March 2019 Exploration, Travels and Voyages:
Fifty Unique Items - Manuscripts, Photographs & Watercolours

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March 2019 Exploration, Travels and Voyages: Fifty Unique Items - Manuscripts, Photographs & Watercolours.
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[Album with 124 Original Albumen Photographs, Taken by a Cavalry man from the Second Regiment of the “Chasseurs d’Afrique” of the French Armée d'Afrique, while Stationed in Tlemcen (Northwestern Algeria), with Interesting Views of Tlemcen, Portraits of Fellow Officers, and Several Views of Tunis, Constantine and Annaba].

Ca. 1880s. Oblong Folio ca. 25x33 cm (9 ¾ x 13 in). 49 stiff card leaves (12 blank). With 124 mounted albumen prints, including 36 larger photographs, from ca. 17,5x23 cm (6 ¾ x 9 ¼ in) to ca. 15x21,5 cm (6 x 8 ½ in); the rest are from ca. 11x18 cm (7 x 4 ½ in) to ca. 7x10,5 cm (2 ½ x 4 in). The majority captioned in French in period manuscript black ink on the mounts, several with additional notes in Arabic. Period brown quarter morocco with pebbled cloth boards and marbled papered endpapers, spine with gilt tooled decorations and gilt lettered title “Album.” With an engraved armorial bookplate from the “Montvaillant” library pasted on the inner side of the front cover. Album slightly rubbed on extremities, several leaves a bit waved, several images slightly faded, but overall a very good album.
Interesting collection of original photos documenting the service of the Second Regiment of French Chasseurs d’Afrique in Tlemcen, an important regional centre in the Oman department of French Algeria, and a popular vacation spot for the French residents of the colony. The Chasseurs d’Afrique, a corps of light cavalry was formed in 1830 during the French Conquest of Algeria, and was actively employed on service in North Africa and several other locations around the world, with the personnel usually being recruited from French volunteers of French residents of North Africa. The Second Regiment of the Chasseurs d’Afrique was stationed and operated in the Algerian province of Oran, with several breaks when the corps took part in the Crimean War (1854-56), the Italian War of 1859, military expeditions to Morocco (1859) and China (1860), France’s Invasion of Mexico (1862-67), Franco-Prussian War (1870-71), and others.
The album dates back to the Second Regiment’s service in Tlemcen in the 1880s and contains over fifty photos of its officers (all mounted on horses) and privates, including: adjutants Plaire, Gaussens, Moret; “capitaine-instructeur” A.-T. De Fleurance; mayor of medical service (2 class) R.-B.-F.-A. Roux; captain-commandant P.-E. Chassery, second captains L. Boudon, J.-A.-F. Poch, E.-D. Gallois; first lieutenant C.-J.-C.-F. Bartoli; second lieutenants F.-C.-F. Boucon, E. Pourier, A.-C. Houillon; sub lieutenants V. Petit, J.-M.-J. Huguet, A. Uchan, L.-A.-A. Goutelle; a trumpeter, a maître d'armes, and several private servicemen; group portraits of the cavalry officers giving water to their horses, officers and soldiers of a mountain artillery unit; mounted officers in the field outfits; two privates from the forage unit; privates in a line-up, and others. All officers whose names were recorded in the album can be found in the official list of members of the 2nd Regiment of the Chasseurs d’Afrique for 1886 (See: Annuaire Spécial de l’Arme de la Cavalerie Française…/ Publ. Par E. Poyer. Paris, 1886, p. 139). There are also two group portraits featuring the compiler of the album (“photographe”) in his “civilian house” and “military house,” and photos of his two horses – Macron and Palestro.
Over fifty photos show different parts of Tlemcen (several depict the city under snow), with interesting views of the Catholic church of St. Michel (its altered building now serves as a public library), a crossroad with “Café de Boulevard” in the foreground and the tower of Mosque Sidi Brahim behind, the Banque de l’Algéria, the Grand Bassin, Boulevard Nationale, numerous ancient city gate (Porte d’Oran, Porte du Sud, Porte de Bou Médine, Porte de Fez, Porte des Carrières, Porte Bab-el-Khemis, Porte du Méchouar), ruins of the nearby Mansoura fortress, Mosque Sidi Brahim, the house of the 2nd regiment’s colonel A.-J. Roullet, old Arabic cemetery, Mosque Sidi El Haloui, Tower of Agadir, chapel of the French military hospital, several street views (Rue Haedo, Rue de Mascara, Place du Beylick), the Great Mosque, City Medrese, the major city market (“Grand Marché”), Arabic market on Place Cavagnac, several “messageries oranaises” (local post coaches), and many others. There are also seven family portraits taken in Tlemcen, and several views of Tunis, Constantine and Annaba. Overall a very interesting historically significant visual account of Tlemcen and its French military contingent in the 1880s.
“Tlemcen has more buildings dating from the 12th to the 15th century than any other town in Algeria. With the exception of the Great Mosque built by the Almoravids in the 12th century, most of the city’s medieval buildings strongly reflect the influence of Moorish (Muslim) Spain. The Mosque of Sīdí bel Ḥassan (1296, now a museum), the Méchouar, or citadel (1145, now a military hospital and barracks), the Sahrij, or Great Basin (a 14th-century reservoir, now dry), and the Grotto of Rabbi Ephraim ben Israel Ankawa (15th century) are notable landmarks. Tlemcen’s winding, narrow, arched streets are crowded with shops, cafés, and mosques. The ruins of the Marīnid city of Mansoura to the west has notable examples of Hispano-Moorish art” (Encyclopedia Britannica).


[BORGNIS-DESBORDES, Gustave, General] (1839-1900)
[Rare Collection of Twenty-four Very Early Large Original Albumen Photographs Which Document Borgnis-Desbordes Military Expeditions From Upper Senegal into French Sudan (Mali) and Show French and Indigenous Troops, Native People Including Chiefs, and Settlements - Forts and Villages Encountered].

1878-1881. 24 mounted original albumen photos, each ca. 19x25 cm (7 ½ x 9 ½ in) and slightly smaller, all with period manuscript pencil captions in French on mounts under the photos. Mounts light grey-green stiff card. Majority of the images mildly faded, no doubt due to the fact that were produced in Africa under less than perfect conditions, but overall still a very historically important collection of interesting photographs.
This historically important collection of photographs documents the French expedition led by Borgnis-Desbordes against the Toucouleur Empire during the period 1878 to 1881. In 1878, Borgnis-Desbordes' forces destroyed the Toucouleur fort at Sabouciré, which is shown in the present collection after the assault. Borgnis-Desbordes is made Commander of the Military Territory of Haut Senegal in 1880, which essentially makes him Governor of all the territory east of Senegal and in charge of French policy in the French Sudan (Mali) including exploration and railway construction. The present collection of photographs also documents the battalion of Senegalese Infantry with French officers with which Borgnis-Desbordes penetrated the French Sudan from Bafoulabé to the Niger, with a view to establishing the Dakar- Niger railroad. The present collection of photos show the French and Indigenous officers and troops of the expedition including: artillery, surveyors, interpreters (Bambara & Ousman Fall), Seneglese infantry; Indigenous Peoples: Bambara Chief Mary Ciré; Kayes Bakers; Khasso Chief Mukassi Sambala; Khassonké Chief Demba Sambala, his daughter and a young Khassonké; Chief with his daughter; group of Mandingos; Chief of Fatafe; Indigenous Settlements Including: Fort Bakel; Sabouciré; Mantanso; Kayes. The French captions read: Officiers d'artillerie (campagne 1880-1881); Mission topographique (campagne 1880-1881); Interprètes et autres indigènes de la mission Galliéni à Ségou; Détachement de spahis sénegalais (campagne 1880-1881); Mary Ciré chef Bambara; Tirailleurs sénégalais; Boulangers noirs de Kayes; Fort de Bakel sur le Sénégal; Jeune Kassonké; Makassi Sambata, chef du Kasso; Demba Sambala, chef Kassonké, et sa griote; Fille de Demba Sambala et ses deux servantes; Ousman Fath interprète; Femme d'Ousman Fath interprète et sa griotte; Village de Sabouciré (Logo) pris d'assaut en 1878; Chutes de Gouïna (Sénégal); Baobab; Chef et sa fille; Groupe de Malinkés; Massif de Kita (versant sud); Groupe de tirailleurs; Thiama, interprète bambara; Mantanso, village du Gangaran; Chef du village de Fatafé. Overall a very rare collection of the earliest photos of this remote region in the interior of Africa.


[Collection of Forty-nine Original Gelatin Silver Photographs Showing Madagascar's Newly Appointed Governor, General Joseph Gallieni and Other French Officials During Their Tours through Madagascar's Administrative regions (Ambohidratimo, Antanarivo, Mahajanga, Diego-Suarez, Sainte Marie etc.), Additionally an Execution Including a French Soldier, Hospital and Road Construction, and Interesting Portraits of Malagasy People].

Ca. 1897. 49 gelatin silver photographs all mounted recto on nine large stiff leaves each ca. 53,5x36,5 cm (21 x 14 ¼ in). Includes one large photograph ca. 28x36,5 cm (11 x 14 ¼ in), five photographs between ca. 20,5x25,5 cm (8x10 in) and 15x21 cm (6 x 8 ½ in), 24 photographs between ca. 11x15,5 cm (4 ¼ x 6 in) and ca. 13x18 cm (5x7 in), and 19 photographs each ca. 9 x 12 cm (3 ½ x 4 ¾ in.) and smaller, with 33 captions in period manuscript ink or pencil and three photographs dated and signed "A Posquets". One photograph has been removed, cleanly cut out of a leaf, some photographs with mild to moderate fading, but overall a very good collection of interesting photographs.
This historically interesting collection of photographs shows General Joseph Gallieni (French Governor of Madagascar 1896-1905) and other French officials touring different administrative regions of Madagascar in its early years as a French colony, including Ambohidratimo, Tananarive (Antanarivo), Majunga (Mahajanga), Diego-Suarez, Sainte Marie and others. The largest photograph is a group portrait of French officials with their bicycles, with a clear view of colonial buildings in the background. After being appointed as Governor of this new colony in 1896, Gallieni reorganized French forces, and is known for capturing and executing several rebel leaders: a series of six photographs shows the execution of two people, at least one of them appears to be a French soldier. Many of the photographs show local people, including several portraits of Sakalava and Hova women, a group of locals dancing and men carrying the director of administrative services in a filanzane (litter). One interesting photograph shows rows of people lined up in front of a French “substance transportation” office holding large woven baskets; the caption reads “Madagasy bringing rice to the administrative services.” Numerous photographs show the arrival of the General in different villages and the festivities organized in his honour, and there is one image of a crowd gathered for a “Kabary” (improvised conference between two groups from different cultures). One photograph shows the General passing by in a canoe as people watch from the banks of the river. Gallieni’s role was largely administrative, and the collection includes several photographs of infrastructural changes in the country, including a hospital under construction in Ambohidratimo, and workers building a new road. One view of Tananarive captioned “Palace of the Queen” indicates that these photographs were taken before Gallieni exiled the Queen in 1897. Overall a historically interesting collection of photographs showing the activities of General Gallieni in Madagascar in its early years as a French colony.
Le chef du Service administratif en Filanzane; Ankaralia (Ankarana?) Campement en plein air; Arrivée du général – arc de triomphe dressé à Ouidroyohauigy?; Maison du directeur des services administratifs, Tamatave; Types de tirailleurs Comoriens; Construction de l’hopital d’Ambohidratimo; Kabary du General, Tamatave; Premier Etage de la maison du directeur des services administratifs; Femme de Ste Marie; Antsizane (Antsirabe?) 1897 Mosquet / A Posquets; Magasin des subsistances […] de Morondava; Peloton d’execution; […] arrivant au lieu d’execution; […] au poteau; (Les mêmes) Dernière minute!; Feu!; On retire les cadavres; Danse executée dans la cour d’Anabaekely?; Papotte des officiers du commissariat a Tananarive; Le pont et l’ancienne piste militaire à l’intersection de la nouvelle route; Majanga 1897 Mosquet; Armée Hova […] a Tananarive; General Gallieni en pirogue; Femmes Sakalaves Morondava; Ivondio?? En attendant le general; Femme Hova; Embouchure de X; Palais de la reine a Tananarive; Jeune fille Hova; L’arrivee du general a Sambayavia (?); Rue de Tananarive 1898; Malgaches apportant du riz aux services administratifs; En foret dans les hauteurs du col d’Amboasary.


SIMONIN, Lucien (1875-1915)
[Rare Historically Significant Comprehensive and Very Extensive Archive of Over 100 Letters Written by Lieutenant Lucien Simonin Between 1900 – 1903, Describing Activities during the Pacification of South Madagascar under Colonel Hubert Lyautey, Including Detailed Accounts of Administrative and Military Organization, Personal Critiques of Colonization Efforts, Economic Development (Rice Cultivation, Beef Exports, Building Roads and Railways), Collection of Taxes, Resolving Disputes Between Tribes, Rebellion of Natives, Local Traditions &c; With Descriptions of the Towns of Majunga, Benenitra, Marovitsika, Ihosy, Ambositra, Fianarantsoa, Ranohira and Antananarivo; With: Ten Original Gelatin Silver Snapshot Photos of Madagascar People and Villages, Apparently Taken and Annotated by Simonin].

1900-1903. Ca. 110 autograph letters signed by Lucien Simonin, all but four ca. 20,5x13 cm (8 x 5 ¼ in) and four smaller ones each ca. 17x11 cm (6 ¾ x 4 ¼ in), all dated and some numbered 1-71 (letters from multiple dates were bundled and sent together), several with small hand-drawn sketches. Also includes one letter signed “Gallieni” containing pressed flowers. Total pages ca. 620. Black, red or violet ink on laid paper. Ten original gelatin silver photographs each ca. 7x10 cm (2 ¾ x 4 in) mounted on recto and verso of stiff card leaf ca. 20x26 cm (7 ¾ x 10 ¼ in), all with period manuscript black ink captions. One map ca. 38x26 cm (15 x 10 ¼ in) with annotations in period manuscript blue ink. Mild fold marks and minor tears on some letters and the map, the upper corner of one letter has been torn off with minor loss of text, one letter has been slightly smudged, one photograph is torn, but otherwise an excellent collection of very legible and well-preserved letters.
This historically significant and extensive archive contains over one hundred letters written by Lieutenant Lucien Simonin during his service in the Southern region of Madagascar for the pacification of the island under the command of Colonel Hubert Lyautey (1854-1934), between 1900 and 1903. Rich in content and insight, Simonin’s correspondence meticulously (and often critically) documents anecdotes of a colonist’s everyday life, political and administrative structures, local customs, French interventions in economic and social affairs, tensions between local people and French officials, and local landscapes, sometimes illustrated by small sketches and maps. The collection also includes photographs of local people and views, and a map of bovine populations and exports for the entire country, annotated to indicate the different villages where Simonin was placed during his service.
Madagascar was annexed by France in 1896, after which General Gallieni (1849-1916) became the civil and military commander of the colony, abolishing the monarchy and exiling Queen Ranavalona III in 1897. From 1900 to 1902, Colonel Lyautey was responsible for the “pacification” of the southern region and worked towards the area’s economic development. It is in this region that lieutenant Simonin, originally from Charleville, was sent after his first few months in Antanarivo, and remained until the pacification was completed.
Simonin’s vivid descriptions provide insight into activities that were foundational to Gallieni’s colonial efforts on the island. Writing to his mother who knows little of Madagascar, he explains in great detail the nature of his work and the pacification efforts: “Madagascar is divided into a number of departments. These departments are called provinces if they are managed by a civilian, or else circles or territories if they have military chiefs. As we have conquered and pacified these regions, we have replaced the military officers by civilian administrators.” He adds his perspectives on the effectiveness of the operations. In fact, some of his criticisms are unpopular, evident by the following inscription at the front of one of his letters: “ATTENTION: Some sections are not to be read in public.”
“This part of the country will soon transition to civilian administration. However, further south there are some tribes who are holding strong in the countryside, hidden in the forests […]. They are real savages who seem quite rebellious to the beauty of civilization […] when there aren’t any left, we will be secure, or at least more secure, because we already are. In the end all these colonies, they’re a joke. They only serve to work people up. Colonel Lyautey is a perfect stage director […] It’s the indigenous person who usually pays for the destruction, even if he can’t afford to. Everything seems to be simmering in the south.”
When Simonin is sent to serve in the southern part of the island, he takes part in a variety of administrative activities that are meant to rally the local population and take control of the region’s administration, without resorting to brute force. These activities include carrying out a population census, recruiting Malagasy people for the army (five years of service are required) and collecting taxes: “The population […] of Ihozy fulfills its responsibilities as good citizens and each day, each village comes to pay their part. […] In exchange for their 5 f., we give them a piece of paper, a kind of voter’s card. Any indigenous person found without this paper will be considered a transgressor.”
Being on the front lines of this tribally diverse region, he describes many assignments to help locals resolve disputes between their groups, many of which happen to result from the stealing of cattle, by intervening and facilitating exchanges. He observes the customs of local people in wonder as he assists to welcome ceremonies and meetings between tribes, some of which are illustrated by his photographs of Bara women clapping and men on their way to a kabary in Benenitra, as described below:
“A few months ago, some indigenous people from Marovitsika had come to complain that their cattle had been stolen by another […] Bara, accompanied by militiamen. […] So, the captain decided to pursue an investigation to figure out how militiamen, who are in charge of maintaining order, could participate in a robbery. After obtaining permission, I left with 5 workers and a Malagasy interpreter […] to interrogate the villagers. […] As soon as Wahaza was seen from the village, all the women and children, some men, came out of the village to greet him, clapping their hands and singing a song. It was funny and I think you would have laughed to see your servant straight faced on his sedan chair surrounded by fifteen or twenty women singing and jumping.”
“After several hours of walking, we arrived at Benenitra. […] the colonel [Lyautey] was there, along with […] his wife, and a colonist from the region […] Charming meal, and then, on to serious affairs! But these serious affairs consisted only of a large Kabary [improvised conference between two groups from different cultures], where nearly nine [hundred] to a thousand Baras from the region had assembled. […] The results weren’t particularly compelling, I think. In this kabary, two chiefs […] sat face to face on the ground, their people behind them, and told each other numerous stories, about women from other places, accusing each other in turn […] But finally, they discovered that they shared the same great grandmother and declared that they were happy to get along. On this note, the colonel invited them all to take an aperitif.”
Simonin describes the challenges involved in enforcing order on the population: “The administrators speak only of this word, legality, law. As if, we could apply our regime to these people, who know only one law, fear, and who only obey the strongest person.”
He describes the pushback faced by colonists, after one of their buildings is set on fire: “Without a doubt, one of those numerous indigenous people who are hunted, traded by the colonies that we are building in the east, and who have escaped tell themselves, why, we are going to annoy the Vazoha! And they start a fire. For these purposes they use dry cow dung. […] You are likely going to deduce that the French would have done better to stay home. This is certainly true.”
Another key aspect of pacification is the economic development of the region, in particular the export of beef and rice. The map included in the collection shows the population count of cattle across Madagascar and the capacity for export of different ports. Simonin describes the process of deforestation for rice cultivation, the construction of roads and railways, and the impact of French intervention on the local economy: “There is a large weekly market on Fridays […] The prices are rising these days, because workers are in short supply. We are building roads, especially the Tomatave road. 23 000 people […] have been requisitioned by force or of their own accord […] We must finish building the road by January 1st, after which they will be released from service. Naturally, these people are not working their usual jobs during this time, hence the rise in prices.”
Also included in this collection is a letter from General Gallieni to deputee Charles Bos sent in 1900, announcing that the lieutenant Simonin is placed at Antananarivo “until he can demonstrate that he has the right qualities and aptitudes needed by officers who are put in contact with indigenous people that are still quite unruly.” Overall, an excellent and invaluable archive that tells the story of pacification in the southern part of Madagascar from the perspective of military official who worked closely with other administrators and local people in a region that transitioned from a military to a civil (pacified) zone over the course of three years.
Itinerary: Lieutenant Simonin leaves Marseille October 12 1900 on board L'Oscus and reaches Majunga on October 31. He arrives in Tananarive on November 17 and is sent to the southern part of Madagascar in March 1901, staying in Ambositra and Fianarantsoa. On April 6th, he meets Colonel Lyautey, then goes to his post at Ihosy. In early 1902, he is sent to Benenitra (about 100 km from Tuléar). He is moved again in 1902 to Ranohira, where he remains until returning to France in November 1903.
Photograph captions: Au loin Poste de Habonaro; Cheval a Moulet de Brossia; Poste de Benenitra; Vue du Poste de Benenitra; Benenitra; Mahavory et Chefs de Village allant a Kabary; Femmes rammassant des sauterelles; Vue du poste de Ranohira; Chefs Baras; Femmes Baras Souhaitant la bienvenue; Baras au bain; Femmes Baras.


CLAPPERTON, Hugh (1788-1827)
[Two Important Autograph Letters Signed "Hugh Clapperton" from the Start of His Last Expedition to the River Niger; [WITH]: An Aquatint Portrait of Hugh Clapperton; [AND WITH]: an 8-page “Memoir of the Late Captain Clapperton”].

Sierra Leone and Badagry (Nigeria), 25 October and 5 December 1825. Two Quarto bifolia manuscript letters each ca. 24,5x20 cm (9 ½ x 8 in), 1 and 2 pp. respectively, brown ink on white wove paper, both with “CANSTELL 1824” watermark. Aquatint: John Murray, 1828, ca. 23x17 cm (9 ¼ x 6 ¾ in) mounted on brown cardstock. Unbound titled “Memoir of The Late Captain Clapperton”: 1828, 8 pp., ca. 21,5x13 cm (8 ½ x 5 in). All housed in a recent blue cloth custom made portfolio with a red gilt morocco label. Letters with fold marks, paper slightly age toned, but overall a very good collection.
Two original historically important letters by famous explorer of the River Niger and West Africa, Hugh Clapperton written during his last expedition, which would end with the death of all its European members except for Clapperton’s servant Richard Lander. The letters were written on board H.M.S. “Brazen” off the coast of Sierra Leone, and in the Nigerian coastal town of Badagry, shortly before Clapperton’s party moved inland towards the Niger River and further north to the Sokoto Caliphate. Addressed to the officials of the British Admiralty (one possibly to Captain William Henry Smyth, 1788-1865), the letters talk about Clapperton’s plans and the progress of his expedition, his decision to proceed to the country of Nyffe on the east bank of the Niger, and to send Dr. Dickson to the Kingdom of Dahomey (one of two surgeons of the expedition who was killed on the way). In the second letter Clapperton shares the information received from the locals that River Niger “after passing Nyffe and country called Tappa enters the sea at Benin” – the idea that occupied the minds of European geographers since 18th century and was not proved until Lander brothers’ expedition of 1830. Clapperton could not prove it himself as he moved north to Sokoto and died there of illness in April 1827. The collection is supplemented with an unbound “Memoir of the late Captain Clapperton” (The Mirror of Literature, Amusement & Instruction. Vol. XI, London, 1828, pp. i-viii), and an aquatint portrait of Hugh Clapperton from the first edition of the account of his expedition (Journal of a Second Expedition into the Interior of Africa, from the Bight of Benin to Soccatoo… London, 1829). Overall a very interesting historically significant collection.
"Immediately after his return Clapperton was raised to the rank of commander, and sent out with another expedition to Africa, the sultan Bello of Sokoto having professed his eagerness to open up trade with the west coast. Clapperton came out on HMS Brazen, which was joining the West Africa Squadron for the suppression of the slave trade. He landed at Badagry in the Bight of Benin, and started overland for the Niger on 7 December 1825, having with him his servant Richard Lemon Lander, Captain Pearce, and Dr. Morrison, navy surgeon and naturalist. Before the month was out Pearce and Morrison were dead of fever. Clapperton continued his journey, and, passing through the Yoruba country, in January 1826 he crossed the Niger at Bussa, the spot where Mungo Park had died twenty years before. In July he arrived at Kano. Thence he went to Sokoto, intending afterwards to go to Bornu. The sultan, however, detained him, and being seized with dysentery he died near Sokoto. Clapperton was the first European to make known from personal observation the Hausa states, which he visited soon after the establishment of the Sokoto Empire by the Fula. In 1829 appeared the Journal of a Second Expedition into the Interior of Africa, &c., by the late Clapperton, to which was prefaced a biographical sketch of the explorer by his uncle, Lieut.-colonel S. Clapperton. Richard Lemon Lander, who had brought back the journal of his master, also published Records of Captain Clapperton's Last Expedition to Africa... With the subsequent Adventures of the Author (2 volumes, London, 1830)" (Wikipedia).
First Letter:
"H. M. Ship Brazen S. Leone 25 Octr. 1825,
My Dear Smyth [Captain Smyth R.N., the Admiralty],
Here we are and have been for four days and sail tomorrow. We are all well and very busy. This place has got a very bad character, very undeservedly if I may judge from the little I have seen of it. It is as good as any tropical colony I have seen for wealth. True under the late governor there were fine works and pretty pickings, an unfinished church, cost 8000 [pounds] the bare walls, however if this one lives things will be better managed and the colony improved rapidly. Excuse this short scrawl but remembers me to Mrs. S. And all my friends and believe me Dear Smith,
Yours Truly Hugh Clapperton"
Second Letter:
"Badagry, North Bank of the River Lagos, Decr. 5 1825
My Dear Sir,
We landed from the Brazen on the 30th of last month and proceed into the interior on the 7th and I hope you will here from me in Nyffe on the east bank of the Niger in a month after. I was induced to start from this place as the nearest to the Kingdom of Eyeo of which it is a dependency & the route by the present route by Benin would have brought us through Eyeo and nearly back to this place instead of going in a direct line to Nyffe. Mr. Dickson I dispatched to the King of Dahomey when at Whydah to ask him for a passage through his dominions, an opportunity having offered of doing so which I thought too good a thing to be lost. <…> I have sent him directions to follow me or to go on from Dahomey and join me in Eyeo. There are a number of people here from Haussa and other parts of the interior by whom I am informed that the country called here Eyeo is the Yoriba of the Arabs which I have every reason to believe is the truth. Nyffe is thirty days from this place and that Quorra or Niger after passing Nyffe and country called Tappa enters the sea at Benin. This information I hope you will not consider my taking too great a liberty with you invoking you to communicate to Mr. Barrow to whom I shall write from Nyffe on the banks of his favourite stream. Columbus is so unwell from an unfortunate disorder he got before he left London that he is unable to accompany us at present and remains on board the Brazen. I have given freedom to an Arab of Bornou who I found here a slave and going to be sold to a Brazilian brig slaving here. This man will arrive in his place at present and show those people in the interior our good feelings towards them. Before I left London I asked Lord Bathurst to recommend my brother. Thanks to Lord Melville to the first vacant quartermaster ship of marines which I hope you with the same kindness you have always done second the recommendation and believe me with the most sincere respect and regard, Hugh Clapperton."


[TALBOT, Percy Amaury (1877-1945), Attributed to]
[Historically Invaluable Album with 601 Ethnographical Photos of Over 40 Different Clans of the Yoruba People from Southern and Southwestern Nigeria, Including Portraits of Over Twenty Chiefs, Numerous Photos of Sacred Sites, Amulets, Ritual Ceremonies and Dances, Detailed Photos of Hairstyles, Scarification of Men, Women and Children, Three Portraits of Cannibals with Filed Teeth, Over Twenty Photos with Details of Wood Carved Decorations, Paintings and Parts of Buildings, Market Scenes etc.]

Ca. 1910-1920s. Oblong Folio (ca. 23,5x38 cm). 50 black card stock leaves. With 601 original gelatin silver photographs, ca. 7,5x10 cm (2 ¾ x 3 ¾ in) or slightly smaller (all but one mounted, one - loosely inserted). All but six photos with white ink captions on the mounts. Original black cloth “Gallia” album by “Kodak Ltd, London” (a paper label on the inner side of the rear cover). A few images mildly faded, a couple of captions worn off so almost illegible, but overall a very good album.
Unique amazingly extensive ethnographical study of various clans of the Yoruba people of southern and southwestern Nigeria. The album houses 601 gelatin silver prints evidently taken by or staged by a professional ethnographer, almost certainly on assignment of the colonial government. Many portraits reveal a cloth backdrop held by the photographer’s assistants; over fifty photos feature mug shot-like number boards (partially or fully within the frame) which apparently aimed to refer to the text of a certain ethnographical study based on the photos. With a great deal of certainty the photos can be attributed to a noted African anthropologist Percy Amaury Talbot who served as a British colonial district officer in southern Nigeria in 1905-1931 and authored five fundamental ethnographical works dedicated to the local tribes. The photos were taken in 1910-1920 which coincides with Talbot’s ethnographical expeditions in Nigeria, and the themes and style of the photos are similar to the ones published in Talbot’s major works “In the Shadow of the Bush” (London, 1912) and “Life in Southern Nigeria” (London, 1923).
The collection includes close-up portraits and profiles of men, women and children from over forty clans of southern Nigeria (Okonto, Nwosa, Okoyi, Iyobuako, Nweka. Nwokoye, Mode, Ibwonesi, Ogidi, Mbweke, Nwene. Nwokeke, Nwamadakona, Ogwoika, Omakone, Nwoko, Doja, Ghako, Anyaji, Oiruji, Admina, Onyilienyi, Nwamboye, Okonkroo, Nwaokike, Nwaeluri, Eboma, Jagade, Ogbebo, Ugawe, Asaya, Olokum, Onyechi, Ngyerye, Nwafo, Okeleke, Okoloyo, Ejide, Nwadenoyo, Mbweke, Nwame, Nwafo, Oya, Okpogui, Eyimonye, Osunde, Agbasa, and others).
Very interesting are about 35 photos of sacred sites, places of worship and ritual scenes giving an in-depth look at the Yoruba religion in its original state; the photos show interior and exterior of a juju house, charms and amulets ( i.e. “magic (uke)”), sacred trees, a “shrine of father,” an “image of Mother (ancestor worship),” “Shrine of Oxwai Errokoi”, “Alose of Gods,” clay-sculpted idols of “Ebo & Gods,” “Masks of Olokun,” “charms of war,” scenes of “taking kola sacrifice,” “divination,” performance of “magic to keep of rain,” performance of a “medicine to keep house good,” four photos of a “juju dance at Zanipodi,” portraits of a man in a “juju” costume, and others.
Among the people portrayed are over twenty tribal chiefs, i.e. “Chief (Okafo)” “Eta, King of Okpe,” “Chief (Nuama),” “Chief with Abani ceremonial sword” (fen-like ceremonial sword originating in the Benin kingdom), “Opepe, chief,” “Chief, Warifi,” “Chief’s daughter;” “Chief Nwaye of Amadirowo,” “Chief Ekunere”, Chief Esika of Agolo”, “Chief Mwebene”, “Chief with feathered head dress and chalked face”, a group portrait of “Opimo & chiefs,” and others. The album also portrays other members of the traditional Nigerian society – a “medicine man”, “Onymia of Ijite (doctor)”, “Akajor of Achara village with ivory rings on his feet,” musicians and drummers, warriors “in war dress,” prisoners (six group photos and one portrait of a man suffering from beriberi), family groups, women with babies, women smoking pipes et al.; the captions specifically mark old people, including an “old woman – bore 8 children before man of 55 was born.” Three expressive photos portray “men with filed teeth (cannibals).”
The album pays special attention to men's’ and women's’ hairdos and contains over twenty detailed photos, as well as scenes of hairdressing (i.e. “man’s hair with tails,” “man with hair in rolls,” “hair dressing girl, coiled hair”, girls with “monkey hair” and “Tgu hair,” man with a “war [head] dress”); there are also numerous snapshots of ritualistic scarification on back, chest, arms, and face, including two portraits of a “boy recently marked;” interesting photos show a “painted girl” with floral ornaments on the back, a young girl with knee-long leglets et al.
Over twenty photos focus on the details of the houses and their decoration, showing a “gable,” wood carved ornaments, “obu interior,” “decorative art” on a house wall, “house decoration in relief, leopard and bushbuck,” “scroll work & wall painting,” elaborately carved “door at Egou,” “house figures on front,” details of a doorway, “decorated wall in king’s house,” “Aba cord to separate the room of a woman who has born a child,” etc. Other interesting photos show an open-air native market, “men cooking” in an outdoors pit, women “washing palm nuts;” boys engaged in different games (running a race, wrestling, standing on head, hiding object & looking etc.), group dances, women making pottery etc.
Overall an outstanding primary visual source on the life of the traditional society in Nigeria which in general ceased to exist by the end of the 20th century.
Percy Amaury Talbot was a “British botanist, anthropologist, researcher, one of the best known Africanists of the time” (British Museum online). In the early 1900s he took part in the surveying expeditions to Lake Chad, Cameroon and French Central Africa, in 1905-1931 served as a district officer in southern Nigeria. “He collected the material wherever he was posted, writing up the anthropological data as and when he had time, and, once he got going, his output was phenomenal” (Jones, G.I. Social Anthropology in Nigeria during the Colonial Period// Africa: Journal of the International African Institute. Vol. 44, No. 3 (Jul. 1974), p. 283). Talbot became the first recipient of the Royal African Society’s first Silver Medal for ‘Services to Africa’.
Talbot’s main works: In the Shadow of the Bush (London, 1912, about the Ekoi people, southeastern Nigeria); Life in Southern Nigeria (London, 1923, about the Ibibio people, Cross Rivers state of Nigeria); The Peoples of Southern Nigeria (4 vols., London, 1926); Tribes of the Niger Delta, their Religion and Customs (London, 1932, about people of the Degama Division between the Niger and Bonny rivers); Talbot, P.A.[posthumously], Mulhall, H. The Physical Anthropology of Southern Nigeria (Cambridge, 1962).


MACLEAR, Thomas (1794-1879), Royal Astronomer at the Cape of Good Hope
[Collection of Three Autograph Letters to Fellow Astronomer, Dr. John Lee (1783-1866), Written from the Royal Observatory at the Cape of Good Hope and Talking about Maclear’s Field Survey during the Measurement of the Southern Arc of Meridian, Seventh Cape Frontier War (1846-47), Leper Colony on the Robben Island &c. (14,5 pp.); With: Six Earlier Letters or Smaller Notes written during the Voyage from England to Cape Town, and from the Royal Observatory (1833-1840, 8 pp. in six manuscripts)].

Royal Observatory & Cape Point, the Cape of Good Hope, 1844-1846. Three Quarto Autograph Letters (ca. 24,5x19,5 cm). Black & brown ink on bifoliums of white & Wedgwood copy paper. 4, 3.5 & 7 pp. Each letter addressed, stamped & docketed on the last page. With 6 earlier letters and notes (1833-1840, two Folios and four Quartos, 8 pp. of text in all). Several letters with holes after opening slightly affecting the text, fold marks, but overall a very good collection.
Interesting collection of content rich letters written by Thomas Maclear, the director of the Royal Observatory at the Cape of Good Hope for 36 years (1834-1870), who won international acclaim for a strenuous 9-year field survey on re-measuring Abbe de la Caille’s Arc of the Meridian in the Cape Colony (1838-1847), which proved that the earth was round, not pear shaped. Maclear’s work laid foundations for the Government Trigonometrical Survey Office of South Africa; he helped to establish a system of lighthouses in the South African waters and was a member of several important South African institutions, including the Association for Exploring Central Africa. Maclear was a close friend of David Livingstone and taught him to use sextant in 1850. Maclear had several geographical objects named after him: a crater on the Moon, Maclear's Beacon on Table Mountain, a town in South Africa (Eastern Cape) and Cape Maclear in Malawi (named by David Livingstone).
The letters discuss at length Maclear’s field trips during his survey of the Southern Arc of Meridian, his “remarkably good health” while working “in the bush,” excellent qualities of his assistant Charles Piazzi Smyth (1819-1900, later Royal Astronomer for Scotland), problems with finding qualified labour force for the geodesic survey in the bush, better methods of astronomical observations, the latest issue of the “Cape Almanac,” Captain Richard Wolfe (Commandant of Robben Island), Maclear’s ex-servant and self-taught artist Thomas Bowler (1812-1869) who was about to publish his second collection of lithographic views of Cape Town (“Four Views of Cape Town”, 1844), the transfer of the leper colony to Robben Island in 1846 &c. Three pages in the 1846 letter are occupied with an extensive passage on the causes of the “Caffer War” (Seventh Cape Frontier War, March 1846 - December 1847), in which Maclear blamed the “Caffers” (Xhosa people) who allegedly broke the conditions of the 1836 treaty, and justified the actions of British colonial troops by calling Xhosa people savage, aggressive and adverse to Christianity. Overall very interesting original manuscripts on the history of astronomical survey in South Africa and views of the British colonial establishment on the Xhosa people and the Cape Frontier Wars.
Excerpts from the letters:
Royal Observatory, 18 January 1844: “I returned to the observatory with the zenith sector from the Kamiesberg on the frontier in the latter part of October, after a ten-month absence, leaving Smyth [Charles Piazzi Smyth] with the Theodolite [geodesic instrument] to work his way back to Piquet Bay. The field agrees with him as indicated by robust health, full cheeks and a general roundness of figure that speaks for itself. Since October I had to make surveillance trip to some high mountains & as soon as I shall have dispatched some accounts that cannot be delayed I purpose being off to work down, or to take a share in working down to Cape Agulhas. <…> The most talented men in the survey are the greatest drunkards, consequently cannot be trusted in the neighbourhood of brandy or wine farmers. The others that can be trusted where such temptations are found usually are idle or stupid. Much patience is wanted with people of this description. We cannot at the Cape obtain Labourers by holding up the finger as in England; or much choice among those to be had here. The best are deposits from wrecked vessels or runaways from their parents! <…> I am told that Bowler [Thomas Bowler] is doing very well in Cape Town as a drawing master & I have just learned that he is about to publish lithographic engravings of Cape Town scenery. <…> I wish you could have seen the splendid comet of March as it appeared at the Cape. I can well fancy the impression such a sudden visitor would make in ancient superstitious times. Halley’s was a mere pigmy in comparison…"
Cape Point, 23 October 1844: “Of course, the method of observing must depend on the Instrumental resources of the Astronomer. Meridian instruments alone will not afford a sufficient number of measures to get rid of errors of observation when the definition may prove indifferent. Micrometrical measures with a Equatorially mounted Telescope will be found I apprehend absolutely necessary. <…> The newspapers are not now sent. Of course, frontier news is always most interesting to us, but as you properly remarked, a large portion is occupied with extracts from English papers, looked for by the Capetonians with avidity, but no novelty to you. The Governor is now on the frontier & lately had an interview of several of the Caffre chiefs. There is much difficulty in keeping on the square with those people.”
Royal Observatory, 11 September 1846: "My spirits are almost borne down by the task I am about to undertake in the Bushman flat, for which place I start next week, now that Mr. Smalley is here to take charge of the Magnetic Observatory <…>
…England can take her stand in the proud niche, that nothing was left untried compatible to the security of our lives, to Christianize the Caffres as an independent nation, & if they refused Christianity, still to remain independent, provided they would not molest us. Those who knew the Caffre character had little expectation of success. Some of their customs <…>: "The chief has a right to demand the prostitution of every girl he chooses and if any of them attempt to escape, their feet are held over a fire until the soles are sufficiently burned or scorched to prevent the use of them! It is beneath the dignity of the man to cultivate the ground. The woman plant the corn & perform everything in the shape of agriculture while the men look after the cattle <…>.
Sir Peregrine Maitland is the present Governor of this Colony <…> [he] is an old man, I should suppose above seventy. He stands prominently distinguished for piety & every charitable virtue & he is closely linked with the party at home, usually termed the “Evangelical”… the Country will not willingly submit to pay for a Caffer War about every ten years… Christianity requires, & justice to our brethren on the frontier demand in the shape of protection, that the Caffre territory & people should be declared under British protection, & British law made to supersede tyranny, immorality & murder <…>”
The Leper Institution has been removed by Govt. From Hemel en Eirde [Hemel-en-Aarde] near Mudge Point to Robben Island, & the Convicts are now employed on the roads & passes, under an elaborate system of supervision & religious instruction… Captn. Wolfe is still on the Island in charge… I understood that the Lunatics from Somerset Hospital were also removed to Robben Island where the public buildings are well adapted for their residence..."


[Collection of Five Albums with over 400 Original Gelatin Silver Photos Taken by a High Ranking Manager of the Sudan Mercantile Company Motors, and Documenting One of the Earliest Auto Travels across Sudanese Provinces and around Khartoum; the Collection includes over 150 Photos of the Company’s Cars and Trucks Travelling Across Sudan, Portraits of Associates, and Views of the Khartoum Headquarters, as well as Views of the Makwar Dam, Omdurman, Moghren, Gebel Kassala, El-Obeid (North Kurdufan), Wad Madani, a Portrait of Diana Strickland During Her Car Trek Across Sahara, Over Thirty Portraits of Native People of South Sudan (Bari, Shilluk, Dinka), Ten Photos of Official Receptions in Khartoum by the Karakashian Bros. Studio etc.].

Ca. 1927-1929. Five oblong albums, from ca. 21x30 cm (8 ¼ x 11 ¾ in) to ca. 15x20,5 cm. With over 400 mounted original gelatin silver photos, including ten studio photos from ca. 17,5x23 cm (6 ¾ x 9 in) to ca. 8x13 cm (3 x 5 ¼ in); the rest are original gelatin silver snapshots, from ca. 10x12,5 cm (4x5 in) to ca. 4x6 cm (1 ½ x 2 ¼ in), the majority are ca. 6x10 cm (2 ¼ x 3 ¼ in). Most photos with period ink captions on the mounts, all studio photos with the photographers’ ink stamps on versos. Small printed funeral announcement connecting the compiler of the album with the Scottish clan of Stewarts of Ballechin attached to the front pastedown of one of the albums. Two photos possibly removed from the albums, but overall a very good collection of strong interesting photos.
Interesting extensive collection of over 400 original snapshot photographs showing the early years of the automobile market in Sudan and one of the first auto trips across the country. The photos were taken by a Scottish resident of Khartoum, most likely a high-ranking associate of the Sudan Mercantile Company – one of the first private commercial enterprises in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. After the company had branched out in 1929, the compiler of the album was apparently in charge of one of its branches - the “Sudan Mercantile Co. Motors” which was based in Khartoum, and widely travelled across Sudan driving a number of the company’s cars.
The albums contain five photos of the “Sudan Mercantile Company’s” headquarters in Khartoum, with one being captioned “Garage & Motor Store Front,” several pictures of the company’s “messes” and rest houses across Sudan, and numerous portraits of the album compiler and his colleagues, including a group photo of “The Staff, 1929” (all names marked), three associates reading “News from Home” (actually “The Glasgow Herald”), members of the “M.[otor] Department” posing while sitting on the bumpers of their cars, &c. The albums also house about 150 photographs of the company’s different cars - parked or driving across the remote regions of Sudan, including four photos of the “First New Ford in Sudan. On Trek between Wad Medani & Khartoum;” a scene of “Unpacking new Chassis” by native workers; a car stopped in the desert at a road sign showing the directions to Omdurman, Surkab and Egeiga; four photos showing the replacement of a wheel of a Sudanese military truck in a native village; six photos of a turned over truck with the cargo scattered around; three photos of a truck stuck “in among the sand;” scenes of “refuelling water” and “straightening axle” at a Kosti rest house; photos of “Brock’s Buick,” a car stuck in a flooded river, cars and trucks parked in the bush, a car parked in front of Gordon’s statue in Khartoum (the statue was removed after Sudan had gained independence in 1958), and many others. Several photos show the details of the cars’ motors, and on many pictures the license plate numbers are clearly seen.
Other interesting photos include a series of 14 captivating scenes and portraits of South Sudanese people, showing a Dinka man blowing a gigantic instrument made of a cow’s horn, and apparently an initiation ceremony. One of the albums is completely dedicated to the Bari and Shilluk people of South Sudan (and Northern Uganda) and contains 24 well-executed ethnographical photos of families, native soldiers armed with rifles, two men posing with spears near Malakal, boys baking bread in an outdoor oven, people launching a dugout canoe, girls making maize flour with mortar and pestle, bathing girls (captioned “N. Uganda”), panoramic views of the villages on the banks of the White Nile (including Rejaf village) etc.
There are also several views of the newly-built Makwar Dam on the Blue Nile (completed in 1925); five photos captioned “Arrival of Gov. Gen. 1928” (show a military procession followed by a crown of Sudanese people some of whom are riding bicycles); six photos of a train wreck in the Sudanese desert; views of the “native quarters” in Omdurman, “washing sheep in White Nile” near Gebel Aulia (Jabal Awliya village), “Kitchener’s Gunboat on Blue Nile at Khartoum,” Khartoum’s suburb Moghren, native hut at Managil where the drivers “slept night in 1927,” Gebel Kassala mountains (Eastern Sudan), nearby Aroma village, Gebel Kordofan hills, Bra Road and El-Obeid (North Kurdufan), Wad Madani, Fellata village, Nile steamer “Lotus,” three photos of a Sudan Government Railway train stopped at a station, several views of the haboob storms, portrait of a chained Sudanese prisoner guarded by two soldiers, two photos of the “Helena” biplane of the Imperial Airways in Khartoum, views of Port Said and the Suez Canal, etc. A group of photos document several recreational auto and boat trips; ten photos by the studio of Karakashian Bros. (Tropical Photo Stores, Khartoum) depict official receptions in Khartoum.
Very interesting are the original photos of “Diana Strictland [sic!] Crossing” [the Nile in a native boat, while sitting in her Wolverhampton car] (Diana Strickland, a British female motorist, crossed the Sahara from Dakar to Massawa in 13 months in 1927-28) and “Brocklehurst’s Bus & Boy” (Henry Courtney Brocklehurst, 1888-1942, British soldier, served as a game warden for the Sudan Government in 1922-1931).
Provenance: the estate of Stewart family of Ballechin, Scotland (one of the albums houses the printed invitation to the funeral of John Stewart of Ballechin dated 1895).
Overall a very extensive interesting collection giving a first-hand account of the early automobile travels and social life in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan.


[Historically Very Important Autograph Letter Signed from Early Prospector, J. Dix to his friend Jack, Dated Yakobi Island, Alaska July 7, 1895. This Very Content Rich Letter Describes Dix's solitary life on Yakobi Island and the Difficulties he Encountered Trying to Prospect on it as well as Giving the Latest News on Current Gold Strikes in Alaska. The Most Historically Important Information Dix Gives is the News that "there has been a big rush into the Yukon country this season. It is coming to the front fast, Joe Burdreau made thirty thousand dollars there last year. Several old timers have done well there. Joe Juneau (founder of Juneau, Alaska) went in last spring. Lots of women and children going in now. There will be thousands of people in there in a few years. It is going to be a great placer mining country; equal to California in the early days if it only had the same climate." Dix was referring to the gold mining activity in 1894 at Forty Mile, Yukon which by then was a fully developed town of about 600. Forty Mile was about 80km downstream from where Dawson City would be and when the productive grounds at Forty Mile had been staked, the miners started looking further up the Yukon River. Then in August 1896 gold was found on Bonanza Creek (a tributary of the Klondike River) and this started the Klondike Gold Rush. Joseph Juneau (1836-1899) the founder of Juneau, Alaska, who according to this letter traveled to the Yukon in the spring of 1893 and then eventually ended up in Dawson City during the Gold Rush, opened a restaurant there but died a couple of years later in 1899].

Quarto (ca. 26x20 cm). 2 leaves written recto and verso so 4 pp. Brown ink written in a legible hand on beige lined laid paper. Original fold marks, a couple of small holes where folded, not affecting text. Overall a very good letter.
Dix starts the letter by saying that: "I have just received about fifty lbs. of mail, the first mail this year. Your letters of Dec. 8/94 and Feb. 24/95 in the lot. I am the sole inhabitant of this island at present. A few prospectors came out here last summer and looked at the mountains from their boats; but did not find anything. It is a hard country to prospect. Rough waters; high mountains. The veins are small and pockety. It will take close prospecting and hard work to find anything here. Veins do not crop out like in the Juneau belt. I spent four months prospecting last summer and have been at it all of this season up to date. I have found several veins; but none where I could pick the gold up with my fingers as I did in my first find here. I think that I have got a mine here but don't know certain yet. A hand mortar has been big enough mill for me so far. I have got to sink to prove its value. It looks hungry at present; but that don't discourage me at all. I am going to prospect on the outside country till the fall gales set in and then I shall go back to my tunnel again. Got hard rocks. Two feet a week is all I can make. Rather slow work developing a mine single handed. I am on the east side of Yakobi Island, about seven miles from Cross Sound in the Lisianski Strait: This strait separates Yakobi Island from Chichagoff Island; is nineteen miles long and from one to two miles wide. No sheep on any of the islands but thousands of deer and plenty of bear. I have killed two bear during the last week. The sea otter grounds are about sixty miles northwest of here. It is ten miles from the north end of Yakobi Island to Cape Spencer the nearest point on the mainland. Cape Spencer on the mainland and Point Bingham on Yakobi Island are the entrance points from the ocean to Cross Sound."
Then Dix describes the news from the Yukon (mentioned above) and also describes further news of Alaska gold strikes: "There has been a big strike in the Cooks Inlet country, placer, coarse gold. [This strike centered around Hope, on the Kenai Peninsula which grew to 3,000 people during the Cook Inlet Gold Rush of 1895-98]. Ed. De Graff writes me that there has two hundred men gone up there by way of Sitka. There has one steamer and several small sailing vessels gone from Juneau. Press. Clouelman, Bob. Michaelson and several old timers including Chicago Jack have been up there several years working fine gold diggings. There is another big field there. I think some of going there next spring. I will get reliable news from there next month. There is a mail steamer running from Sitka to the westward now. I got a letter from Alex. Jurgensen this mail; he is still on Butte Creek. Tom O'Conor died over a year ago in the country hospital. Hans Jurgensen died last fall. He was found in his cabin paralyzed four days before he died. The Dix mine is running: got a wagon road down to the mine now. Sixteen men at work. Now Jack whenever you feel like coming where I am, don't let any hodo sentiment stop you. I have got no ready money in sight here at present; but I have got a never failing supply of clams on the beach. Plenty of salmon, halibut and herring in the surrounding waters, plenty of deer and bear waiting to be shot when needed. Grouse, ducks and geese too numerous to mention, wild berries in their season. No danger of starving, I think I am just as well off out of civilization as in it. I take the Scientific Press, Examiner, Truth Seeker and Alaskan News; besides I get a host of other papers and magazines. I get my mail two or three times a year. I got a box of chewing gum from the Examiner presses. What more does a man want?" The Dix mine mentioned is likely the author's family one on the western branch of Butte Creek in the Sierra Gold Fields in California. The vein Dix mentions on Yakobi Island is likely gold-quartz vein where workings started in 1887, most likely by him. Overall a fabulous early Alaskan/Yukon Gold Rush letter.


[CHICHESTER, Harry D.] (d. 1911)
[Historically Important Collection of Fifty-six Original Photographs Showing American Sealers, the Fur Seal Industry, and Native People of the Pribilof Islands].

Ca. 1908-1911. Fifty-six loose gelatin silver prints of various size, including twenty-three larger photos ca. 11,5x16,5 cm (4 ½ x 6 ½ in), the rest are from ca. 10x13,5 cm (3 ¾ x 5 ½ in) to ca. 9x9 cm (3 ½ x 3 ½ in). Ten photos signed “H.D. Chichester 09,” “H.D. Chichester 08,” “H.D. Chichester” or “H.D.” in negative. Four images with period ink or pencil captions in English on verso. A couple of images mildly faded or with minor silvering on the margins, otherwise a very good collection.
Historically significant collection of original photos taken by Dr. Harry D. Chichester who worked as the agent of the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries on the Pribilof Islands in 1910-1911. Ten photos bear his signature in negative. Twenty-one photos (including eighteen large ones) depict the fur seal industry on the Pribilof Islands, including images of family groups of fur seals, men driving them to the killing ground, clubbing and skinning them, piling bundles of furs, loading them on boats etc. Other interesting photos show the sealers in wet suits on the sea shore, tents of native people, volcanic eruption over one of the Pribilofs, a vessel of a fur seal company, portraits of a group of Alaskan gold miners (?) inside their tent (with the scale and some papers in the foreground), of an American man dressed in a fur seal coat, hat and boots (on board of a vessel), a dog sled, a wooden building with the sign “Kingsland villa” and an American flag waving above, etc. Three photos are captioned and relate to the other parts of Alaska or the Aleutians – “Port Clarence [coast of the Bering Sea just south of the Seward Peninsula] – Indian grave,” “Unalaska Reindeer,” and “Nome – native camp on Koozitreen River” [Kuzitrin River, Seward Peninsula].
Over a dozen photos taken by Harry Chichester are deposited in the C. Willard Evans photograph collection in the Historic Documents Department of San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park (see more: Although the images themselves are nor available for the online view, they are supplemented with captions and annotations which may indicate that some of the images are the same as in our collection:
1) Box 1. Item No. 002. Bogoslof Island, Alaska, 1892. Steam and/or ash is rising from the island on the left side of the photograph.
2) Box 1. Item No. 046. Two men standing on a rocky beach in Alaska, 1909. The men appear to be dressed for wet weather. The men in Item 105 are wearing similar clothing.
3) Box 1. Item No. 050. Men rowing ashore at Saint George Island, Alaska, circa 1900-1911. A steamship is in the right background, port broadside view. In the left middle distance, men are rowing ashore. In the foreground, a group of men are waiting the rowers' arrival at the landing.
4) Box 1. Item No. 051. Men unloading supplies from a rowboat at Saint George Island, Alaska, circa 1900-1911.
5) Box 2. Item No. 096. Group of fur seals being driven to the killing grounds on Saint George Island, Alaska, circa 1900-1911. Two men are in view, one of which is holding a long stick.
6) Box 2. Item No. 099. Men clubbing fur seals on Saint George Island, Alaska, circa 1900-1911. The fur seals are huddled together and the men are encircling them. Each man is holding a long stick.
7) Box 2. Item No. 110. Walrus in Alaska, circa 1900-1911. Close-up view of the head.
Harry Chichester was on the Pribilof Islands as early as in 1896, when he was mentioned as an employee of the North American Commercial Company, who took pictures for the members of the Commission of Fur Seal Investigations on St. George Island (Jordan, D.S. Observation on the Fur Seals of the Pribilof Islands: Preliminary Report by … Commissioner in charge of Fur Seal Investigations for 1896. Washington: Government Press, 1896, p. 6; Jordan, D.S. The Fur Seals and Fur Seal Islands of the North Pacific Ocean. Part 1, Washington, 1898, p. 21). In 1910, with the end of the private lease of the islands by the North American Commercial Company and transfer of their administration to the state Bureau of Fisheries, Chichester became its first official agent, stationed in St. Paul, and in addition to his duties carried out a survey of living conditions of the local population, ordered by the authorities from Washington. The survey covered housing, clothing, diet, living habits, diseases and parasites, alcohol abuse etc., but was never completed as Chichester died on May 31, 1911 in a boat accident during a leisure trip. A boat with Chichester, Dr. Walter L. Hahn (the resident naturalist) and their wives capsized in the salt water lagoon near the village of St. Paul. Chichester and Hahn managed to bring the boat and their wives on shore, but both men died the same day due to the long exposure to ice cold water (see more: Martin, F. Before the Storm: A Year in the Pribilof Islands, 1941-1942. University of Alaska Press, 1910, pp. 111-113). Chichester’s photographs of fur seals were used as illustrations to several editions of D.S Jordan’s “Matka and Kotik: a tale of the Mist Islands” (San Francisco, 1897, 1900, 1903, 1910 &c).
Overall a very historically interesting collection of original photos giving a first-hand account of the fur seal industry and everyday life on the Pribilof Islands in the early 20th century.


WHYMPER, F[rederick] (1838-1901)
[Two Original Signed Watercolours: One of the Interior of Russian American Company’s Fort Mikhailovsky on St. Michael Island, Norton Sound and the Other, the Travelling Party Arriving to the Russian Fur Trading Post at Nulato, on the West Bank of the Yukon River, on November 15, 1866, Titled: "Nearing Nulato, R.A.," Taken during His Journey up the Yukon River to Fort Yukon as a Member of the Russian-American Telegraph Expedition in September 1866-August 1867].

Ca. 1866. Two watercolours on paper, ca, 12x35,5 cm (4 ¾ x 14 in). Ca. 21,5x35,5 cm (8 ½ x 14 in). First signed by the artist “F. Whymper del.” in ink in the right lower corner. The other not signed, but titled in brown ink on the lower margin. Both watercolours mildly age toned, the first with one very minor expert repair of far right margin otherwise a very good pair of watercolours.
Two historically important watercolour views of Russian America drawn by British artist Frederick Whymper who extensively travelled across Alaska during the Russian-American Telegraph Expedition (1865-1867).
The first watercolour shows the Russian American Company’s Fort Mikhailovsky in Alaska where Frederick Whymper stayed on 24 September – 2 October 1866, during the Russian-American Telegraph Expedition (1865-67). A slightly changed version of this watercolour was published on p. 128 of Whymper’s travel account “Travel and Adventure in the Territory of Alaska...” (London, 1868). The watercolour depicts the interior of the fort, with the houses of the inhabitants and auxiliary buildings, including a cook house “painted yellow and surmounted by a red roof,” as Whymper noted in his book; three people in native winter clothes are shown on the left. Whymper also depicted a post with a Russian flag – the American flag would not replace it before the official transfer of Alaska to the United States a year later, on October 18, 1867.
Description of Fort Mikhailovsky from Whymper’s “Travel and Adventure in the Territory of Alaska...” (London, 1868):
“Redoubt St. Michael’s, or Michaelovski, the principal station of the Russian American Fur Company in this northern section of “Walrus-sia,” deserves something more than just a passing notice. It is not merely the best point for a vessel to touch at, in order to land goods for the interior, including that great tract of country watered by the Yukon; but it has been, and is, to a great extent, a central post for Indian trade, and for the collection of furs from distant and interior posts. <…> St. Michael <…> is situated on the south-east side of the island of the same name, and was founded in 1833, by Michael Tebenkoff, an energetic employee of the Russian Fur Company.
The station is built on the model of a Hudson’s Bay Co.’s Fort, with enclosure of pickets, and with bastions flanking it. Inside are the store-houses and dwellings of the employees, including the “casine” (caserne), or general barrack, bath and cook-houses. These painted yellow, and surmounted by red roofs, gave it rather a gay appearance. <…> Outside the post, besides other buildings, there was a small chapel, in which on “Prazniks,” or holidays of the Church, and on each Sunday, a service was performed. A priest of the Greek Church, resident at the “Mission” on the Lower Yukon, comes down occasionally to baptize the natives” (pp. 127-131).
The second watercolour shows the Russian American Company’s post in Nulato, western Alaska. The watercolour depicts the artist’s arrival in Nulato on November 15, 1866, together with a party of the Russian-American Telegraph Expedition (1865-67). A heavy laden dog sledge with the Russian or American driver (bearing some resemblance to Whymper himself) is shown in the foreground, the watch towers and wooden walls of Nulato are seen on the far right. Whymper stayed in Nulato for the winter, leaving by going up Yukon River at the end of May 1867.
Some excerpts regarding the expedition’s arrival to Nulato and the conditions in which Whymper worked on his drawings there from his “Travel and Adventure in the Territory of Alaska...” (London, 1868):
“On the morning of the 15th [of November 1866] we rose early, and, after travelling seven miles or so, met a large train of sledges accompanied by several Russians and Indians. They had been sent down by the head man, or “bidarshik” of Nulato, to transport their own winter supplies, and to assist us. As it was arranged that some of our men should make the return journey to Norton Sound, a few days later, the Russians turned round, and went back with us. After about eight miles’ travel we reached Nulato, our destination, and made a grand entry with much noise and fun, and the firing of innumerable discharges. All hands helped the sledges up the incline leading up to the station, and a few minutes later we were lunching at the “bidarshik’s” table on raw salt fish and bread (p. 167).
Nulato is the most inland, and also the most northern of all the Russian Fur Company’s posts <…>. It is on the north bank of the Yukon, and is situated on a flat stretch of comparatively open land, bounded on the south-west by the Nulato River, a tributary of the Yukon, - a stream one of whose mouths is at least seventy yards in width. <…> The post resembles those before described, and differs only in having two watch-towers. It is surrounded by a picket, and during our stay the gate was always shut at night, and Indians excluded when present in large numbers (pp. 169-170).
In November and December I succeeded in making sketches of the fort and neighbourhood at times when the temperature was as low as thirty degrees below zero. It was done, it need not be said, with difficulty, and often by instalments. Between every five strokes of the pencil, I ran about to exercise myself or went into our quarters for warmth. Several times I skinned my fingers, once froze my left ear, which swelled up nearly to the top of my head, and I was always afraid that my prominent nasal organ would get bitten. The use of watercolours was of course impracticable – except when I could keep a pot of warm water on a small fire by my side – a thing done by me on two or three occasions, when engaged at a distance from the post (p. 172).


[Album with Seventy-five Original Gelatin Silver Photographs Taken and Compiled by Mr. L. Rouille Documenting this Very Early Andes Mountaineering Expedition to Aconcagua (Highest Peak in the Americas at 6,962m), Dated February 1909, Which Reached an Altitude of 6300m just below the Summit].

February 1909. Oblong Quarto album (ca. 19x27,5 cm). With 50 beige stiff card leaves (38 with mounted photos, 12 blank). With 75 (including the last 5 photographs which relate to the Alps).original gelatin silver mounted (recto and verso) photos each ca. 12,5x16,5 cm (5 x 6 ½ in). Album dated "Fevrier 1909." on recto of first leaf and additionally almost all the photos with manuscript black ink captions on mounts under images. Later dark green quarter morocco with green cloth boards. Overall a very good album of rare strong images.
Rare historically important album of photographs documenting a very early climbing expedition on Aconcagua which reached a maximum altitude of 6300m. The expedition party consisted of the photographer and album compiler Mr. L. Rouille and five other participants including a guide (Mondini) and two women (Mrs. Allen and Mrs. Rouille who stay at the Juncal Hotel during the expedition) (the other two participants are named Duval and Heggie). Duval also seems to have stayed in Juncal during the expedition. Additionally the party had two muleteers or arrieros (Avelino Tapia, Manuelo), mules for carrying the equipment and a dog named Bolito. The album shows images of Puente del Inca (5) including one image of the Transandine railway train which brought Rouille and his friends to Puente del Inca from Mendoza and another photo shows the party in front of the railway engineers' house getting ready to depart for the summit (photo taken on the 30th of January before the ascent) etc; Inca Stone; Road to the summit; Lagoon and town of Portillo (2800 m) (3) including hiring mules; Juncal (7) including hotel, train station, Mrs. Rouille climbing and Mr. Rouille in the torrent of the Juncal River; summit of the Pasa de la Iglesia; first camp in the rocks at the entrance to the Horcones Valley (2900 m); lagoon of Horcones (3000 m); first view of Aconcagua; Up the Horcones Valley and the last of the vegetation; first passage through the torrent of the Horcones River; view of Tolorsa peak (6000m); camp at 4100 m and around (7), including drying the sheets after a storm, a reconnaissance, climbing in the Horcones Valley and departure; views of Cuerno 5300m (4) including at sunset and at 5000m & 6300m; Horcones glacier 4900m (2); lagoon 4500m (5) including bathing scenes; camp at 4500 m (9) including cooking scenes and portraits with the muleteers Avelino Tapia and Manuelo; red rocks and walls of Aconcagua (3); Rocks of "Pupitre" (Conway Rocks)(4900 m) (4); Camp at 5300 m (photo taken on February 9th on the descent), view of Mercedario (6720m) (2) at 6300m; Camp Conway at 5500 m (2); view above the Rock of the Triangle at 5000 m; View at 5000m; descending on mules from camp at 4500m to camp at 4100m; At 4000m; arrival of the Argentine mail in Portillo. The last 5 photographs relate to the Alps. Overall a very rare early album detailing a serious mountaineering expedition to almost the summit (highest altitude shown is 6300m) of the highest peak in the Americas, which was first successfully summitted by Matthias Zurbriggen twelve years prior in 1897.


[Rare Historically Significant Album with 367 Original Gelatin Silver Photographs Documenting the Early Life of the Francophone Communities in Southern Saskatchewan, Including Forest Hill Ranch, the town of Dumas, Eastend Ranch and Sixteen Mile Ranch in the Cypress Hills and Others; with Interesting Early Photos The Pas Town in Manitoba].

1911-12. Oblong Folio album ca. 29x41 cm (11 ¼ x 16 ¼ in). 53 brown, blue or green card stock leaves. Total of 367 original gelatin silver photographs including two panoramic views measuring ca. 5,5x29 cm (2 ¼ x 11 ¼ in) and ca. 5x16 cm (2 x 6 ¼ in), and three larger photographs ca. 11x17 cm (4 ½ x 6 ½ in); the rest are from ca. 8x13 cm (3x5 in) to ca. 5x5 cm (2x2 in). 42 leaves with loosely inserted pieces of paper with period manuscript captions in French annotating all or some of the photos mounted on the leaves. Period brown quarter morocco album with gilt tooled spine and brown pebbled cloth boards, some very minor wear at extremities, a couple of images mildly faded, but overall a very good album of strong interesting photos.
Historically significant extensive collection of original photos documenting the early life in the French communities of southern Saskatchewan, many of which have disappeared in the second half of the 20th century. The photos were taken by a French resident of the Forest Hill Ranch – a small livestock enterprise several kilometers south of the French village of Dumas (near Wawota, southeastern Saskatchewan) which was established in the first decade of the 20th century by three French emigrants - doctor A. Nové-Josseraund, Antoine Picot and Bernard de Witte. The ranch was initially successful and grew to housing about 120 horses and more than 300 heads of cattle, but the WW1 ended its development, with most Frenchmen leaving for the battlefields in Europe; the ranch was not in existence after the war. The nearby Francophone town of Dumas was founded in 1901 and had flourishing years in the beginning, especially with the arrival of the Wolseley-Reston side branch of the CPR in 1906. In the 1940s it had about 100 inhabitants, two grain elevators, a church, a school and several private businesses, but the abandonment of the railway branch in 1961 led to the end of the community; Dumas is a ghost town nowadays.
The photos were most likely taken by Antoine Picot, one of the founders of the Forest Hill Ranch: he moved to Lyon after the WW1, and the period paper labels with manuscript captions and notes to the images (loosely inserted between the album leaves) have printed letterheads of a Lyon hotel. Over 200 photos show the Forest Hills Ranch, the town of Dumas and surroundings: the main ranch house, panoramic views taken from the house (with a note marking “maison du Docteur A. Nové-Josseraund”), horse corrals and different breeds of horses, buildings in Dumas, town panoramas taken from the distance and showing the CPR station and a train passing by, a photo of the Dumas General store with the owner posing in front with his wife and daughter, herds of horses near Kennedy village, nearby lakes and forests (Jew Lake, Fish Lake), scenes of hunting, harvesting crops and hay, winter transportation of logs on horse-driven sledges, numerous portraits of the French settlers (Bernard de Witte and J. Pion among the identified), including a vivid portrait of a female horse rider captioned “Miss.” About sixty photos show French ranches near Eastend in Saskatchewan’s Cypress Hills, including the famous Eastend Ranch and Sixteen Mile Lake Ranch owned by brothers Daniel and Jean Tenaille (the main houses, the ranch lands, horse training in the corrals, Dan Tenaille in his Ford car etc.); one photo shows Daniel Tenaille in the military camp in July 1912 while giving orders (he was a Major of the 27th Light Horse Regiment, and died in battle in 1915 near Pas-de-Calais). About forty photos depict town of The Pas in western Manitoba where the album’s compiler travelled in March 1912; interesting images show Hotel de Pas, the office of the “Hudson’s Bay Herald” newspaper with its editor and publisher A.H. De Trèmaudan (1874-1929) posing in front, the “Dreamland” cinema theatre, drug store, dentist’s office, church, jewelry shop, several photos of the Hudson Bay Railway bridge over the Saskatchewan River under construction (built in 1910-12), local restaurant with the sign “Meals at all hours” etc. Other interesting photos show the travelling party on the way to and in Banff – apparently, they drove Dan Tenaille’s Ford car, a member of the group riding horse down a street in Calgary, Lethbridge Viaduct in Alberta (constructed over the Oldman River in 1907-1909), the port of New York etc. Overall a very interesting album with important original photos of French farms and settlements in Saskatchewan in the early 20th century.
“A visitor to Dan Tenaille’s ranch could not easily tell whether he was in Canada or in the United States, but he would quickly recognize the effects of imported money and grand aspirations. The site was just north of Eastend on Little Frenchman Creek, harboring amenities the French-speaking Metis buffalo hunters of decades past could scarcely have imagined. The Tenaille house sat, startlingly large, on the wooded creek bank. In a country of dirt-floor shacks and two-room ranch houses, it was a marvel: two stories, French-style shingles, two double-decker porches, a glassed-in veranda, thirteen rooms, wooden ceilings, cedar paneling flawlessly matched by a carpenter brought over from France, imported French linen wallpaper, gaslights, indoor running water, a wine cellar. There was a dark room for developing photographs, one of Tenaille’s many hobbies, and an outdoor exhibit of wild animals in cages and hillside enclosures. Tenaille bought land from homesteaders – a modes 560 acres, according to family records – and named his New World playground Eastend Ranch. He stabled purebred horses – Percherons, Thoroughbreds, and polo ponies – and let the rest of his livestock roam south to the international border. He played polo, chases coyotes in an early Ford automobile, and tobogganed down the hills at breakneck speed, racing against a stopwatch. <…> Dan Tenaille, his brother Jean, to whom Dan was “deeply attached,” and Guy Armand Thomas De Cargouet, a man who claimed to be a French viscount, formed a small phalanx of French aristocracy across southwest Saskatchewan. Jean built a stone residence on Sixteen Mile Lake, just north of Maple Creek, that was even more elaborate and formidable that Dan’s house. It had glassed-in-shelves, a window where hired help received wages, a large dais on which the dining room table sat, and an observation deck on the roof for sighting and shooting ducks” (LaDow, B. The Medicine Line: Life and Death on a North American Borderland. New York: Routledge, 2002, p. 95).


MILNE, Robert
[Two Historically Important Autograph Letters Signed by a British Merchant from the Kingdom of Haiti to his Brother, Giving a First-Hand Account of the Kingdom and full of Information about the Coffee Trade and the Major British & American Merchants Active There, His Plans in the Nearest Future to Dispatch Ship “Louisa” with the Cargo of Coffee to London (will be captured and burned in August 1813 by a Charleston Privateer “Saucy Jack”), Description of the Audience with King Henry Christophe, Royal Palace Sans Souci (Destroyed in the 1842 Earthquake), Haitian European Community, Hostile Attitude of the Local People to the Foreigners, the King’s Policy of Perusal of all Private Correspondence and Confiscation of all Newspapers, etc.]

Cape Henry, Hayti [sic!], 18 July 1813 and 4 February 1814. Folio (ca. 31x19 cm) and Quarto (ca. 25x20 cm) letters, 7 & 3 pp. respectively. Brown ink on watermarked laid & woven paper, both letters addressed and docketed on the last pages. Paper slightly age toned, original fold marks, the smaller letter with a minor hole on p. 3 after opening, with a loss of three to four words, but overall very good letters written in a legible hand.
Historically significant original source on the history of the first years of the short-lived autocratic Kingdom of Haiti (1811-1820), which was formed on the basis of the former French colony St. Domingue (western part of Hispaniola), after it had gained independency in 1804, and became the Republic of Haiti - the world’s first black republic and the only nation established as a result of a successful slave revolt. In 1806 the Republic split into two parts - southern Republic led by Alexandre Pétion, and northern State ruled by Henri Christophe (1767-1820), who proclaimed himself the king in 1811. An autocracy based on the labour of the serfs, the Kingdom of Haiti collapsed after Henry Christophe’s suicide in 1820, who was in fear of an imminent coup d’etat. Both states were unified the same year by Pétion’s successor Jean-Pierre Boyer, with the Spanish part of Hispaniola being annexed in 1820 and thus the whole island being united in one country.
The two letters written by a British merchant who traded coffee in Cape Henry of Haiti’s northern kingdom give an interesting first-hand account of the early years of this autocratic regime. Created on the wave of strong anti-French and anti-colonial sentiments, the Kingdom of Haiti attracted British and American merchants who were eager to fight for the new market in the Caribbean. The first letter is a lengthy detailed account of the latest events in the coffee business and political situation in the kingdom. As follows from the letter, Robert Milne arrived to Haiti in May 1813 on board a merchant ship “Louisa” (which he apparently partly owned), convoyed from Barbados by H.M. Brig “Opossum.” Interesting are his notes that the unreliability of the Haitian post caused him to send his letters in several copies, this particular letter being written in two copies and sent by the schooner Hotspur (called for London) and schooner Maryann via New Providence.
A large part of the letter is dedicated to the arrangements made to dispatch the “Louisa” (with a large cargo of coffee) to London. “The ship Louisa is now fairly loaded, with a cargo consisting entirely of coffee, the weight of which is gross, in lbs French 688381, net 670462 lbs, and what I now feel most anxious about, is the arrival of a ship of war to take her from hence to Jamaica to join convoy or to protect her to England direct.” Milne describes the difficulties with finding a ship-of-war to convoy “Louisa” back to London. He recounts that Admiral Stirling of HMS “Argo” sent the official letter to the British merchants of the Kingdom of Haiti, saying that “he had instructions from the Lords of the Admiralty to give convoy to the Haitian trade.” Milne’s letter to Admiral Stirling asking for a convoy for “Louisa” was left unanswered, and he stated that “should none arrive on or before the 1st August, I shall consider Admiral Stirling’s letter as being disregarded, and dispatch the Louisa direct for London either by herself or in company with the Brig Three Brothers <…>.” It is known that both ships were dispatched without a convoy, and were captured by a Charleston privateer “Saucy Jack” in August 1813; “Louisa” was burned “to prevent her falling into hands of a British man-of-war, in chase” (Coggeshall, G. History of the American Privateers and Letters-of-Marque, During Our War with England in the Years 1812, 13 & 14. New York, 1856, p. 146).
Milne also reflects on difficulties in doing business in Haiti: “I would much rather run the risk of the seas in good or bad ships as might happen and spend my life as an humble supercargo between Great Britain and this place, than permanently remain here at the head of the first establishment in Cape Henry [emphasis added]. It is not many months, since the most horrible events happened, to the richest and best of the native mulattos under this government most materially to the injury of British property; but in regard to it, the like will probably not happen again. There are few strangers who are acquainted with both sides of this island, who would not prefer living under the government of the King to that of the president. The south side of Hayti however is more populous and productive than this side, in as much as the average crops of coffee of the ones are annually for exportation 12000000 lbs French, while that of the others I only 4,000,000. Coffee forms 7/8 of the value of both <…>'.
He also describes an audience with the King Henry Christoph whom he visited with “ Dodge & Marple” [American merchants, the owners of “Dodge, Marple & Co.,” one of the largest American trade firms in Haiti in the 1820s]: 'I had a good deal of conversation with H.M. Who understands English perfectly well, yet in speaking to an American or British subject, he always chooses to have his own government translator, whose translation he patiently waits, unless like another great ruler, something is said that irritates him, and then he breaks out in such a strain of vehement reply, both in gesture and language, that none but himself dare look up or speak.' Milne noted that the king offered him a position of his personal commissary, or manager of supplies, “but practical results in many ways guard me against having any thing to do with the immediate business of King Henry I…”
There is also an interesting note on the royal palace Sans Souci, which was acknowledged by contemporaries as the Caribbean equivalent of the Palace of Versailles, but turned into ruins during the earthquake in 1842. The palace 'is on a scale of magnitude almost equal to any nobleman's house in England, directly off the shores of the island, and the construction of that place, has cost what to a European eye, is a most astonishing achievement of labour; but the external architecture is neither very regular nor very elegant. <…> To enlarge and beautify Sans Souci, the King is daily depriving the buildings of the Cape of every thing, which previous to their conflagration, most contributed to their ornament.'
Milne also recounts on the contents of the letter written by one “Mr. Rouse of Ely Place” – apparently his competitor - “that insidious, lying fellow Rouse, who, well knowing that [his letter's] contents would literally be laid before the King of this place,” accused Milne of concealing the real purposes of his travel to the Kingdom of Haiti, engaging in shady financial schemes, and that “to gain my aims with the King of Hayti I would not stick at trifles.”
Milne also briefly characterizes the small community of “white people” from Cape Henry which “seldom exceeds fifteen or twenty [people], even including ship masters;” and notes that he has “only seen two white women in this island, one a poor old Frenchwoman who has resided here forty years' and 'a very old Englishwoman, who is in great poverty, and earns what little is required for existence by selling shells. The French woman is a clerk in the coffee house and has charge of my linen'. Milne notes on the latest news about the capture of the USS Chesapeake (1 June 1813), and then gives a grim picture of the extent of censorship in the kingdom: “The King has a newspaper containing the particulars, but we strangers cannot be indulged with a sight of it, nor even hear the details stated, although there is not a white man in the place that has not expressed an anxious wish to know every thing about the contest. <…> In regard to the political affairs of this part of Hayti, it is not prudent to communicate much from hence in writing, and in letters addressed to this place, the subject should never be mentioned, nor even alluded to in the most distant way; as all letters on arrival are opened and read by the Officers of government, and their contents laid before the King in the most minute manner. Even newspapers addressed from Europe or America by individuals to their friends, are as aright demanded by the government here, which very seldom gives them up, or even communicates their contents, but in as much degree of error, consider their interest to be in opposition to that of strangers, as we are termed'.
The second letter gives business instructions to Milne’s brother Alexander and expresses 'satisfaction and exalted pride at the grand events that have taken place at Dresden & Leipsic, as well as the affairs on the side of Spain'. In the letter his father copied on the second leaf of the bifolium (dated Cape Henry, 30 November 1813) Milne expresses his deep disappointment at the capture of the ship Louisa “which was loaded with Coffee to the extent of 320 tons <…> I feel this disappointment deeply, it affects my interest in many ways <…> Captain Silk did every thing in his power to prevent the loss of the Louisa, and in a spirited manner resisted capture, at the hazard of all the lives on board, while there remained the least chance of succeess <…> Poor fellow, I am sorry for him, he indeed numbers among the unfortunate. In six weeks hence I shall have neary 100 tons of Coffee to ship, had all gone well with the Louisa, I think she would have made a capital voyage. Whether I shall remain here beyond next summer must depend on the determination of my friends in London, if they will support me by making shipments or the oncontrary – unaided by them, beyond that time I can do no good in this place'.
Overall very historically interesting content rich letters written by an eye-witness of the first years of the Kingdom of Haiti.


[Rare Collection of Thirty-two Gelatin Silver Photographs Showing Important Buildings and Street Scenes from Santiago [De Los Caballeros] and Environs].

Ca. 1910. With 32 original gelatin silver photographs, each ca. 13x18 cm (5x7 in), most numbered or captioned in negative and a couple of images with manuscript captions in pencil or blue crayon on verso. Twenty images with photographers stamp Cantinchi (13) or De Lancey (7) in negative. Overall a very good collection of interesting strong sharp images.
Rare collection of views in and around Santiago in the Dominican Republic. The present historically interesting images include photos from the Hielo Saw Mill and Ice Plant, Pension Belge, Train Station, Parke de Moca, Santo Cerro's Village, City Hall, Road Near Santiago, Road to the River, The Guardia Camp, Gurabito River, Leather Making, Cathedral, San Jose Church, Ruins Old Santiago, Church, Santo Cerro, Governor's Palace, Nibaje Bridge etc.., "Founded in 1495 during the first wave of European settlement in the New World, the city is the "first Santiago of the Americas".., European neoclassicism is represented at the Palace Hall, built between 1892 and 1895, by a Belgian architect named Louis Bogaert. The Victorian era was the zenith of architecture in the city. Numerous residences were built in this European style, which makes up the historic center of Santiago" (Wikipedia).


[Sepia Watercolour, Unsigned but Titled and Dated]: Vue de l'ile St. Pierre-Miquelon 29 Janvier 1839 D'apres une Croquis pris en Juin 1853 [View of St. Pierre-Miquelon Islands from January 29, 1839 After a Sketch, done in June 1853].

1853. Sepia watercolour ca. (25,5x37 cm). Mounted and matted and with separate manuscript brown ink title on paper. Some mild foxing on the right side of the painting, but otherwise a very good watercolour.
This attractive artistically done watercolour shows the settlement of Saint Pierre (French archipelago of Saint Pierre and Miquelone, south of Newfoundland) looking down from a hill above it with a cross to the left marking the highest point. The islands of Marins, Vainqueurs, Pigeons are shown in the background with the coast of Newfoundland far in the distance. The islands are situated near the Grand Banks off the coast of Newfoundland and they are the only remaining part of New France still under French control. In 1778 during the American Revolutionary War, the British razed the colony and sent all the French settlers back to France. In 1816 the colony was resettled and rebuilt by France and so the present watercolour shows the main settlement of the colony at Saint Pierre which is shown in a rebuilt state 23 years after the islands were resettled. The watercolour was done during a period of prosperity in the islands in the 1850's as the cod fishery was profitable at the time. Saint Pierre played an important role in the US prohibition as Al Capone used it as a base to smuggle alcohol into the United States. Overall a rare view of the only part of North America still under French control.


CHESTER, C. L. (1877-1958)
[Rare Collection of Thirty Gelatin Silver Photographs Which Document C.L. Chester's Travels Through Peru (Lima and Along the Central Railway) in 1910 and Show Urban and Rural Scenes Including the Local Indigenous People].

1910. With 30 original gelatin silver photographs, each ca. 12,5x17,5 cm (5x7 in), all numbered and captioned in manuscript black ink in English on verso and additionally with a C.L. Chester copyright ink stamp on verso. Overall a very good collection of interesting strong sharp images.
C. L. Chester was a pioneer documentary film maker who began his career as chief travel cameraman with the Edison Film Company. The present Peruvian photographs were created during that time and were featured in Century Magazine in 1911. Additionally, Chester also supplied the photographs for two photo illustrated books on Lima and the railway of central Peru which were published in 1913.
The present historically interesting images include photos from both Lima and central Peru and show: an Chester on a raft in the Perene River, native Chuncho Navigation, Perene River, San Ramon (jungle town), poncho weaving, Huancayo, La Merced, Chester and his group on the trail, Chuncho Indians, Perene colony store, Pizarro's bones, Lima, Calle de Lima, Callao, Miraflores, Exposition Building, Lima, old Inca terraces below Matucana, Ticlio (camera was in mouth of Galera tunnel), Morococha lakes, Ticlio, La Punta, Puente de Challape, Central Railway, Huancayo Branch, Central Railway, Huancayo Valley, On trail to the Perene, spinners of yarn, Infiernillo, Galera Tunnel, government trail to headwaters of the Amazon, government trail to Rio Perene, Jungle in the Perene, government trail. Overall an historically interesting collection showing Lima and Central Peru in the early 20th century.


[Twenty Page Autograph Signed Filled-in Gregory's Express Pocket Letter Book, Written Over Three Days in San Francisco from April 25th-27th 1859 by H.A. Parker to his Mother with a Historically Important Very Early Description of San Francisco's Chinatown and it's Chinese Inhabitants].

25-27 April 1859. 24mo (12,5x7,5 cm). 20 pp. filled in manuscript brown ink on bluish wove paper. Written in a legible hand. Original publishers glossy black gilt printed wrappers. In very good condition.
The letter book includes observation on climate (San Francisco coast versus mining areas inland), Parker's living arrangements in San Francisco with Mr. Tuckers, living together in a small room where the "cupboard .., consists of a shelf in one corner of the room, loaded with bread crumbs and dirty dishes," the flies and fleas making life further miserable in their uncomfortable small room. Parker admits to being homesick and that it was "rather a foolish notion to think of coming out here." However, he wants to stay and concludes "I may as well try & make the best of it. I have enjoyed the best of health even since I arrived here and have had enough to eat, drink and to wear." The historically most important part of the letter book is his visit with friends to Chinatown: "We visited the Chinese Settlement about one mile from here where about one hundred Chinamen are engaged in catching & drying fish & it is a great curiosity to see them engaged in the operations of catching, dressing, salting, drying & lastly packing, the different species of the fishy tribe. [he goes on to mention that many nationalities have come to San Francisco to find gold] not excepting even China, there being several thousands of these singular beings in this country. They are rather below medium size of a dark brown complexion, long black hair which they shave off from the fore part & sides of the head & braid that growing upon the top & back of the head which hangs down behind them, sometimes even to their feet..., I have now only to speak of their dress which consists of a large thick wadded Jacket, thin loose trousers & heavy wooden shoes. This comprises the dress of the lower class which differs from that worn by the higher class or more wealthy ones, who dress in a thin jacket & tight thin pants, with white stockings & the heavy but fancy wooden shoes. A small tight fitting cap completes their wardrobe. The poorer class seldom wear a cap or hat of any kind but go around bareheaded. Their clothes are made of cotton fabrics while those of the rich ones are made from silk. A great many are beginning to dress in American style.., but even then they are very singular looking objects. [Parker goes on to praise the Chinese which is unusual for the times] They appear to be a very civil class of mean & and as a general thing very industrious & willing to work for low wages."
"San Francisco's Chinatown was the port of entry for early Chinese immigrants from the Pearl River Delta, speaking mainly Hoisanese and Zhongshanese, in the Guangdong province of southern China from the 1850s.., These early immigrant settled near Portsmouth Square and around Dupont Street, the later Grant Avenue. The area was the one geographical region deeded by the city government and private property owners which allowed Chinese persons to inherit and inhabit dwellings within the city. The majority of these Chinese shopkeepers, restaurant owners, and hired workers in San Francisco Chinatown were predominantly Hoisanese and male" (Wikipedia).


[Historically Interesting Autograph Letter Signed from C. E. Smith, an Early Inhabitant of San Jose, California, to James P Slusser of Blacksburg, Virginia, Dated San Jose, CA, April 16th 1859 Describing Business Opportunities Including Mining and Ranching Available and Salaries Being Paid in San Jose and Environs. [With] Original Opened Brown Cover Envelope with Cancelled Ten Cent Stamp, Additionally Post Marked with Black ink Stamp San Jose Apr. 18 and with Address in Manuscript Brown Ink].

Duodecimo bifolium (ca. 16x10 cm). 3 pp. Brown ink written in a legible hand on beige wove paper. Fold marks, otherwise a very good letter and cover.
A historically interesting letter to an associate back home that describes San Jose in its early years of development especially in regards to the business opportunities available. C. E. Smith states that "I am very well pleased with it so far, it is a very pleasant country. It is pretty good grazing country and there is a great deal of grain raised also. I have not been in the mines but from what I can hear the miners are doing very well this season. Farm hands are getting from $30 to $35 and $40 dollars per month." However, Smith also cautions that not all business opportunities are golden and that "a man may knock around and wait for six months to get into a particular kind of business and probably spend a hundred dollars or more before he gets into business, where he might make expenses at something, else as well as not if he would do it." Further he warns that "the people here are pretty fast and especially the rising generation are getting along in a fast age." On March 27, 1850, San Jose became the first incorporated city in the state of California and also the state's first capital, but this only lasted for a year because of a lack of buildings suitable for the state government. Overall an early interesting letter describing early business opportunities in San Jose.


[Album of Sixty-Five Early Original Albumen Photographs of City Views and Scenic Sights from an Early Tourist's Travels through the United States and Canada Including Stops in Quebec, New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Colorado, Utah, California, etc, Including one of Titusville Showing the Oil Wells Developed During the First US Oil Rush].

Sept. 16 1872 – Jan. 18 1873. Oblong Folio ca. 26x35 cm (10 x 13 ¾ in). Sixty-five original albumen photographs, including 19 larger ones each ca. 9,5x17 cm (3 ¾ x 6 ¾ in) to ca. 16,5x22,5 cm (6 ½ x 8 ¾ in), the rest are each ca. 9x9,5 cm (3 ½ x 3 ¾ in) and smaller, mounted recto on 28 beige card stock album leaves. All but two photos captioned in period manuscript brown ink on mounts. Additionally, with twenty-three flower and plant samples found during the travels mounted on the album leaves, all but one captioned in period manuscript brown ink. Period style brown half morocco with gilt stamped spine titled “AMERICA ALBUM” with brown cloth boards. Overall a very good album with strong photographs.
This album contains interesting early photographs of American cities and tourist sights and the surrounding natural features from an early tourist’s travels through the United States with a few stops in Canada. The album includes several impressive large photographs including a photo of the oil wells and workers in Titusville, Pennsylvania (the first site of the US oil rush, 1859-1870s), a view of Salt Lake City with snow-covered mountains in the background, and a view of Lake George, NY which shows the SS Minnehaha. There are photos of San Francisco, 5th Street in St Louis, Denver and Chicago. Other sights of interest include the Niagara Suspension Bridge (opened for traffic in 1855), a hydraulic mining operation in Utah and the St Charles Hotel, New Orleans (the second building was completed in 1861). Additionally, there are photographs of natural features such as mountains and rocks in California (Yosemite Valley, Cathedral Rocks…) and Colorado (Sentinel Rock, Chimney Rock…). A very good album with strong photographs that visually document the early cities of North America.
Boston: Harbour; State House; Public Garden; Chapel Harvard; Washington Elm; Glen House: Base of Mt Washington; Tuckerman’s Ravine: Glen Notch; Falls of Montmorency; Lake George; Kays’ Conservatory Montreal; Trenton Falls; Niagara Suspension Bridge; Terrapin Tower and Horseshoe Fall; Oil Wells Titusville; Chicago; Wagner’s Drawing Room Car; Pullman’s Sleeping car; Devil’s Slide; Palisades; Snow shed Mt Aspen; Secret Town Bridge; View of Cape Horn; Kesler’s Peak, Meek’s Camp Utah; Hydraulic Mining; Salt Lake City; Clark’s Ranch; House built on a section of a tree; Yosemite Valley; Cathedral Rocks; Washington Mountain; Bridal Veil Fall; El Capitan; Half Dome; San Francisco; Denver, Colorado; Sentinel Rock; Chimney Rock; Grey’s Peak, St John’s; Quaker Rocks; St Louis 5th St; The Capitol, St Louis; Independence Hall; Interior of J.H. Philadelphia; Richmond, Washington; New Orleans St Charles Hotel; Bonaventure Cemetery.


[Historically Important Autograph Letter Signed from J. Leavers, an Early Settler of Port Ludlow, Washington, to Author Joseph Holt Ingraham in Rockland, Maine, Describing Conflicts Between Native Indians and Settlers (Including the Death of Lieutenant Slaughter), a “Gold Excitement” in the Region (One of the First Discoveries of Gold in Washington), and the Early Operation of the Sawyer Lumber Mill].

9 December 1855. Quarto bifolium (ca. 25x19,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink written in a legible hand on blue wove paper. Fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
A historically important letter that describes important conflicts between different Native American tribes and European settlers in Puget Sound, one of the first discoveries of gold in Washington state, and an early lumber mill in the region. Leavers explains that they are “in the midst of an Indian War […]. Some houses were burned, men women and children were horribly murdered” and “all the Indians through the immigrant route are said to be banding together.” He describes the advancement of troops from Oregon, and the cooperation of Indigenous people in his immediate vicinity who “have been ordered into the settlement to give up their arms and canoes.” He also reports the killing of Lieutenant Slaughter, “commander of the station at Steilacoom” which he learned about that very morning.
These events took place during the Puget Sound War, an armed conflict between the US military and the Nisqually, Muckleshoot, Puyallup, and Klickitat Native American tribes between 1855 and 1856 (Wikipedia). The conflict began after Nisqually Chief Leschi, who was protesting the Medicine Creek Treaty that forced Indigenous peoples of the region onto reservations, was arrested. After leading as war chief during the conflict, Chief Leschi was eventually convicted and executed in 1858 (Wikipedia). Leavers also describes the discovery of a gold deposit several months ago “in the N.E. Part of the territory,” and explains the difficulty of developing a mine considering the transportation barriers of hostility of Indigenous tribes. Additionally, he describes the buildings in Port Ludlow, including Thorndike’s house and the operation of “Sayward’s Mill.” John R. Thorndike and W. P. Sayward sailed to Puget Sound in 1852 and found the environs of Port Ludlow promising for lumber; they developed its first lumber mill which led to the growth of a settlement (Wikipedia). “It didn't take long for the California Gold Rush to expose the need for a steady, good supply of lumber. Starting in the 1850s, the area around the Puget Sound served this need. For a hundred years, no other industry came close to matching logging in its importance to Washington.” (American History USA).


LAUNAY, Louis de (1860-1938)
[Collection of Forty-four Large Original Platinum Print Photos Showing Spitsbergen during the Early Years of Industrial Development on the Archipelago].

Ca. 1910. 44 loose platinum print photos, each ca. 16x21,5 cm (6 ¼ x 8 ½ in), all with period pencil numbers on versos. With the original film developers paper envelope for the photographs. A couple images mildly faded, the envelope with tears, but overall a very good collection of strong interesting images.
Interesting collection of original photographs taken by a noted French geologist Louis de Launay during his trip to Spitsbergen in 1910. Apparently drawn by the rapid development of coal and mineral mining on the main island of this Arctic archipelago in the early 1900s, de Launay took a summer cruise on board the French steamer “Ile de France” with a group of French tourists. The photographs include four group portraits of the tourists on board the steamer, a view of them being transported on shore in two pinnaces pulled by a tugboat, and three portraits of the tourists walking on shore (with one photo most likely depicting de Launay studying a piece of glacial ice). There are also several views most likely showing Longyearbyen - the only major settlement on Spitsbergen at the time, founded just four years before (1906), showing the town waterfront and whaling boats in the harbor. 31 photos taken from the sea show the panoramas of Spitzbergen’s shores, coastal mountains, fjords and glaciers. There is also a photo of a busy Norwegian harbour and waterfront, possibly in Tromso.
Louis de Launay was a professor in the Paris School of Mines for 46 years, professor of geology in the Ecole nationale de Ponts et chaussees since 1907 (now Paris Institute of Technology), editor-in-chief of the “Nature” magazine (1904-1919), a member of the Paris Academy of Sciences (since 1912), director of the Service of the Geological map of France (1930), Commander of the Legion of Honour (1935); he authored over a hundred books and articles on geology and mining.
“At the beginning of the 20th century the Industrial Revolution rolled over Europe. The newly industrialized countries demanded large amounts of raw materials and coal was especially in high demand. The prices for coal became very high and Svalbard was again like a magnet to adventurous people looking for the next huge profit. During the first few decades of the 20th century almost all available land areas were annexed for future mineral exploitation and mining. Svalbard was politically a no-man’s land and at times the occupations and land claims became quite chaotic. The coal deposits were the most interesting, but prospecting for phosphorite, gold, iron, zinc, lead, copper, gypsum, asbestos and marble also took place. In the years leading up to World War I this activity virtually exploded, creating a Klondike-like atmosphere marked by prospecting, occupations, installations and experimental operations. There was a strong optimism and belief in technical advances during these years and venture capital was readily available. <…> Grandiose, over-optimistic and based on poorly grounded assumptions, most of the schemes ended after a short trial period. In many cases, the mineral “towns” were built and the facilities were constructed but operations never actually started up. The investments were huge in the establishing phase and the transport of labour to the islands was time-consuming and difficult, while the seasons during which operations were possible were short and hectic. When the venture failed, the installations and production equipment, houses and machinery were left on site due to the high costs of disassembly and transport to the mainland. In many places around Svalbard remains from loading facilities, mining galleries, mine-cart tracks, twisted rail-lines, tractors, drilling equipment and other installations, smithies, workshops, living and dining quarters are silent witnesses to the activity that once took place here. The dreams of quick profits were broken and expectations of wealth vanished” (Svalbard’s History/ Norwegian Polar Institute. Cruise handbook for Svalbard online).


[Five Indian School Watercolour, Ink and Pencil Portraits Signed “CP,” Showing the Traditional Dress of People and Leaders in the Kingdom of Caubul [Kabul] During the Durrani Dynasty (1747-1842) Perhaps used as the Original Archetype Illustrations for Montstuart Elphinstone's, 1815 Book “An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul, and its Dependencies in Persia, Tartary, and India; comprising a view of the Afghaun Nation, and a history of the Doorauni Monarchy”].

Ca. 1815. Five cut-out portraits drawn in ink, pencil and watercolour drawings each ca. 21,x12,5 cm (8 ½ x 5 in) or smaller, mounted on brown, beige or white leaves each ca. 28,5x22 cm (11 ¼ x 8 ½ in). Two drawings are woven into their leaves with ribbons, two drawings have thin ribbons pasted on top. All are signed “CP” in period manuscript brown ink on drawing or leaves and titled in period manuscript black ink on the leaves, with hand-drawn embellishments in ink. Two leaves have stains along one edge but all drawings are in very good condition.
This historically interesting collection of Indian school portraits were perhaps used the original archetype illustrations for the book by Montstuart Elphinstone (1779-1859) titled “An Account of the Kingdom of Caubul,” which was published in 1815. The preface of the book states that several of the illustrations (including the drawing of an Eusofzye in this collection) were drawn by Lieutenant R. M. Grindlay, while the rest of the illustrations were drawn by Indian artists. They show in great detail costumes of the Kingdom of Caubul and its dependencies (including Tartary) during the Durrani Dynasty (1747-1842). All but one of the drawings show portraits of people standing (one image shows the “Chaous Bauchee” on a horse), however all show clear depictions of dress, shoes, headwear and weapons.
Drawing Captions (book plate #'s in brackets): An Hazurch (PL. XII); An Eusofzye or Chief in the kingdom of Caubul (Pl. VI) ; A Taujik in the summer dress of Caubul (PL. IV); A Khojeh of Uzbec Tartary (PL. X); The Chaous Bauchee in his drefs of office (PL. XIII).
“Elphinstone was appointed ambassador to the Afghan court of Cabul in 1808. He went on to serve as Governor of Bombay and ultimately was offered the Governor-Generalship of India, though he declined. "It is remarkable that a man so skeptical, retiring, unselfish and modest should be one of the chief founders of the Anglo-Indian empire" (DNB).
“The Durrani dynasty was founded in 1747 by Ahmad Shah Durrani at Kandahar, present Afghanistan. He united the different Pashtun tribes and created the Durrani Empire with his Baloch allies which included the most of present-day Pakistan, and the Kashmir and Punjab regions of present-day India. The Durrani dynasty was composed of ethnic Pashtuns and Baloch Durranis were replaced by the Barakzai dynasty during the early half of the 19th century. Ahmad Shah and his descendants were from the Sadozai line of the Durranis (formerly known as Abdalis), making them the second Pashtun rulers of Kandahar after the Hotakis.[3] The Durranis were very notable in the second half of the 18th century mainly due to the leadership of Ahmad Shah Durrani. In 1826, the kingdom was claimed by Dost Mohammad Khan but in 1839 Shujah Shah Durrani was re-installed with the help of British Indiaduring the First Anglo-Afghan War. In 1841 a local uprising resulted in the killing of the British resident and loss of mission in Kabul and the 1842 retreat from Kabul to Jalalabad.” (Wikipedia)


[Album of Ninety-Six Original Gelatin Silver Photographs of Blagoveshchensk on the Amur River, Showing Major Trading Houses and Shops on the Bolshaya Street, Girls' School, Cathedrals and Churches (Demolished in Soviet Time), the Triumphal Arch, Customs House and Steamers on the Amur River, Chinese Villages on the Other Bank, Chinese workers, Russian Peasants, and Others].

Ca. 1910s. Oblong Folio (ca. 26x34,5 cm). Twelve album leaves. Ninety-six mounted gelatin silver prints, each ca. 7x10 cm (2 ¾ x 4 in). No captions. Period brown quarter faux leather album with paper boards, rubbed on extremities, corners slightly bumped. Several images slightly faded, but overall a very good album.
Interesting album of rare photos of Blagoveshchensk, the centre of the Russian Amur oblast and an important port on the Amur River located just about 500 meters from Chinese city of Heihe on the other bank of the river. Blagoveshchensk was founded on the confluence of the Amur and Zeya Rivers in 1858 and became an important trade center in the early 20th century due to the lucrative gold extraction industry on the river and the proximity to the state border with China. The main street of Blagoveshchensk – Bolshaya – accommodated the offices of the main Siberian trade houses, the port numbered over 150 steamers and over 200 barges.
The photos were apparently taken by a well-off Blagoveshchensk resident, and include over a dozen views of the Bolshaya Street (now Lenina Street), showing Kunst and Albers department store (built in 1894, one image shows the store with the sign “Christmas fair”), Siberian Trade Bank, Trade house “Kokovin and Basov,” Torgovaya Square (now Victory Square) with open air wooden pavilions, shops of I.K. [?] Mazur, V.M. Pankov, Matveyenko bros., “Japanese shop Tokio-Yoko, goldsmith,” garden supplies shop, first city electric station “Vseobshchaya Kompaniya Elektrichestva” (built in 1908), Cathedral of the Intercession of the Theotokos (demolished in 1980, new cathedral of different design built in 1997-2002), Alexeyevskaya school for girls (on the corner of Bolshaya Street and American side-street), entrance to the Voznesenskoye cemetery with an Orthodox Christian chapel (built in 1872, demolished in the 1930s), and others. There are also interesting views of the Triumphal Arch (built in 1891) and trade house “Mauritania” on the embankment of the Amur River, several photos of the steamers on the river (with two signs reading “Andrey” and “Peterburg”), views of the city embankment (showing cannons pointed towards the state border, frozen Amur, timber piles on shore), Amur River banks and villages on the Chinese side, Russian customs house, portraits of Chinese cart drivers, brick makers, Russian peasants et al. The album closes with three images of an open air church sermon and a church procession and over twenty portraits of Blagoveshchensk residents – apparently, the album compiler and his family.


[Historically Significant Journal Recording a Travel from Peking to Hankou (a part of present-day Wuhan), along the Line of the Unfinished Peking-Hankou (Jinghan) Railway, with the Eye-Witness Account on the Railway Construction, Notes on the Meetings with the Railway Company Officials, Chinese Workers, Inhabitants of Nearby Villages, Local Places of Interest etc., Titled:] V – de Pekin à Hankao.

6-21 November [1903]. Octavo, ca. 22,5x17,5 cm (8 ¾ x 6 ¾ in). 32 leaves. Manuscript text in French. Black and brown ink on lined white laid paper (one page written in pencil), all entries with dates on the margins. Occasional markings in red or blue pencil in text. Period style maroon half morocco album with cloth boards, spine with gilt tooled ornaments and gilt lettered title “PEKIN A HANKAO,” original paper wrappers bound in. Manuscript table of contents on verso of the front wrapper. First leaf slightly soiled on the bottom, paper slightly age toned, but overall a very good journal written in a legible hand.
Interesting historically significant journal describing a travel from Beijing to Hankou (a part of modern-day Wuhan) in November 1903; the traveller apparently was a French member of the “Société d’étude de chemis de fer en Chine,” a French-Belgian company which built the Peking-Hankou (Jinghan) Railway in 1897-1906. The construction of the Jinghan Railway started in the end of 1898, with the first sections being opened in 1899; the works were interrupted in the 1900 by the Boxer Rebellion, which led to the destruction of a large part of the railway and murder of many workers; the construction was resumed in early 1901 and finished in the end of 1905 (See more: The Peking-Hankow Railway// Bulletin of the American Geographical Society/ Vol. 38, No. 9. 1906, pp. 554-556). Although the journal entries don’t mention a year they were written, it was most likely 1903 (when the 6th of November fell on Friday, like it is recorded in the journal), a period of active construction of the remaining sections.
The journal contains a detailed account of a 16-day trip from Beijing to Hankou, along the railway under construction. Being an independent manuscript on its own, it is apparently a part of a larger collection of eight such journals, describing the whole voyage from Paris to Macao via Siberia, Manchuria, Korea, Peking, Hankou, Canton, and Hong Kong (see the table of contents on verso of the front wrapper).
The author describes his travel from Beijing along the “Imperial Route” in the “Palace car,” his visit to a monastery and a pagoda in “Tcheng Ting” (Zhengding County), which hosts a large 25m Buddha statue. He then recounts a meeting with Mr. Sémat, who owns an “exploitation” and constructs a railway between “Shum te fou” and the Yellow River. He also comments on the landscapes through which he travels by train, cart, horse and on foot: “The mountains of China are more distant, the villages more spaced out from each other; to my surprise on my left, [there is] a railway. It’s a line built by an English coal mining company, which begins from a point along the Wei Ho (Tau Kou) a little further than Wei Wei Fou and reaches the mines in the mountains, over there. This is the way through which materials for the exploitation arrived; that is also the way by which the coal will be exported; but, until now, we cannot find any…” (in translation). During his trip, he meets many people who are involved in the railway construction, including Mr. Charignon, Mr. Job, Mr. Nimal, Mr .Devienne, or Mr. Icarro: “And here comes a cavalry: it’s Mr. Nimal, the sous-chef of the Tongan Tefan section […] accompanied by his drivers and his dogs. There, in the plains, are the Tchang Té Fou walls, and before that a quay on a little river […] We then follow the West wall of the city and arrive at the section, a yamen in the west suburb near where a train station will be next year.”
There are some interesting notes on Chinese railway workers: “From time to time, teams of indigenous people, very applied in their work on the bank which they level like a billiard: the appearance, that is the strong suit of the Chinese; does the railway also have such a groomed appearance? Very curious; for example, each coolie carries such a small amount of soil at a time, but there are so many of them, and we pay them each so little!” He also discusses the benefits of the railway development: “the peasants are peaceful and in favour of the railway and sensible to the benefits they will experience […] as long as we compensate them for the fields; the houses that we are destroying, the graves that we are moving, they declare themselves very satisfied. I sense, already, that China is not deep down what we judge it to be and that its people are, like all populations, sensible to the advantages of any progress of which they can experience the effects.” Other entries tell about his sleep over in a yamen (administrative office and/or residence of a local bureaucrat or mandarin in Imperial China) in “Honntan,” an accident with his horse after which he was carried by porters, surprised Chinese officials when he presented them a passport, the hospitality of the villagers et al.: “I had forgotten to note for yesterday that we had barely gone to bed at 9pm, when a huge explosion sound made us jump, then another […] it was the village mayor’s son who came out to make fireworks in our honor.” Overall an interesting eye-witness account of the construction of the Jinghan Railway - “the first great trunk line through China” (The Peking-Hankow Railway// Bulletin of the American Geographical Society, p. 554) which in 1957 became a part of the major south-north railway in modern China – Beijing-Guangzhou Railway.


[Album with Eighty-six Original Gelatin Silver Photographs, Apparently Taken by a Naval Officer While Serving on S.M.S. “Scharnhorst,” the Flagship of the German East-Asia Squadron in 1909-1914, with the Views of Tsingtao/Qingdao, Hong Kong, Amoy/Xiamen, German Colonies in Samoa and New Guinea, Batavia, Singapore, Port Arthur, German Naval Ships and Commanders, and Scenes from the Second Chinese Revolution and the Capture of Nanjing in September 1913].

Ca. 1912-1913. Folio Album (33,5x23,5 cm). 36 album leaves (14 blank). With 86 original gelatin silver prints from ca. 12x17 cm (4 ½ x 6 ½ in) to ca. 8x11 cm (3 ¼ x 4 ½ in). Most images numbered in negative, all with period manuscript ink captions in German on the mounts, some also dated in ink. Later navy-blue half morocco with moiré cloth boards and gilt tooled title on the spine. The first leaf with tears on extremities, not affecting the image and neatly repaired, several images mildly faded, but overall a very good album.
Historically significant album with a large collection of well-preserved original photos depicting the service of S.M.S. “Scharnhorst” in 1912-1913, when it was the flagship of the German East-Asia Squadron stationed in Tsingtao (Quingdao, China). The photos illustrate S.M.S. “Scharnhorst’s” voyages to the Yellow Sea and former Russian naval base in Port Arthur, several Chinese ports in the Yellow Sea, Singapore, Batavia, Sumatra, and German colonies in the Pacific. Interesting images include six views of Batavia (with a view of a railway station and the arriving train); three views of a European-owned farm on the Labuan Island near Borneo, views of the Singapore waterfront (featuring the Savoy Hotel in the right), Hong Kong, Amoy (Xiamen, China), four interesting views of Port Arthur showing the destruction after the Russo-Japanese War and the decaying remnants of Russian naval ships, and others. There are also vivid portraits of a Chinese family, Chinese prisoners in Kaumi (Kiautschou Bay Leased Territory), a Chinese man dressed in a uniform of a sailor from S.M.S. “Scharnhorst,” natives from the Seeadler Harbour (Admiralty Islands, Papua New Guinea), natives in a canoe near the Rota Island (Marianas), native police parading in Apia (Samoa), a German sailor from S.M.S. “Scharnhorst” embracing a native girl in Sumatra, two daughters of a Samoan chief photographed on board S.M.S. “Scharnhorst,” four group portraits of sailors from S.M.S. “Scharnhorst” posing in front of a steam pinnace or on the rocks near Amoy, three vivid photo scenes depicting the celebration on board of S.M.S. “Scharnhorst” of the crossing the Equator near the Admiralty Islands (Bismarck Archipelago) &c.
The photos of German naval ships and commanders include several images of S.M.S. “Scharnhorst,” showing her in the dry dock in Tsingtao and in the open sea (while launching steam pinnaces); troop steamship “Patricia” arriving to Tsingtao (another scene shows sailors washing on board the “Patricia” in the open sea); torpedo boat “Taku,” constructed by Germany for the Chinese navy, but taken back after the suppression of the Boxer rebellion; and S.M.S. “Gneisenau” in the open sea. There are also three photos showing military exercise of German cavalry near Tsingtao, portraits of Prince Adalbert of Prussia (1884-1948) and Prince Henry of Prussia (1862-1929) during their official visits to Tsingtao in 1912, and a portrait of Kaiser Wilhelm II and Prince Henry of Prussia posing in the uniform of naval admirals.
Twenty-two photos in the back are an important historical source on the history of the early years of the Republic of China, depicting the events of the Second Revolution in the summer 1913. The photos show German roadblock during the unrest in Hankou, Chinese government troops in Shanghai and Nanjing, Chinese artillery firing during the capture of Nanjing, Chinese troops in action during the capture of Nanjing, execution of the rebels, destroyed building in Nanjing etc. Overall a very interesting historically significant album.


[Album of Three Original Albumen Photographs, One Pencil Drawing and Two Watercolour Plans Illustrating the Third Battle of the Taku Forts during the Second Opium War in July-August 1860, Including Plans of the Forts and a nearby City of Tientsin/ Tianjin, a Scene with British Naval and Troop Ships Approaching the Landing Site at Pehtang/Beitang, and Group Portraits of the Officers of the British 31st Regiment of Foot who took Part in the Battle and were Stationed in Tientsin in 1861-62].

Ca. 1860-1862. Folio album (ca. 40x29 cm). With three original albumen photos from ca. 13x18,5 cm (5 x 7 ¼ in) to ca. 5,5x8,5 cm (2 ¼ x 3 ¼ in), one pencil drawing ca. 11,5x28,5 cm (4 ½ x 11 ¼ in), and two watercolour plans, ca. 24,5x38 cm (9 ½ x 15 cm) and ca. 21x23 cm (8 ¼ x9 in), mounted on period album leaves. All items but the last plan with period ink captions on the mounts, the last plan with the detailed descriptive key and the artist’s initials and date on the image (“Hy. Wm. B. 18.3/62”). Later maroon half morocco with cloth boards and gilt tooled title on the spine. Overall a very good album.
Historically significant collection illustrating the Third Battle of the Taku Forts during the final stage of the Second Opium War, compiled by and portraying British military officers - the direct participants of the events. Three original albumen photos are the group portraits of the officers of the 31st (Huntingdonshire) infantry regiment of the British Army which served in China in 1860-62 and together with the Anglo-French expeditionary force sailed from Hong Kong to the mouth of the Hai River in summer 1860. The force landed at Pehtang/Beitang on August 2, ten days later captured the Taku Forts protecting the way upstream to Beijing, and captured Tientsin on August 30. The expeditionary force moved further and occupied Beijing on October 6, thus bringing the active phase of the war to an end. The 31st regiment remained in Tientsin for another two years, forming a part of a British garrison there, and took part in suppressing the Taiping Rebellion in 1862.
The photos show the officers – members of the “31st Regimental [Masonic] Lodge,” “The Officers 31st Reg. With the adjutant's dog 'Judy' taken after the China War of 1860 at Tien Tsien,” and officers posing in “The 31st Regimental mess boat in a creek during the Taeping Rebellion, 1862.” The pencil drawing depicts a scene with British naval ships “Steaming in to the attack of "Pehtang" with troop boats North China 1860. Drawn by Captain Hamilton 31st Regt." There is also a large watercolour “Plan of Taku Forts and Tien-Tsin,” outlining the positions of the Royal Artillery, the 31st regiment, the Commissariat, the military store and the hospital. On the last leaf is a well-executed watercolour plan of “Tientsin with the position of the British Forces during the winter of 1861-62,” marking 24 objects, including the barracks of different regiments, hospitals, powder magazine, the police station, the church, commanders’ quarters etc. The plan is signed by “Hy. Wm. B.” and dated “18.3/62.” It became possible to identify the officers mentioned in the captions, as well as the author of the plan. The “Adjutant” whose dog Judy was shown on the officer’s group portrait was William Hill James who joined the 31st Regiment in 1855 and was rewarded with a medal with a clasp for the Battle of the Taku Forts. “Captain Hamilton” who drew a pencil scene with British ships proceeding to Pehtang was George John Hamilton, who fought with the regiment during the Crimean War and was also awarded for the capture of the Taku Forts; later he took part in the suppression of the Taiping Rebellion and in the Abyssinian Campaign of 1868 with the 26th Regiment. Finally, the plan of Tientsin was drawn by a young ensign Henry William Bateman who joined the 31st regiment in February 1861, and was attached to the Royal Artillery during the Taiping Rebellion. All names were found in: Hart, H.G. The New Army List, and Militia List; Exhibiting the Rank, Standing, and Various Services of Every Regimental Officer in the Army… No. XCVII. London, 1863, pp. 186-187. Overall a very interesting collection of original sources on the history of the last stage of the Second Opium War.


[Album with Forty-Four Large Rare Albumen Photographs of Tea Gardens, British Planters, Native People and Historical Sites of Assam; With Six Large Studio Photos of Ceylon and Two Photos of New Zealand].

Ca. 1890. Folio ca. 30,5x38 cm (12x15 in). 25 thick card stock leaves. With 52 large original mounted albumen photographs, from ca. 20,5x26,5 cm (8 x 10 ½ in) to ca. 14,5x20 cm (5 ¾ x 7 ½ in); about a dozen photographs captioned and/or signed by the studio in negative. Period brown full sheep with elaborate blind and gilt stamped ornaments on the boards, neatly rebacked in style; decorative endpapers, all edges gilt, remnants of a metal clasp designed to fasten the boards. Several photos mildly faded, otherwise a very good album of strong interesting images.
Beautiful album with forty-four rare and well preserved 19th-century studio photos of tea gardens, British managers and residents, and native people from around Sibsagar (Sivasagar, Assam). Although none of the photos bear the full name of the photographer, nine of them are captioned or signed “O.M.” (or “C.M.”?) in negative. Several identical photos from the National Anthropological Archives of the Smithsonian Institution were attributed to the famous Indian studio of Bourne & Shepherd (est. 1863) (e.g.: view here).
Jayeeta Sharma, the author of “Empire’s Garden: Assam and the Making of India,” suggests that “hitherto unpublished” photos of Assam tea gardens from the collection of the Smithsonian Institution were taken by Colin Murray “who was the firm’s head photographer from 1870 and eventually took control in 1884 when the founders retired and left India,” also noting that “in contrast to some other regions of British India, photographic images of nineteenth-century and early-twentieth-century Assam are difficult to find, except for privately held prints which can seldom be effectively reproduced” (Illustration Acknowledgements/ Sharma, J. Empire’s Garden: Assam and the Making of India. Duke University Press, 2001, p. [xiv]).
Our collection includes vivid views of numerous bungalows of British planters or managers – including photos of the bungalow in Mohanbari, tennis grounds adjacent to a bungalow with a British man posing with a lawn mower, technical buildings where collected tea leaves were processed (one photo shows boxes of tea being loaded onto a bullock cart), interior of the living room and the verandah of the “Koleapanee Bungalow” (the latter featuring a family of the owners sitting in armchairs); general views of the tea gardens with bungalows, fields of tea bushes, rolling hills or areas cleared for new gardens etc. The album houses eleven interesting group portraits of British in Assam - planters, residents or military men stationed in Sivasagar; with one group posing in front of the stone carvings of the Sivadol Temple, others shown with tennis rackets, mounted on horses during a game at “Nazira polo club,” dressed in full uniform (“Sibsagor Mounted Infantry,” the regiment was formed in 1884 as “Sibsagar Mounted Rifles” and was known under the name of “Sibsagar Mounted Infantry” in 1886-1889), etc. Other interesting photos show a group of native hill people of Assam, barracks of native workers, or “coolie lines,” a picture of native people and British planters at a river bank (most likely, Dikhow River near the town of Nazira, where several other pictures were taken), and a portrait of a “Mech woman weaving.” Four photos show temples and monuments of Sivasagar dating back to the time when the city was the capital of the Ahom Kingdom, including famous Sivadol or Shiva Temple (the highest temple in India with the height of about 32 m), Sivasagar tank (artificial lake), and Rang Ghar royal entertainment pavilion (shown in a state of neglect, with trees growing on its roof). The album also includes six large photographs of Ceylon (Sri Lanka), with two signed by a local studio “Colombo Apothecaries Company” (1880s - ca. 1920s); the photos showing native fishermen, “merchant women,” families, bullock carts and their drivers, two rickshaw carts carrying British gentlemen et al. There are two albumen photographs of New Zealand, including one signed by the Dunedin studio of Burton brothers (1866-1914). Overall an extensive collection of rare historically significant photographs depicting British tea gardens in Assam in the late 19th century.


SACHE, John Edward (1824-1882, fl. 1860-1880s)
[Album with Seventy-four Early Large Original Albumen Photos of British India, Showing Calcutta (10 photos), Delhi (13), Lucknow (9), Agra (7), Benares (7), Bombay (5), Aurangabad (1), Ajanta Caves (5), Nainital (1), Shimla (3), Amritsar (3), and Gwalior Fort, as well as Lahore (8) in Modern-Day Pakistan; Also with: Twelve Large Period Watercolours of Mughal Floral Architectural Ornamental Designs].

Ca. 1880. Oblong Folio (ca. 38,5x41,5 cm). 40 card stock leaves. With 74 mounted original albumen photographs, each ca. 21x27 cm (8 ¼ x 10 ½ cm) or slightly smaller. Over thirty photos numbered, signed “Saché” or captioned in negative; all but one photo with period manuscript ink captions in English on the mounts. With twelve large watercolours showing Indian ornamental designs mounted at rear, from ca. 19,5x28 cm (7 ¾ x 11 in) to ca. 18,5x19 cm (7 ¼ x 7 ½ in). Period pencil note in French on verso of the front free endpaper “Photographies rapporté par mon père de l’Inde en 1880.” Original dark green half morocco album with pebbled cloth boards; marbled endpapers. Gilt stamped armorial exlibris with initials “L.B.” on the front board and the spine. Album rubbed on extremities, with minor tears at the top of the spine; leaves slightly waved, but overall a very good album of strong images.
Attractive album with large early sharp photos of the iconic sites of British India, giving a great overview of the architecture of Calcutta (10 photos), Delhi (13), Lucknow (9), Agra (7), Benares (7), Bombay (5), Aurangabad (1), Ajanta Caves (5), Nainital (1), Shimla (3), Amritsar (3), Lahore (8) and Gwalior Fort (1), one photo being uncaptioned. Very interesting are the views of the Great Eastern Hotel in Calcutta, a trade quarter of Delhi with the Ridge in the background, ruins of the Lucknow Residency and the Fort of Lucknow, Jumna Masjid in Agra with the pottery market at its walls, vivid views of the Benares ghats, Qutub Minar, Quaisarbagh, Hussainabad Imambara complex, Mughal mausoleums in Agra, Ellora and Ajanta Caves; portraits of native Indian servants, Ayahs (childminders), sellers of ghee, barbers, as well as a large number of the views (8) of a relatively remote Lahore (then a center of British Punjab, now a major city of Pakistan). The album also houses twelve attractive watercolours of traditional Mughal inlay gem floral ornaments on marble (like the ones decorating the interior of the Taj Mahal), showing both the general views and the details of the ornaments. Overall a excellent collection of early architectural photos of India.
List of images:
Calcutta. Great Eastern Hotel & Old Court House Street; Calcutta. Rustic Scene; Calcutta. Medical College Hospital; Barraghpore Park. General view of Banian Tree and Lake; Calcutta. Group of Native Servants; Calcutta. Group of Ayahs; Calcutta. View of Shipping in to Houghly (2 different views); Calcutta. Ghee Shop; Calcutta. Native Barbers; Delhi. Exterior of the Jumma Masjid from north-east; Delhi. Interior of the Jumma Masjid, Mosque & Quadrangle; Delhi. Interior of Dewan-i-Kass; Delhi. Molee Musjid or Pearl Mosque; Delhi. The Purana Kila, or Old Fort of Delhi; Delhi. The Tomb of Nizam-ood-Deen; Delhi. Tomb of Mizza Jehandir, showing fine Carving; Delhi. Interior of Chousah Kumba, 64-pillared Hall; Delhi. Mausoleum of Sufter Jung; Delhi. Birds-eye view showing the Ridge looking south; Delhi. Kutab and Great Areb from the West; Delhi. Colonnade of Hindoo Pillars, north side of Kutab; Delhi. Kutab from the East; Lucknow. View of the Chulunki, Kaiser Bagh; Lucknow. View, looking north, showing Sadur Ali Shah’s Mausoleum; Lucknow. Kaiser Passund, north-west; Lucknow. View from Officer's Quarters in Fort; Lucknow. The Mosque and Emambara, exterior; Lucknow. Ruins of the Residency and Bailey Guard Gate; Lucknow. Interior of the Hooseinabad, general view; Lucknow. Tomb of Zenad-Ali from the Terrace south-east; Lucknow. The Barradin; Agra. The Taj Mahal from the River; Agra. The Taj Mahal from below the Gateway; Agra. The Jumma Muajid Fort; Agra. Prince Etmad-Dowlah’s Tomb from top of Gateway; Agra. Prince Etmad-Dowlah’s Tomb. Marble Cupola; Agra. King Akbar’s Tomb, Upper Marble Sarcophagus; Agra; Benares. Morn Kunkur or Burning Ghat; Benares. General view of Benares from the opposite Bank of the Ganges; Benares. Sumeree Temple at Ramnugger, near view; Benares. Ancient Buddhist Tower at Sarnath showing beautiful carving; Benares. Vishnu Pud and adjoining temples; Benares. The Great Mosque of Aurungzebe and Ghats; Benares. The Monkey Temple; Bombay. Figure of Gurtore-Cutch with his ten arms, Kylas; Bombay. View of Kylas from right of Gateway; Bombay. Group of Mahadew and Parbutty in the Dhumer Lena; Bombay. Interior of Dhumer Lena from left of entrance; Bombay. Hindoo Temple at Ellora; Aurungabad. Babia Duranie’s Tomb from south-east; [Untitled]; Ajunta. Elaborately carved doorway in Cave 26; Ajunta. Exterior of Cave 9, showing fine carving and Figure of Buddha; Ajunta. View in the Veranda of Cave 26; Ajunta. Figure of Buddha and Bodesnatis on the south side of Cave 19; Ajunta. Beautiful sculpture on the front of Cave 19; Nynee Tal. Nynee Tal. From Snow Seat; Simla. View from the Mall Jakko; Simla. View on the Mall near Oakover; Simla. General view from Boileaugunge; Umritsur. Babatul, distant view; Umritsur. Golden Temple from the Terrace; Umritsur. Golden Temple, general view from the Minaret; Lahore. Runjeet Singh’s Tomb from Huzoori Bagh; Lahore. Huzoori Bagh and Fort; Lahore. Runjeet Singh’s Tomb from Huzoori Bagh (different view); Lahore. Runjeet Singh’s Tomb, Palace in Fort; Lahore. General View from Palace Looking West; Lahore. General View from Palace, larger; Lahore. Wuzeer Khan’s Mosque from Quadrangle; Lahore. Wuzeer Khan’s Mosque, showing great Arch; View of Fort Gualior.


SPRING, Sir Francis Joseph Edward (1849-1933)
[Album of Forty Original Photographs of the Construction of the First Railway Bridge over the Kistna/Krishna River near Bezwada (Vijayawada, Andhra Pradesh State), Supplemented with the Manuscript Notes of the Sir F.J. Spring, Engineer-in-Chief of the Construction, With the Gilt Lettered Title on the Front Cover:] Kistna Bridge. Bezwada. 12 Spans of 300 Feet. F.J.E. Spring, L.C.E., M.Inst.C.E., Engineer-in-Chief.

Ca. 1893. Oblong Folio (ca. 30x38 cm). 40 card stock album leaves. With 40 mounted original photographs (39 gelatin silver prints and one albumen print), from ca. 24,5x29 cm (9 x 11 ½ in) to ca. 17,5x23 cm (6 ¾ x 9 in). All gelatin silver photos with printed captions and numbers (from 3 to 67, with gaps) on the paper labels attached to the album leaves under the images; twenty-eight photos additionally dated or numbered in negative (i.e. “21.2.92” or “5483”). Ink presentation inscription by the author on the front free endpaper: “Presented to the Society of Engineers by Sir Francis Spring, K.C.I.E., Hon. Fellow Society of Engineers, September 1927;” ink stamps of the society (dated 10 October 1927) ibidem. Over twenty leaves with Spring’s handwritten ink or pencil commentaries about the photos on the margins. Period dark brown half sheep album with dark grey pebbled cloth boards, gilt tooled spine and gilt lettered title on the front board; moiré endpapers, all edges coloured; binder’s paper label in the inner corner of the rear pastedown endpaper “Bound at the Lawrence Asylum Press, Madras”. One photo completely faded (Almost certainly this was a production problem and so the albumen photo was most likely added as a replacement photo), a few other photos with mild silvering, extremities with some rubbing but overall the album is in very good condition.
Historically significant album with the original photos showing the construction of the first railway bridge over the Kistna (Krishna) River near Bezwada, now Vijayawada City (Andhra Pradesh, India). The city is currently one of the busiest stations of the Indian Railways and houses the headquarters of Vijayawada railway division (South Central Railway Zone). The bridge was constructed in 1890-1893 and became an important link on the new East Coast State Railway, allowing train traffic from Madras further north (before the trains had to stop at Tadepalli on the right bank of the Krishna River, and the cargo was transported by boats). The construction of the bridge transformed Bezwada into a bustling railway junction, connecting the line with Nizam’s Guaranteed State Railway system and the Bellari-Kristna State Railway. The bridge was designed by Sir Alexander Rendel (1829-1918) and constructed by F.J. Spring as Engineer-in-Chief, Ernest Ilfill Shadbolt (1915-?) as Executive Engineer on construction, G.T. Walch as Chief Engineer of Irrigation, and E.W. Digby as Engineer in charge. The bridge was completed in a short time – only 2,5 years, and the engineers received a special recognition of the Governor General of India. This massive structure was in service for almost 100 years and was dismantled and replaced with a new railway bridge in 1989, when its girders developed cracks (Velu to dedicated railway line across the Krishna// The Hindu. Sunday, Nov. 14, 2004).
Our album houses a historically significant collection of excellent photos showing in detail different stages of construction of the bridge. Most likely taken by an official photographer of the East Coast Railways, the photos were then mounted in the specially made albums which as a rule were produced in a limited number of copies, and the number and selection of images in them were usually different. Another album with the same title is held in the Library of the Institution of Civil Engineers in London, but the selection of images in that album is different from ours. The photos are accompanied with printed numbers and captions; our copy is additionally supplemented with the manuscript notes by F.J. Spring, Engineer-in-Chief of the construction. About twenty-five leaves bear his commentaries on the margins, explaining some details of the construction, and naming several native workers and British engineers, including “Nathi, Jemadar, Rudyard Kipling’s “Peevoo” in the ‘Bridge Builders;’” “Ale-Din, with Author for over 20 years, a most ingenious artisan and small contractor;” “John Durrand,” Spring himself captioned as the “Author,” “McClintock,” “E. Digby” and others. The images include several general panoramas of the construction site, and close up views of "Kistna Anicut", "well curb 38’21’9” double octagonal 4ft high", "pile bridge", “girder staging,” "founding a pier on top of a well," "erecting iron caisson on floor between two pontoons", "span number one completed," “girder erecting” &c. Several images clearly show the machinery used during the construction, including steam engines, steam boats, steam cranes, Gwynne’s Invincible Centrifugal Pumping Engine, hydraulic riveter carriers etc. The first leaf of the album includes the printed text of the Resolution of the Government of India recognizing the successful completion of the bridge. Overall a very interesting visual source on the early history of railways in India.
Sir Francis Joseph Spring “had been for thirty-four years concerned with railway construction and operation in India, and for an additional fifteen years was chairman and consulting engineer to the Port of Madras, holding this position until his retirement in 1919. <…> In 1871 he went to India, where he was concerned with the construction of railways and locomotives. He was responsible for the construction of the Kistna bridge, consisting of twelve spans of 300 feet each, and of other important bridges. He was appointed engineer-in-chief to the East Coast Railway and later became manager. From 1893 he had acted as consulting engineer to the Government of India upon railway affairs and was created C.I.E. In 1894. He was Director of Railway Construction, India, and Deputy Secretary to the Government of India. He was also Under-Secretary for Railways to the Government of Bengal and Senior Government Inspector of Railways. In 1904 he was appointed chairman and consulting engineer to the Port of Madras and later acted as consulting engineer to the port authority at Chittagong. A knighthood was conferred upon him in 1911.” (Obituaries/ Minutes of the Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 1934. - Vol. 237. – pp. 643-645).


31. [ASIA - INDIA]
GREENE, Captain Dominick Sarsfield, Royal Artillery (1826-1892)
[Album of Ten Original Watercolour Views of India and from the Homeward Voyage back to England].

Ca. 1857-8. Oblong Small Folio (ca. 25,5x32,5 cm). 12 beige album leaves. With ten watercolours, each ca. 17x25 cm (7x10 in) mounted on album leaves with original black ink captions mounted below. Five watercolours initialled "DSG" in pencil and four variously dated in 1858. Period style dark green gilt tooled half straight-grained morocco with dark green cloth boards. Overall a very good collection of watercolours.
The series of sketches in this album was made by Captain Dominick Sarsfield Greene at the same time as his sketches which were later turned into lithographs for his "Views in India, from drawings taken during the Seapoy Mutiny," Thos. Maclean: London, 1859. The ten attractive watercolours include: Ghauts. Bombay. Sunset; The Caves of Elephanta, Bombay; Gibraltar Hill from Rawul Pindee, Sunset; The Jumna Musgid - Delhi; The Taj Agra; On the road to Constantia, 12.5.58; From Sandy Bay Ridge, St. Helena, 3.6.58; The Man's Head Rock - St. Vincent; Bird Island, St. Vincent, St Antonia in the distance, 20.6.58; The Harbour, St. Vincent, Cape Verde, 19.6.58. Provenance: Sir Alexander Moncrieff (1829-1906) and thence by descent.


32. [ASIA - INDIA]
MACLEOD, Sybil Constance & [MACLEOD, George Charles Sholto] (1877-1915)
[Extensive Private Archive of 29 Letters, Describing Her Life as an Upper Class Lady in British India, with Notes on the Vice Roy of India, Lord Hardinge and an Attempt of Hardinge's Assassination, Planning of the Construction of New Delhi, Fort William in Calcutta, Delhi Fort and Chandni Chowk Market, Indian People and House Servants, Mixed Anglo-Indian Marriages, Military Parade in Dalhousie, Indian Mutiny, WW1, etc. One Letter Illustrated with a Photo View “from Dalhousie”; With: Four Photograph Portraits of Charles and Sybil Macleod, and Six Caricature Watercolour Portraits of Native Indians].

17 December 1911 - 2 September 1914. Mostly large Octavo (ca. 25x20,5 cm), with six smaller letters ca. 21x13,5 cm. In all over 250 pages of text. Brown and black ink on various wove paper. The photos: four loose gelatin silver prints (two mounted on card), from ca. 15x8 cm to ca. 28x17,5 cm (5 ¾ x 3 ¼ to ca. 11x7 in), with pencil and ink notes on versos. With six watercolour sketches on album paper, ca. 15x10 cm (6x4 in), all signed “G.E.M.” in the left lower corners. One letter clipped (some loss of text), fold marks, paper slightly age toned, but overall a very good archive.
Extensive collection of fascinating content rich letters written by Sybil Constance Macleod, wife of George Charles Sholto Macleod, Captain of the 2nd Battalion, Black Watch Regiment (Royal Highlanders) during his service in British India. The letters provide thoughtful and smart notes on the upper-class life in Calcutta, Darjeeling, Dalhousie, and Delhi, following Charles’ service as an Adjutant in Fort William (Calcutta) and his later transfer as a Station Staff Officer in Dalhousie (Nov. 1912). Most letters were written from Calcutta (thirteen) and Dalhousie (ten), with a few from a summer house in Darjeeling and during a short stay in Delhi. The first letter was written in December 1911 on the way to India on board S.S. Plassy, near Gibraltar; the last one – in the end of September 1914, shortly before the author’s departure to England in the beginning of WW1; most letters are addressed to Sybil’s mother Amy Constantia Jeffreys (d. 1932); with two written to her sister and aunt.
The letters contain a lot of interesting notes on the British military and civil officials, Indian people and places, i.e. Lord Hardinge (Viceroy of India, 1910-1916); Sir William Henry Clark (the Member for Commerce and Industry of the Council of the Viceroy of India, 1910-1916); Thomas David Gibson-Carmichael, 1st Baron Carmichael (Governor of Bengal in 1912-1917); Sir Edwin Lutyens (the architect of New Delhi); Fort William in Calcutta; several sights of Delhi, including the Fort, Humayun’s Tomb, and Chandni Chowk market (with “most fascinating shops, jewellery, embroideries, china, silks, & all the things that most make you wish you had money to chuck away!”); a trip from Calcutta to Dalhousie by train (up to Pathankot) and from there by an “invalid tonga” cart; landscapes in Darjeeling; officer’s vacation bungalows in Barrackpore. There is also a lengthy description of the “bomb tragedy” – assassination attempt of Viceroy Lord Hardinge which happened in Delhi on 23 December 1912; notes on a session of the Council of the Viceroy which she attended in Calcutta in March 1912; the planning of New Delhi; Christmas celebrations and King’s Birthday Parade in Dalhousie, and others. The letters are full of descriptions of dinners, receptions, and parties (i.e. A ball of Lieut.-Gov. Of Bengal, garden party of “Maharajashiraja Bahadur of Burdwan”, Sergeants’ Ball, a party given “by a native in honour of his nephew’s wedding” with a description of a mansion with lots of copies of old masters and later European paintings, Dresden china, and others). There are also numerous society gossips, passages about her daughter Sheila, dresses and gowns, jewelry, various purchases, house servants and cooks, prices for groceries, local trees and flowers, weather, et al.
One of the letters is illustrated with an ink drawn portrait of a native clothes mender “neatly dressed in a coat of cheap broderie anglais, through the holes of which shone his brown skin; a rather fashionable narrow skirt comes about to his ankles… The only thing is, I generally have to arrange to give him my things to mend just as they’re going to the wash, as he may be seen crouching on the back verandah, holding one end of his work between his toes!” (25 Apr. 1912).
The portraits show Charles and Sybil Macleod in the 1900s and early 1910s, Charles – in the uniform of the Lancashire Fusiliers (served in 1900-1905) decorated with medals received after the Second Boer War, and as an officer of the Egyptian Army (served in 1906-1908); Sybil – in an elaborate gown of the early 1910s. Done with an obvious artistic talent, most likely by Charles’ father George Edmostone Macleod (1851-1910, civil service commissioner in Oudh and Assam in 1870-1890s), the caricatures show “Zubberdust Khan, Budmash;” “Mir Shah – Pathan Sepoy;” “Umbeeka Churun Bose, Bengalee Baboo;” “Hunooman Dass, Jogee” [Jogi]; “Ram Ruttun – Ryot;” and “Gowee Mull – Delhi Jeweller.”
Some excerpts from the letters:
[Fort William]: “This fort is really a very nice place, quite away from Calcutta, separated from the town by the Maidan, an enormous wide open space of grass, which gives one plenty of air and light <…> lots of Generals live inside here, including the Commander-in Chief, who has a charming garden & tennis courts. There are lots of nice grassy bits, edged with trees, where they can play football ect., a native bazar, a post office & two churches, - so it is like a little town right away from the rest” (8 Feb. 1912).
[Indian Mutiny]: “I think somehow the Mutiny which thrills me more than almost anything in history, is apt to make one lose sight of Delhi’s own ancient history, for a time. The church is the same one as in Mutiny days, only restored, of course, while in its gardens close by, you see the battered brass globe & cross that surmounted it then, with bullet holes in dozens of places, but still never absolutely destroyed. The statue of John Nicholson, and the memorials in the church, the battered Kashmir Gate and the bare and open Ridge, all help one to realize those awful times, and the absolutely desperate fighting” (4 Feb. 1913)
[Planning of the New Delhi site]: “I have met Mr. Lutyens & Capt. Swinton, the “New Delhi” architects, & they are all busy squabbling as to the respective merits of two sites. It seems they had to keep the original scheme in such profound secrecy that they couldn’t consult even an expert, or something would have leaked out. & then when the Queen graciously announced her wish to lay the foundation stones of New Delhi, they were rather staggered, as experts had already pronounced the ground entirely unsuitable: however, the stones were duly laid, & will I suppose be removed in the night some time, to the spot which is finally selected. Mr. Lutyens <…> is a queer person, always making would be comic remarks, but much nicer when he’s serious; while Capt. Swinton, who was once in the army, has a long beard, a beautiful strait Greek nose…” (4 Feb. 1913); “There is being much heart-burning & furiously divided opinion in Delhi as to the respective merits of two proposed sites for the new capital, & last Sunday we went to see Mr. Lutyens’ sketches & plans for the new Govt. House, Secretariat etc., which were perfectly charming & so deliciously done, just slight sketches with vivid touches of colour” (13 Feb. 1913).
[Lord Hardinge, Viceroy of India]: “They say he is so self-opinionated & won’t take advice from anyone, although of course he can’t know much about the country; & the new policy & change to Delhi, doesn’t seem popular either” (25 Jan. 1912); “there were a lot of people there, all entirely unenthusiastic & all heartily delighted to see the last of them. He has rather a bad manner, shy & a little stiff, & no small talk <…> There was no cheering & they drove off in dead silence. I wonder if the English papers noticed, what is thrilling everyone out here (the natives of course) – that as he was driving away, almost a vivid flash of lightning shattered the flag over Govt. House. I was really rather extraordinary, & of course to the people out here, the very worst of omens…” (farewell to the Viceroy in Calcutta, a letter from 28 Mar. 1912).
[Assassination attempt of Lord Hardinge on 23 December 1912]: “He seems to be very bad still, 6 weeks later, as it is now; & no one seems quite to know what the effects will really be. Though of course the drum of one ear is cracked, or broken, & I don’t suppose anything can be done to that; while at present the shock to his nerves & whole system seems to be tremendous. He would open the first Council meeting, but they had to drug him pretty heavily first, to present any possible emotionalism (not quite a word I fear!) as he had such a tremendous ovation on entering. Mrs. Clark was telling me Lady Hardinge’s own account of it, to her. It seems they didn’t hear the explosion – apparently you don’t if you are very near; but they were thrown forward on to the front of the Howdah, & she said to him, “Was it an earthquake?” – and he said “No, I’m afraid it was a bomb.” He had such faith in the Indian people, & that anarchy was dying out, that they say the shock of that has hurt him most terribly. He insisted they should go on, & it wasn’t till she looked back & saw the terribly mangled remains of the man who was holding the Sate umbrella over them, that she got the procession stopped. She spoke to the Viceroy, & just at that moment his face became perfectly grey, & he sort of convulsively crumpled up & fell forward unconscious…” (4 Feb. 1913).
[Sir William Henry Clark]: “He is one of 6 Council members who I suppose correspond more or less to the Cabinet at home, & are tremendous people out here, with salutes of 17 guns, deputations & addresses wherever they move, banquets, guards of honour, bands and garlands, to say nothing of special trains with private kitchens, bathrooms, & compartments for their entire staff of servants.” <…> (13 Feb. 1913).
[Indian people, servants, etc.]: “they know from long experience how white people like things done, & are a thousand times better than the ordinary little cook & house parlour maid of England or Ireland” (25 Jan. 1912); “…in Bengal [people] are the most mouldy little rats, with greasy heads, nearly always turban less, the average man is about the size of an English boy of 14, except when they’re enormously fat & oily, & quite disgusting. The women wear one dirty white drapery, & they all look seditious crow brutes, more like mice than men! But these Punjabies really are men, - great tall fine-looking creatures, all in turbans of every imaginable colour, with full white trousers & coats, & the look of a good fighting race…” (5 Nov. 1912); “all cooks in this country live to put spice in everything they touch, & Abdul Rashid is no exception. I have to wage war on nutmeg and cinnamon, but it creeps insidiously in upon the smallest provocation” (30 Dec. 1912); “We have been having terrible domestic scenes in the servants’ quarters, where the dishwasher & kitchen maid came & complained that the bearer had taken his wife from him! (he. The husband, always seemed to be beating her because she would stand outside the door & talk to other men!) Of course, the bearer indignantly denied it, - the dishwasher was under sentence to go already, & Charlie said they must be gone, bag & baggage, within an hour. He said his wife wouldn’t come with him, & then a terrible scene was enacted in front of the house, entirely for our benefit: he dragged her along the ground, she kicking & moaning, & thus they advanced about a yard at a time; till finding we were entirely unresponsive & only ordering them to go a little quicker, they picked themselves up & mournfully departed” (18 Jun. 1913).
[Mixed Anglo-Indian marriages]: “I must say it gave me rather a shock to see an obvious English girl, fair and rather pretty though second-rate looking dressed in a complete native dress; they say sometimes the daughters of houses in London that take in as lodgers these natives studying to be barristers or something, marry them and come out here to live, of course purely native fashion. Rather horrible I think, don’t you?” (27 Feb. 1912).
[King’s Birthday Parade, Dalhousie]: “The solid stodgy red lines of the Manchesters, Connaught Rangers & Lancashire Fusiliers marched past well knowing they were there to make an impression on the rows of dark faces huddled on the opposite hillside, in turbans & clothes of every most brilliant hue, who sat absolutely silent, watching while 3 cheers for the King, & salutes to the Flag, echoed & crackled round the hills & back again. They say there is a good deal of sedition & trouble going on under the surface – people holding disloyal meetings & warlike races like Sikhs trying to stir up the others; but no two of the many races in this enormous country would ever unite. I should imagine, - & we would never be caught so unprepared again as in the Mutiny days” (18 Jun. 1913).
[Reference to Rudyard Kipling]: “There is a “haunted bungalow” close by here, & it certainly has an air of great loneliness & mystery: masses of rock are lying tumbled about in the garden, & big beams that came down when the house was damaged in an earthquake. The house has been rebuilt, but is unlet now, & it is supposed to be the original of Kipling’s story about the man riding to see his love, on a stormy night when the rains had made the soil all loose – his horse bolted down the Khud, past the house, & he was never seen or heard of more, except that now people frequently hear him thundering past – Mrs. Carnegy, the General’s wife, vows and declares she has often heard it!” (20 May 1913).
[Description of a photo attached to the letter from May 20, 1913]: “I send you a photograph of the view from here, which may give you a sort of idea of the country, & the different layers, the nearer & lower slopes thick with rhododendrons, deodars & all sorts of trees, then only pines & gradually up to bare rock & the snows above all; Kashmir is over those mountains I believe.”
[Titanic wreck]: “Wasn’t the Titanic disaster perfectly haunting? I think worse that the shock of going down must have been the icy cold of the water, in which they couldn’t possibly live for more than a few minutes. We haven’t got the English papers account of it yet; but it ought really to make the builders of these luxurious & enormous liners pause & think a bit” (25 Apr. 1912).
[WW1]: “The Divisions from here seem to be going there, at present at any rate, & I suppose they may send farther reinforcements to guard oil fields in Persia, & keep an eye on Turkey. It is announced by Mahomedans out here that the Germans have tried their hardest to stir up the Turks, by representing that they lent them money in their need, while England didn’t help them& & of course if they succeeded in rousing the Turks, the Mahomedans of this country would almost certainly fo in with them, for the triumph of faith. Germans are supposed & I believe known, to have gone about stirring up trouble in the bazars, & many have now been deported to isolated places & guarded, like the Boer prisoners. They say a German either put, or bribed a native to put, this bomb in the Lahore fort, which would have been truly awful thing if it hadn’t been for the courage of a Capt. Rock, I think his name ism who, receiving a letter to say “Beware of fire tonight,” instantly thought of the Fort & rushed off there; seizing the bomb in his hand he fled outside with it ticking away, & flung it from him, but not before his arms & face were burnt” (2 Sept. 1914).
George Charles Sholto MacLeod (2nd Battalion, the Black Watch/ Royal Highlanders) was born at Sylhet, Assam on 28 June 1877. At the age of nineteen he joined the ranks of the army, in which he served for over three and a half years. He served during the South African War from 1899-1900 with the Royal Lancaster Regiment, with whom he gained the award of the Distinguished Conduct Medal (London Gazette 19 April 1901) ‘...for gallantry at Spion Kop, in the absence of stretcher bearers did good work in carrying wounded out of action under hot fire.’ He subsequently took part in the operations on Tugela Heights, where he was severely wounded. He received his commission in the Lancashire Fusiliers in May 1900, and was promoted Lieutenant in April 1901. In April 1905, he obtained special promotion to the Hampshire Regiment, as Captain, and in June 1908 was transferred to the Black Watch with the same rank. He served with the Egyptian Army from 1906 to 1908. Captain MacLeod died in hospital at Bethune, where he was taken after the action at Richebourg on 9 May 1915, suffering from shrapnel wounds. He had been wounded previously in France in November 1914. As well as the D.C.M. And Q.S.A. He is entitled to for his Boer War Service, he was also awarded the 1911 Coronation Medal.
He married Sybil Constance Jeffreys on June 2, 1908, they had two children – Sheila (12 Nov. 1909-1986), and Neil (16 Feb. 1914 - ?).


33. [ASIA - JAPAN]
[Album of 125 Original Gelatin-Silver Photographs of Central Japan Including Nikko, Mount Nasu, Mount Asama, Kyoto, Kamakura etc., Showing Architecture, Landscapes, Temples and Local People etc.; With: Six Original Japanese Prints and Two Original Watercolours].

1911. Oblong Folio (27x36 cm). 33 black album leaves. Collection of 125 gelatin silver prints, all but six mounted on recto and/or verso. Includes two photographs ca. 8,5x29 cm (3 ¼ x 11 ¼ in), seven ca. 9,5x14 cm (3 ¾ x 5 ½ in), six ca. 9x9 cm (3 ½ x 3 ½ in) and the rest 7,5x10 cm (3x4 in) or slightly smaller. Captions in period manuscript white ink on most leaves. Additionally over 10 photographs have been hand coloured. The collection also includes two studio albumen prints each ca. 21x25,5 cm (8 ¼ x 10 in) with captions in negative, Six original Japanese prints ranging from ca. 6,5x9,5 cm (2 ½ x 3 ¾ in) to ca. 9x14 cm (3 ½ x 5 ½ in), and two original watercolours ca. 6,5x20 cm (2 ½ x 7 ¾ in). Period style black gilt tooled half morocco with black cloth covers. A couple of album leaves with some mild traces of moisture but overall a very good album of interesting strong photographs.
This album of unique private photographs compiled by (mostly likely) an English lady (several photos which show the photographer are captioned "self") shows a variety of locations in central Japan, including the topography, architecture and local scenes. Included are images of Nikko (over 20 photographs): Temple procession (6 photos); Monastery Garden (4 photos); Gangnam ga fuchi (4 photos); Japanese girls in Kimono (4 photos); Tomb of Shogun Leyasu; Nasu Dake (Mount Nasu): 20 photographs including crater, inn, Nasu village; Kyoto: 14 photographs including pagodas, Gion Shrine (Now Yasaka Shrine), Gion Procession, Teapot lane, Chionin Temple; Kamakura, Kanagawa Prefecture (over 10 photographs): Daibutsu (4 images); Beach (2 views); Hachiman Temple and Lotus Garden (4 images); Shrine; Trip to Mount Asama (15 images including Kawarayu, Shibukawa, Maebashi; 4 views of Asama Yama; Kusatsu); Chuzenji Lake (On the way (5 images); Lake (5 views); Lakeside hotel; 2 images of net fishing); Pack horse; 3 photographs of carts and drivers; planting rice; ploughing paddy; Yumoto Lake (2 views); Miyanoshita Onsen, Kanagawa Prefecture (Fujiya Hotel, White Japanese Cock).


[Attractive Album with Twenty-three Original Watercolours, Twelve Studio Albumen Photographs and 82 Original Snapshot Gelatin Silver Photographs Taken and Drawn by a Young Woman Who Travelled to Kashmir and Northern India in 1896].

Ca. 1896. Oblong Folio (ca. 26,5x36 cm). 19 card stock album leaves. With 23 mounted watercolour drawings of various size (some cut to shapes), from ca. 25x35 cm (9 ¾ x 13 ¾ in) to ca. 8x4 cm (3 x 1 ½ in); twelve mounted studio albumen photos: nine large ones, ca. 21x27,5 cm (8 ¾ x 10 ¾ in), and four smaller ones, ca. 10x15 cm (3 ¾ x 5 ¾ in); nine studio photos numbered or captioned in negative. Also with 82 mounted original gelatin silver snapshot photos, ca. 7,5x9,5 cm (3 x 3 ¾ in) or slightly smaller; four pieces of printed ephemera and numerous dried flowers and leaves of Kashmir plants. All drawings and most photos with manuscript ink captions and/or dates on the mounts or in the lower corners of the images (mostly for drawings). Period brown quarter sheep album with green cloth boards and gilt lettered title “Souvenir de Voyage” on the front cover. Front cover and the spine detached from the album stub; a few album leaves with minor chipping on extremities, three leaves detached and loosely inserted, a few images mildly faded, but overall a very good album of interesting photos and watercolours.
Attractive keepsake album from a travel to Kashmir compiled by a young female traveller who was closely connected to the family of Lieutenant-Colonel John Stratford Collins (1851-1908), the Commander of the 1st battalion of the Queen’s Royal Regiment (West Surrey) stationed in India. Elaborately arranged original photos, watercolours, small printed ephemera and dried Kashmir plants create a picturesque illustration to the travels of the Collins’ family taken in spring-summer 1896, shortly before Stratford Collins became the Commander of the Queen’s 1st battalion in September that year. The album starts with five watercolours and sixteen snapshots from a trip to the Lolab Valley and Lake Wular, showing the travellers’ camps at Awatkoola and Lalpora villages, views of the Wular Lake near Alsoo, portraits of the album compiler, John Stratford Collins, his wife Margaret, their daughter Sibyl, family friends and native servants. There are also five large watercolours and eleven original snapshots illustrating the trip from Srinagar up the Sindh River Valley to Ganderbal and Sonamarg, showing “Camp Kangan,” Sindh River at Ganderbal, mountain peaks at Sonamarg, travellers’ dunga boats, a portrait of a “Ladaki,” a lady from the travelling party mounted on a horse etc. Five watercolours and over twenty snapshots depict a trip up the Lidar Valley, showing the Lidar River and mountains near Pahalgam, temples of Islamabad (Anantnag), the travellers resting in camp beds on a “veranda at Gund,” a female traveller sleeping in a camp bed on a boat, camping grounds near Pahalgam and in the Aru valley, the mergs (mountain slopes), the ruins of the Hindu Martund Sun Temple, group portraits of the “coolies” and Hindu pilgrims to the Amarnath Temple etc. There are also a nice watercolour view and four original snapshots of Srinagar, watercolours views of the interior of the traveller’s tent in Ambala, and the exterior of the Lumley’s Hotel in Ambala; portraits of “Jabul Khan, Papier Mache man,” local “boat girl and child,” and Sybil Stratford Collins mounted on a pony in front of the gate to “Col. Stratford Collins’ Kidunnah Cottage” (most likely, in Ambala), a humorous watercolour scene showing a wild bear and a cub visiting the travellers’ camp in Pahalgam, and others. The large studio photos include a group portrait of the officers of the 1st battalion of the Queen’s Royal Regiment (West Surrey) with John Stratford Collins as the Commander (taken in Dagshai), views of Ambala and nearby Kasauli resort, Shimla, Pahalgam, Lidar Valley “on the way to Aroo,” and Dagshai, including an interesting view of the elaborately decorated altar of the Anglican church in the Dagshai cantonment during the “harvest festival.” The smaller studio photos are mostly portraits of the local people, including “native messenger,” “chatti carriers,” “Indian Ekka, native cart,” etc.
The album is supplemented with two printed menus from dinners in Kalka and Shimla, and a program to the comedy “Charley’s Aunt” performed in the Gaiety Theatre, Simla on October [1896]. Numerous dried specimens of dried plants mounted next to the watercolours and photos on the leaves include those of the “small blue iris,” “wild rose, Alsoo,” “leaf from the Wolar Lake,” cotton flower, jessamine, “yellow violets Sonamerg,” colombine, and many others. Overall a fascinating album compiled by a female traveller to Kashmir.
Major General John Stratford Collins served in the Burma Expedition (1886-89) and commanded the Queen’s 1st battalion in 1896-1901, leading them during the Tirah Expedition on the North-West Frontier (1897-98). He was promoted as Major General in 1903 and in 1906 served as Inspector General of Volunteers; in 1907 he took command of the 2nd division at Rawalpindi, but died of cholera the next year. He was made a Companion of the Bath in 1905 and was twice mentioned in Despatches.


[MATSUIDAIRA, Harumitsu & Shigetoki]
[Album with Sixty-six Original Gelatin Silver Photographs of Manchuria and Korea].

Ca. 1907. Oblong small Octavo ca. 15x20 cm (6x8 in). 25 thick card stock leaves (7 blank). With 66 original gelatin silver photographs, with 60 images ca. 7,5x10 cm (3x4in), five larger photos ca. 10x13,5 cm (4 x 5 ¼ in), and one smaller photo ca. 6x8,5 cm (2 ½ x 3 ½ in). Sixty photos with detailed ink captions in Japanese on the mounts, four other photos captioned in Japanese in negative. Period dark brown half sheep with cloth boards and elaborate gilt stamped ornaments on the spine; moirè endpapers; paper label of a Japanese bookshop on the front pastedown endpaper. Binding slightly rubbed on extremities and weak on hinges, several images mildly faded, otherwise a very good album.
Interesting album of original photos showing Manchuria and Korea just a few years after the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) as seen by Japanese travellers. Both territories became protectorates of Japan after the war – Manchuria as a part of the Kwantung Leased Territory and the Korean Peninsula after the signing of the Japan-Korea Protectorate Treaty of 1905, so Japanese companies quickly moved into the new markets in search of opportunities. The photos were apparently taken by brothers Harumitsu & Shigetoki Matsuidaira – younger members of the influential Japanese aristocratic family, which was closely involved with the Japanese major general trading company Mitsui Bussan. The trip was undertaken to inspect the new offices of Mitsui Bussan in the major cities of the Liaodong and Korean Peninsulas.
The party left Japan on July 30th (the year is not mentioned, but most likely it was 1907), taking a ferry from Shimonoseki to Moji city (modern-day Kitakuyushi, Fukuoka), and sailed to Dairen (Dalian) on board the “Miyushino Maru” boat. From there the travellers took a train to Mukden (Shenyang), visiting Yingkou, Liaoyang, and passing by the Bushun coal mine on the way. The next city shown in the album is Antoken (Dandong) in the mouth of the Yalu River, from there the party went by railway to Pyonyang, Seoul and Jinsen (Incheon), leaving to Japan on board the “Iki Maru” boat a month later, on August 30th the same year.
The photos show ferry boats in the Moji city, nine views taken on board the “Miyushino Maru” (portraits of the Matsuidara brothers, the ship’s crew, Mr. Naosuke Mizoguchi, and three views of the Korean coast taken on the way). Manchuria is represented by photos of Dairen (Yamato hotel and harbour, Dairen primary school, and several views of the city and environs taken from the 203 Hill, with one photo showing Japanese group standing next to Russian graves with Orthodox Christian crosses); Yingkou (street, local office of the Mitsui Bussan company, scene of a Chinese wedding procession); Liaoyang (general views taken from above, railway line and adjacent streets, temples, city fortifications and “house of General Kuroshima”); Bushun coal mine taken from the train; Mukden (Mukden Palace, general panoramas taken from above, a street view etc.); Antoken (Dandong) and the Yalu River. Photos of Korea include several views of Pyonyang (train on the tracks, the old castle), four well-executed views of Seoul (general panoramas and a street view); and four views of Jinsen (the harbour and beach, street and panoramas of the city roofs). Two photos portray the members of the party at the house of Mr. Ogadaki, manager of the local branch of Mitsui Bussan. The album closes with six studio photos, showing Korean children posing on the Monument of Wongaksa in the Tapgol Park (Seoul), three views of the 203 Hill overlooking Dairen, etc. Overall an interesting rare photo album showing Japanese-controlled Manchuria and Korea in the early 20th century.


[Rare Collection of Thirty-three Real Photo Postcards, Showing American Occupation Forces Camps and War Manoeuvres in the Philippines in 1910].

1910. With 33 original real photo postcards, each ca. 8,5x13,5 cm (3 ½ x 5 ½ in), the majority captioned, dated and numbered in negative, some additionally captioned in pen on recto and two captioned on verso (all in English). A couple of images with very mild fading but overall a very good collection of interesting strong sharp images.
Rare collection of historically important early images showing the American occupation forces and their military actions in the Philippines. The majority of images are numbered and captioned "War Manoeuvres 1910 P.I.," several others show U.S. Camps: Emmet Crawford, Stotsenburg, Commissary Depot San Fernando, and Battery Barracks Asturias Jolo. Other images show group photos of soldiers, various manoeuvres to keep the troops combat ready such as marches, crossing rice fields and rivers, temporary camps, and the actions of the war games between various battalions. The battalions shown include the Infantry, Horse Artillery, Signal Core, 2nd &12th & 13th Cavalry, Light Artillery, U.S. Marines, Scouts, Mountain Battalion, and the Hospital Core. In the aftermath of the Philippine - American War (1899-1902), a strong American military presence remained in the Philippines as hostilities with Philippine resistance groups continued for more than a decade after the war ended until 1913.
This collection rare photo postcards is an important historic documentation of this early post war American military presence and it's military actions in the Philippines.


[ELIZALDE, Joaquin Miguel “Mike”] (1896-1965)
[Album with Sixty-one Original Gelatin Silver Photographs Showing a "Hunting trip to Wilds of Luzon Along Cagayan River, Hosted by Mike Elizalde," a Member of an Influential Filipino Family of Sugar and Mining Industrialists and Future American Congressman, Ambassador and Adviser to President Manuel L. Quezon; the Photos Portray Elizalde and His American Guests, Indigenous Guides, Rowers and Local People, Show the Cagayan River and Valley, the Travellers’ Dugout Canoes, Camps etc.]

April 1930. Oblong Quarto album (ca. 22x31 cm). With 18 dark brown card leaves (17 with mounted photos, one blank). With 61 original gelatin silver mounted photos, with six larger ones ca. 12,5x21 cm (5x8 in) and the rest ca. 9x15 cm (3 ½ x 5 ¾ in). The front paste down with the album’s title in black manuscript pen and J. M. Elizalde’s printed name card pasted underneath. Original brown faux crocodile leather cloth boards, fastened with a cord. Album covers with some wear and a couple of minor tears but overall a very good album of strong and sharp photographs.
This rare historically interesting album of photographs documents a leisure trip along the Cagayan River in northern Luzon (the Philippines), hosted by an influential local industrialist and future politician Joaquin “Mike” Elizalde, apparently for his American business partners. The photos portray the Americans in dugout canoes, with their indigenous guides and rowers, rivers scenes along the Cagayan River, locals along the river with their water buffaloes and other domestic river scenes, the travellers' accommodations along the route including huts and tents, locals encountered and their dwellings, domestic village scenes with locals and hunting scenes, etc. The Rio Grande de Cagayan is the longest river in the Philippines, and passes through one of the few remaining primary forests in the Philippines, which is home to many endemic species. The indigenous guides are most likely from the local Ilongot tribe who live between the southern Sierra Madre and Caraballo Mountains. The Ilongots are known to be aggressive and culturally conservative and sustain themselves by living close to rivers which they use for transport and to get food. Overall a rare collection of images of this remote part of the Philippines with the ties to a noted Filipino and American industrialist and polititian.
“ELIZALDE, Joaquin Miguel <…>; industrialist; financier; economic advisor to President Manuel L. Quezon, 1937-1938; member of the Philippine national economic council 1937-1941, 1952-1953; member of the joint preparatory committee on Philippine affairs, 1936-1937; member of the Philippine council of state 1936-1941, 1952-1953; served in the Philippine Army; appointed as a Resident Commissioner to the Seventy-sixth Congress, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of Resident Commissioner Quintin Paredes, and served until his resignation on August 9, 1944 (September 29, 1938-August 9, 1944); member of the war cabinet of President Manuel L. Quezon, 1941-1944; member of the board of governors of the International Monetary Fund and of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, 1946-1950; appointed ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary of the Republic of the Philippines to the United States, 1946-1952; minister of foreign affairs of the Republic of the Philippines 1952-1953; economic adviser to the Philippine Mission at the United Nations, with rank of ambassador, 1956-1965” (Biographical Directory of the United States Congress online).
The Elizalde family founded the first radio station in the Philippines in 1940 and still owns its successor, Manila Broadcasting Company.


EDWARDES, David Jones (d. 1878)
[Autograph Letter Signed by David Jones Edwardes, a British Diplomat in the Kingdom of Siam, Talking about the Funeral of a Siamese Prince (with a Separate Captivating Four-page Manuscript Account of the Funeral), the Delimitation of Siamese-Burmese Boundary, American Baptist Missionaries in Bangkok, Including Ms. Adele Fielde, etc.; the Manuscript Account is Titled:] Account of Burning the Remains or Skeleton of the Son of the First King.

British Consulate, Bangkok, 8 February 1868. Two Quarto bifoliums (ca. 26,5x21,5 cm ). Brown ink on bluish paper. 4 + 4 pp. of text. Fold marks, paper mildly age toned, but overall a very good pair of manuscript documents.
Historically interesting content rich letter written by a British diplomat in the Kingdom of Siam to his father. The narration starts with a description of the arrival of the “Commissioner for the delimitation of the boundaries between Burmah and Siam” (the Convention between the Governor-General of India and the King of Siam, defining the boundary between Siam and the Burmese province of Tenasserim, treaty signed on February 8, 1868, and ratified on July 3 the same year): “…[the Commissioner] brought with him a letter from the Viceroy of India and this letter was received by the King, en grand audience, with all honours. This was the usual procession of boats with from 50 to 100 men in each and on landing there was a guard of honour and military band. The letter was received with a salute. The bearers of the sedan chairs almost fought for the possession of the two small men of our party, the acting Consul Alabaster & Kennedy, but a <…> rattan cane wielded by a Siamese official soon restored them to a sense of propriety”.
A passage in the letter and an additional extensive four-page manuscript describe the funeral or “hpra-men” [Phra Men] of a son of the first king of Siam which took place on February 3-5, 1868. Well-written, the account gives a vibrant picture of the funeral procession and ceremony, with interesting observations which reveal Edwardes’ role and attitude to the event. “… the gold urn <…> occupied the middle of the procession, before it walked <…> companies of soldiers in native and European costume, fabulous griffins & monsters in wood drawn by men, behind it came the relatives of deceased and some soldiers and a dusty perspiring semi naked crowd… [During the Phra Men ceremony] Siamese and Chinese theatricals were being carried on with much noise & vigour. The groaning & shouting of a large crowd which surrounded two men playing at double stick (each had two bludgeons) increased the effect. The proceedings at an English theatre will give you no idea of the barbarous & gorgeous dresses, the beating of gongs & tom toms, the shouting and blowing of pipes which accompany the performances of Siamese & Chinese actors.
A passage from the Hpra-men to the east gate of the palace was formed by Amayons. These Amayons are ugly women dressed very slovenly in red coats and caps and armed with bayonet rifles. They guard the women of the Palace, but are more for show that use. <…> We pushed our way up towards the shed and were escorted into the presence of royalty. Into the very focus as it were of the great Sun of Siam and luminary of the world. Happy mortal that I am, the rays of light which were then directed to me still play round my head <…> His Majesty with words of condescension bestowed on those with me tokens of his esteem & mementos of the ceremony. The Acting Consul got two bunches of fruit and two gilt animals. On me were bestowed by royal hand one bunch of fruit (made of cork) and a gilt animal – a mouse. He then turned to his prime minister who was seated a little below him and said in Siamese: “You see I know all the men of the British Consulate, both big & little.” <…>
One or two gas lamps had also been put up. The whole scene at night was wonderfully interesting. Just in front of where we were sitting near the King was a large square lined by soldiers, and in this some fifty boys each with two coloured lamps were chanting and dancing. Then the dense crowd, their faces illuminated by the lurid glare of the fireworks, then the building in which the funeral pile had been erected with its illumination & gilt roof, and outside of the crowd rose five high wooden towers, festooned with lamps and illuminated at different points.
When I have opportunity, I will send home my gilt mouse and bunch of fruits. Each fruit contains a silver coin and the mouse is supposed to have five shillings worth of gold in it…”
Very interesting are Edwardes’ notes about American Baptist missionaries in Bangkok. First, he wrote about “a new missionary and his wife here, Mr. & Mrs. Lisle” (Rev. William M. Lisle and his wife Anna Lisle, arrived to Bangkok in January 1868 in order to join the American Baptist Mission, but had to leave in June that year due to serious health implications): “I am going to call on them next week. He preached in church last Sunday, a rather better sermon than the missionaries here (with the exception of Dr. House [?]) are capable of. But he looks wonderfully young, has not a hair on his face and I should have taken him to be only 18, but I hear he is getting on for 28. If Siam is not to be converted it won’t be for want of missionaries”. Then Edwardes contemplated about the essence of missionary work and its development at the time: “In my younger days I used to think from the way they were talked about that missionaries were very superior beings or at least men far great on account of their self sacrifice and self denial. This was the idea I derived from platform speeches, but practically it is very different. I hear that they have misrepresented or need to misrepresent (it would be rather difficult now) the state of society in England and America. That certain vices were very uncommon and amongst other things that there were no whores in the country”.
Edwardes also left an interesting comment of the activity of a young female Baptist missionary Adele M. Fielde (1849-1916), who arrived to Siam in 1865, just to discover that her fiancé, young Baptist missionary Cyrus Chilcott had died a couple of months earlier. Miss Fielde stayed on and started to work in the mission, but “did not fit in with the Baptist missionary community. Her dancing, card-playing, and associations with the diplomatic community resulted in her dismissal from the mission” (Fielde, Adele, M. Baptist missionary to China known for her work with Bible women/ Boston University School of Theology, History of Missiology She had to return to the United States but was reinstated in the Baptist Mission in Swatow (China), where her 20-years work with the native women earned her a title of “the mother of our Bible women and also the mother of our Bible schools” (ibid.) Edwardes wrote in the letter: “Miss Field, a missionary lady instead of confining herself to Bangkok & living in the family of Dr. Dean [Rev. William Dean, 1807-1895, early Baptist missionary in Bangkok and Hong Kong] goes away to teach the Chinese some thirty miles from here all alone by herself. This shocks European prejudices and is not consistent with native notions of propriety.” In the end of the letter Edwardes mournfully contemplates about the decline of morale in the Old England which “is very rotten,” and that “in this present thirst for money what can we expect but that tradesmen… dishonest, officials corrupt & companies untrustworthy…”


[Collection of Forty-Four Original Gelatin Silver Stereo View Photographs of Russian Turkestan from the “Srednyaya Aziya” Series].

Moscow-Saint Petersburg: Stereo photographic Publishing House “Sviet”, 1910. Forty-four pairs of gelatin silver stereo view photographs, each ca. 7,5x15cm (3 x 6in) printed on original publisher’s cards; printed captions in Russian and German on rectos, 33 cards with additional printed captions in Russian on versos. One card torn with a lower right corner of one image missing, otherwise a very good collection of strong images.
Rare interesting collection of stereo photographic views of Russian Turkestan – a conquered Central Asian province of the Russian Empire in 1867-1918, which covered the territories of modern-day Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. The photos were issued by a major Russian publisher of stereo views “Sviet” (“Light”). Photos of Uzbekistan show the desert in the Mirzhacho’l or Golodnaya Steppe (“Hungry Steppe”); a steamship wharf on the Amu Darya River (with the anchored river steamer “Imperator Nikolai”), sites of Samarkand (Ulugh Beg Madrasa, mausoleum of Tamerlane, street views, bread market), Tashkent (the 19th-century building of the Dzhuma Mosque which was demolished due to complete decay in 1997 and rebuilt in 2003, pilgrims near the Dzhuma Mosque, cotton factory in the Chigatay suburb), Bukhara (Zargran Madrasa, Mir-Arab Madrasa), a village near Tashkent, camel caravan on a street of Termez etc. There are also photos of modern-day Kazakhstan showing the Talas River, ferry on the Syr Darya River, Malaya Almatinka River, cliffs near Verny (Almaty), a tomb of a rich Kirghiz/Kazakh near Verny, and general view of Shymkent; Tajikistan (Zeravshan/Zarafshan Glacier, Turkestan Range, and reeds in the upper reaches of Amu Darya), and Turkmenistan (three views of Krasnovodsk/Turkmenbashi, including a photo of the new railway station built in 1895, and a scene of clearing of the irrigation channel near Bayramaly). There are also portraits of different national groups inhabiting the region, including “Kirghizes” (Kazakhs) near their winter Yurts, a Teke man mounted on a horse with his wife, a group of Khiva people, Sart women on a market, a Sart-book binder at work, Afghans on a Merv street, East Indians in Bukhara, et al. Several photos depict agricultural activities in Central Asia, i.e. Plowing, raking hay, or threshing, or show sheep guided by the local shepherds. Overall an historically interesting collection of well-preserved original stereo views of Russian Central Asia.


BORNAS, Aug[ust?]
[Album of Ten Original Pen and Wash Sketches of Military Fortifications, Villages and Mountainous Views of Tonkin (North Vietnam) Taken by a Participant of the French Military Campaign on Pacification of Tonkin (1886-1896)].

Ca. 1891. Oblong Quarto (ca. 21x29 cm). 12 leaves. With ten sketches in pen and wash on beige paper each ca. 13x21 cm (5 ¼ x 8 ¼ in) and mounted on album leaves. All but one captioned in ink in the lower margins of the sketches, five signed “Aug. Bournas” in the lower corners (three additionally dated February or December 1891), one signed “Diesenhosen”(?) in the right lower corner Period style maroon gilt tooled half morocco with maroon cloth boards, Several drawings with very minor corner creases, but overall a very good album of sketches.
Interesting album of original drawings made by a participant of the French Pacification of Tonkin (1886-1896) - one Aug[ust?] Bornas who served in the column of Commandant Fournier (XI Legion) during the 1891 campaign. Tonkin (in the north-east of modern Vietnam) became a part of French Indochina in 1887, but it took French authorities almost ten years to completely subdue the region, especially its northern mountainous areas. These skillful sketches document the steady and painful advance of French troops into the hilly interior of rebellious Tonkin, showing small villages and French posts, barricades destroyed during the advance, mountains and valleys, streams et al. The drawings include:
1. A view of the bridge across the Tra Linh River dated February 1891 and signed “Aug. Bournas”.
2. A view of the barricade (made of bamboo) at Lung Giao, destroyed by the column of Commandant Fournier on 27 March 1891.
3. A view of the barricade (made of bricks and bamboo) at Lung Kett, which closes the entrance to Thien Sang (view taken from inside), the barricade was destroyed by the column of Commandant Fournier on 3 April 1891.
4. A view of the Lung-Phai village with three watch towers, dated December 1891 and signed “Aug. Bournas”.
5. A view of Dong Khe fort, facing west, with French tricolor waving above. Dated December 1891 and signed “Aug. Bournas”.
6. A view of the French post in the town of Ngan Son (Bắc Kạn Province, Northeastern Vietnam), with French tricolor waving above.
7. A view of the market in Tan Bon (on the route from Nam-Nang to Dong Khe, Northeastern Vietnam).
8. Camp in Nai Phung and the Pac Giai valley.
9. A view of the Lung Che circue taken from above, signed “Diesenhosen” (?).
10. Untitled drawing portraying French officers taking rest on a river bank (two are talking, one is cooking on a camp stove), with two Vietnamese boats landed on shore nearby.
“The Pacification of Tonkin (1886-96) was a slow and ultimately successful military and political campaign undertaken by the French Empire in the northern portion of Tonkin (modern-day north Vietnam) to re-establish order in the wake of the Sino-French War (August 1884 – April 1885), to entrench a French protectorate in Tonkin, and to suppress Vietnamese opposition to French rule” (Wikipedia).


HAMMERSCHMIDT, Wilhelm (ca. 1830 - d. 1869), MAISON BONFILS (1867-1909), and others.
[Album with Twenty-one Original Albumen Photos of the Ancient Temples of Egypt (Djoser Pyramid in Saqqara, Temples in Dendera, Karnak, Luxor, Abu Simbel, Philae Island), Nile’s First Cataract, Tombs of the Califs and Sultan Hassan Mosque in Cairo, the Bacchus Temple in Baalbec, Wailing Wall in Jerusalem, the Valley of Josaphat, and others, Titled:] Documents Archéologiques sur la Egypte. Nubie. Syrie. P. Verdier de Latour, 1875.

Ca. 1870s. Oblong Elephant Folio (ca. 45,5x62 cm). 22 leaves. With 21 albumen photographs, from ca. 23x30,5 cm (9x12 in) to ca. 18x25 cm (7 ¼ x 10 in), eight with numbers or markings in negative, three with clear signatures of Wilhelm Hammerschmidt in negative. First leaf with title in watercolour in French, and text in Egyptian hieroglyphs and cuneiform; armorial bookplate of Mr. Verdier de Latour on the title page. Attractive period dark brown quarter sheep with patterned and blind stamped papered boards with decorative borders on both boards and gilt lettered title “Album” and the initials V.[erdier de] L.[atour]. First paper leaf slightly waved and with minor damage on top and bottom of outer blank margin, not affecting the image, but overall a very good album of strong and sharp images.
Attractive collection of large early photos of the iconic sites of ancient Egypt and the Middle East, taken by some of their first photographers – Wilhelm Hammerschmidt and Maison Bonfils. Many photos show the famous architectural objects in their original state, i.e. the entrance to the Luxor temple half-buried in sand (before the large-scale excavations in the 1880s), the entrance to the Abu Simbel Temple also half-covered with sand and before its relocation in the 1960s due to the flooding the low-laying areas near Nile by the waters of the Lake Nasser; the Philae Island complex before it was flooded during the construction of the Aswan Low Dam etc. The photos most likely derive from the private collection of Michel Francois Verdier de Latour (1824-1879), chancellor of the French legations in Stockholm, China, and Berlin, French consul in Riga and Birmingham. The title page refers to Verdier de Latour’s special interest in Egypt and the Middle East, and the text written in Egyptian hieroglyphs and cuneiform may shed light on the circumstances of the compilation of the album.
The photos show: the Pyramid of Djoser at Saqqara (signed in negative “W. Hammerschmidt”); the Colossi of Memnon; Temple of Hathor at Dendera (signed in negative “W. Hammerschmidt”); three views of the Karnak complex (Obelisks in the Amun-Re Temple, the Gate of Ptolemy, a row of pharaoh statues); the columns of the Esna Temple (signed in negative “W. Hammerschmidt”); the entrance to the Luxor Temple with the obelisk and two sitting statues of Ramesses the Great, half-buried in sand (the excavation would not begin until 1884); the entrance to the Abu Simbel temple with the four colossal statues of Ramesses the Great half-buried in sand; two views the Philae Temple in its original state before the it was flooded by the Aswan Low Dam in 1902 (the double colonnade and the Trajan’s Kiosk); Nile’s First Cataract; ruins of the Bacchus Temple at Baalbec; Tombs of the Califs in Cairo; the Mosque of Sultan Hassan in Cairo; Jaffa from the sea (by Felix Bonfils); the Wailing Wall in Jerusalem; the Valley of Josaphat, and others.
“Born in Berlin, Wilhelm Hammerschmidt was already a professional photographer when he settled in Cairo, Egypt, around 1860. There he established the Hammerschmidt shop, where he sold photographic materials to other early photographers such as Henry Cammas. Hammerschmidt exhibited ten views of Egypt at the Société Française de Photographie in 1861 before becoming a member the following year. He also made costume and ethnographic studies, exhibiting those at the Exposition Universelle in Paris in 1867. Hammerschmidt also made photographs in Syria and Nubia, now Sudan” (Wilhelm Hammerschmidt / J. Paul Getty Museum online). Hammerschmidt is considered one of first photographers to produce high quality detailed images of Egypt and his travels and photographs of Upper Egypt and Nubia predate popular tourism in Egypt. He appears to have collaborated with the pioneering photo chemist Hermann Wilhelm Vogel (1834-1898) which would explain the high quality of Hammerschmidt's photographs.
Maison Bonfils was started by Felix Bonfils (1831-1885) in Beirut in 1867 and was "to become one of the most successful photographic businesses in the world. They photographed most of the important sights in the Middle East and their views were widely distributed" (Jacobsen p. 216). Bonfils' "stock had variety enough to please all and ranged from classical landscapes and biblical scenes to ethnographic portraits” (Perez, p. 141).


[Collection of Nine Original Drawings by Wilhelm and Ismael Gentz, Leopold Mueller, and Charles Welsch, Used as Prototypes for Illustrations in Georg Ebers’ Encyclopaedic Work “Aegypten in Bild und Wort (Stuttgart & Leipzig 1879-80);” [Egypt: Descriptive, Historical, and Picturesque] [With]: Complete Sets of both the First German and the First English Editions of the Book].

Drawings: ca. 1870s. Pencil, pen, ink and wash on album paper, some heightened in white, all but one signed by the artists on the lower margins, some with additional pencil notes and captions on the lower margins. See detailed descriptions and sizes below. All drawings matted in recent mats and housed in a custom made brown full cloth box with a gilt lettered title label on the spine, decorative brass corners on the upper board and brass clasps. Overall a fine collection of beautiful drawings.
A beautiful collection of nine original drawings created by prominent German and Austrian artists of the “oriental” genre for the famous lavishly illustrated work “Aegypten in Bild und Wort” by a noted German Egyptologist and novelist Georg Ebers (1837-1898). The drawings were made from nature, as all the artists had travelled to Egypt and worked there for longer or shorter periods. Among the drawings are three works by Wilhelm Gentz (1822-1890), and one by his son Ismael Wolfgang Gentz (1862-1914). The drawings were made during their journey to Egypt and the Holy Land in the late 1870s. There are also three drawings by an Austrian artist in “oriental” genre Leopold Müller (1834-1892) who lived and worked in Egypt in 1873-76, and two by Charles Feodor Welsch (1828-1904), who travelled to Egypt in 1874. The drawings are accompanied by copies of the two-volume sets of the first German and first English editions of Ebers’ work. Overall a very nice collection of beautiful original drawings.
List of drawings:
1) GENTZ, Wilhelm. Hof des Antiquitäten-Museums zu Bulak [Court of the Museum of Antiquities at Bulaq]. Pen and wash on paper. Ca. 29,5x25 cm (11 ½ x 10 in), leaf ca. 39x34 cm (15 ½ x 13 ¼ in). Signed in ink in the left lower corner, with period pencil and ink notes on the lower margin. Published in: vol. II, p. 49 (German ed.), vol. II, p. 40 (English ed.).
2) GENTZ, Wilhelm. Hafen von Bulak [Harbour of Bulaq]. Pen and wash on paper. Ca. 23,5x32 cm (9 ¼ x 12 ¾ in), leaf ca. 33x38,5 cm (13 x 15 ¼ in). Signed in the right lower corner, with an ink caption on the lower margin. Published in: vol. II, p. 165 (German ed.), vol. II, p. 147 (English ed.).
3) GENTZ, Wilhelm. In den Nil geführte Büffel [Buffaloes Watered in the Nile]. Pen and wash on paper. Ca. 29x36 cm (11 x 14 ¼ in), leaf ca. 33x41,5 cm (13 x 16 ¼ in). Signed in ink in the right lower corner, with an ink note underneath. Published in: vol. II, p. 227 (German ed.), vol. II, p. 204 (English ed.).
4) GENTZ, Ismael. Des Vaters Liebling [Father’s Darling].Pencil and charcoal on paper, heightened in white. Ca. 18x16 cm (7 x 6 ¼ in), leaf ca. 33,5x25 cm (13 ¼ x 10 in). Signed in pencil in the right lower corner, with an ink note underneath. Published in: vol. II, p. 97 (German ed.), vol. II, p. 86 (English ed.).
5) MÜLLER, Leopold. Besprengung der Straße [Watering the Roads]. Ink on paper. Ca. 15x11,5 cm (6 x 4 ½ in), leaf ca. 24,5x16 cm (9 ½ x 6 ¼ in). Signed in the right lower corner. Published in: vol. I, p. 47 (German ed.), vol. II, p. 43 (English ed.).
6) MÜLLER, Leopold. Sarrâf oder Wechsler [Sarraf, or Money-Changer].Ink on paper. Ca. 19x13,5 cm (7 ½ x 5 ¼ in), mounted on a larger leaf ca. 32,5x23,5 cm (13x9 in). Signed in the right lower corner, pencil note on the lower margin of mount. Published in: vol. I, p. 55 (German ed.), vol. II, p. 49 (English ed.).
7) MÜLLER, Leopold. Hirte in der Wüste [Herdsman in the Desert].Pen and wash on paper. Ca. 13,5x21 cm (5 ¼ x 8 ¼ in), mounted on a larger leaf ca. 25x33,5 cm (10 x 13 ¼ in). Signed in ink in the left lower corner, pencil note on the lower margin of mount. Published in: vol. I, p. 108 (German ed.), vol. I, p. 95 (English ed.).
8) WELSCH, Charles Feodor. Alt-Kairo [Old Cairo]. Pencil and charcoal on paper, heightened in white. Ca. 25x19 cm (9 ¾ x 7 ½ in), mounted on a larger leaf ca. 45x31 cm (17 ¾ x 12 ¼ in). Not signed, a pencil and ink notes on the lower margin of the mount. Published in: vol. I, p. 225 (German ed.), vol. II, leaf facing p. 193 (English ed.).
9) WELSCH, Charles Feodor. Am Nilufer [On the Bank of the Nile]. Pencil and watercolour on paper. Ca. 27x17 cm (10 ½ x 7 ½ in), leaf ca. 45,5x35 cm (18x14 in). Signed in the left lower corner, a pencil note on the lower margin of the mount. Published in: vol. I, p. 377 (German ed.), vol. II, p. 340 (English ed.).
First German edition: EBERS, G. Ägypten in Wort und Bild. Stuttgart & Leipzig: Hallberger, 1879-1880. 2 vols. Folio. (ca. 38,5x31 cm). [8], vi, [2], 387; xii, 432 pp. With two chromolithographed maps and numerous woodcut illustrations in text. Original publisher’s brown full cloth with rich gilt tooled ornaments on the upper board and the spine, decorated with blue beads; marbled papered endpapers, all edges gilt. Binding slightly rubbed on extremities, corners slightly bumped, several beads on the front cover missing, but overall a very good copy. Ibrahim-Hilmy I, 205; Kainbacher 111; Rümann, 19. Jh. 144.
First English edition: EBERS, G. Egypt: descriptive, historical, and picturesque. Translated from the original German by Clara Bell. With an introduction and notes by S. Birch. London, Paris & New York: Cassell, [1880s]. 2 vols. Folio (ca. 38,5x29,5 cm). Xxiv, 314, [4]; xxii, 388, [4] pp. With two frontispieces, 29 woodcut plates and numerous woodcut illustrations in text. Original publisher’s brown full cloth with gilt tooled and colour stamped ornaments, as well as gilt lettered titles on the upper board and the spine, all edges gilt. Binding slightly rubbed on extremities, corners slightly bumped, but overall a very good copy. Ibrahim-Hilmy I, 206ff.


[Album with Fifty-seven Original Photos of the Holy Land and Middle East, Including Iconic Views of Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Jericho, Bethany, Baalbec, Beirut etc. by the Bonfils Studio, and Rare Unusual Photos of Damascus and Constantinople by the Local Studios of Suleiman Hakim and Mihran Iranian].

Ca. 1890-1900s. Oblong Folio (ca. 32x42,5 cm). 29 card stock leaves. With 57 original photographs (56 albumen photos and one gelatin silver photo), from ca. 22x28 cm (8 ¾ x 11 cm) to ca. 12,5x22,5 cm (5 x 8 ¾ in), the majority signed, numbered or captioned in negative, all but six with period manuscript ink captions on the mounts. Owner’s ink inscription on the front free endpaper “Mr. & Mrs. Bruce, Sumburgh, 1902.” With a printed booklet explaining Dr. Schick’s models of the Temple Mount, loosely inserted. Period black half morocco album with black pebbled cloth boards and gilt tooled borders on the spine and corners; moiré endpapers, all edges gilt. Album rubbed on extremities, corners slightly bumped, two mounts with minor tears not affecting the images, one photo with a minor tear on the upper margin, but overall a very good album of strong interesting images.
An interesting collection of well-preserved large photographs by the Bonfils studio showing the iconic sites of Jerusalem and other sites of the Holy Land and the temples of Baalbec; with rare unusual views of Damascus and Constantinople taken by the small local studios. The photos were collected by “Mr. & Mrs. Bruce” of Sumburgh (the Shetland Islands) during their travel to the Holy Land in 1902 (possibly by John Bruce Jr. Of Sumburgh (1837-1907) and his wife Mary; John Bruce Jr. Was Deputy Lieutenant of Orkney and Zetland, Convener of Shetland. J.P., General Merchant, Joint Partner of Grierson & Bruce). The album opens with a large group portrait of the travelling party, apparently including Mr. & Mrs. Bruce, posing in front of the Mosque of Omar in Jerusalem (unsigned studio photo). It is followed by nine sound studio photos of Dr. Conrad Schick’s famous wooden models of the Jerusalem temple and the Temple Mount from the times of the Tabernacle to the late 19th-century.
The album includes 29 photos by the studio of Paul-Felix Bonfils, showing Jerusalem and environs (Siloam, Tombs of the Kings, David’s Gate, Damascus Gate, the Golden Gate, Mount of Olives, the Valley of Josaphat, Garden of Gethsemane), Bethany, Hebron, Mountain of Temptation, Elisha’s Fountain at Jericho, Bethlehem, Damascus (the Minaret of the Bride and the Straight Street), Beirut with the National Evangelical Church, general view and close-up views of the Baalbec temples, Lebanon mountains and a forest of the Lebanon cedars, general panorama and a view of the port of Smyrna (Izmir), and the port of Tripoli. Seven interesting photos by a Damascus studio of Suleiman Hakim include a panorama of the city with the Citadel, views of the Pharpar/Barada River embankment, the Tomb of St. John, the gate of St. Paul’s Wall, and the cedars of Lebanon, a portrait of “an Arab Sheikh” riding a camel, and a photo of the “Pariah dogs” on the street. There are also eight rare views of Istanbul produced by a local Armenian studio of Mihran Iranian (fl. Ca. 1890s). The photos show the Topkapi Palace, the Selamlik Procession of the Turkish Sultan, the Blue Mosque, the “Pigeon Mosque”, and the exterior and interior of the Hagia Sophia (three photos signed “M. Iranian” in negative, the rest are attributed to, by the same type used for the captions). The album closes with a view of San Remo (by Strengel & Co.) and a colour tinted photo of the Blue Grotto on the Capri. An unsigned gelatin silver photo shows a young Arab with a horse in front of Mount Tabor.
Maison Bonfils was started by Paul-Felix Bonfils (1831-1885) in Beirut in 1867 and was "to become one of the most successful photographic businesses in the world. They photographed most of the important sights in the Middle East and their views were widely distributed" (Jacobsen p. 216). Bonfils' "stock had variety enough to please all and ranged from classical landscapes and biblical scenes to ethnographic portraits” (Perez, p. 141).
“Details regarding Mihran Iranian’s life and career are scant. It is known that he established his studio in 1891 in Pera district of Constantinople – the center of Armenian cultural and political life. In 1895 he enters into partnership with another photographer by the name of Gugasyan. By the 1900s the business seems to have wound down. Of all the major Armenian studios from Istanbul, Iranian’s albumen photographs are the rarest and less than 300 images are known to have survived. Iranian’s primary subject was the city of Constantinople, its picturesque landscape, architectural heritage and the many types of artisans and workers that populated its streets. Evidently using a light camera with faster lens, which allowed for mobility and rapid exposures, Iranian captured the bustle of the city streets with remarkable clarity. Teeming with movement, these images often have an immediacy and documentary veracity unlike similar views produced by other Istanbul photographers from the previous decade” (Galstyan, V. Database of Armenian Photo-Media Practitioners/


FERNIQUE, Etienne-Victor, abbe (1836-1915)
[Collection of Forty-Eight Original Albumen Stereo view Photographs of Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Bethphage and Bethany, Issued in the Series:] Souvenirs de Terre Sainte.

[Paris]: ca. 1860s. Forty-eight pairs of albumen stereo view photographs, each pair ca. 8,5x16 cm (3 ¼ x 6 ¼ in) mounted on original publisher’s cards; printed captions in French on the mount rectos, occasional pencil numbers on versos. A couple of images mildly faded, most mounts with small cutouts of lower corners to fit viewer, otherwise a very good collection of strong interesting images.
Interesting collection of early stereo view photographs showing both universal Christian and specifically Catholic landmarks of Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Bethphage and Bethany. Thirty-four views of Jerusalem show the City of David archaeological site, eleven views of different parts of Via Dolorosa, three views of the Armenian Cathedral of Saint James (interior and exterior), the Palace of High Priest, Zion Gate, Palace of Caiaphas on Mount Zion, Franciscan Chapel of Flagellation, Catholic Church of Saint Anne, three views of the Garden of Gethsemane, five views of the Catholic Church of Pater Noster, bridge across the Kidron brook, the Latin Patriarchate in Jerusalem (Co-Cathedral of the Most Holy Name of Jesus), galleries under the Psephina Tower, and others. The collection also includes two views of Jaffa, two views of Bethphage (similar to each other, but numbered differently), two views of Bethlehem (the Cisterns of David and terraces of the Franciscan convent), three views of Bethany (ruins of the Benedictine convent, Jardin de Madeleine, Pierres du Colloque), and two views of St.-Jean dans la Montagne (modern-day Ein Karem neighbourhood of Jerusalem, the birthplace of St. John the Baptist), showing the general view of the village and Franciscan Church of Visitation. It is interesting that eight photos feature the same European middle-aged man (one photo shows only his hat) posing in front of the sites, who was most likely Fr. Fernique himself. Overall a very good collection of early stereo views of the Holy Land.
The photographer, abbe Etienne-Victor Fernique was a French Catholic priest from the Paris diocese who took two trips to the Holy Land after he had been ordained in 1862, and organized over seventy educational lectures in Paris and its suburbs with the use of stereoscope. Later on he became a Knight of the Order of Holy Sepulchre, and in 1889-1906 served as a cure of the Catholic Church of Saint Etienne in the Noisy-le-Sec suburb of Paris.


JACKMAN, Lieutenant-Colonel, R.A.F.
[Album with Seventy Original Gelatin Silver Photographs Showing R.A.F. And Government Buildings and Residences, Official Functions and Travels by Airplane and Automobile of R.A.F. Lieutenant-Colonel Jackman in Yemen and Eritrea].

1930. Oblong Folio album (ca. 24,5x35 cm). 20 light brown card leaves (nine with mounted photos, the rest are blank). With 70 original gelatin silver mounted photos, from ca. 17x23,5 cm (6 ½ x 9 in) to ca. 6,5x4,5 cm (2 ½ x 1 ½ in). The majority of photos are captioned in English in manuscript black ink. Period blue patterned papered boards with gilt emblem embossed on front cover and fastened with a cord. Album covers mildly worn at extremities, but overall a very good album of strong and sharp photographs.
This historically interesting album of photographs of Yemen (58) shows the compiler with an Arab Escort in Dala, Dala Fort (3); Dubhyat Mosque; Airplane starting for Dala; The Residency, Aden; A.D.C.'s (Aide-de-Camp) Quarters Residency; Gunner Bay, Aden; Ras Boradli & Sham-Sham, Aden; the compiler's car (Chrysler) (10); car travel in Yemen: picnic party at Wadi Junction, road to Imad, picnic in El-Khudad Gardens, signal station & Barrack Hill, Aden; three boxing images including a Somali Boxer; a series of 23 photos of the Resident's tour to the Lower Yafa Sultanate showing Bedouin porters, the camel troop, Camp Alkara, picnic Sheikj Othman's gardens etc. Eritrea (12) Dance given in Resident's honour, Asmara; Govt. House, Asmara; Hotel Asmara; Governor of Eritrea & Resident, Asmara; Governor & Resident Riding Down the Line of Fascist Cyclists, Asmara; Display by Abyssinian Cavalry, Asmara; Governor & Resident & Self leaving Fascist display, Asmara. Overall a historically interesting album showing these two Red Sea bordering countries during an important period in their history. When these photos were taken, Aden was still governed as part of British India and the R.A.F. Were stationed at RAF Khormaksar which is now Aden International Airport. In regards to Eritrea, the 1930's brought a huge influx of Italian immigrants into Eritrea, a population which by 1939 had grown to 75,000. The reason for this was that the Fascists under Mussolini made Eritrea the industrial center of Italian East Africa.


MACLEAY, Alexander (1767-1848)
[Period Manuscript Copy of the Government Order Issued by McLeay as the Colonial Secretary in Sydney, Regarding the Assassination of Captain Patrick Logan, the Commander of the Moreton Bay Penal Colony, in October, 1830].

[Sydney]: Colonial Secretary’s Office, ca. 1830. The original dated “17 November 1830.” Folio (ca. 33x20,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on bluish laid paper. Written in a legible secretarial hand and docketed on the 4th blank page. Fold marks, paper slightly browned, but overall a very good document.
A period manuscript copy of the Government Order. No. 22, issued on November 17, 1830 by the Colonial Secretary's Office in Sydney. The order refers to the murder of Captain Patrick Logan, the Commander of the Moreton Bay penal colony, notorious for his harshness to convicts and Aboriginal people alike to the point of cruelty. He managed the penal colony from 1826 until his death, having explored and mapped vast territories in South East Queensland. Logan was the first European explorer to visit the upper reaches of the Brisbane and Bremer Rivers, Mount Barney; he named a number of geographical locations in the area. He was killed, apparently by Aboriginal Australians during a survey trip in October 1830.
The text of our manuscript copy almost completely coincides with the official order published in the “Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser” on Thursday, 18 November, 1830 (vol. 28, Issue 1294, p. 2). The minor variances include a different verb tense in the sentence “It will [“would” in the newspaper publication] be painful to dwell on the particulars of this distressing event,” the absence of the phrase “and eight months” in the sentence “He had held for a Period of four Years [and eight months] the Command at Moreton Bay” in the newspaper publication; the difference in the sentence “a situation from the character of the settlement, of the most troublesome and arduous nature [“description” in the newspaper publication];” and the difference of spelling the word “risqué” (“risk” in the newspaper publication).
“His Excellency the Governor publishes, with Feelings of deep Concern, the following Copy of a Letter from Captain Clunie, 17th Regiment, conveying Intelligence of the melancholy Fate of Captain Logan, 57th, late Commandant at Morton Bay, who was murdered by the Natives, when completing a Survey which he had commenced last Year. <…>
He had held for a Period of four Years [and eight months] the Command at Moreton Bay - a Situation, from the Character of the Settlement, of the most troublesome and arduous Description. He did not, however, confine himself to the immediate Duties of his Command; but had on several Occasions, at great personal Risqué, explored the Country to a Considerable extent; and on one of these discovered a River, which, in Compliment to his Services, was named the "Logan" as will be seen by the Government Order of the 16th July, 1827, No. 27.
The Circumstances of Captain Logan's death, prove that the Ardour of his Character was not to be restrained by personal Considerations. His Life was devoted to the Public Service. Professionally he possessed those Qualities which distinguish the best Officers; and in the Conduct of an extensive Public Establishment, his Services were highly important to the Colony. The Governor, though he deeply regrets the Occasion, is gratified in expressing his Sentiments of Captain Logan's Character and Services. He is assured that every feeling Mind will sympathise with the afflicted Widow, who, with her infant Family has, by an Act of savage Barbarity, sustained a Loss which cannot be repaired. As a Tribute to the Memory of this meritorious Officer, His Excellency requests that the Gentlemen of the Civil Service will join the Military in attending the Funeral, of which due Notice will be given. By His Excellency's Command. [Signed] Alex. M'Leay”.


[Album with Thirty-seven Large Original Albumen Photos of Tasmania, Showing Engines and Carriages of the Tasmanian Main Line Railway, Three Important Photos of the 1886 Bridgewater Train Accident, Walter Webster’s Royal Mail Coach on the Huon Road, Views of Hobart, Launceston, New Town, Sandy Bay, Mount Bischoff Tin Mine, Huon River Bridge, Sorell Causeway, Salmon Ponds on the Derwent River, Launceston Cataract Gorge, and Others].

Ca. 1880s. Oblong Folio (ca. 35x41,5 cm). 39 card stock leaves. With 37 original albumen photographs, all but one ca. 26,5x37,5 cm (10 ½ x 14 ¾ cm) or slightly smaller; the last photo at rear is ca. 17,5x20,5 cm (6 ¾ x 8 in). Ten photos captioned or signed “Anson Brothers, Hobart” in negative, three photos have the ink stamps of the studio put on versos, but clearly seen on rectos; 27 images are with period manuscript ink captions on the mounts. Original black full sheep album with blind stamped ornaments on the boards; marbled endpapers. Album rubbed on extremities, leaves mildly soiled and waved, a couple of images mildly faded, but overall a very good album of good strong images.
An excellent collection of large early albumen photographs of Tasmania taken by the award-winning Hobart studio of Anson Brothers (ca. 1880-1892). Very interesting are six photos of the private Tasmanian Main Line Railway which ran from Hobart to Launceston in 1872-1890, until it was bought by the colonial government. The photos show a train on the “Horseshoe Bend, Main Line Ry near Jerusalem” (with the engine driver and three other men standing on top of and next to the engine); Bridgewater railway bridge not long after its reconstruction in the 1870s (with a train in motion); a beautiful bright photo of the railway’s engine and tender No. 12 (with the company’s logo T.M.L.R. on the side), two close-up photos of the first-class cars, and a smaller photo of the first-class car’s interior. There are also three historically significant photos of the Bridgewater train accident which happened on July 23, 1886 (a view of the train off rails taken from the distance and two close-up views showing the details of the wreck).
Another sharp well-executed photo shows a horse-driven wagon of Walter Webster’s Royal Mail Coach Line on the Huon Road (the company was founded by brothers Walter and Frank Webster in the late 1870s and ran passengers and mail from Hobart to Mount Wellington and Huon Valley well into the 1910s when horse-driven coaches were replaced with automobiles). The sign “W. & F. Webster, Proprietors. Hobart Town and Franklin” is clearly seen on the side of the couch.
Other interesting photos include three general panoramas of Hobart (taken from the Storm Bay, “from above high school” and from the Huon Road), a view of the corner of the Macquaire & Murray Streets with Hobart Savings Bank in the foreground; panoramic views of Hobart’s modern-day suburbs New Town and Sandy Bay, as well as of the Sorell Causeway and Launceston with the Cataract Bridge in the centre. There are also four impressive photos of Mt. Bischoff tin mine in northwestern Tasmania (showing the open-pit mine, the tin dressing shed, and the prospectors’ wooden cottages); seven photos of Derwent River near New Norfolk and famous Salmon Ponds (the oldest trout fishery in the Southern Hemisphere founded in 1861); two views of the Cataract Gorge near Launceston; single views of St. John’s Square in Launceston, Huon River Bridge (modern-day Huonville), Mount Wellington, Fern Tree Valley, and others. Overall a beautiful collection of well-preserved early historically significant photos of Tasmanian railways and major cities.
“Anson Brothers was a photographic firm based in Hobart. Founded by brothers Joshua, Henry Joseph and Richard Edwin Anson, they took over the premises of Samuel Clifford’s former studio and continued his practice of view photography. The initial years of the firm were compromised by the imprisonment of Joshua Anson in 1878 for stealing photographic equipment from his former employer, Henry Hall Baily. The firm produced remarkable photographs of Tasmanian scenery which were awarded medals at the 1883–84 Calcutta International Exhibition and the 1888–89 Melbourne Centennial International Exhibition” (The Art Gallery of NSW online).


[Album with Twenty-seven Original Gelatin Silver and Albumen Photos, showing the Launch of a Coastal Ship, “Cannibals and a Sorcerer,” Female “Royal Highness,” Native Villages, German Settlers, Members of a “1905 Surveying Expedition” etc. in Herbertshöhe (Kokopo) & New Mecklenburg (New Ireland Province), German New Guinea]
Ca. 1900-1905. Quarto album (ca. 27x21,5 cm). Over 30 laid paper leaves (nine with mounted photos, the rest are blank). With 27 mounted original photos, from ca. 12,5x17,5 cm (5x7 in) to ca. 9x12 cm (3 ½ x 4 ¾ in), including 26 gelatin silver photos and one albumen photo. Sixteen photos with period pencil captions in German on the mounts, three photos numbered in negative. Attractive custom made brown full calf with leaves bound together with a string; five bronze metal ornaments - four corners and a centerpiece showing a German Imperial Eagle - on the front board. A couple of images mildly faded, but overall a very good album of strong interesting images.
Interesting photos include a view of the Herbertshöhe waterfront with the German Imperial flag being hoisted and the ship of the Governor of German New Guinea Albert Hahl (1868-1945) arriving to the harbour; two scenes of launching a coastal boat at the Herbertshöhe wharf during a “high visit;” several interesting group and individual portraits of New Guineans, showing native canoes with the rowers and a “hexenmeister” (witch doctor), a naked female “Eine Königlische Hoheit” (“Royal Highness”), a group portrait of “Neuguineans Kannibalen u. Hexenmeister” (“New Guinean cannibals and a witch doctor”). There are also group portraits of German officials with families, Germans gathered at a local branch of the “Lucas Bols” drinking establishment, two photos of a German monument on the beach and four pictures from a “1905 surveying expedition” showing two hilly landscapes, the “entrance to a mine” and a portrait of two German expedition members drinking alcohol after a day’s work. Overall a historically interesting album of photos of remote Papua New Guinea.


[Historically Early and Important Autograph Letter Signed from Whaling Master Geo[rge] Crocker to his Business Partner in New Bedford, MA, Merchant John Russell, Dated Mowee [Lahaina?, Maui], Nov. 29th,1834. This Content Rich Letter Describes the Crew Including Native Hawaiians, Conditions on the Ship Including a Hurricane, Punishments and Injuries the Crew Sustained, Financial Matters Including Amounts of Whale Oil Harvested and Monies Borrowed, Probable Routes to be Taken in the Pacific and Potential Future Harvests of Whale Oil. Overall a very Early and Historically Important Letter Documenting the Beginnings of American Whaling in the South Pacific].

Quarto bifolium (ca. 25x20,5 cm). 3 pp. Brown ink written in a legible hand on beige wove paper. Addressed to J. Russell, Merchant New Bedford, Geo. Crocker Letter, Mowee Nov. 29, 1834, postmark receipt red ink stamped Newport R.I., May 30 [by] SHIP. Original fold marks, red wax seal, letter with small chip of center left edge, where opened, not affecting text, cover leaf with some mild soiling but otherwise a very good letter.
American Whalers started to hunt whales in the waters between Hawaii and Samoa in the early 1820's, with the first documented stop of an American Whaler in Samoa being the Maro (Captain Richard Macy) of Nantucket, in 1824. This historically Important letter from the early years of American whaling in the South Pacific details those activities. Whale Master Crocker notifies Russell that he has arrived "at these Islands (Hawaii) on the 17th [November] with 1850 bbls [barrels of whale oil] and being destitute of articles to recruit with, [he states] I have been under the necessity of drawing on you to the amount of 200$. I have had to purchase a whale boat having lost two in a hurricane on Japan. The last season I have likewise lost two men native of these islands, the other my third mate by name Thomas C. Angel after I wrote you from Tahiti. I thought proper to discharge Andrews that came out third mate and whip Angel, he sickened and died a few days before we arrived here and I have two more on board men that I shall have to leave with the consul at Oahu, one with broken limbs and other has lost the use of his limbs.., I am now caulking and find the ship quite open..., we have about 8 months provisions left and I am in hopes yet to make a saving voyage. My intention now after leaving these islands is to go to the coast of California, what course I shall take from there I cannot tell you yet. I have some thoughts of touching at the Galapagos Islands and then going west as far as the Navigator Islands [Samoa] ..., We can take 1300 bbls more.., but at the rate we have done I cannot expect to fill the ship. I leave here for Oahu tomorrow where I expect to stop two or three days." George Crocker originally left New Bedford on this voyage in 1832 on the Cambria (Whaling Masters).


TATTERSALL, Alfred John (1866-1951); ANDREW, Thomas (1855-1939)
[Album with Eighty-Five Original Albumen and Platinum Photographs of Samoa, Including Six Panoramas of Apia Harbour, Views of Apia (Mulinu’u village, Immaculate Conception Cathedral, German Courthouse), Villa Vailima of R.S. Stevenson, Mount Vaea, Waterfalls on Upolu Island (Falefa, Papaloloa, Papase’ea, Falealili), Villages on Upolu Island (Falevao, Salani, Lalomauga, Falese’ela, Vaiee), Savaii Island (Matautu village, Safuni Lake), Tutuila Island (Pago Pago), Three Rare Views of Apolima Island, Portraits of the First Governor of German Samoa, Native Members of “Lieut. Gaunt’s Brigade,” Samoans in a War Canoe, Six Photos of the Wrecked German and American Naval Ships after the 1889 Apia Hurricane, etc.]

Ca. 1890-1900s. Oblong Folio (ca. 30x40,5 cm). 28 card stock leaves. With 85 original photographs, including 6 platinum panoramas ca. 9,5x30,5 cm (3 ¾ x 12 in) or slightly smaller, 27 large albumen photos ca. 18x23,5 cm (7 x 9 ¼ in), and 52 smaller albumen photos from ca. 14x20,5 cm (5 ½ x 8 in) to ca. 12x17 cm (4 ¾ x 6 ¾ in). Thirty albumen photos with blind stamps of Alfred Tattersall in the left lower corners, thirty-three albumen photos signed, captioned or numbered by Thomas Andrew in negative. Period brown half calf with green patterned cloth boards, decorative ornaments on the spine and decorative Overall a very good album of sharp and strong images.
Large historically significant collection of early original photos of Samoa taken by noted local photographers Alfred Tattersall and Thomas Andrew during the first years after the archipelago’s partition in 1899 into German and American Samoa.
Photos by Alfred Tattersall include: a portrait of Wilhelm Solf (1862-1936, Governor of German Samoa in 1900-1911); several views of the Apia harbor and waterfront, featuring the first building of the Immaculate Conception Cathedral, German colonial Courthouse (built in 1902), and trade houses of William Blacklock (1856-1942, trader and US Consul General in Samoa in 1880s-1905) and Peter Fabricius (1853-1908) (large signs “W. Blacklock” and “P.C. Fabricius” are clearly seen on the roof and the top of the buildings); close-up views of the Villa Vailima (the last residence of Robert Louis Stevenson and later that of the Governor of German Samoa); the Colonial Courthouse decorated with palm branches and flower garlands with several members of German colonial administration posing in front; Mount Vaea; winding road to Vailele village; Mulinu’u village with traditional fale houses; Samoa war canoe with a large group of warriors; portrait of a Samoan family next to their house; a scene of a public gathering with the dancers performing siva; boys bathing in a waterfall; plantations of taro, bread fruit and cacao trees; a detailed view of the exterior and interior of the Immaculate Conception Cathedral, and others.
The album also houses six excellent panoramic views of Apia attributed to Thomas Andrew, featuring the building on the waterfront, naval ships in the harbor, Mount Vaea, Apia harbor and Vaisigano River and the old bridge. The photos signed or captioned by Thomas Andrew (some dated 1904 or 1905) include: a view of the Apia harbour and waterfront, photos of numerous Upolu Island waterfalls (Falefa, Papaloloa, Papase’ea, Falealili Falls, and others), different villages and sites on Upolu (Falevao, Salani, Lalomauga, Falese’ela, Vaiee), Savaii Island (Matautu village, Safuni Lake), “Interior of Apolima [Island]” (the smallest of the four inhabited islands of Samoa), two views of the “Entrance to Apolima [harbour] (from the left and right sides),” two views of the harbor and American station at Pago Pago (Tutuila Island), views of a “Native fort with tree lookout,” coconut palm plantations at Savaii, coral gardens near Apia, and others. Very interesting is Andrew’s group portrait of “Lieut. Gaunt’s Brigade” - native supporters of King Malietoa Tanumafili I against Chief Mata'afa Iosefo Laiufi during the Second Samoan Civil War of 1898-99, the “brigade” was commanded by R.N. Lieutenant Guy Gaunt (1869-1953) of HMS “Porpoise,” future British counter-intelligence officer and politician.
Six photos (three signed by Tattersall and one by Andrew) show the famous shipwrecks in the Apia harbour which were irreparably damaged by the hurricane on March 15-16 1889. Despite the obvious signs of the approaching hurricane three American and three German naval ships refused to leave the harbor where they took stand during the Samoan Crisis (1887-89) and were all sunk. The photos feature SMS Adler, SMS Eber, USS Vandalia, and German corvette Olga either sunk or knocked over on the beach; USS Trenton is seen on one of the photos trying to salvage the remains of USS Vandalia. There are also two unsigned photos of a Catholic mess and procession near the Immaculate Conception Cathedral. Overall an interesting extensive collection of early photos of Samoa in very good condition.
Alfred John Tattersall “was a New Zealand photographer who lived in Samoa for most of his life and contributed a significant collection of images of the Pacific Island country and its peoples during the colonial era. Tattersall moved to Samoa in 1886 to work as an assistant in the studio of J. Davis. When Davis died in 1893 Tattersall over his studio and negative collection. He went on to live in Samoa from 1886 to 1951, including the volatile era when Britain, Germany and the United States were vying for control of the Samoan Islands. Many of his photographs are significant in the history of Samoa and covered eras such as German Samoa (1900-1914) followed by the country's administration under New Zealand which saw the rise of the pro-independence Mau movement” (Wikipedia).
“Thomas Andrew arrived in Samoa in 1891 and opened a photographic studio in Apia. His photography was wide-ranging including portraits, landscapes and major events including the funeral of writer Robert Louis Stevenson (1894), the Mau Movement working for independence and the volcanic eruptions of Mt. Matavanu (1905–1911). A collection of his work is held by the Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa” (Luminous-Lint).


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