be written slightly later than the Vatican copy, at the end of the 17th or in the very beginning of the 18th century.
A thorough analysis of the texts of our letter and the Vatican and Saint Petersburg copies reveal several minor differences between all three, but also show a strong resemblance between our “Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi” and the Vatican copy. They are very similar in regards to the completeness and spelling of the text, whereas the Saint Petersburg copy often has some words replaced or removed, and also has spelling patterns different from the Vatican and our copies. This allows us the to state, that our copy was written at the same time with the Vatican copy or close to it. It’s remarkable, on the other hand, that the text of our copy is more extensive, than the Vatican one: there are additional lines in several places supplementing the contents of the Vatican copy. It could mean either that our copy is earlier - making it the earliest known copy of “Curiosissimi Costumi,” or that the author of our copy knew more about the events described in the letter, and decided to enrich it with more details.
[Ambasceria Russa in Italia] / [Ed. By I. Carini] // Spicilegio Vaticano di Documenti Inediti e Rari, Estratti Dagli Archivi e Dalla Biblioteca della Sede Apostolica. – Roma 1890. – P. 376-383.
[Anninskii] Аннинский, С.А. Пребывание в Ливорно Царского посольства в 1656 г. (Впечатления иностранца) // ИРЛИ. Сборник статей, посвященных академику А.С. Орлову. – 1934. – С. 201-207.
[Kazakova] Казакова, Н.А. Статейные списки русских послов в Италию как памятники литературы путешествий (середина XVII века) // Труды Отдела древнерусской литературы. — Л.: Наука. Ленингр. Отд-ние, 1988. – T. XLI. – С. 268-288.
[Liubopytneishie nravy…] Любопытнейшие нравы господ послов московских, которые находятся теперь в Ливорно, проездом в Венецию / Публ. И перевод К. Шварсалон // Русская старина, 1894. – Т. 81. - № 1. – С. 197-203.
[Sharkova] Шаркова, И.С. Посольство И.И. Чемоданова и отклики на него в Италии // Проблемы истории международных отношений. – Л., 1972. – С. 207-223.
24. [TEUTONIC KNIGHTS' RULES]
[List of Rules of the Teutonic Order] Die Capitula vn[d] das Registrum der Regule der Brudere des dütschen Ordens. Des Spitales Sante Marine [Beautiful Medieval Manuscript on Vellum in Large Gothic Type, 19 lines per Page, With Red Ink Titles, Headlines, Numbers and Minor Initial Decorations].
[Warmia?], first half of the 15th century. Octavo (ca. 20,5x15,7 cm). With ten vellum stitched leaves, all but the first leaf are used for the text; leaves unnumbered. Manuscript ruled and written in black ink, with wide margins, written area ca. 15,5x10 cm. Manuscript housed in a nineteenth century brown full morocco clamshell box with a red velvet lining. Boards with blind tooled decorative borders, spine with raised bands and a gilt tooled title "The Rules of the Order of Teutonic Knights." Upper stitch loose, but overall a beautiful internally clean manuscript in very good condition.
Very important original medieval manuscript, a striking first-hand account of the history of the famous Teutonic order (1190-1806). A brotherhood of German crusaders, the order was formed to protect and shelter Christian pilgrims in the Holy Land, but became famous in the 13th century as the moving force of the Prussian and Baltic Crusade. The wealth and power of Teutonic Knights was at its peak in the end of the 14th century when they not only christianized Prussia and Lithuania, but ruled a large sovereign monastic state covering East Prussia and Livonia (modern Baltic States). The Order’s power started to decline after the famous Battle of Grunwald in 1410, but it was not until 1525 that the Teutonic Knights lost control over their Prussian domain and concentrated on their possessions in the Holy Roman Empire. Our manuscript most likely was created in the first half of the 15th century, when the Teutonic Order was still in their ancient castle Marienburg in East Prussia.
The manuscript contains the complete list of rules (Regule), laws (Gesetze) and customs (Gewohnheiten) of the Teutonic Order; apparently a table of contents of a larger manuscript. The list is divided into three parts, each with a traditional medieval descriptive title: "Hie hebent sich an die capitula vn(d) das registrum der regule der brudere des dütschen ordens. Des spitales sante marien" (Rules); "Hie hebet sich an das registrum der gesetzede" (Laws); "Hie hebent sich an das registrum von den gewonheiten" (Customs). There are 39 Rules, 70 Laws (numbered 71) and 64 Customs.
The document regulates all aspects of life of the Teutonic Knights, defining their main principles: "chastity, obedience and living without property," and describing the main rules of establishing hospitals and taking care of sick and old people, the order of praying and attending divine service, having food in regular days and fasting, keeping silence; special rules are dedicated to how and where the brethren shall sleep, how women shall be received into the service of the house etc. A big attention is paid to the brethren’s looks and uniform; the ways of community living and of the "heedful discretion of the master."
The verso of the last leaf houses the beginning of the Order’s Calendar, decorated with a large blue initial. The calendar completely embraces January and marks Christian holidays and days of commemoration of saints and martyrs. It differs though from the calendar reproduced in the first fundamental printed edition of the Statutes of Teutonic Knights by Max Perlbach (1890, see below) by inclusion of commemoration of "Erhardi episcopi" on the January 8 (St. Erhard of Bavaria).
The manuscripts of the Statutes of the Teutonic Knights are very rare. Max Perlbach in 1890 counted 34 extant manuscripts dated from 13th to 15th centuries (Perlbach, x-xxx): twenty-four in German, five in Latin, four in Dutch and one in French; the oldest being dated 1264 (Middle German Manuscript in the State Library in Berlin). All manuscripts were stored in Germany or Austria. This number though could be decreased as six manuscripts were housed in Konigsberg, and two in Berlin, both cities which were significantly damaged during WWII.
Another 15th century manuscript of the Order’s Statutes written in a German cursive hand is now in the Rare Book department of University of Pennsylvania library. It was thoroughly described by Indrikis Stern, the author of a dissertation specially dedicated to the Rules and Statutes of the Teutonic Knights (see below).
Brief history of the Statutes of the Teutonic Knights
The Statutes of the Teutonic Knights were most likely formulated in the first half of the 13th century, with the oldest extant manuscript copy dating 1264 (Stern, 197). They were widely based on the Statutes of the Templars and Hospitallers, with necessary alterations and additions. The "statutes" meant "a complex of statutory regulations for the use and observance of the brethren of the Teutonic Order. They themselves called this collection the Ordenbuch - the Book of the Order" (Stern 48-49, Perlbach xvi).
"The fact remains, that the Teutonic Knights themselves regarded the statutes, as preserved in the copy of 1264, as unchangeable, for later editions to the statutes were never organically incorporated into the existing regulations, but were added as supplements, as new laws, by the ruling master, leaving unchanged the original Book of Order" (Stern 50-51). The Statutes of 1264 comprised: "the Calendar, the Easter Tables, the Prologue, the Titles of the Rule, the Rule, the Laws, the Customs, the Vigils, and the Genuflections" (Perlbach, xv-xvi).
The original language of the Statutes most likely was Latin, as the document need to be approved by the Pope, but it was German that quickly became the most common language of the Statutes because the majority of the brethren didn’t speak Latin. "The extant German manuscripts number well over thirty, in various dialects, for every commandery had to have a copy of the Ordenbuch. Naturally, as more and more copies were made, they began to differ not only in language, but also in accuracy, and various supplements were made. Therefore in 1442 the chapter of the order decided to revise the Book of the Order and make three master copies, one to be kept in Marienburg, another in the German Master’s residence in Horneck, and a third in the Livonian branch in Riga. All further copies were to be made only from these three master copies. Thus, in 1442 the German version was legally made the official version of the Statutes of the Teutonic Knights" (Stern, 57).
Die Statuten des Deutschen Ordens. Nach dem Original-Exemplar, mit sinnerläuternden Anmerkungen, einigen historisch-diplomatish Beylagen, und einem vollstandigen historisch-etymologischen Glossarium/ Herausgegeben von Dr. Ernst Hennig; Vorrede von dem Herrn Kollegienrath v. Kotzebue. Königsberg, 1806.
Die Statuten des Deutsche Ordens nach den ältesten handschriften/ Herausgegeben von Max Perlbach. Halle am Saale: Max Neimayer, 1890.
Stern, Indrikis. The Statutes of the Teutonic Knights: A Study of Religious Chivalry: Dissertation/ Univ. Of Pennsylvania. 1969. 359
25. [THE SECOND BOER WAR]
[Collection of five items, including: Two Typewritten Manuscript Memoirs about the Second Boer War: Unpublished Text “A Remarkable Trek. 17 Days with De Wet” by “Prisoner of War”, and Typescript Titled “Bloemfontein, Friday December 14th 1900”; With a Photographic Portrait, Most Likely of Menzies, and two Reference Letters Highly Recommending him].
Ca. 1896-1900. The collection is in aged but very good condition.
Five items, including two vivid and informative accounts of a little-known incident in the Second Boer War, by a highly educated English army officer. Both typescripts date from the first half of the 20th century.
Prisoner of War. A remarkable trek. 17 days with De Wet. Quarto (ca. 25,5x20 cm). 22 numbered leaves. Typewritten manuscript with a number of minor corrections in text. Text of cropped last leaf legible, despite some damage and loss.
The narration describes the events from 23 November to 9 December 1900. Menzies explains how he was 'one of a garrison in a village about 40 miles from Bloemfontein, when De Wet and Steyn collected six different Commandos in the immediate neighbourhood and swooped down on us'. Garrison casualties, after 'three days desperate fighting', stood at twenty per cent on surrender. There followed 'a most disgusting scene of robbery and pillage'. 'De Wet is a short, thick-set man with a dark beard, he was riding then a white horse and was wearing a dark tail coat and a square topped "bowler", a great characteristic of his, and armed with a revolver. I had occasion to speak to De Wet and drew his attention to the way his men were looting and smashing up some mess stores of ours [...] De Wet answered me in English and said he would have them taken away; I am merely quoting this, as it seems to have been the prevailing opinion that De Wet does not talk English.'
After crossing the Caledon River the 'trek' ended with 'the Boers being obviously surprised' when 'the British guns a 15 pounder and a pom pom opened on the Column' near Helvetia Farm. 'My indignation knows no bounds when I reflect that enemies of Great Britain from all countries are now successfully urging the Boers to carry on a hopeless struggle which is bringing untold misery and ruin to the country. [...] the curious thing is too that they do not like De Wet, [...] not a single Boer spoke well of him, one Commandant going so far as to describe him as a "Heartless Brute", and I can conceive no better description of this successful guerrilla leader; I cannot call a man who countenances the disgraceful treatment of prisoners-of-war as he did, a soldier'.
Bloemfontein, Friday December 14th. 1900. Quarto (ca. 25x20 cm). 15 leaves, numbered 73-87. Typewritten manuscript, docketed at head of first page 'Letter from Alfred during the South African War reprinted from "The Times"'.
A different account, filling in some gaps in Typescript One, e.g. 'just fancy De Wet with over 3,000 men being round us for 5 days within 8 hours' ride of Bloemfontein!! [...] We had 92 casualties out of about 400 and they took 30 wounded men prisoners with us. [...] At the end we all fixed bayonets to charge down the hill, but the Commandant would not allow it, not a man would have survived it and, although magnificent, it would have been useless and served no purpose except making the tremendous fight we had look better on paper.'
The two letters relate to Menzies application for the position of Assistant Registrar at the University of London four years before, and allow us to evaluate Menzies' trustworthiness as a narrator.
Letter one: BRODRICK, George C. (1831-1903). To the Senate of the University of London. 21 March 1896, Merton College, Oxford. 3 pp., 12mo. 'I have known Mr Alfred Menzies since he came up to Merton as a "Postmaster" in 1882, and have a high opinion of his capacity & character. He was in all respects an excellent member of the College, and stood well in the estimation of his fellows, as he did in that of the Tutors.' Brodrick recommended Menzies to family members as a private tutor. 'He is essentially a gentleman, [...] I should feel great confidence in his conscientious performance of [the position's] duties.'
Letter two: GRANT, Charles. To 'My Lords and Gentlemen'. 21 March 1896, on letterhead of Drove, Chichester. 3 pp., 12mo. 'My boys have had several holiday-tutors at different times - all men of high standing and character; but I considered none of the others at all equal to Mr Menzies in some practical qualities which would fit him as well for a much more responsible post [...] He had a rare combination of strength of character with tact, sense and temper [...] I consider Mr. Menzies eminently qualified for any position, in which firmness, tact and knowledge of the world are essentials.'
The photograph: oval, ca. 10x8 cm, with the label of C. Vandyk of 125 Gloucester Road, Queens Gate, S.W. The photo shows the head and shoulders of a military man [Menzies no doubt], with close-cropped hair and bushy moustache, dressed in fatigues.
26. [TUNIS-HAMBURG TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP]
READE, Sir Thomas (1785-1849)
[Official Decree by the Bey of Tunis Appointing George William Crowe His Plenipotentiary in Order to Compile a Treaty of Friendship and Commerce with the City of Hamburg; With: Separate Document Containing the Italian Translation of the Decree Signed by Hassuna Morali, First Interpreter of the Court of Basha Bey of Tunis; Both Documents are Certified as Genuine by the British Consul General, Sir Thomas Reade (on verso of the leaf with the Italian text)].
Two documents, both Tunis, 1828. On two folded Elephant Folio leaves, each ca. 33x22 cm (when folded). Fold marks, paper aged and slightly soiled, otherwise very good documents. Each folded and consisting of two leaves. The Documents are in good condition.
Official decree of the Bey of Tunis: 1 p. Brown ink on French paper watermarked “Louis XVIII, Roi de France”. Text in Arabic, with the official ink seal of the Bey of Tunis.
Italian translation: 2 pp. Dated “9 Muharram, year 1244” . Brown ink on laid paper. Text in Italian and English (on verso), with the impressed seal of British Consul General in Tunis.
Rare and very interesting document from the time of establishment of diplomatic relations between Tunis and Germany.
Original decree with the seal of the Bey of Tunis (Hussein II Bey, ruled in 1824-1835) authorising certain George William Crowe to negotiate with the “Regno de Amburgo” in establishing friendship and commerce. Crowe is supposed to compile a treaty which needs to be presented to the Bey for examination, and “if God will, to be granted”. In the English certificate written on verso of the Italian translation of the decree, British Consul General in Tunis Sir Thomas Reade (1785-1849) extends Crowe’s rights, which “are not restricted to the specific object therein set forth, but that he instructed to act on behalf of His Highness as Charge of Affaires in all such matters as may be for the service of His Highness & particularly to treat for a loan for his use". The certificate is dated 11 August, 1828.
George William Crowe was later mentioned as British consul general in Tripoli (The Royal Calendar and Court and City Register for England, Scotland, Ireland and the Colonies. London, 1852, p. 193). Sir Thomas Reade, British Consul in Tunis, played an important role in the abolition of slavery. Reade was Deputy Adjutant-General on St. Helena during Napoleon’s captivity, was present at Napoleon’s post-mortem and left a valuable account of it preserved in the Lowe Papers.
27. [WALKER, Henry, Captain]
[Manuscript Journal of the Ship Ida From Boston Voyage to Valparaiso, San Blas, Guayaquil and back to Boston in 1821-23, Titled]: Journal kept on board the Ship Ida of Boston <...> from Boston towards N.W. Coast of America.
[Primarily at sea], 1821-1823. Folio (31x19 cm).  pp. With two manuscript deeds, and four other sheets of manuscript laid in. Period brown quarter sheep with marbled boards, housed in a new light brown cloth clamshell box with green gilt lettered sheep label. Rubbed at extremities, lightly soiled. Some minor scattered foxing, else text is clean and very legible. Deeds chipped and lightly foxed. Old fold lines; one reinforced along folds, the other with a hole one inch by two, affecting text. Overall a very good Manuscript.
The journal details Ida’s voyage in 1821-23 from Boston to San Blas in Mexico around Cape Horn, with stops in Valparaiso (Chile) and Guayaquil (Ecuador), and the return journey to the United States. The voyage went in several stages: at first, from Boston to Valparaiso (December 7th, 1821 - February 14th, 1822); then after a two-month furlough from Valparaiso to San Blas (April 12th - May 24th, 1822); then back to South America, to Guayaquil (August 2nd - September 4th of the same year); from there back to Valparaiso (October 11th - November 24th, 1822), and a return journey to the US (June 1st - July 6th, 1823).
The journal methodically records the nautical details of Ida’s voyage: wind and weather conditions, daily mileage, speed of the ship each hour, latitude and longitude, and geographical objects encountered and passed on the way. Captain Walker notes that he departed on the Ida from Boston harbor "with a heavy heart and thoughts of home," crossed the Equator on the 30th of December, and the next day passed the archipelago of Fernando Noronha (354 km offshore from the Brazilian coast). On the 25th of January she passed the Falkland Islands, and went through the Drake Passage: along Terra del Fuego "for eight leagues making in sharp peaks like steeples," Staten Land (Isla de los Estados) and Diego Ramirez Islands. On the 4th of February Ida rounded Cape Horn, and on that day Walker "saw a Rain Bow at midnight caused by the moon", two days later he observed a moon eclipse. Santiago’s port San Antonio was sighted on the 13th of February, and the next day Ida arrived in Valparaiso.
During the sailing to San Blas Walker noted the ship passing the Galapagos Islands, Cabo Corrientes (Mexico) et al; on return journey to Guayaquil - Islas Marias (Mexico) and Isla de la Plata (Ecuador). Ida arrived to Puna island at the head of Gulf of Guayaquil on the 4th of September. On the way back to Valparaiso she passed Juan Fernandez Island and stayed in port San Antonio, at the mouth of Maipo River for several days. During this part of the voyage Ida got caught in many storms, the note from 24th of October witnesses "Strong gales, squalls and rough sea; ship requires pumping every two hours."
The journal contains an impressive entry describing the Valparaiso earthquake on the 20th of November 1822: "At 11 P.M. We was sudenly [sic] alarmed by a violent shock that effected the ship as if she had struck the bottom, all hands sprung on deck and cried out the ship ashore...on reflection knew it was impossible for her to have struck any bottom in so heavy a sea as was on at the time without bilging the bottom in. I then thought of a wreck of a vessel but lastly I imputed it to an earth quake." Aftershocks wrack the sea periodically for the next few days. On the 22nd of November they got word about the effects of the quake: "They <..,> informed us that there had been a heavy shock of an earth quake on shore and that Valparaiso had been nearly destroyed and had lost 23 lives in the fall of a Castle. St. Jago & several of the towns in the interior had suffered severely the inhabitants about the sea coast fled to the mountains for safety fearing that the sea would flow in upon them, animals of every kind on shore appeared to be affected by the shock."
There is also an interesting note about the ship Emerald of London coming from New South Wales to Rio de Janeiro with a cargo of oil which Ida encountered in the South Atlantic on the 20th of January, 1822. She provided Emerald with provisions, including "6 barrels of flour, 6 of beef, one of pork and two of bread and two cases of gin," but the next day the sailors "found a strange man on board that had secreted himself under one of the forecastle berths; he said he came from the Emerald in the second boat - he is supposed to be a convict from New Holland." No hint is given as to the fate of the stowaway. The journal also keeps track of wildlife seen at sea, including dolphins, sharks, turtles, flying fish, and albatrosses, boobies and various other birds.
One of the later notes records the sale of Ida: "I was informed by Capt. Scott that the ship Ida was sold this day" (1st of March, 1823). There is no record of the interim period, and Walker's entries are both brief and incomplete about a return journey to Boston in summer 1823. There are notes in a later hand throughout the volume which give pieces of information about Walker, and a paragraph on the last page gives an account of Walker's return, indicating that Walker returned on a whaling vessel to Nantucket and thence to Boston.
The two deeds pertain to land. They are marked as "Deed, Walker to Woodbury," and "Nancy Walker's share in the estate of Luke Woodbury - Copy." The other manuscript sheets are in the same later hand as in the journal and elaborate further on Walker's life and career.
Overall an interesting collection related to 19th century US commercial maritime voyages.
28. ARTHY, E.
[Original Manuscript]: List of Death Among the Late African Company Officers in the Settlements on the Gold Coast from the 1st of January 1812, to 1st of January 1822 Being a Period of Ten Years.
Gold Coast, 1822. 4 pp. Manuscript ca. 34x21 cm (13x8 in). Manuscript with tears but no loss of text housed in a blue cloth custom made portfolio with a red gilt morocco label on front cover. In very good condition.
This report by the Assistant Surgeon in the African Company of Merchants concerns the mortality rate among the Company’s officers during a period of ten years (1812-1822) and includes a list of fifty people (indicating their names). The “Remarks” section explains the statistics: "The African Company Establishment when fully appointed consisted of forty-five commissioned and non commissioned European officers but during the period of time stated above, there was not more than thirty-five residing in the Settlements on a yearly average & the deaths among them being five annually on an average." Arthy also counts the number of the native workers of the Company: “170 non commissioned officers and private soldiers, and 334 artificers, labourers and labouresses”, and states that the mortality amongst them “except on occasional visitations of the Small Pox, was generally at the rate of one percent per annum, and very rarely exceeded two percent”.
Arthy concludes that “there is much reason to believe that the Climate of the Gold Coast would be found considerably less destructive of the health and lives of Europeans than that of any other intertropical country round the world. In reality to decide this question, it does not seem necessary to enquire further that Sierra Leone, Charlestown, the Havannah, Surinam and Batavia, wherein the mortality among Europeans annually so excessive and lamentable and so generally known as might serve to remove all Doubts of the superior salubrity of the Climate of the Gold Coast to that of all other tropical countries”.
"The African Company of Merchants was a Chartered Company in the Gold Coast area of modern Ghana, in the coastal area where the Fante people lived. It was founded in 1752 and replaced the Royal African Company which was dissolved in that year. In 1817 the Company had signed a treaty of friendship that recognized Asante claims to sovereignty over large areas of the coast, including areas claimed by the Fante. The Company was abolished in 1821, as the slave trade had not been suppressed in these privately held areas. Authority over the area was given to Governor Charles MacCarthy, the governor of Sierra Leone, who was subsequently killed in the First Anglo-Asante War" (Wikipedia).
29. BATES, Henry Walter (1825-1892)
[Autograph Letter Signed "H. W. Bates" to "Dear John" about Collecting Autographs and Promising him those of Baker and Livingstone, noting that "Livingstone's autograph has been very scarce for several years past"].
[London], 10 December 1869. Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper with the letterhead of Royal Geographical Society. Fold marks, paper slightly soiled, but overall in very good condition.
Autograph Letter from prominent explorer and naturalist Henry Walter Bates when he was the Acting Secretary of the Royal Geographical Society.
"Dear John, Collecting autographs for your young friend is a very slow process, and I think I had better forward the few already gathered than wait longer. I might find one of Baker's perhaps but have not yet had time to hunt out an unimportant letter from which the signature might be taken. Livingstone's autograph has been very scarce for several years past, but I wrote to him by last Zanzibar mail and I shall probably get an answer some day. If he returns to England we shall get plenty of communication from him. "
"Henry Walter Bates was a British naturalist and explorer who gave the first scientific account of mimicry in animals. He was most famous for his expedition to the Amazon with Alfred Russell Wallace in 1848. Wallace returned in 1852, but lost his collection in a shipwreck. When Bates arrived home in 1859 after a full eleven years, he had sent back over 14,000 species (mostly of insects) of which 8,000 were new to science" (Wikipedia). "The Naturalist on the River Amazons" (2 vols., 1863) was a major contribution to the knowledge and literature of Amazonia. Bates had spent longer on the Amazon than any of his European predecessors, and the book was an immediate success and has become a travel classic (Oxford DNB).
30. BURNABY, Frederick Gustavus (1842-1885)
[Two Autograph Signed Letters to "Sir" [Richard Bentley, publishers] Regarding the Publishing of Burnaby's Famous "Ride to Khiva" in 1876].
Two letters: Windsor, 11 & 13 April 1876. Each 4 pp.; Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm); brown ink on watermarked laid paper with the letterheads of Windsor Cavalry Barracks. Near fine letters.
[11 April]: "I have no objection to write a work on my travels to Khiva - provided the terms offered are acceptable - Several Publishers have written to me... & [I] am perfectly prepared to take into consideration any offer you may propose - If I were to write a work the volume would be about the same size as S[amue]l Bakers...". He goes on to describe how experienced a writer he is through being "The Times" correspondent in Spain and Egypt. If he writes something he has no doubt it will sell well "however I am not going to take the trouble to go into the book market on mere speculation." Another hand (in the publishers) has added notes for a proposition: "100 on day of pub[lication] / 200 on sale of 1100 / 200 on sale of 1800".
[13 April]: Burnaby doesn't find their proposal "sufficiently definite to suit me. What I would require is a fixed sum down on the day the work is handed over to the Publisher - I have been already offered 750 by one firm & have not as yet accepted the offer as I am convinced that with the interest attached to the Eastern Question & the curiosity of the public to [hear?] what was the gist of my interview with the Khan of Khiva which by the way was of a highly political character - that the book would have an immense sale - There are several other Publishers also in treaty... - it would be as well to lose no time. I shall come to terms with the Publisher who offers me the best terms."
Burnaby’s book was eventually published by Cassell Petter & Galpin under the title “The Ride to Khiva” (1876). Its sale fully justified Burnaby's anticipations.
"In 1875, on leave again, Burnaby departed from London on 30 November and in the winter travelled through Russia and Central Asia, enduring intense cold and frostbite. Evading Russian officials, and accompanied by a dwarf Tartar servant, in January 1876 he reached Khiva and was welcomed by the khan. Back in England Burnaby was lionized, and summoned by the queen to dinner at Windsor. He published A Ride to Khiva (1876), which he sold outright for £750. It was a vivid, lively travelogue, proudly British, in which he warned against Russian aggressive expansion through central Asia towards India, and denounced Russian rule as despotic, corrupt, and cruel. The book, vigorously advertised, sold well and was reprinted and translated. His journey and book made Burnaby a celebrity" (Oxford DNB).
31. CHARCOT, Jean-Baptiste (1867-1936)
[Small Collection of Items Related to Charcot’s Last Expedition 1934-1936]:
Autograph Letter Signed ‘J. Charcot’ to ‘Un Monsieur’ About Latter’s Son’s Desire to Join the ‘Pourquoi-Pas?’ Crew. Neuilly-s-Seine, 5 May 1933. Quarto ca. 27 x 21 cm (10 ½ x 8 ¼ in). One page. Laid paper, folded twice, the text is written in ink in a legible hand, with the address printed on top. Very minor tear on fold, otherwise in very good condition.
With: A Commemorative Silver Medal, by P. Richter and E. Lindauer. N.d., ca. 1936. Diam. Ca. 68 mm., obverse showing a bust of Charcot in high relief, reverse with view of Charcot’s ship the ‘Pourquoi-Pas?’ surmounted by caption ‘Expéditions Polaires Françaises’. Original felt-lined crimson leather case with clasp; a very good set.
[With:] An Original Press Photograph. Oblong Octavo ca. 13 x 18cm (5 x7 inches) Dated 24 June 1934 Showing "Polar Explorer Honoured O.P.S.: Dr. Charcot, the famous French polar explorer, receiving a medal from Marshal Franchet d'Esperey at the Geographical Society today. On right is Mme Charcot, the servant's wife, on left Mme Waldeck-Rousseau, sister of Dr.Charcot." Photograph annotated in Spanish and with several stamps and pasted on notes in English and Spanish. A very good photograph.
This is a group of memorabilia related to the last expedition of the famous French Antarctic Explorer Jean-Baptist Charcot. Conducting an ethnographic survey of Greenland and Iceland in partnership with the French explorer Paul-Émile Victor, the crew of the ‘Pourquoi-Pas?' also mapped the region. The expedition ended with tragedy, when on 16 September 1936 the ship was caught in a violent cyclonic storm and was lost on the reefs off the coast of Iceland. Twenty-three of the crew were lost in the wreck and 17 survivors died before rescue came, leaving only one survivor, Eugène Gonidec, master steersman. Jean-Baptiste Charcot was one of the dead, aged 69 (Wikipedia).
This group includes a commemorative silver medal issued after the tragic loss of Charcot’s expedition, and a letter from Charcot to an unidentified recipient whose son wished to join the crew of the expedition ship 'Pourquoi pas?.' Charcot would have liked to respond positively, but: "The 'Pourquoi pas?' is outfitted by the Marine Nationale and its crew can only be formed from currently working Marine's servicemen. If your son was doing his national service at the time the crew was chosen, I could have tried and queried the Ministère. However, owing to these circumstances, there is nothing much that I can do". Charcot also mentioned Doctor Louis Gain (1883-1963), the naturalist of the French Antarctic Expedition 1908-10, who directed the request to him. Regarding the date of the letter it’s likely related to Charcot’s last expedition departed for Greenland in 1934. In that case the letter is not only an interesting historical witness of the last Charcot’s expedition, but also a document which might have saved the life of a young French mariner.
Finally, the press photograph was taken shortly before Charcot left on his last expedition.
Jean-Baptiste Charcot of course is most famous for being appointed leader of the French Antarctic Expedition with the ship Français exploring the west coast of Graham Land from 1904 until 1907. The expedition reached Adelaide Island in 1905 and took pictures of the Palmer Archipelago and Loubet Coast. From 1908 until 1910, another expedition followed with the ship Pourquoi-Pas, exploring the Bellingshausen Sea and the Amundsen Sea and discovering Loubet Land, Marguerite Bay and Charcot Island, which was named after his father, Jean-Martin Charcot (Wikipedia). "The expedition [1908-1910] had made an impressive contribution to Antarctic geography and had surveyed some 2000 kilometers of unknown or partially-known coastline with an accuracy unchallenged for several decades. The scientific material, together with its 3000 photographs, filled twenty-eight volumes of reports <..,> In the eyes of many contemporary historians, Charcot’s contribution to Antarctic science outweighs all others" (Howgego, 1850 to 1940. The Oceans, Islands and Polar regions, C9).
32. CHAUMONT, Alexandre, Chevalier de (1640-1710)
[Chaumont's Pension Receipt from the Paris City Hall (Quittance des Rentes de Hotel de Ville "for his Services for King Louis XIV as the First French Ambassador to Siam].
Paris, 1693. Oblong Octavo ca. 14x20 cm (5 ½ x 8 in) Printed on vellum with manuscript completions. Receipt in near fine condition.
"Alexandre, Chevalier de Chaumont was the first French ambassador for King Louis XIV in Siam. He was accompanied on his mission by Abbé de Choisy, the Jesuit Guy Tachard, and Father Bénigne Vachet of the Société des Missions Étrangères de Paris. He tried without success to convert King Narai the Great to Catholicism and to conclude significant commercial treaties. He is, above all, remembered for his memoirs describing life in 17th century Siam" (Wikipedia).
33. CLONARD, Robert Sutton de (1751-1788)
[Autograph Letter Signed to “Madame” Regarding the Mining Enterprise in Guadalcanal, Spain].
Paris, 24 November 1774. Quarto (ca. 23,5x18,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper, period ink inscription in another hand on the first page. Fold marks, slightly worn, overall a very good letter.
Early letter by a prominent member the ill-fated expedition of La Perouse to the Pacific (1785-1788). Clonard served as a second-in-command on board the “Boussole” and apparently died after both expedition ships wrecked near Vanikoro in 1788.
The letter is dedicated to the Guadalcanal mining enterprise which was founded and administered by Clonard in the 1760-1770s and involved investments from a number of French aristocrats and high ranking officials. The mine turned to be unproductive, and the company declared bankruptcy. Our letter is addressed to one of the shareholders, a French noble woman, and relates to the last phase of the company’s existence. Clonard informs the lady that he has just returned from the mines, supposes that she is already aware of the abuses of the administration and tells her about the measures he undertook to fix the situation: “M. Le Camus resigned the next day after my arrival to Guadalcanal, and M. Besnier resigned the day before my departure”. M. Geffrier was appointed the new general director of the mines. He proceeds: “After careful examination of all the circumstances of our enterprise, I assure you on my honour that my hopes are very strong and even beyond what they were before my departure from Paris. I can boast that they will fulfil in the course of the next month by the certainty of rich and abundant mineral. At least it is my opinion and that of our two engineers”.
“The Guadalcanal Company was run by the comte de Clonard, a naturalised Irish Jacobite, and brought together a range of ducs (Harcourt, du Châtelet, La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt), numerous great lords (the marquis de Bussy, de Lévis, des Réaux, d`Houdetot, d’Hérissy), aristocratic ladies of the industry (the marquises de Marboeuf, de Cambot, de Boursonne), comtes de Blagny, de Payre, de Custinem du Hautoy, a foreign noble Count Doria, the comtesses de Ruffey, de la Suze, de Coustin, the vicomte de La Rouchefoucald and president de Vaudreuil. In 1778 the Guadalcanal Company had absorbed over three million livres” (Chaussinand-Nogaret. The French Nobility in the Eighteenth Century. 1995. p. 108)
“In 1768 <…> Thomas Sutton, comte de Clonard, a member of the Jacobite trading aristocracy and a syndic of the Indies Company, secured a silver mining concession from the king of Spain at Guadalcanal in the Sierra Morena mountains. Among the shareholders of the new company, capitalized at three million livres, were the duc d’Harcourt, the duc de Châtelet, the duc de Liancourt, and the marquise de Marboeuf. When the company broke up a few years later, Sutton, who speculated on his shares, seems to have been the only shareholder to turn a profit” (Shovlin, J. The political economy of virtue: luxury, patriotism, and the origins of the French revolution. New York, 2006. p. 158).
34. COLQUHOUN, Archibald Ross (1848-1914)
[Autograph Letter Signed "Archie Colquh[oun]" to Mrs MacGregor and Discussing Work on his Book "Across Chrysê: Being the Narrative of a Journey of Exploration through the South China Border Lands, from Canton to Mandalay" (London, 1883)].
Edinburgh: 11, St. Bernard Court, 19 November 1882. Octavo ca. 18x11,5 cm (7 x 4 ½ in). Two pages; ink on laid paper, written in a legible hand. The text of the letter is clear, despite parts of three words on verso having been trimmed away in detaching the leaf from the second leaf of what was previously a bifolium. These include the last three letters of Colquhoun's signature. Letter with folds but overall in a very good condition.
In his letter Archibald Ross Colquhoun, an explorer, colonial administrator and author, talks about his work on a prospective book, dedicated to his travels in China and Burma in 1881-1882: the "narrative is to be 2 vols: and to be entitled | ACROSS CHRYSÊ | being the narrative of an exploration Through the South China Borderlands from Canton to Mandalay." In a short footnote he describes the derivation of "Chrysê" and afterwards asks Mrs MacGregor to "tell all yr. Friends to make certain of securing tickets for a certain lecture by a certain distinguished Ind<o> China traveller!" Seeing Mr MacGregor "amongst the audience at the c/commerce [i.e. Chamber of Commerce] on Wedy." brought back to him "days wh. Seem very far off now <..,> and indeed hardly part of my own life!" Colquhoun's book was published shortly afterwards under the same title by Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington (London, 18830.)
Colquhoun "joined the Indian Public Works Department in 1871 as an assistant surveyor. In 1879 he was secretary and second in command of a government mission to Siam and the Shan States, and in 1881-2 he travelled from Canton (Guangzhou) to Bhamo to find the best railway route between China and Burma. Widely regarded as an explorer of the first rank, his Indian administrative obligations prevented him from accepting an offer from Henry Morton Stanley to act as second in command of his Congo expedition <..,> He was in reality an accomplished writer of more than fourteen scholarly books and numerous articles on colonial administration, comparative ethnography, railway and canal construction, land settlement, trade prospects, and geopolitics and defence in the European colonial empires, Russia, China, east Asia, and the Americas. He was a regular contributor on these subjects to British, North American, and German journals and newspapers. He was one of the most widely respected travel authors of his time and he built up a series of influential friendships, counting sometime American presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Taft, and the Canadian imperialist Sir George Parkin, among his friends" (Oxford DNB).
35. D'ENTRECASTEAUX, Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni, Rear Admiral (1737-1793)
[Autograph Letter Signed to ‘ma cher cousin’].
Toulon, 20 February 1775. On a folded octavo leaf (ca. 17,5x11,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper, text in French. Letter in very good condition.
Rare early autograph note by a renowned 18th century French navigator Antoine de Bruni d'Entrecasteaux. The note is addressed to “ma cher cousin” and discusses among other matters a bill of exchange (letter de change) to M. Du Braie which has been paid. The note was written when d’Entrecasteaux served on the frigate L'Alcmène (1774) under command of his relative Admiral Pierre André de Suffren (1729-1788).
Antoine Raymond Joseph de Bruni d'Entrecasteaux was a French naval officer, explorer and colonial governor. He is best known for his exploration of the Australian coast in 1792, while searching for the La Pérouse expedition. D'Entrecasteaux entered the French Navy in 1755, and participated in the Seven Years War and Marshal de Vaux’s expedition to Corsica (1769). In 1785 he was transferred to command a French Squadron in the East Indies and opened up a new route to Canton by way of the Sunda Strait and the Moluccas, for use during the south-east monsoon season. He was then appointed Governor of the French colony of Isle de France (now Mauritius). During his expedition to the South Pacific in search of Jean-François de La Pérouse, d'Entrecasteaux chartered coasts of southern Australia and Tasmania. A reef and a cape in Australia, as well as a channel and a river in Tasmania were named after him.
36. DOBIE, Richard (1731-1805)
[EARLY FUR TRADE IN CANADA]
[Autograph Letter in French to Jean-Louis Besnard (dit Carignant) in Michilimackinac Regarding Commercial Operations of Their Trade in Furs].
Montreal: 20 July, 1776. One page on a double quarto leaf (23x18,5 cm), addressed and sealed on the 4th page. Brown ink on watermarked Whatman laid paper. Writing in different hand under the main text ‘[?] á Montreál le 17 avril 1777. G.B’. Round stamps "C de V" on the lower margins of the 2nd and 3rd pages. Loss of the upper blank corner of the 4th page with some text of the address (possibly, a docket), otherwise a very good letter.
Early important primary account of the operations of Montreal fur traders, the letter recounts (translated): "I now have the pleasure of informing you that we each will earn around 10000 Francs on the pelts we sent on joint account last year. If you can find a good deal and we can get as reasonable a price as possible in this business, you may purchase them for our joint account and draw on me for the sum, provided the packets accompany the drafts and that they do not exceed 3000 Halifax Louis. <..,> The pelts that sell best are the beaver, bear, otter, marten, and northern wolf; the cats suffered a very big loss."
“Richard Dobie was a merchant from Scotland who came to Canada about 1760 and by 1764 was actively involved in the fur trade around Lake Superior and the other Great Lakes. Much of their trade was to the south of these lakes which was a well established trade zone. In 1767 Dobie went into partnership with Benjamin Frobisher, who travelled to the trading posts and wintered there, while Dobie remained in Montreal. They mounted at least one attempt at the northwest fur trade in partnership but most of Dobie's trade efforts continued with various partners, one of whom was Francis Badgley, in the Great Lakes area. Although heavily involved in the fur trade, Dobie was also active in any number of non fur trade enterprises. He accumulated a large fortune in these endeavors and was an important member of the Montreal community” (Wikipedia).
“Jean-Louis Besnard (dit Carignant) (1734-1791) was a merchant trader based out of Montreal and engaged in the fur trade by 1770. He was outfitting voyageurs and, in turn, relying on suppliers like Pierre Foretier. He was also in the milling business with a flour mill at Lachine, Quebec. Through a series of events he was forced to declare bankruptcy in September 1776. His dealings with the Montreal merchant Richard Dobie were called into question at that time. Creditors of Besnard sued Dobie because of these transactions. A legal and political melee ensued with the Governor, Sir Guy Carleton dismissing Chief Justice Peter Livius. Besnard ended up turning over all his assets to his creditors. Although officially considered dishonest, he was allowed to continue in the fur trade and pursue other occupations. He ended up in important positions at Fort Michilimackinac and died of drowning in Lake Michigan. His failures in business were probably the result of the nature of the fur trade at that time. Control of the trade was increasingly held by few powerful merchants. They, in turn, created the North West Company in 1783” (Wikipedia).
“Fort Michilimackinac was an 18th century French, and later British, fort and trading post in the Great Lakes of North America. Built around 1715, and abandoned in 1783, it was located along the southern shore of the strategic Straits of Mackinac connecting Lake Huron and Lake Michigan, at the northern tip of the lower peninsula of the present-day state of Michigan in the United States. The site of the fort in present-day Mackinaw City is a National Historic Landmark and is now preserved as an open-air historical museum” (Wikipedia).
37. DRUMMOND, Sir William (1770-1828)
[Autograph Letter Signed‚ Reporting on the Latest Actions between the Ottoman Army and Mamluks in Egypt].
Boucarest: 13 December 1803. Large Octavo (ca. 23,5x18,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on laid paper. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
Interesting historical commentary to the struggle between the Ottomans and Mamluks in the early 19th century Egypt which consequently brought to power famous Muhammad Ali, the founder of modern Egypt. The letter was written by a British scholar and diplomat Sir William Drummond who at the time was the ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (1803-1806).
Drummond notes: “When I left Constantinople there were no news of any importance‚ unless it were that the Beys had raised the siege of Alexandria and had retired to Cairo. This event is attributed to a mutinous spirit‚ which had manifested itself among the Albanian troops‚ the new allies of the Mamelukes. I am sorry to add‚ that the French interest among the Beys has taken a decided ascendancy.” He also complains that he has been delayed in Bucharest for ten days “by the bad state of the roads, and must wait here until another fall of snow will enable me to put my carriage on a sledge”; after that he plans to reach Berlin via Jassy and Cracow.
38. FORSTER, George (c. 1752-1791)
[EAST INDIA COMPANY IN THE 18th CENTURY]
[Autograph Letter Signed to British Politician Henry Dundas Regarding Relations Between the British East India Company, the Maratha Empire and the Kingdom of Mysore, and the Company’s Commercial Activities on the Coromandel Coast, Dutch Settlements There etc.].
Fort St. George (Madras), April 22d, 1786. Folio (37x23 cm).  pp. On four numbered double-sheets (from "1st" to "4th"). Whatman watermarked laid paper. The letter is written in a legible hand; the text is on the column on the left side of the page, with sporadic comments on the right side. On verso of the 4th sheet the contents of the letter, written in a different hand. Fold marks, paper slightly browned on verso of the 4th sheet, otherwise a very good letter.
A significant letter witnessing the early political and commercial establishment of the British East India Company in southern and western India. The letter was written by the renowned Company representative, George Forster to the British politician Henry Dundas (1742-1811), who was involved with the British administration in India and the East India Company. The letter contains valuable political and commercial intelligence which "may effect us on the Choromandel Coast."
At first Forster proceeds with the report on the political situation in the region, still tense after the Second Anglo-Mysore War (1779-1784). He reports of the rumours of approaching hostilities and first engagements between the Maratha Empire, who were the British allies, and the Sippoo (Tipu) Sultan of the Kingdom of Mysore, an implacable enemy of the British. Forster goes into details reporting on the intrigues between the rivals and their neighbours, i.e. Meer Kummir ud Dein, a ruler of the Cuddapah (Kadapa) city, situated between the possessions of Marathas and Mysore. Meer Kummir ud Dein was taken prisoner in Seringapatam (a capital of Mysore), which caused "intrigue and speculation through all the lower parts of India, particularly in Bengal." and eventually the British embassy under Mr. Paul Benfield (d. 1810) was sent to Mysore on that occasion.
A large part of the letter is dedicated to the commercial affairs in the southern India, based on information taken from the Madras merchant Mr. John D’Fries. Regarding the situation with the port Negapatam on the Coromandel Coast which had been seized by the British East India Company from the Dutch in 1781, D’Fries emphasizes its political importance, as Negapatam "is one of the great gates into the Tanjore country, through which the French, their new the fast bound allies, may commodiously enter and injure us in a vulnerable part." But from a commercial point of view the reinstatement of the Dutch in Negapatam will enrich the southern territories of the Carnatic Coast of India and therefore could be restored to them: "They import 80,000 pounds in gold from their Malay factories, and to the same amount in Japan, Copper, camphine, tin, spices, sugar and Arrach; the whole produce of which was invested in plain and painted calicoes, manufactured in different parts of the coast, chiefly for the use of the inhabitants of their own settlements in India."
Forster also talks about the Dutch factories on the Coromandel Coast, such as Porto Novo, Sadras, Pulicat, Jaggernautporam (Jaggernaikpoeram) and Bimlipatam (Bheemunipatnam); describing their location and production (blue and white cloth, handkerchiefs et al). One of the notes gives an interesting detail on the development of Ceylon as a Dutch colony: "The Dutch also annually take off a large quantity of Grain from the Tanjore country for supplying the Ceylonese, who do not cultivate any in their own island and by their being hemmed in by their conquerors have no foreign connections."
D’Fries reports on the consequences of the Second Anglo-Mysore War for the subjects of the British East India Company, noting that the middle districts of the Carnatic region (lying between rivers Pennar and Coleroon) suffered the most, "one half at least of the peasants and artisans having been destroyed by the sword and famine or forcibly carried out of the country." The destruction caused a large need in agricultural and manufactured products (piece goods), and the Company developed "a brisk lucrative trade" with the Philippine islands in Spanish dollars.
According to D’Fries, British possessions of gold and silver in India were not less than 900,000 pounds. He also gives an extensive description of the Company’s current production of piece goods (up to 3000 bales during the last three years) and of the development of the foreign trade, noting:
"The English, being at this day the masters of the country, should not pursue that line of policy which governed their conduct while officiating, merely in character of merchants. Jealous of and watchful over the commercial progress of the other European nations settled in India, they want do wisely, in liberally encouraging foreign trade, particularly that species of it which introduces Specie into their dominions, being the most efficacious means of promoting its advancement and welfare. The white and painted callicoes may be computed to amount to 6 or 700,000 pounds for the last year and the demand is daily increasing."
In the end of the letter Forster mentions his hope to be appointed the successor to "Mr. Anderson" (David Anderson, 1751-1825) at the court of Mahadji Sindhia, one of the principal Maratha leaders, and notes that he is about to leave to Bengal to "solicit that appointment."
George Forster, "traveller and writer, was a civil servant of the East India Company appointed to the Madras establishment <..,> From 1782 to 1784 he made a remarkable overland journey from Calcutta to Europe, travelling through Jammu to Kashmir, Kabul, Herat, Persia, across the Caspian Sea, and thence to Russia. This journey traced back, to a large extent, the route of Alexander in his pursuit of Bessus. It also took Forster through districts of considerable commercial and political interest to the British. Adopting various disguises on his route, including those of a Georgian and a Mughal, he travelled in the company of local merchants. This clandestine mode of travel, through regions completely unfamiliar to contemporary Europeans, made it impossible for him to use any instruments to survey his route, although he was later described as an acute observer with a good knowledge of the languages of central Asia. Notwithstanding the absence of accurate measurements in his account of this journey, Forster's contribution to the revision of existing European maps of the region (notably that of the French cartographer J. B. B. D'Anville) was acknowledged by James Rennell, who illustrated his route from the banks of the Ganges to the Caspian Sea in the Memoir of a Map of Hindoostan (1788).
On his return to England in 1784 Forster became acquainted with Henry Dundas, who, impressed by his knowledge, encouraged him to write about the general political state of India. In 1785 he published Sketches of the Mythology and Customs of the Hindoos, a work which attracted considerable attention. Having returned to India, Forster was employed in 1787 by the governor-general and commander-in-chief Lord Cornwallis to conclude a defensive alliance with Mudhoji Bhonsla and the Nizam Shah against Tipu Sultan, ruler of Mysore. He was accompanied on the journey from Kalpi by the surveyor J. N. Rind, eventually reaching Nagpur on 15 July 1788. This combination of diplomacy and the business of surveying was not unusual: in fact, much of the British cartographic knowledge of the interior of India during this period was gained by officers attached to various political missions. Forster remained in Nagpur until he was recalled to Madras in February 1789. In June 1790 he returned to Nagpur as resident to the court of Raja Raghoji Bhonsla, and on this occasion his route from Cuttack to Nagpur was surveyed by James Davidson, the commander of his escort. He died at Nagpur on 5 January 1791" (Oxford DNB).
39. FREYCINET, Louis Claude de Saulces de (1779-1841)
[Autograph Letter Signed to Mr. Bajot, the Chief Editor of the “Annales Maritimes et Coloniales”].
Paris, July 1833. On a double Quarto leaf (ca. 22x17 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on laid paper, text in French, legible writing. The previous owner’s inscription in ink on verso “Ex coll. [?]”. Mild fold marks, otherwise in very good condition.
Interesting letter from a French explorer and circumnavigator Louis Claude de Saulces de Freycinet to Louis-Marie Bajot (1777-1840), the chief editor of the “Annales maritimes and coloniales” (Paris, 1816-1847), the main French periodical on the naval and colonial issues.
The letter concerns a new book: "Lettre adressée à S. Exc. Le Cte de Rigny,... Par le capitaine de corvette L. Richard sur la détermination de la longitude par les distances lunaires et le passage de la lune au méridien. By M. Laurent Richard, “capitaine de corvette,” Rochefort 1831 which was sent by the Minister of the Navy for the review of the Bureau des Longitudes of France. The review of the work together with its first part was published in the “Annales Maritimes” (1832). Freycinet notes that four others parts of the book are still in the manuscript form, but the sixth part, starting with the words “L’Astronomie nautique de nos jours si perfectionnée &”, has been printed in Rochefort. The Bureau hasn’t reviewed this publication, although it directly relates to the problem of geographical longitude. In the end of the letterFreycinet kindly asks Bajot to publish his review of the book in the “Annales” which he has prepared on the request of M. Richard.
Bajot satisfied his request, and Freycinet’s “Rapport fit au Bureau […] sur les méthodes proposées par M. Le capitaine de corvette L. Richard pour l’observation et le calcul des longitudes géographiques” was published in the 18th volume of “Annales Maritimes” (Partie non officielle, Paris, 1833, p. 213-231).
40. GAMBIER, James, Sir, Admiral of the Fleet (1756-1833)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Gambier” to Vice Admiral Sir John Duckworth “off Ushant”, About the Admiralty’s Orders that “Lieutenant Brompton to be discharged from St. George, without waiting to be superceded with directions to join the Neptune immediately”].
Caledonia in Hamoze, 21 September 1808. Folio (ca. 31,5x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on Whatman laid paper watermarked ‘1806’; numbered and docketed in secretarial hand on verso. Written in secretarial hand and signed by Gambier. A fine letter.
This official letter was signed by Admiral of the Fleet James Gambier, when he was the commander of the Channel Fleet of the Royal Navy (1808-1811), and addressed to Admiral Sir John Thomas Duckworth (1747–1817), then the second in command of the Mediterranean Fleet. The letter concerns the transfer of one of Gambier’s officers from his flagship HSM Royal George (1788) to HSM Neptune (1797), a 98-gun second rate ship of the line. She was just about to embark to the West Indies where she would become the flagship of the British invasion to the French colony of Martinique in January 1809 under command of Rear-Admiral Alexander Cochrane. Gambier wrote the letter on board HMS Caledonia (1808), a 120-gun first-rate ship of the line, which had been launched earlier that year at Plymouth.
Sir James Gambier also was the Governor of Newfoundland (1802-1804), and a Lord of the Admiralty. He participated in the American War of Independence, gained the distinction in the Glorious First of June in 1794, and commanded the naval forces in the campaign against Copenhagen (1807) and in the Battle of the Basque Roads (1809). Gambier was a founding benefactor of Kenyon College in the United States, so the town that was founded with it, Gambier, Ohio is named after him. Mount Gambier, South Australia, the extinct volcano and the later city, and the Gambier Island in British Columbia are also named after him (Wikipedia).
Sir John Thomas Duckworth “served during the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, as the Governor of Newfoundland during the War of 1812, and a member of the British House of Commons during his semi-retirement. Serving with most of the great names of the Royal Navy during the later 18th and early 19th centuries, he fought almost all of Britain's enemies on the seas at one time or another, including a Dardanelles operation that would be remembered a century later during the First World War. He commanded at the Battle of San Domingo, the last great fleet action of the Napoleonic Wars” (Wikipedia).
41. GORDON, Charles, General Gordon of Khartoum (1833-1885)
[Autograph Note Signed to H. M. Minister Plenipotentiary at Cairo, asking him if he “will supply me with the accompanying list of stationery as I had to leave England, at such short notice, that I could not obtain the same”, annotated at the top that it had been answered “yes”].
At sea, 21 January 1884. Small Octavo (ca. 20x12,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on thin paper. F old marks, the text slightly faded, otherwise a very good letter.
A rare note by the famous Charles Gordon of Khartoum written during his last ill-fated military expedition to Khartoum (1884-85). The note written during the first preparatory stage of the expedition, witnesses the great haste it was accompanied by. At first Gordon was summoned to the war office to discuss the expedition to Khartoum on the January 15th; the next morning he left for Brussels, but immediately returned, and on the January 18th after meeting with the British cabinet he left for Soudan with Colonel Stewart.
“When a serious revolt broke out in the Sudan, led by a Muslim reformer and self-proclaimed Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad. Gordon was sent to Khartoum with instructions to secure the evacuation of loyal soldiers and civilians, and depart with them. After evacuating about 2,500 British civilians he retained a smaller group of soldiers and non-military men. As an ardent Christian evangelist he was determined to stand up to the Mahdi, his Muslim nemesis. In the build up to battle the two leaders corresponded attempting to convert the other to their respective faiths, but neither would comply. Besieged by the Mahdi's forces, Gordon organized a city-wide defense lasting almost a year that gained him the admiration of the British public, though not the government, which had not wished to become involved (as Gordon had known before setting out). Only when public pressure to act had become too great was a relief force reluctantly sent. It arrived two days after the city had fallen and Gordon had been beheaded” (Wikipedia).
42. GORE, Vice-Admiral Sir John (1772-1836)
[Content Filled Autograph Letter Signed to Sir James Graham, First Lord of the Admiralty, and discusses Several Matters, Including the Methods of Defeating Pirates, the Amount of “Batta” or Payment for the Naval officers, British East India Company’s Control over the British Navy in India and the Latest Book on Maritime Law].
Bombay, 17 January 1834. Quarto (ca. 23x18,5 cm). 6 pp. Brown ink on three large sheet of paper, folded and sewn together in the centrefold. Mild fold marks, paper slightly browned, otherwise a very good letter written in a very legible hand.
A detailed letter filled with interesting content from Sir John Gore when Commander-in-Chief of the East Indies and China Station to Sir James Graham (1792-1861), First Lord of the Admiralty.
Gore starts with his opinion on the best tactics of suppressing piracy in the Indian waters: "Boats, such as Ships can carry, are of no manner of use against them. Small Brigs or Schooners, that can be rowed and sail tolerably fast may effect something and keep them in check and there must be several of these to do much. Steamers would be effectual but are not yet attainable for want of coals."
Most part of the letter is occupied with his complaints about the Board of the East India Company, which, firstly, reduced the rate of exchange the “Naval Batta” (wages) for Rupees that lead to loss of a quarter of Gore’s “intended allowance”. Secondly, taking away Gore’s residences in Bombay and Penang caused his righteous indignation, and he wrote that he was supposed “to be lodged in Tents on the Esplanade of Bombay”. He angrily stated: “I can live on board my Flag Ship, and not land, as my Patron, Commodore Cornwallis did, but I cannot suffer the indignity and discomfort of ‘living in a Tent’.”
His main concern though is that the East India Company tries to get full control over the British Navy, and that subsequently “the Duty of an Admiral in India is not more that a junior Captain may execute”. Gore tells a story of the Marquis of Hastings as an example: he claimed the authority over the Navy as “Captain General of India”. Gore assures the correspondent that he is ready “to conform to what is thought to be good for the Public Service”, but “I shall heartily grieve to see His Majesty’s Navy placed under the control of any authority, but the Board of Admiralty”.
At the end of the letter he recommends to Sir Graham the latest book on the maritime law written by Mr. Christopher Biden which is “more flowery than could be wished, but replete in the substantial matter”. Overall a substantial letter.
43. GOUGH, Bloomfield, Captain (d. 1904)
[SECOND ANGLO-AFGHAN WAR, SIEGE OF THE SHERPUR CANTONMENT]
[Autograph Letter Signed Addressed to the Author's Father From Besieged Sherpur, Providing Vivid Details of the Siege].
Sherpur, Kabul, 20 December 1879. Octavo (ca. 21x13,5 cm). 14 pp. Brown ink on paper. Old folds with minor tears on margins, paper lightly browned, overall a very good letter.
Expressive first-hand account of the Siege of the Sherpur Cantonment (15-23 December 1879) during the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-1880). The Siege took place during the second phase of the war when in October 1879, Kabul was occupied by the British troops after the British Resident Sir Pierre Cavagnari had been murdered there. In November mutinous Afghan troops amassed to the north of Kabul and, on December 15 mounted a siege on British troops in the Sherpur Cantonment. The siege was raised with arrival on December 23 of the relief column under the command of Brigadier General Charles Gough.
Captain Bloomfield Gough was serving with the 9th Queen’s Royal Lancers cavalry regiment, and took active part in the defence of the Sherpur Cantonment. In his extensive and emotional letter written when the siege was still on, Gough gives a "full and true account of my battles and the siege of Sherpore as far as it has gone."
The account starts with the period from December 9, and describes at length the ferocious fight in Kabul’s neighbourhood Kila Kizi on December 11. Gough recreates all the events of the day in strict consistency, names all officers in command (Brig.-Gen. Macpherson (infantry), Capt. Stewart-Mackenzie and Lieut.-Col. Cleland (9th Queen’s Royal Lancers), Major Smith Widham (artillery) et al); and gives amounts of wounded and killed officers, men and horses.
Gough’s letter provides remarkable descriptions of battle scenes: "After going about 4 or 5 miles the advance partly were fired upon and soon afterwards we saw the enemy collecting in great numbers to our left front. I got my troop under cover of a hillock and the enemy numbering (I am told 1200) began advancing with standards and tom toms and great shouting. Our guns soon came into action and the enemy guns replied. As soon as they came within 800 yards, I opened fire with half my troop dismounted, and owing to our being under cover and the enemy advancing in the open, succeeded in stopping them on our right, however seeing the guns retire and fearing I should be cut off, I remounted my troops and retired over a lot of stony ground at a gallop, keeping my troop well in hand. [To?] turn upon then, if as I expected they (the enemy) would come after me. Well we retired about ¾ of a mile, and the enemy cavalry pursued, coming on with shouts of Allah and Bismillah, and as I hoped in very straggling order. When I thought they were far enough away from the enemy I got my troop into a trot and gave the order Right about Wheel - Charge! - Well I never seen such a scene of consternation. My men came with a shout and the enemy who were at first so brave appeared thunder struck. Some came on, most stood still and some ran away <..,> The charge was a great success."
Gough is fascinated with an Afghan standard bearer, who "fought in a most desperate way and I never saw such a brave man. He had several lances through him before he fell off his horse and when they got down to take his standard away, though half dead and lying on the ground, he raised himself up and snatched a lance away from one of our men with which he thrust at anyone who came hear him as long as he had a drop of life left in him." He also notes the bravery of British officers who "were a long way in front in the charge and a long way behind in the retreat and every one of them do the same thing that Bill Beresford got the V.C. For." The battle description is illustrated with a nice little drawing in text (leave 2, inside) showing the lancers’ attack on the enemy positions.
Gough’s account of December 13 describes a fierce fight near Siah Sung Heights in which the 9th Lancers commander was killed: "Poor Batson shot dead with a bullet through his heart, Chrisholme being wounded with a shot through the leg and Trowers’ other horse, a very nice black whaler shot dead. 4 men dead and 9 wounded and about 30 dead Afghans lying in heaps. I am awfully sorry for Batson, poor fellow. We also lost several horses, killed or wounded."
Then follows the description of the Siege and the state of the British garrison: "The place is fortified and a desultory fire kept up all and every day from the walls <..,> Every night we have the whole regiment in picquet for fear of an attack. You must not suppose we are in a bad way, as we have plenty of ammunition to defend ourselves, only not enough to go out and drive off the enemy who are in the city and have been having great games looting it. We are perfectly safe here and are only waiting for Charley who is coming up with reinforcements and ammunition, when we shall go out and make an example of them."
In the end Gough states that "I am beginning to think war is not such good sport as people say and think hunting far better for fun and much less dangerous" [emphasis added], and describes the Afghans who "are quite different from those we met at first; <..,> mostly armed with Sniders, and are not out of the way cowards, though fortunately they are very bad shots," and notes that "it is terribly cold with snow on the ground wherever the sun cannot get at it”. He hopes that “Charley will arrive soon and that I shall give them a proper beating and then pursue them with all the cavalry, only the country is so hilly and so intersected with ditches and water that it is not an easy place for us to work on."
Bloomfield Gough came from a noted Irish noble family with a long military tradition. During the Second Afghan War he served as Aide-de-Camp to his relative, Brigadier General Sir Charles Gough (1832-1912) and was present at the taking of Ali Musjid (November 1878). Subsequent to this letter he took part in the march from Kabul to Kandahar and was present at the battle of Kandahar. He was twice mentioned in dispatches (January and September 1880). Gough exchanged into the 9th Lancers from the Rifle Brigade in April 1873 and rose to command the regiment as Lieut. Colonel from December 1895. He accompanied the 9th Lancers to the Boer War in 1899 but was unjustly relieved of his command in the field in November. Gough retired in 1900 when commanding the regiment with the rank of Lieut. Colonel.
44. GRANDJEAN, J. S., Adjutant-General.
[Signed Manuscript Regarding French Possessions in Africa]: Note Sur Les Possessions Francaises En Afrique.
Paris, 19 Pluviôse, 3rd Year of the Republic . Folio (ca. 31,5x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Manuscript in fine condition and housed in a custom made red gilt tooled quarter morocco portfolio.
Manuscript signed by the Adjutant-General J.S. Grandjean is a summary of the main points of the report submitted by him in 1766, on his return from Gorée, to minister Choiseul. The report discusses the gold mines at Galam (Senegal), gum arabic that should be shared with the Dutch, and special water resistant wood found on the Island of Boulam.
"The island of Gorée was one of the first places in Africa to be settled by Europeans.., After the French gained control in 1677, the island remained continuously French until 1960.., Gorée was principally a trading post, administratively attached to Saint-Louis, capital of the Colony of Senegal. Apart from slaves, beeswax, hides and grain were also traded..., Étienne-François, comte de Stainville, duc de Choiseul (1719-1785) was a French military officer, diplomat and statesman. Between 1758 and 1761, and 1766 and 1770, he was Foreign Minister of France and had a strong influence on France's global strategy throughout the period. He is closely associated with France's defeat in the Seven Years War and subsequent efforts to rebuild French prestige" (Wikipedia).
45. HANWAY, Jonas, Sir, 1st baronet (1712-1786)
[Victualling Board Document Signed by Jonas Hanway, Joah Bates and John Slade, ordering a payment to William Wilkinson, owner of the Three Sisters Victualler, which had been chartered 27 December 1779 ‘to carry Provisions for the use of His Majesty’s Ships on the West Indies’].
London: Victualling Office, 15 November 1780. Folio (ca. 30,5x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink in secretarial hand on ‘R. Williams’ laid paper, numbered and docketed on verso. Signed ‘Bates’, ‘Jonas Hanway’, ‘J. Slade’. Fold marks, slightly trimmed on the upper and lower margins, otherwise a very good document.
Interesting document illustrating the posterior career of a renowned British traveller Jonas Hanway. He is most famous for his travel to Persia and Russia in 1743-45 which he undertook in order “to sell English broadcloth for Persian silk and to evaluate the potential of trade with Persia, then ruled by the last great steppe conqueror, Shah Nadir Kuli Khan (1688–1747). […] Hanway was robbed on the way to Persia, by the rebellious Khars on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea and was rescued by merchant colleagues. […] He was later partially compensated by Nadir Shah, who desired cordial relations with the British in order to enlist British artisans to construct a Persian navy for the Caspian. […] In 1753 he published the description of his adventures “An Historical Account of the British Trade over the Caspian Sea” (4 vols., 1753), the most original entertaining of all his books” (Oxford DNB).
Our document relates to Hanway’s activities as the chairman of the Marine Society (which he founded in 1756) and the Commissioner for victualling the British navy, the latter post he held for almost 20 years (1762-1783). The official paper of the Victualling Board orders to pay to a certain Wilkinson, the owner of a ship engaged in supplying British ships at the Caribbean Theatre of the American War of Independence (1775-1783). The document is signed by two other members of the board, Joah Bates (ca. 1741-1799) and John Slade (d. 1801).
46. HASTINGS, Warren (1732-1818)
[Autograph Letter Signed to John White Esq. (possibly the author of "Journal of a Voyage to New South Wales") Thanking him for the Help with the Case of “Ra. Nubkishen” and offering to send one of the relevant books].
Daylesford House (Gloucestershire), 6 April 1802. Quarto (ca. 23x18,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on paper, letter addressed and sealed on the fourth page, with “Chipping Norton” postal ink stamp. Paper slightly browned, with two holes after opening, otherwise a very good letter. Letter in very good condition with the integral address leaf (torn at seal opening) Chipping Norton postal mark.
The letter mentions a famous Indian Raja Nabakrishna Deb (archaic spelling Nubkissen) (1733-1797), who was close to the British East-India Company and played an important role in turning India into British colony.
"Warren Hastings PC, was the first Governor-General of India, from 1773 to 1785. He was famously accused of corruption in an impeachment in 1787, but was acquitted in 1795. He was made a Privy Councillor in 1814. Under Hastings's term as Governor General, a great deal of administrative precedent was set which profoundly shaped later attitudes towards the government of British India. Hastings had a great respect for the ancient scripture of Hinduism and set the British position on governance as one of looking back to the earliest precedents possible. This allowed Brahmin advisors to mould the law, as no English person thoroughly understood Sanskrit until Sir William Jones, and, even then, a literal translation was of little use; it needed to be elucidated by religious commentators who were well-versed in the lore and application. This approach accentuated the Hindu caste system and, to an extent, the frameworks of other religions, which had, at least in recent centuries, been somewhat more flexibly applied. Thus, British influence on the fluid social structure of India can in large part be characterised as a solidification of the privileges of the Hindu caste system through the influence of the exclusively high-caste scholars by whom the British were advised in the formation of their laws" (Wikipedia).
47. HEDIN, Sven Anders (1865-1952)
A Signed Photo Postcard of Hedin.
Stockholm: Paul Heckscher, ca. 1910. Ca. 13,5x8,5 cm (5 x 3 ½ in). Postcard in very good condition.
"Between 1894 and 1908, in three daring expeditions through the mountains and deserts of Central Asia, he mapped and researched parts of Chinese Turkestan (officially Xinjiang) and Tibet which had been unexplored until then. Upon his return to Stockholm in 1909 he was received as triumphantly as Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld. In 1902, he became the last Swede (to date) to be raised to the untitled nobility and was considered one of Sweden’s most important personalities. As a member of two scientific academies, he had a voice in the selection of Nobel Prize winners for both science and literature. Hedin never married and had no children, rendering his family line now extinct.
Hedin's expedition notes laid the foundations for a precise mapping of Central Asia. He was one of the first European scientific explorers to employ indigenous scientists and research assistants on his expeditions. Although primarily an explorer, he was also the first to unearth the ruins of ancient Buddhist cities in Chinese Central Asia. However, as his main interest in archaeology was finding ancient cities, he had little interest in gathering data thorough scientific excavations. Of small stature, with a bookish, bespectacled appearance, Hedin nevertheless proved himself a determined explorer, surviving several close brushes with death from hostile forces and the elements over his long career. His scientific documentation and popular travelogues, illustrated with his own photographs, watercolor paintings and drawings, his adventure stories for young readers and his lecture tours abroad made him world famous" (Wikipedia).
48. HOOKER, Sir Joseph Dalton (1817-1911)
Two Autograph Letters Signed to Dr. James Croll (physical geologist, 1821-90), Kew Gardens, 28 March & 1 April 1884, discussing issues of Arctic interest including the 'hopelessly unintelligible' question of whether specimens of wood found in the Arctic are evidence of interglacial warming periods, expressing particular scepticism as to Sir Edward Belcher's claims to have found a tree stump embedded in frozen clay, 'Belcher you know was a notoriously untruthful man ... The best (and most deservedly) hated man of his day in the Navy.'
[With] A Mounted Photograph of Hooker signed 'Jos. D. Hooker', ca. 15x11 cm including mount.
London, 1884. Each letter four pages on octavo bifolia ca. 18x11,5 cm), both with Royal Gardens Kew blind stamps. Letters with fold marks and verso of one mildly soiled but overall in very good condition.
Hooker had gained early experience in the Polar regions as a young botanist with Sir James Clark Ross's Antarctic expedition on Erebus, 1839-43, whose scientific results he published in six volumes. He succeeded his father as Director of Kew Gardens in 1865. He was also a close friend of Charles Darwin and "among the founders of the X Club, a private dining society that supported Darwinism"(Oxford DNB).
"The 1860s and 1870s saw renewed interest in astronomical and physical causes of glaciations. Geologists had long laboured to explain the existence of extremely cold glacial conditions in now-temperate latitudes, and the remains of subtropical flora in polar regions.., Croll advanced .., the theory that global weather patterns would be indirectly affected by the periodic changes in the eccentricity of the earth's orbit about the sun, for a winter occurring when the earth was in the aphelion of its most eccentric orbit would be bitterly cold, and this would set in motion a chain of large-scale climatic changes resulting in large tracts of glacial land ice—an ice age"(Oxford DNB).
Dear Dr. Croll,
I wish I could answer your question at all. I know no subject more hopelessly unintelligible than the Arctic explorer's accounts of the woods they found, It is impossible to say whether they mean recent drift wood, lignites or tertiary deposits. I talked with Mcclure and Osborn about the Bank's Land deposits, which must be very extraordinary, but could arrive at no clear idea as to their age or origin. The woods which I examined from time to time were, as far as recollect, pieces of drift timber-poplar? & white spruce? Evidently drifted down the Coppermine or Mackenzie in modern times, though possibly many centuries ago, for the conservative power of continuous cold is great. Mr. Belcher's "Last of the Arctic Voyages" I. 380 describes the stump of a tree embedded in frozen clay - together with portions of leaves etc. and he describes peat in the immediate neighbourhood. This was in the Wellington Channel. I examined specimens brought to me and they had all the appearance of being drift wood of Picea Alba (white spruce). No leaves nor peat were brought and no scientific man was present at the digging - Belcher you know was a notoriously untruthful man and an officer of his ship whom I questioned pooh-poohed the story of the digging the tree out of the frozen soil. Belcher was the best (and deservedly) hated man of his day in the Navy, and one must not pin faith in what his enemies say of him. If his account is correct it is clear evidence of an interglacial mild period I should suppose. I will enquire of Admiral Richards who was in Belcher's ship and see what he knows - Dr. Lyall I think it was who described the whole of Belcher's story and it is a significant fact that the ship's Boatswain, who discovered the wood, thought it was the "top-gallant mast of a ship" and the carpenter's mate, who was one of the party , was of the opinion "that it was a worked spar of about 8 inches diameter"!
I forget whether wood has been found with the mammoth bones in the Buckland Cliffs. If so that would be fair evidence of a warm period- but the Elephants themselves are we to suppose that all the bones found over so many degrees of latitude, were all washed down from lower latitudes is a great stretch. I will write again when I hear from Admiral Richards.
J. D. Hooker."
Dear Dr. Croll,
As I anticipated the answers to my queries are most unsatisfactory. Dr. Lyall, who was naturalist on the Belcher expedition, writes me that he was away on a sledge expedition at the date of the discovery of the tree, and adds that Admiral B. "had a very fertile imagination." On the other hand Admiral Richards writes "I perfectly remember the piece of tree, it was 16-18 in. Long and 6-7 in diameter and I should say it was unquestionably fossil. I am under the impression that there were a lot of stumps standing about the same height in a valley or ravine but I cannot call to mind whether I saw them, or a sketch of them by Belcher. I don't think I can be mistaken as to their fossil character. I remember carefully examining the specimen, and at one time I had some loose pieces of the petrifaction in my possession. I remember the stump lying about the upper deck for some time, and that pieces got (dis) integrated off it, it was regarded at the time a remarkable discovery." Now the specimens given to me to examine, were assumedly not petrified, for I made the slides for microscopic examination with a razor! And as they were unaccompanied with any account of their position etc. (which appeared afterwards in Belcher's narrative) it never occurred to me to treat them as anything but drift wood.
The only way I can reconcile the conflicting accounts is, that the Boatswain and Carpenter's mate found drift-wood and that the fossils were another story and that Belcher has jumbled then up and sent me the drift-wood which I identified with Picea Alba. What the fossil wood is, or what its age it is impossible to say - it is most likely to have been Miocene.
There is a statement in Nares Voyage to the effect I think that there are recent fossil woods in the North. The book is at my place in the country if I can find it I will copy the passage for you.
I have read most of the Arctic narratives and think I should have noted any account of remains that would indicate interglacial warm periods.
J. D. Hooker."
49. JUBELIN, [Jean-Guillaume (1787-1860),
Governor of Senegal, 7 Jan 1828 - 11 May 1829]
[Official Order on the Printed Letterhead of “Gouveneur du Sénégal & de Ses Dependances” to Jean Clément Victor Dangles to Explore the Coast of West Africa, in particular the Bissagos Islands and Casamance River].
Saint-Louis, Senegal, 15 March 1828. Folio (ca. 31x20 cm). 2 pp. Text in French. Brown ink on the official form; signed by Jubelin, with the official ink stamp of the Government of Senegal. Paper aged, with minor creases, otherwise a very good document.
This is the official order for the second expedition to Casamance, under command of Jean Clément Victor Dangles (b. 1783). Jubelin served as governor of Senegal (7 January 1828 - 11 May 1829), French Guiana (1829-1836), and Guadeloupe (1837-1841). The Bissagos Islands are a group of 18 major islands and dozens more smaller ones in the Atlantic Ocean and are a part of Guinea-Bissau. The Casamance is the principal river of the Kolda, Sédhiou, and Ziguinchor Regions in the southern portion of Senegal between The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau (Wikipedia).
50. LUGARD, Frederick John Dealtry, Baron (1858-1945)
Two Autograph Letters Signed "F.J.D. Lugard" to "Thomas" and "Fagan" (of Natural History Museum) Dated 1 Sept. 1895 and 15 Feb. 1896 Respectively.
[South Africa], 1895-6. Octavo. 3 pages each. Octavo letters each ca. 18 x 11 cm (7 x 4 ½ in). The letters are written in a legible hand and are in near fine condition.
The two interesting letters are full of content and in the 1895 letter Lugard discusses what "Thomas" has in his collections (especially the horns and skin of a hartebeest) and asks for a spare Kobus Kob skin. He has immature Kobus Kob horns if he wants them from" South of Lokoja on Niger bank." Perhaps he is discussing the results of his expedition to Borgu.
In the 1896 letter Lugard describes in detail the sort of man he wishes to employ looking after stores and doing "miscellaneous work", a taxidermist or collector. Presumably he is preparing for the expedition to Lake Ngami (1896-7).
"West Africa, 1894-1895:
Despite any disenchantment over his experience of two companies and his longed for but dwindling hope of returning to east Africa in senior government service, Lugard now embarked, however hesitatingly, on another roving company expedition. An offer of service came from Sir George Goldie, who had obtained a charter for his Royal Niger Company and in 1894 was busily concluding treaties with local chiefs so as to strengthen the company's capacity to repel the encroachments of the French in the Niger region. Aware that they were preparing an expedition to Borgu, Goldie wanted Lugard to proceed to Nikki, its chief town, and to forestall the French and Germans by securing a treaty from the ruler. In a rapid and remarkable march through unexplored country, Lugard won the so-called ‘steeplechase to Nikki’, to the dismay of the French, who had no doubt about the motives of one whom they stigmatized as ‘the conqueror of Uganda’.
Southern Africa, 1896-1897:
A brief interlude in southern Africa followed. Lugard left the Niger in April 1895, still hoping that the government would ask for his services in Africa. Agonizingly, his appointment as CB brought nothing more with it, so he accepted an offer from yet another African company, the new British West Charterland Company, and set off to explore a mineral commission near Lake Ngami in Bechuanaland. Here the main problem was not fighting but transport. The journey involved 700 miles across the Kalahari Desert, and a rinderpest epidemic had emptied the country of trek cattle. Nevertheless, the journey was accomplished by September 1896. In the following August, Lugard received an urgent and surprise message from the new colonial secretary, Joseph Chamberlain, inviting him to take up work in west Africa. It was an imperial appointment at last. What Lugard called his ‘destiny to Africa’ entered its third phase: after central and east Africa, henceforth it was to be west Africa. It turned out to be the longest connection of them all" (Oxford DNB).
51. MOHAN LAL (1812-1877)
[Autograph Letter Signed to Member of Parliament Mr. Oliveira Regarding their Visit to the Royal Society‚ “the fair copy of the Memorial” which is to be submitted the following day to the Court‚ and asking Oliveira to introduce him to Lord Ripon, Vice-Roy of India].
53 Manchester Street, London, 26 July 1845. Duodecimo (ca. 11,5x8 cm). 3 pp. Brown ink on paper. Mild fold marks, with a small hole on the last page from opening, without loss of the text, traces of the old mount where the letter was removed from an album, otherwise a very good letter.
Rare letter by Mohan Lal (Zutshi) – one of few Indian players of the Great Game who greatly contributed to the British victory in the First Anglo-Afghan War (1838-1842). An offspring of a Kashmiri noble family from Delhi, Mohan Lal attended the newly formed Delhi English College. In 1832-1834 he accompanied Sir Alexander Burnes on his expedition to Central Asia with the aim of political and military intelligence; they became close friends. “Later, Lal was the Commercial Agent for the British on the Indus and Political Assistant to Burnes in Kabul during the first Afghan War. Unlike Burnes, he survived the massacres of 1841 and continued to keep Calcutta informed of events in the Afghan capital from the house of a merchant where he had taken refuge […] Mohan Lal played a major role in securing the release of British prisoners held hostage in Bamiyan” (Wikipedia).
The letter was written in England where Mohan Lal lived after the First Anglo-Afghan War, and reveals his attempts to solve financial problems he experienced that time. In the letter he asks Oliveira “to use your influence as much as you can on my behalf” and mentions Sir Henry Ellis (1777-1869), the principal librarian of the British Museum. Mohan Lal’s two major books, “Travels in the Panjab, Afghanistan & Turkistan to Balk, Bokhara, and Herat” and “Life of the Amir Dost Mohammed Khan, of Kabul” were to be issued the next year. The latter is considered a primary source on the First English-Afghan War.
Benjamin Oliveira was a British politician, a son of a naturalized native of Madeira. Oliveira was known as a businessman, writer, philanthropist, Member of Parliament and Director of the British Institution of Beaux arts and Painting (See: University of Toronto Libraries on-line).
52. NANSEN, Fridjof (1861-1930)
A Signed Photo Postcard of Nansen
[Oslo]: Habel, 1905. Ca. 9x14 cm (3 ½ x 5 in). Blind stamped “Habel Xania 1905”. Postcard in very good condition.
Nansen "led the team that made the first crossing of the Greenland interior in 1888, and won international fame after reaching a record northern latitude of 86°14′ during his North Pole expedition of 1893–96. Although he retired from exploration after his return to Norway, his techniques of polar travel and his innovations in equipment and clothing influenced a generation of subsequent Arctic and Antarctic expeditions" (Wikipedia).
53. NORDENSKIOLD, Nils Adolf Erik (1832-1901)
[Autograph Letter Signed ‘A.E. Nordenskiöld’ to a Princess (‘Hoheite Fürstin’), in German About Nordenskiöld's trip to Roma the next day; [With] a Carte-de-Visite Photo of Nordenskiöld by Adolf Halwas (Berlin) showing him head and shoulders in slight profile].
Letter: Napoli, 19 February 1880. On a folded octavo leaf (17,5x22,5 cm). 2 pp. Mild fold marks, otherwise a fine letter. Photograph: Berlin: Adolf Halwas, ca. 1889. 10.5 x6 cm (4 x 2 ¼ in). Period ink inscriptions "Nordenskiöld" on recto . Removed from album with corresponding loss of printed surface on verso, but still a very good photograph.
The letter was written by a renowned polar explorer Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld shortly after he had completed his famous Vega expedition 1878-1879 which was the first complete crossing of the Northeast Passage and the first circumnavigation of the Eurasian continent.
"On 22 June 1878 the ship set out from Sweden through the Northeast Passage around the north coast of Eurasia. Blocked by ice on 28 September of that year only 120 miles (200 km) short of the Bering Strait marking the eastern end of Asia, the ship was not freed until 18 July 1879. Two days later East Cape was passed, and Vega became the first ship to complete a voyage through the Northeast Passage. Returning by way of the Western Pacific, Indian Ocean, and Suez Canal, Vega also became the first vessel to circumnavigate the Eurasian continent" (Wikipedia).
The letter was written by Nordenskiöld on his way back to Sweden, as it’s known that he returned to Stockholm only two months later, on April 24th 1880. In the letter the explorer thanks the princess for her letters and good words about him and mentions ‘a dozen of letters and telegrams’ he has to send, as well as his early leave for Rome the next day.
Freiherr Nils Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld was a Finnish baron, geologist, mineralogist and arctic explorer of Finnish-Swedish origin. He was a member of the prominent Finland-Swedish Nordenskiöld family of scientists. Born in the Grand Duchy of Finland at the time when it was a part of the Russian Empire, he was later, due to his political activity, forced to live in political exile in Sweden, where he later would become a member of the Parliament of Sweden and the Swedish Academy. He is most remembered for the Vega expedition along the northern coast of Eurasia, which he led in 1878-1879. This was the first complete crossing of the Northeast Passage (Wikipedia).
54. OAKELEY, Henry (1816-1877)
[JAMES ROSS’ ANTARCTIC VOYAGE, SUPPRESSION OF THE AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE, AND CRUISING ALONG THE COAST OF BRAZIL]
[Manuscript Journal Containing Materials from James Clark Ross’s Antarctic Expedition 1839-1844; and Detailed Logs of Oakeley’s Service on HMS Cygnet, Suppressing the Slave Trade off the West African Coast in 1844-47; HMS Madagascar in Rio de Janeiro, 1853-1855; and HMS Spy in Brazil, 1855].
Primarily at Sea, 1840-1855. Quarto (ca. 34x42,5 cm). Manuscript on lined paper, 100 leaves with the text of the Journal, 25 leaves in the back with calculations and mounted newspaper clippings, and 47 blank leaves in the middle. With seventeen leaves of calculations and three original photos (ca. 15x20,5 cm and 15x10,5 cm) loosely inserted or mounted between the leaves and in the end of the album. All text clear and complete, closely and neatly written on lightly aged paper. Period black half sheep with marbled boards and oat-coloured rough cloth covers sewn over. Ink inscription "Hy Oakeley Esqr" on the front cover. Covers rubbed and worn, otherwise a very good internally clean logbook.
The Journal opens with 21 pages of manuscript orders from James Clark Ross’ Antarctic Expedition, with much information on the purpose and planning of the Erebus’ mission. Oakeley served on board HMS Erebus during the expedition and made his own copies of some official papers - from the beginning (December 1840) and the end (July 1843) of the expedition.
The first document dated ‘Her Majesty’s Ship Erebus. Lord Auckland Islands 8th Decr. 1840’, reproduces a memo by Ross, in which the ship’s officers are ‘ordered and directed’ regarding ‘some regulations necessary in addition to the General printed instructions’. It begins with 38 numbered orders regarding ‘Discipline’, ‘Watches’ and other matters relating to the running of the ship. The first order sets the tone: ‘1) The Officers must be aware that upon this particular Service the strictest attention to Discipline will be required and every Deviation there from (especially insolence disobedience disrespect or Drunkenness) is immediately to be reported that the necessary steps may be taken to prevent its recurrence, however slight the offence may be the Ship’s crew must not be allowed to suppose it has passed unnoticed’.
The second document is ‘Orders relative to Natural, Scientific and other Observations’ in 51 numbered paragraphs. The first of these begins by stressing that ‘No opportunity is to be lost of making the various observations connected with astronomy magnetism and navigation and every Officer will of course be desirous to obtain all the practice he can’. Officers are urged to take note of such phenomena as ‘Whales or other Fish swimming near’ and ‘Seals or other Animals on thin Sea or Land’, and to preserve ‘Any Butterfly moth or other insect blown off the Land’ and ‘drift Timber’.
The memo under number 51 carries the ‘Demand’ that ‘the Officers and all other Persons on Board [...] deliver to me on or before noon of the 8th day of August next all the Logs and Journals they have kept and the Charts Drawings and Observations of every kind they have made’. The document ends ‘Given under my hands on board the Erebus at Sea this 25th July 1843. Signed Jas C Ross Captain’ (not Ross’s actual signature, but a copy by Oakeley from the original).
The greater part of the volume (155 pages) consists of detailed logs and journals for Oakeley’s service on three ships: HMS Cygnet (2 May 1844 - 10 April 1847, west coast of Africa), HMS Madagascar (store ship in Rio de Janeiro, 20 October 1853-16 March 1855) and HM Brigantine Spy (16 March - 11 July 1855, south-east coast of America, mostly Brazil), on the last of which Oakeley took a temporary command. A manuscript list with details of his service in 1834-1855 is provided at the front of the volume.
A large part of the volume (99 pages) consists of Oakeley’s log of his service on board the 8-gun brig HMS Cygnet, operating off the West African coast ‘for the suppression of the Slave Trade’. This culminates with a page-long ‘List of Captures [by] HMS Cygnet & when Paid’, in table form, giving ‘Date when Paid’, ‘Name of Vessel’, ‘When Captured’, ‘How Rigged’, ‘Under What Colours’, ‘Where Captured’, ‘Amount Paid’ and ‘Agents’, naming fifteen vessels between 1847 and 1854. (A page at the other end of the volume deals with a further twenty vessels between 1844 and 1846, the last of which, the Brazilian ‘Paquete de Rio’, carrying ‘550 Negroes & Negress’s [sic]’.)
The majority of the pages devoted to the Cygnet carry tables, from 22 June 1844 to 11 April 1847, giving geographical and meteorological information , and with day-to-day ‘Remarks’ forming a journal of the ship’s activities. Also present are a few extended entries, including two regarding slavers: one (7 April 1846) regarding a brig, grounded and in flames (‘saving what we could a pair of slave shackles [...] giving our friends on shore a few volleys in return for what they had been firing at us [...] in the evening she was completely burnt and broken up (not a bad days Work)’), and another (4 January 1845) on which ‘no colours were found but her name by the Log was the Alaber from Havanna at Daylight the next morning she was all to pieces and the natives plundering her and culling away with spars and everything they could lay Hold of surf being too heavy for our Boats to go in’.
The following 36 pages provide a similar log and journal for Oakeley’s service on HMS Madagascar, giving a detailed description of ship’s activities in Rio de Janeiro, Rio’s harbour and reporting about all vessels arriving or departing; with some curious remarks, e.g. ‘This evening the town of Rio was lit with gas’ (September 25, 1854), and two leaves of tables relating to temperature tipped in.
The Journal of HM Brigantine Spy (20 pages) reports the ships cruising along the Brazilian coast, between Fortaleza de Santa Cruz da Barra, Paranagua, Rio de Janeiro, Bahia and Pernambuco; with a loosely-inserted leaf of notes relating to temperature. During this voyage there was an outbreak of yellow fever on board, with at least 9 people dead; Oakeley was also very sick and therefore was invalided and returned to England on steamship Vixen.
The Journals are followed by two tables: the first of ‘Navy Bills sent to Union Bank of London Argyle Place Regent Street London by Henry Oakley Lt HMS Madagascar’ (consisting of payments made to his wife, in Knightsbridge and Byecroft; and a table of stock bought at various locations (beef, oysters, wood et al).
At the rear of the volume are nineteen pages of calculations, under such headings as ‘For. Time June 22nd 1844’, ‘Course and Distance Madeira’, ‘Course & Distance Porto Santo’, ‘June 24th 1844. + Course & Distance made Good’. Loosely inserted are a further nine leaves of calculations, as well as three original photographs, one showing the grave of Oakeley’s mother-in-law, another that of ‘Sophia, widow first of Capt. Richard Francis Cleaveland RN and second Capt James Johnstone McCleverty’, and the last (15 x 20 cm) showing six senior Edwardian army officers. Copied out on seven pages are jeux d’esprit, and twenty-two pages feature cuttings from magazines, including seven devoted to maritime engravings.
Henry Oakeley, RN (Lieutenant, 1843; Commander, 1864), was son of Rev. Herbert Oakeley, DD, Prebendary of Worcester, and Rector of Lydham, Shropshire (the ‘representative’, according to the Gentleman’s Magazine, ‘of the elder line of that ancient family’), and second cousin to Sir Charles Oakeley (1751-1826), Governor of Madras.
The details of Oakley’s naval service, as given by him, are reproduced below. He served on board HMS Erebus during the Antarctic expedition of Admiral Sir James Clark Ross (1800-1862), 1839-44, performing his duties with care. In his ‘Polar Pioneers: a biography of John and James Clark Ross’ (1994), Maurice James Ross notes Oakeley’s ‘brave efforts’ to save the boatswain of the Erebus, who had fallen overboard (p. 221). As Admiral Ross himself records in his ‘Voyage of Discovery and Research in the Southern and Antarctic Regions’ (1847, p.252), he named Cape Oakeley in the Victoria Lands of Antarctica after him.
‘Undaunted 46 from 6th Novr./30 to 10th February 1834 Cape & India and Coast of Africa
Talbot 28 from 30th July 1834 to 3rd July 37. India & South America
Edinburgh 74 from 2 August 37 to 31st August 39 Lisbon No. America & West Indies
Erebus Bomb from Septr 3rd 1839 to September 25th 1843 Antarctic Voyage
Cygnet Sloop 6 guns from May 2nd 1844 to April 10th 1847. Coast of Africa
Madagascar Store ship from 20th Octr 1853 to 16 March 1855 at Rio
Spy from 16th March 1855 to 11th July 1855 on S E Coast of America Where Invalided for yellow fever to return to England by HMS Vixen the only time I have been invalided yet’.
55. OSWELL, William Cotton (1818-1893)
[Autograph Letter Signed to ‘My dear Nat’‚ a lively letter about family arrangements‚ with a story about Lord Glenelg as Colonial Secretary].
St. Leonards, 20 December. Octavo ca. 18x11,5 cm. 4 pp. Black ink on laid paper. Mild fold marks, abrasion along one edge where formerly mounted, otherwise a very good letter.
A lively letter by a British African explorer William Cotton Oswell. “In the 1850-s he explored the Kalahari desert in Bechuanaland (now Botswana) and located Lake Ngami; later he participated in expeditions to the Zambezi river with David Livingstone, and one of Livingstone's children, born in Botswana in 1851, was named William Oswell Livingstone. The species Rhinoceros oswellii was named for him (this name is no longer used in modern taxonomy). Livingstone described Oswell as having had lucky escapes, having been tossed by a rhinoceros on two occasions” (Wikipedia).
From the letter: “I am not in town more than 6 times a year‚ & I find gentlemen who sit at home in their own arm chairs are not always very prone to take opinions from Mumbo Jumbo‚ latest arrival from the Mts. Of the Moon. We are so apt to side with our own ideas that we very diligently sift other people’s to see if they contain those pearls of great price and if they don’t why they’re rubbish! You remember the story told of Lord Glenelg when Colonial Sectry‚ receiving a deputation from Natal‚ suggest his own project plans & refusing to listen to said deputation on any point. ‘Good morning‚ my Lord’‚ ‘Good morning Gentlemen - by the way‚ how is Natal?’‚ this just as they were leaving the room.”
56. PALMERSTON, Temple Henry John (1784-1865)
[CAPTAIN EDWARD BELCHER’S CIRCUMNAVIGATION 1836-1842] Manuscript Dispatch from the Foreign Office (London) to H.M. Consul in Guayaquil, Walter Cope, notifying Commander Belcher’s Departure to the Pacific Ocean, to Survey the West Coast of America, Requesting the Consul to Explain to the Government of New Granada Belcher’s Mission and Asking Assistance from the Ecuadorian Authorities. The dispatch is written by a secretary, marked "№ 4" and signed "Palmerston."
London, 15 November 1836. 3 pp. Small Folio ca. 31x20 cm (12 ¼x 8 in). Watermarked laid paper with centrefold. Fine condition.
The dispatch signed by Henry Palmerston while the head of the British Foreign Office (1830-1841) concerns Edward Belcher’s circumnavigation on HMS Sulphur in 1836-42. It informs the British Consul in Guayaquil that "Commander Belcher" is being sent by the Admiralty to complete "the survey of the Western Coast of America," and instructs him to request the Government of New Granada to support the expedition: "to afford to Captain Belcher and to the Officers under his Command, such friendly assistance and good offices as may facilitate the satisfactory execution of the Duties with which they are charged." The Consul is also obliged to inform the Ecuadorian authorities that "when the proposed Survey shall be completed, HMS Government will be happy to present the Granadian Government with a copy of it." The dispatch finishes with the description of Belcher’s route to South America: "Commander Belcher will proceed in the first instance to Panama crossing the Isthmus from Chagres, and on his arrival at the former Port, he will take the command of the vessels which have been placed under his orders."
"In November 1836 [Belcher] was appointed to the Sulphur, a surveying ship, then on the west coast of South America, from which Captain Beechey had been obliged to invalid out. During the next three years the Sulphur was employed on the west coast of both North and South America, and at the end of 1839 received orders to return to England by the western route. After visiting several of the island groups in the south Pacific and making such observations as time permitted, Belcher arrived at Singapore in October 1840, where he was ordered back to China, because of the war there; during the following year he was actively engaged, especially in operations in the Canton River. The Sulphur finally arrived in England in July 1842, after a commission of nearly seven years. Belcher had already been advanced to post rank (6 May 1841) and was made a CB (14 October 1841); in January 1843 he was made a knight, and that year published his Narrative of a Voyage Round the World Performed in H.M.S. Sulphur during the Years 1836-42 (2 vols.)" (Oxford DNB).
57. PIM, Bedford Clapperton Trevelyan (1826-1886)
[ARCTIC EXPLORER] [Autograph Letter Signed "Bedford Pim" to Don Carlos Gutierrez (1818-1882), Minister Plenipotentiary, Honduras Government, with the Latter’s Signed Note, Countersigned by Pim in Receipt].
London: 2 Crown Office Row, Temple, E.C., 15 July 1872. Quarto (ca. 22,5x19,5 cm (9 x 7 ½ in).Four pages with only two filled in. Laid watermarked paper with printed address letterhead and a penny Inland Revenue stamp on the second page; text written in ink in a legible hand. Paper mildly sunned and aged, and with folds, but overall the letter is in a very good condition.
Captain Bedford Pim, R.N. Was a British naval officer, arctic explorer and barrister. Pim "served under Captain Henry Kellett on the Herald from 1845 to 1849. In that year he was lent for duty on the brig Plover; having wintered in Kotzebue Sound, Alaska, he made a journey in March and April 1850 to Mikhailovsky in search of Sir John Franklin.., [Then in 1852 on board the Resolute he] served under Sir Edward Belcher in the western division of his Arctic search expedition. In the following October, when the Resolute was in winter quarters off Melville Island, a travelling party discovered in a cairn on the island the information (placed there by McClure the previous April) that McClure's ship, the Investigator, was ice-bound in Mercy Harbour, Banks Land, 160 miles off. It was too late in the season to attempt a communication, but on 10 March 1853 Pim was sent as a volunteer in charge of a sledge to Banks Land. The journey was accomplished in twenty-eight days: on 6 April Pim safely reached the vessel, only just in time to relieve the sick and enfeebled crew.., [Then] In June 1859 he was appointed to the Gorgon, for service in Central America. While stationed off Grey Town he originated and surveyed the Nicaraguan route for an isthmian canal through Mosquito and Nicaragua. While on the station he purchased a bay on the Atlantic shore, for which he was censured by the lords of the Admiralty in May 1860" (Oxford DNB).
This letter concerns his salary as "Special Commissioner of Honduras" to which he was appointed to on the "23rd of May." Proposing payment "on the quarter days usual in this country," Pim includes the details of the first two proposed payments and "Incidental expenses." The letter is docketed, at the foot of the second page, "in the name & on behalf of the Honduras Government & as Minister Plenipotentiary." and signed "Carlos Gutierrez." Countersigned by Pim in receipt of £550 over a penny Inland Revenue stamp, and dated 23 July 1872.
58. RICH, Robert, Second Earl of Warwick(1587-1658)
Original Warrant Signed "Warwicke" as Lord High Admiral of England (for Parliament) during the English Civil War addressed to the Commissioners of the Navy ordering the complete provisioning of the fleet "for the next summer’s guard" listing all 44 ships by name beneath.
Warwick House, 6 February 1648. Four pages (two with text). Folio ca. 32,5x22,5 cm (13x9 in). Right margin ragged and soiled, but complete, and with original folds, otherwise in good condition. Warwick’s blind stamp (a crown above an anchor) impressed upper left corner.
"In 1642, following the dismissal of the Earl of Northumberland as Lord High Admiral, Warwick was appointed commander of the fleet by Parliament"(Wikipedia). Another of Warwick's titles was Lord of the Caribee Islands and he was active in colonial ventures becoming president of the New England Company and a zealous member of the Bermuda and Providence Companies. The warrant replaces an earlier order with this revised list of ships and requires the provision of boatswains’ and carpenters’ stores for the whole summer’s campaign. From the Collection of the 5th Earl of Rosebery. "As the events of 1648 unfolded, some of the ambiguities of Warwick's position appear rather to have deepened than to have diminished. On 27 May 1648 the greater part of the parliamentary fleet in the Downs mutinied against the command of Colonel Thomas Rainsborough, appointed in place of the politically suspect William Batten. Two days later parliament reappointed Warwick to the post of lord high admiral, in the hope that his popularity would secure the fidelity of the sailors" (Oxford DNB).
59. ROSS, John, Sir (1777-1856)
[Autograph Letter Signed and Marked ‘Private’ to Viscount Palmerston, About Ross’ Observations in Berlin and Intelligence About a Secret Treaty between Russia, Prussia, Austria and Holland, and Plans about the Construction of a Prussian Fleet].
Berlin, June 5th 1835. Quarto (25x20 cm). 4 pp. Four pages written in a legible hand, with a period manuscript remark in another hand on the verso of the last leaf (the date and name of the sender). Whatman paper watermarked 1835. Mild fold marks, otherwise the letter is in very good condition.
A very interesting informative letter by renowned British Arctic Explorer Sir John Ross. The letter was written during Ross’ travels to Europe after his second Arctic expedition 1829-1833, at the peak of his popularity, he "made a tour of the Continent and received a number of foreign awards and medals" (Dictionary of Canadian Biography online). The letter was addressed to British Foreign Secretary Lord Palmerston and concerned the latest political events in Europe, caused by the Belgium revolution of 1830.
"The European powers were divided over the Belgian cry for independence. The Napoleonic Wars were still fresh in the memories of Europeans, so when the French, under the recently installed July Monarchy, supported Belgian independence, the other powers unsurprisingly supported the continued union of the Provinces of the Netherlands. Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Great Britain all supported the somewhat authoritarian Dutch king, many fearing the French would annex an independent Belgium. However, in the end, none of the European powers sent troops to aid the Dutch government, partly because of rebellions within some of their own borders <..,> Only in 1839 the Treaty of London signed by the European powers (including the Netherlands) recognized Belgium as an independent and neutral country" (Wikipedia).
Ross reported about possible "secret treaty to which Russia, Prussia, Austria, and Holland are parties, <..,> constructed by Prince Wittgenstein, Prince Menchikoff, Prince Mitternich and the Prince of Orange." Russia, according to the treaty, was going "to have the same number of ships in commission this year as they had during the last, the first division has been at sea for some time, the second is to carry the Guards to Dantzig, which are to march to the frontiers of Silesia where a great view[?] of troops is to take place in September, there are to consist of 2 Corps d’armeé from Russia, Prussia and Austria, and of which all the courts are to take present." The Russian Emperor was heard to say that he "should like to have a trial with the English [at sea], they might perhaps beat him, at first, but he had no doubt that at last he would beat the English."
Ross reported that Prussia’s main intention was "to construct a navy, their principle port is to be Svinemunde, at the mouth of the river of Stettin they are to begin with 2 or 3 sloops of war and a flotilla of steam gun vessels, Prince Adalbert, Nephew to the King, looks forward to the command of those." For that reason Ross was going to have an observation trip to Swinemunde at the nearest future in order to "obtain a complete knowledge if not a survey of the harbour, which I understand is excellent for small vessels - a calculation has been made of a flotilla to cost 2 million dollars!" He also visited Potsdam "and examined the manufactory of arms there, in which there is nothing remarkable excepting that they have made an immense number, and all exactly of the same dimensions."
Ross also describes anti-French and anti-Belgian feelings at the Prussian court, saying that "they consider that Belgium will not be long in existence"; and noting several "great fetes which the King and Prince Royal of Prussia gave, that English, Belgian and French Corps Diplomatique were left out, while Russian, Dutch and Austrian down to the rank of Lieutenant were invited, the feeling against Belgium is extremely strong, and not much less against France."
In the letter he mentions several members of European Royal families, including the King of Prussia Friedrich Wilhelm III (reigned 1797 to 1840) who gave Ross an audience, awarded him with "the order of the Red Eagle" and "accepted" Ross’ book, just published "Narrative of a Second Voyage in Search of a North-West Passage" (London, 1835. 2 vols.). He also talks about Grand Duke Michael Pavlovich of Russia (1798-1849) who "was very desirous to know what brought me here, and immediately asked me this question, but my excuse was so good that no suspicion was excited, he told me that I was expected in Russia to build my ship, but I said owing to the change which had taken place it was abandoned for this season." Among other notable persons mentioned in the letter are Crown Prince of Prussia, future King Frederick William IV (reigned 1840-1861); Prince William of Orange, future King of the Netherlands (reigned 1840-1849); and several high ranking diplomats, most likely Prince Alexander Menshikov (1787-1869), Prince Petr Wittgenstein (1769-1843) and Austrian Prince Klemens Wenzel von Metternich (1773-1869).
Ross’ mentions in detail Prussian Count Karl von Groeben (1788-1876), who was the Prussian Crown Prince’s personal adjutant at the time. Ross "took up [his] lodging with the Count de Groeber," he also went together with the Count to Swinemunde, but most striking was that it was the Count who gave Ross the information about the "secret treaty," as Ross noted, "he [Groeben] insists, that there is a secret treaty." In the end of the letter he notes that he was going to stay in Berlin until 14th of June, then move to Copenhagen and return to England from Hamburg on the 18th. His activities in the field of European diplomacy were most likely highly appreciated, as in March 1839 he was appointed British consul in Stockholm, where he remained until 1846 (Dictionary of Canadian Biography online).
60. SABINE, Sir Edward (1788-1883)
[Autograph Note Signed to "Capt. [Sir Francis] Beaufort RN (1774-1857),"rear-admiral and hydrographer].
Ca. 1840. Octavo ca. 18,5x11 cm. 2 pp. Brown ink on laid paper. Mild fold marks, edges uneven, otherwise a very good note.
A note from Sir Edward Sabine – Arctic explorer, astronomer and geophysicist, President of the Royal Geographical Society (1861-1871) – relating to his famous research on the magnetic field of the Earth. The letter is addressed to Sir Francis Beaufort, a prominent hydrographer and the creator of the Beaufort Scale for indicating wind force.
"I had brought my chart of the magnetic intensity to show you – but I do not leave it because I hope to show it & explain it to you myself at Tortington or in London. I should like greatly to shew you our new plan of getting the Digs [?] independent of errors of axle and of the magnetism of the Circle. I am making the observations now daily at Tortington." Postscript on second page (overleaf) is social chat.
61. SALE, Sir Robert Henry (1782-1845) & Lady Florentia (1790-1853)
[Two Autograph Letters Signed: one by Sir Robert Sale, Advising the Correspondent on Obtaining a Commission; and another by Lady Florentia, Taking up her Correspondent on his Promise to “shew us the Bank of England” and Suggesting a Time].
Ca. 1843. Sir Robert’s letter: [India], 17 September 1843. Small Octavo (ca. 21,5x13,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on paper. Fold marks, paper slightly toned, overall a very good letter. Lady Florentia’s Letter: 27 Queen Ann Street‚ Cavendish Square‚ Saturday [undated]. 8vo (ca. 18,5x11,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on paper, fold marks and traces of the old mount on verso; overall a very good letter.
Two autograph letters signed by the renowned British army officer and his wife, both important figures of the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839-1482). Robert Sale was the second-in-command of the British occupation army in Kabul and endured a six month siege in Jalalabad until he was relieved by the troops of General Pollock. Lady Sale along with other women and children, as well as soldiers, was taken hostage by Akbar Khan following the massacre in the Khurd Karbul Pass, and was in captivity for nine months. She managed to keep her diary where she documented her experiences during the war; it was published under the title “A Journal of the Disasters in Afghanistan” (London, 1843) and made Lady Sale “the heroine of the hour, renowned for her courage” (Oxford DNB).
Robert Sale’s letter was written a year after the end of the war, when he was on service in India, and advises his correspondent on obtaining a commission: “I have no doubt you will be able to get a Commission, a good deal will depend on yourself, I would recommend your sending home a Certificate from the Captain of your Troop and the Commanding Officer of the Regt, that you are getting on steadily, and thus encourage your Friends to exert themselves to remove you to your proper sphere. I shall be at Kurnaul about the 9th of next month, when I will make enquiry about you and communicate the result to General Cuppage”. Kurnaul (Karnal) is a city in Haryana state of India.
Lady Florentia’s letter is a society talk and regards a proposed excursion to the Bank of England.
62. SANTA ANNA, Antonio Lopez de (1794-1876)
[A Partially Printed and Completed in Manuscript Document Signed by Santa Anna, Hiring Edward Gottlieb as his Interpreter and Private Secretary].
Staten Island, N.Y., April 5, 1867. Partially printed and completed in manuscript. Elephant Folio ca. 47x29,5 cm (19 x 11 ½ in). Document with old folds and backed with Japanese paper. Printed green seal in lower right corner. Housed in a green gilt tooled quarter morocco with cloth boards folding portfolio. In very good condition.
An interesting document, signed by Santa Anna, (the famous victorious Mexican commander at the Battle of the Alamo) in which the former President and commanding general of Mexico, hires an interpreter and personal assistant. At the time, Santa Anna was living in exile on Staten Island, trying to raise funds for an army so that he could retake power in Mexico. In this elaborately printed document, in which Santa Anna pronounces himself "General in Chief of the Liberating Army of Mexico," he hires one Edward Gottlieb to be his private secretary and interpreter, at a salary of two hundred "pesos" per month. The document is also signed by "R. Clay Crawford, Maj. Gen." Crawford, a notorious soldier of fortune, styled himself at times as a Turkish general called "Osman Pasha," and also involved himself in Mexican military conflicts in the 1860s.
"In 1869, 74-year-old Santa Anna was living in exile in Staten Island, New York. He was trying to raise money for an army to return and take over Mexico City. During his time in New York City, he is credited with bringing in the first shipments of chicle, the base of chewing gum. He failed to profit from this, since his plan was to use the chicle to replace rubber in carriage tires, which was tried without success. Thomas Adams, the American assigned to aid Santa Anna while he was in the United States, experimented with chicle in an attempt to use it as a substitute for rubber. He bought one ton of the substance from Santa Anna, but his experiments proved unsuccessful. Instead, Adams helped to found the chewing gum industry with a product that he called "Chiclets"" (Wikipedia).
63. SLATIN PASHA, Sir Rudolf Carl von (1857-1932)
& WINGATE, Sir Francis Reginald (1861-1953)
[Autograph Letter Signed to the “Richard Bentley” Publishing House Regarding the Publication of Slatin’s Account of his Service and Captivity in Sudan; Written in Secreterial Hand by the Editor of the Book General Wingate, and Signed “R. Slatin”].
Cairo, 28 March 1895. Octavo (ca. 20,5x13 cm). 3 pp. Black ink on thin laid paper. The letter is written in a legible hand, paper slightly weak on folds, otherwise a very good letter.
Interesting letter written shortly after Slatin Pasha had escaped from the eleven years captivity in Omdurman controlled by the Mahdist forces. He stayed at the court of Mahdi’s successor, the Khalifa Abdullahi, from 1884 until 1895, reaching Aswan in March 1895 after three-week journey across the desert. The account of his experiences “Fire and Sword in the Sudan” edited by F. R. Wingate, was published in English and German in 1896 and quickly became a bestseller. “Slatin gave not only a personal narrative of fighting and serving the dervishes but a comprehensive account of the Sudan under the rule of the Khalifa” (Wikipedia).
The letter reveals how important the story of Slatin Pasha was to British society, and how high the competition was among the publishers for the contract with the author. On behalf of Slatin Pasha, Wingate writes to Richard Bentley, that “at present he [Slatin] is unable to give them any definite information as to the publication of his experiences during his captivity in the Sudan. He has already received a number of applications from both English and Continental publishing firms, but at the present stage he is not in a position to make any definite plans he wants.” Richard Bentley eventually didn’t get the contract with Slatin Pasha – his account was published in London by Edward Arnold.
"Slatin's career in the Sudan covered thirty-six eventful years. He started in January 1879 in the finance department as an inspector with the rank of a bimbashi (the Turkish equivalent of a major). Later that year he was appointed governor of Dara, in south-western Darfur, and after less than a year became governor-general of the whole province. In his major publication Fire and Sword in the Sudan (1896) Slatin was vague about his duties in Darfur. However, his life as governor-general was soon disrupted by Muhammad Ahmad ibn ‘Abdullahi, who in June 1881 declared himself the Mahdi of the Sudan. Soon the Mahdi and his followers (ansar) escaped from Aba Island, on the White Nile, to the Nuba Mountains and Slatin became actively involved in the uprising. Many of the tribal and religious leaders in Darfur joined the Mahdi. Slatin led his troops in numerous battles against the Mahdist forces and lost many soldiers. In January 1883 al-‘Ubayd, capital of Kordofan, fell into Mahdist hands and Darfur was cut off from Khartoum. Slatin decided ‘nominally to adopt the Mohammedan religion’ since he was told by his Egyptian and Sudanese followers that they had lost confidence in his ability, as a Christian, to win the war against the Mahdi. ‘I am not a foreigner, I am not an unbeliever’, he responded, ‘I am as much a believer as you "I bear witness that there is no God but God and Mohammed is his Prophet’ (Slatin, 216-17). However, disastrous defeats at the battle of Shaykan in November 1883 and the fall of al-Fasher, capital of Darfur, convinced Slatin to surrender. He sent a letter to the Mahdi in al-‘Ubayd declaring his submission and in December 1883 he and his troops surrendered at Dara. Slatin was renamed ‘Abd al-Qadir Salatin, a name he carried thereafter.
From 1884 to 1895 Slatin was a prisoner, first of the Mahdi and, following his death in 1885, of Caliph ‘Abdullahi al-Ta ‘aishi. After a brief period in Dara, where he was allowed to live in his old house and keep his servants, Slatin was ordered to join the Mahdi's camp at al-‘Ubayd and to take part in the march to Khartoum. During the siege of Khartoum, Slatin was asked by the Mahdi to write on his behalf to General Gordon and seek his surrender. Slatin, according to his account, attempted to explain to Gordon the circumstances of his conversion to Islam and to justify his surrender. Gordon was willing to forgive Slatin's surrender but not his conversion to Islam. After the Mahdi's death Slatin became the caliph's orderly, and was entrusted with confidential administrative and financial duties. He described the caliph as a ‘cruel beast’ and accused him of brutalities, but failed to mention how kindly he and some of the other European prisoners were treated. During this period Slatin apparently had two wives, Hassaniyyah, a Fur girl he brought with him when he surrendered to the Mahdi in December 1883, and an Abyssinian, Desta, who bore him a child shortly after his escape from Omdurman in 1895; the child died after a few weeks (Neufeld, 206-7). He left both women behind when he escaped in 1895" (Oxford DNB).
64. SQUIER, Ephraim George (1821-1888)
[Autograph Letter Signed to Samuel Birch regarding tickets to the reading room of the British Museum, and the forthcoming meeting of the Archaeology Department].
Morley, Friday. Small Octavo (ca. 18x11 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on laid paper. Fold marks and traces of the old mount on verso, not affecting the text. Overall a very good letter.
A letter by a prominent American archaeologist Ephraim George Squier is addressed to the head of the antiquities department of the British Museum and one of the first British Egyptologists Samuel Birch (1813-1885). In the letter Squier thanks Birch for the tickets to the Reading Room of the Museum and expresses “great pleasure in attending the meeting of the Archy S[ection?] this afternoon”. He adds: “I shall also be happy if I can in any way contribute to the [issue?] of its proceedings.”
Ephraim George Squier was an American archaeologist, author, businessman, editor and diplomat, known for its works about the archaeology of USA, Central and South America: “Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley (1848), “Nicaragua: Its People, Scenery, Monuments” (1852), “Peru: Incidents of Travel and Exploration in the Land of Incas” (1877) et al. Squier worked as a special chargé d'affaires to Guatemala (1849-50), US Commissioner to Peru (1863-65), Consul-General of Honduras at New York City (1868) et al.
65. STANLEY, Henry Morton (1841-1904)
[Small Henry Morton Stanley Collection including: 1) Emin Pasha Relief Expedition 1887-1889 [Doulton Lambeth Commemorative Jug ca. 1890]; 2) First Edition of: In Darkest Africa; or, The Quest, Rescue, and Retreat of Emin Governor of Equatoria; 3) Ca. 1890 Note to Louis Rockafellar Signed Henry M Stanley; 4) A ca. 1890 Original Cabinet Photo of H.M.Stanley From Stanley’s Estate; 5) Ca. 1890 Tinted Lithographed Print of Stanley Marching Through the Jungle Accompanied by his British Officers and Native Soldiers].
1) Commemorative jug in fine condition; approx. 20x13 cm (8x5 in), glazed in light and dark brown, front relief decorated with a portrait of Stanley within a wreath of leaves with the motto 'Out of Darkness into Light' below, vignettes to either side with the words 'Valour' and 'Enterprise' respectively, each vignette with the names of three officers (Valour: W. C. Stairs, R. H. Nelson, T. H. Parke; Enterprise: E.M. Barttelot, W. Bonny, A.J. Mounteney-Jephson) who accompanied Stanley below. Numbered and stamped by manufacturer on base, Stock No: 147521.
2) In Darkest Africa. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington, 1890. First Edition. Octavo, 2 vols. xvi, 548; xvi, 540 pp. With 150 wood engravings on plates and in text, and 4 coloured maps, including 3 large, folding, and in pockets. Original publisher's brown very decorative pictorial gilt cloth. A very good set.
3) Autograph Signed note: ca. 17x11 cm (7 x 4 ½ in); note in fine condition.
4) Photo portrait: ca. 17x11 cm (7 x 4 ½ in). Cabinet photo by Stromeyer & Heyman, Caire in fine condition.
5) Print: 42x29 cm (17 x 11 ½ in); print with some wear, otherwise a good copy.
"The Emin Pasha Relief "expedition ended in acrimony and controversy, but geographically speaking it should be reckoned the last great exploring venture in Africa" (Delpar, p.408). "Although Stanley was widely acclaimed as a hero on his return to Britain, the Emin Pasha relief expedition was far from a success. From the start, as even Sidney Low's sympathetic portrait in the Dictionary of National Biography records, ‘it was hampered by divided aims and inconsistent purposes’. Others went further in their criticism, Sir William Harcourt describing it as one of those ‘filibustering expeditions in the mixed guise of commerce, religion, geography and imperialism, under which names any and every guise of atrocity is regarded as permissible’ (A. G. Gardiner, Life of Sir William Harcourt, 1923, 2.94)" (Oxford DNB).
66. STAUNTON, Sir George Leonard (1737-1801)
[Autograph Letter in the third person: “Sir George Staunton presents his respects to Mr. Allen and offers him his best thanks for the very fine fish he has been so good as to send to him. He offers his humble respects to Mr. Allen]; [With: Stipple engraved portrait of Staunton]: Sir George Leonard Staunton, Bart. LLD. FRS. Aet. 55.
Devonshire street, 8 November 1796. Small Octavo (ca. 18x20 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on watermarked Whatman paper. Fold marks and minor soiling, otherwise a very good letter.
Portrait: Stipple engraving with etching, ‘Private Plate’, image size ca. 8,5x7 cm, plate size ca. 27x21 cm. Engraved by C. Picart. Plate slightly soiled on the margins, but the image is sound and near fine.
Uncommon note by Sir George Leonard Staunton, the Secretary of the first British embassy to China (1792-1794) and the author of its official account “An Authentic Account of An Embassy from the King of Great Britain to the Emperor of China” (London, 1797). The bust portrait of Staunton is a rare privately printed stipple engraving after a painting by George Engleheart; it depicts him at the age of 55, head turned and looking to the right, in white cravat and dark double-breasted jacket.
67. TEN EYCK, Samuel
[FRASER RIVER GOLD RUSH & GADSDEN PURCHASE]
[Important Autograph Letter Signed from Samuel Ten Eyck to O.B. Throop, giving a Description of Guaymas, Mexico, his Impressions of Mexicans, and Briefly Relating his Experiences During the Fraser River Gold Rush].
Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico: 27 April 1859. On a folded double Quarto leaf.  pp. Brown ink on bluish paper. Blind stamp of a papermaker (Rolland Freres, Bordeaux) in the upper left corner. Housed in a later custom made blue quarter morocco clam shell box with gilt lettered spine. Old fold marks, otherwise a near fine letter.
In this letter Samuel Ten Eyck writes to his friend, Origin B. Throop, back home in Schoharie, New York, offering a description of the Mexican port city of Guaymas, Sonora, giving his assessment of Mexican attitudes toward Americans, and describing his experiences in the Fraser River Gold Rush.
Samuel Ten Eyck came from a prominent family in New York's Schoharie County. He left Schoharie in the early 1850s, went to California in search of gold, took part in the Fraser River Gold Rush in British Columbia of 1858-1859, and then arrived in Guaymas, Mexico in the spring of 1859. He apparently went to Sonora in anticipation of that state and the surrounding Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sinaloa being annexed to the United States. The Gadsen Purchase Treaty, ratified in 1854, brought a part of northern Sonora into the United States, and there appears to have been some agitation for the United States to take more territory in the region. Such a thing did not occur, and it is unknown for how long Ten Eyck stayed in Guaymas waiting for it to happen, or where his travels took him next.
The letter begins by Ten Eyck asking Throop to make discreet inquiries to some of his friends as to why they have not corresponded with him. "I suppose you will be astonished to learn I am in this God-forsaken country. I must confess, I am astonished to find myself here, but here I am and what is still more pleasant, have a mighty fine prospect of, as it is termed in California, making my pile. I have been here but a month. On my arrival I found the country all excitement, and a revolution going on in the three states, 'Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa,' they being, I think, the tail end of creation, but they are full of silver mines and in saying that I say all that can be said in their favour. The Mexicans are the most hostile people in the world and think no more of killing an American than of taking a drink and as this is the scene of Walker's exploits and also where the unfortunate H.A. Crabb & followers were massacred, I am obliged to keep a pretty sharp look out. The women, however, are very kind & affectionate, and in case of difficulty invariably give you a warning and find a place of concealment for you. At least I have found it so on two occasions. <..,>
Guaymas, the seaport of Sonora & an old city, contains perhaps eight thousand inhabitants and being an earthquake country the houses are but one story high and mostly built of adoby [sic], which is the building material of mostly all houses in Mexico and on entering one is reminded more of a large brickyard than of a large city. <..,> I would not have come here but that the three states above named will without doubt be annexed to the U.S. - if so your humble servant is all right. I have had five years experience in California and any chance that may offer here I am on hand, in fact the pioneer."
Ten Eyck also briefly describes his experiences in British Columbia during the recent Fraser River Gold Rush: "It is as hot as blazes [in Guaymas]. I feel it more perhaps than others just having come from a northern country, as the year past I have been at Vancouver's Island & British Columbia. You of course heard of the Fraser River excitement. I was almost the first of the many thousands that rushed to that cold country. It did not prove as profitable as was anticipated, still it paid me very well, as I was able after nine months hard work to leave with a five hundred more than I took with me."
In the end Ten Eyck gives his assessment of the qualities of the women he has encountered in Guaymas, "beautiful, full of life and spirit", "very positive to us Americans" etc. A very interesting important letter, with provocative views on Mexico and a bit of information on one American's experiences in the Fraser River Gold Rush.
O.B. Throop was the owner of the only drug store in the county which still exists today as the Schoharie pharmacy, and a Secretary of the Board of Directors of the Albany and Schoharie plank road (1862).
68. VAMBERY, Arminius (1832-1913)
Autograph Letter Signed; [With] Autograph Note Signed "A. Vambéry" to Martin Wood, sometime Editor of "The Times of India" and the author of several books on India. With one original envelope addressed by Vambéry. [Embossed heading] Athenaeum Club, Pall Mall, [London], 10 and 11 July 1892 respectively.
London, 1892. Octavo ca. (18 x 11.5 cm). Total four pages with one envelope with stamp. The letter, note and envelope are all in near fine condition.
[10 July, 3 pp.]: He reacts to a letter sent by Wood, saying "In political questions of high importance, as the Central Asiatic is, diversity of opinions is very natural, and I am not the least astonished of [sic] the quite opposite view you exhibit in your letters." He would like to show his respect for his views with a personal meeting, and asks him to suggest a time and place.
[11 July, 1 p.]: He confirms their appointment to meet the following day at the Athenaeum.
Note: Vambery, a friend of Bram Stoker's, is said to have been the model for Van Helsing, the vampire hunter in "Dracula."
"Vámbéry was especially attracted by the literature and culture of the Ottoman Empire including Turkey. By the age of twenty, Vámbéry had learned enough Ottoman Turkish to enable him to go, through the assistance of Baron Joseph Eötvös, to Constantinople and establish himself as a private tutor of European languages. He became a tutor in the house of Pasha Huseyin Daim, and, under the influence of his friend and instructor, Ahmet Efendi, became a full Osmanli, serving as secretary to Fuat Pasha. About this time he was elected a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in recognition of his translations of Ottoman historians.
After spending about a year in Constantinople, he published a Turkish-German dictionary in 1858. Later, he also published various other linguistic works. He also learned some twenty other Ottoman languages and dialects. Returning to Budapest in 1861, he received a stipend of a thousand florins from the academy, and in the autumn of the same year, disguised as a Sunnite dervish, and under the name of Reshit Efendi, he set out from Constantinople. His route lay from Trebizond on the Black Sea to Tehran in Persia, where he joined a band of pilgrims returning from Mecca, spending several months with them traveling across Central Iran (Tabriz, Zanjan, and Kazvin). He then went to Shiraz, through Ispahan, and in June, 1863, he reached Khiva (Central Asia). Throughout this time, he succeeded in maintaining his disguise as "Reshit Efendi," so that upon his arrival at Khiva he managed to keep up appearances during interviews with the local khan. Together with his band of travelers, he then crossed Bokhara and arrived at Samarkand. Initially, he aroused the suspicions of the local ruler, who kept him in an audience for a full half-hour. Vámbéry managed to maintain his pretences, and left the audience laden with gifts. Upon leaving Samarkand, Vámbéry began making his way back to Constantinople, traveling by way of Herat. There he took leave of the band of dervishes and joined a caravan to Tehran, and from there, via Trebizond and Erzerum, to Constantinople, arriving there in March 1864.
This was the first journey of its kind undertaken by a Western European; and since it was necessary to avoid suspicion, Vámbéry could not take even fragmentary notes, except by stealth. He returned to Europe in 1864. That following June, he paid a visit to London, where he was treated as a celebrity because of his daring adventures and knowledge of languages. That same year, he published his Travels in Central Asia, based on the few, furtive notes he was able to make while traveling with the dervishes. Returning to Hungary, Vámbéry was appointed professor of Oriental languages at the University of Budapest in 1865, retiring in 1905" (Wikipedia).