March 2016 - Africa & Middle East Part 2 - All Under $1000


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53. [ADEN & MOMBASA ETC.]
BRAUN, Georg (1541-1622) & HOGENBERG, Frans (1535-1590)
[Copper Engraved City Views of Aden, Mombasa, Kilwa Kisiwani & Nova Sofala, Titled:] Aden, Arabiæ Foelicis Emporium Celeberrimi Nominis...; Mombaza; Quiloa; Cefala.

Cologne, ca. 1572. Copper engraving ca. 33x47,5 cm (13 ½ x 19 in). Latin descriptive text on verso. Engraving with original centre fold, a very strong dark impression, overall near fine views.
"A great folio sheet with plan views of the major ports of Arabia (Yemen) and Eastern Africa. These Indian Ocean trading ports were important re-supply points for European traders in the Far East. The top half of the sheet is taken up with a fabulous coastal view of the city of Aden with numerous ships in the harbor and surrounding sea. The city is surrounded by several hills, each topped by a castle. Below are three separate views of Mombaza, Quiloa and Cefala. The information for these view was supplied by the Hanse merchant Constantin van Lyskirchen from a Portuguese manuscript. Latin text on verso describes the ports"(Old World Auctions); "Georg Braun was a topo-geographer. From 1572 to 1617 he edited the Civitates orbis terrarum, which contains 546 prospects, bird's-eye views and maps of cities from all around the world" (Wikipedia).

 

54. [ADEN]
[Large Original Photograph Panorama of Steamer Point in Aden].

Ca. 1880. Albumen print panorama ca. 20x52 cm (7 ¾ x 20 ½ in), dissected in two parts and mounted on original card. With the photographer’s numbers (5, № 2, 6) written in negative on the lower margin. Pencil caption in German on the mount. A very good sharp panorama.
Interesting panoramic view of the Steamer Point (modern Tawahi) part of Aden, an important port of call and coaling station for the steamers following the routes to India or Africa through the Suez Canal. The photo shows the port with barracks and a coal station, and a number of vessels, including larger ships, in the harbour. A very good detailed panorama.
“On 19 January 1839, the British East India Company landed Royal Marines at Aden to occupy the territory and stop attacks by pirates against British shipping to India. The port lies about equidistant from the Suez Canal, Bombay (now Mumbai), and Zanzibar, which were all important British possessions. Aden had been an entrepôt and a way-station for seamen in the ancient world. There, supplies, particularly water, were replenished, so, in the mid-19th century, it became necessary to replenish coal and boiler water. Thus Aden acquired a coaling station at Steamer Point and Aden was to remain under British control until 1967” (Wikipedia).

 

55. [AFRICAN BIG GAME HUNTING]
[Album of 37 Original Photographs Showing African Big Game Hunting in Malawi, Zimbabwe, Zambia & Botswana].

July-Sept. 1905. With 37 gelatin silver prints each ca. 9,5x12 cm (4 x 4,4 in), mounted under card frames and captioned in black ink on mounts. Housed in a period dark green cloth album with a gilt pictorial vignette and photographs embossed on the front cover. Some images mildly faded but overall a very good album with interesting images.
The interesting images show trophies of: lion, bull rhinoceros, warthog, zebra, waterbuck, buffalo, tsessbe, puku, sable antelope, oribi, honey badger, bushbuck, lechwe, impala, reedbuck, Liechtenstein hartebeeste, eland, bull elephant, etc.., The trophies are often shown held up by native guides or porters, and sometimes the compiler of the album is shown posing in front of larger game; one image also shows camp life. The three month hunting trip (first image dated 4th of July; last image dated 26th of September) took place in Malawi, Zimbabwe, Zambia and Botswana with Machinga, Lulingila, Luangwa, Ft. Jameson and Kasane, etc. being mentioned. Overall an interesting African big game hunting album.

 

56. [ASCENSION ISLAND]
[Drawing Heightened with Watercolour, Unsigned but Titled and Dated:] Ascension 1847.

1847. Drawing ca. 21,5x30 cm (8 ½ x 12 in). Recently matted, the drawing is in very good condition.
This historically important sketch most likely shows Fort Cockburn, the main British military installation on the island at the time. "Ascension Island is an isolated volcanic island in the equatorial waters of the South Atlantic Ocean, around 1,600 kilometres (1,000 mi) from the coast of Africa and 2,250 kilometres (1,400 mi) from the coast of South America, which is roughly midway between the horn of South America and Africa. It is governed as part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, of which the main island, Saint Helena, is around 1,300 kilometres (800 mi) to the southeast. The territory also includes the "remotest populated archipelago" on earth, the sparsely populated Tristan da Cunha archipelago, some thirty degrees farther south and about half the way to the Antarctic Circle. The location of the island made it a useful stopping-point for ships and communications. The Royal Navy used the island as a victualling station for ships, particularly those of the West Africa Squadron working against the slave trade. A garrison of Royal Marines was based at Ascension from 1823" (Wikipedia).

 

57. [BAALBEC]
ROBERTS, David (1796-1864)
[Tinted Lithograph Panorama Titled:] Baalbec. May 7th 1839.

London: F.G. Moon, 1844. Tinted lithograph ca. 52,5x36,5 cm (21 x 14 ½ in). Some mild foxing otherwise a very good lithograph.
Baalbek, "known as Heliopolis during the period of Roman rule, it was one of the largest sanctuaries in the empire and contains some of the best preserved Roman ruins in Lebanon" (Wikipedia). Roberts left "London in August 1838 for Paris and thence travelling via Alexandria to Cairo, before visiting the pyramids at Giza. Hiring a cangia, he sailed up the Nile as far as Abu Simbel, stopping on his return north to sketch temples and ancient sites such as Philae, Karnak, Luxor, and Dendera. Back in Cairo he drew its streets and mosques before departing for Syria and Palestine in February 1839. He travelled through Sinai to Petra and thence north, via Hebron and Jaffa, to Jerusalem. From there he made an excursion to the Jordan, the Dead Sea, and Bethlehem and, after spending a further week in Jerusalem, he continued north, visiting many places associated with the Bible, before exploring Baalbek. He sailed for England from Beirut in May 1839, was quarantined in Malta, and returned to London in July. He was the first independent, professional British artist to travel so extensively in the Near East, and brought back 272 sketches, a panorama of Cairo, and three full sketchbooks, enough material to ‘serve me for the rest of my life’ (Roberts, eastern journal, 28 Jan 1839).
Over the next decade Roberts made ‘a serries of intire new drawings’ for the 247 large coloured lithographs executed by Louis Haghe for The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia (1842-9). No publication before this had presented so comprehensive a series of views of the monuments, landscape, and people of the Near East. Roberts was to paint more oils of the East than of any other region he visited, exhibiting thirty-one at the Royal Academy alone. These received critical acclaim and sold for high prices: for example, Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives (Holloway Collection at Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham) was commissioned for £330 in 1841 and his Ruins of Baalbec sold for £440 the same year, while The Island of Philae (1843; priv. Coll.) bought by a friend for £100, rapidly sold for £200, and in 1858 fetched 400 guineas. The works remain keenly sought after to this day" (Oxford DNB).

 

58. [BETHLEHEM]
ROBERTS, David (1796-1864)
[Tinted Lithograph Panorama Titled:] Bethlehem, April 6th 1839.

London: F.G. Moon, 1842. Tinted lithograph ca. 35,5x51 cm (14x20 in.) Some mild foxing otherwise a very good lithograph.
Bethlehem is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, about 10 kilometers south of Jerusalem. Robert's left "London in August 1838 for Paris and thence travelling via Alexandria to Cairo, before visiting the pyramids at Giza. Hiring a cangia, he sailed up the Nile as far as Abu Simbel, stopping on his return north to sketch temples and ancient sites such as Philae, Karnak, Luxor, and Dendera. Back in Cairo he drew its streets and mosques before departing for Syria and Palestine in February 1839. He travelled through Sinai to Petra and thence north, via Hebron and Jaffa, to Jerusalem. From there he made an excursion to the Jordan, the Dead Sea, and Bethlehem and, after spending a further week in Jerusalem, he continued north, visiting many places associated with the Bible, before exploring Baalbek. He sailed for England from Beirut in May 1839, was quarantined in Malta, and returned to London in July. He was the first independent, professional British artist to travel so extensively in the Near East, and brought back 272 sketches, a panorama of Cairo, and three full sketchbooks, enough material to ‘serve me for the rest of my life’ (Roberts, eastern journal, 28 Jan 1839).
Over the next decade Roberts made ‘a serries of intire new drawings’ for the 247 large coloured lithographs executed by Louis Haghe for The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia (1842-9). No publication before this had presented so comprehensive a series of views of the monuments, landscape, and people of the Near East. Roberts was to paint more oils of the East than of any other region he visited, exhibiting thirty-one at the Royal Academy alone. These received critical acclaim and sold for high prices: for example, Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives (Holloway Collection at Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham) was commissioned for £330 in 1841 and his Ruins of Baalbec sold for £440 the same year, while The Island of Philae (1843; priv. Coll.) bought by a friend for £100, rapidly sold for £200, and in 1858 fetched 400 guineas. The works remain keenly sought after to this day" (Oxford DNB).

 

59. [BOER WAR]
[Original Ink Drawing Prepared for the “Graphic”, Titled]: The Work of the Loyal Women’s Guild, South Africa: A Corner of Woodstock Cemetery near Cape Town, with the Decorated Graves of the Fallen (From a Photograph).

[1901]. Detailed ink drawing on paper, ca. 20x27,5 cm (8 x 10 ¾ in), within hand drawn ink frame. With a printed title (cut out of the magazine) tipped to the lower edge. Period ink stamp “14 Feb 91” (but 1901) and period pencil note on verso. A very good drawing.
Charming ink drawing made from the original photo and prepared for publication in “The Graphic” during the last phase of the Second Boer War (1899-1902). The view depicts graves of fallen British soldiers at a cemetery in Woodstock, now a suburb of Cape Town, carefully decorated with flowers and wreaths by the members of the Loyal Women’s Guild of South Africa. A very good drawing.
“During the Anglo-Boer War of 1899-1902 the Royal Engineers were tasked with recording the location of all British military graves of the war. Numerous registers and lists were compiled. During the same war, the Guild of Loyal Women was formed to locate graves, compile registers and mark the graves with iron crosses. The South African Soldiers Graves Association took over this work in 1910” (Burial ground & graves/ South African Heritage Resources Agency online).

 

60. [BOER WAR]
EWAN, Frances
[Original Watercolour prepared for the “Graphic”, Titled]: Preparing for Emergencies in Johannesburg: A Promising Young Uitlander.

19 Sept. 1899. Grisaille watercolour on paper, heightened in white, ca. 15,5x21,5 cm (ca. 6 x 8 ½ in). Signed and dated in watercolour on the right, printed title (cut out of the magazine) tipped to the lower edge. From a photograph by Horace W. Nicholls, Johannesburg. Ink stamp “19 Sept 99” on verso. A very good watercolour.
This illustration made less than a month before the beginning of the Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) shows a young British boy practicing his marksmanship with an air rifle in the wilderness of South Africa. The intensity of the pre-war atmosphere is shown clearly - that everyone, even young boys, were preparing for the oncoming battle.
“Trained at Herkomer Art School, Bushey, Ewan worked on the staff of an illustrated weekly newspaper before moving to London in 1896. She illustrated a number of books on a wide range of subjects. By 1911 she had moved to St Ives, working from first 6 Porthmeor Studios, then from Number 2. Her early exhibits were aquatints and etchings, and later during the 1930s watercolours and oils. She produced some portraits and coastal and harbour scenes as well as flower studies in the 1950s. She was also a member of the Arts Club” (Cornwall Artist Index on-line).

 

61. [BOER WAR]
SPENCE, Percy Frederick Seaton (1868-1933)
[Original Watercolour prepared for the “Graphic”, Titled]: Soldiers Making Friends with Lascars on a P. & O. Transport. “One touch of Nature”.

2 Nov 99. Grisaille watercolour on cardboard, heightened in white, ca. 16x21 cm (ca. 6 ¼ x 8 ¼ in), within hand drawn ink frame. Signed in watercolour on the lower margin, printed title (cut out of the magazine) tipped to the lower edge. From a sketch by F.C. Dickinson. Ink stamp “2 Nov 99” on verso. A very good watercolour.
The watercolour was prepared for publication in “The Graphic” and shows a scene from the early period of the Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902). A British soldier offers a cigarette to an East Indian sailor while on a P. & O. (The Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company) ship bound for South Africa, where the war had started a month before.
Percy Frederick Seaton Spence was an Australian artist, famous for his graphic works made for several noted Australian and British magazines (Sydney Daily Telegraph, Illustrated Sydney News, Punch, Black and White, The Graphic, et al.). He exhibited in the Royal Art Society of New South Wales, and the Royal Academy of Arts (RA); his works are held by the National Gallery (London), State Library of New South Wales, the University of Sydney and the High Court of Australia, Canberra (Wikipedia).

 

62. [BURTON]
[FLAMENG, Leopold]
[Portrait Etching of Sir Richard Francis Burton (1821-1890) after a painting by Sir Frederick Leighton].

[1879]. Etching ca. 22x18 cm (8 ½ x 7 in). A near fine wide margined etching.
This rare etching is based on the portrait by "Frederic Leighton, Baron Leighton (1830-1896). This austere, ponderous and intense image of one of the great explorers of Victorian England captures his slightly brutal character very effectively. The artist Frederic Leighton met Burton in 1869 while they were taking a cure at Vichy and they formed a firm friendship which lasted until Burton's death. On 26 April 1872, Burton began sitting for his portrait. According to Lady Burton, he was extraordinarily difficult about it, anxious that his necktie and pin might be omitted and pleading with the artist, 'Don't make me ugly, there's a good fellow.' Apparently the portrait was left unfinished when Burton departed for Trieste in October 1872 and it was not completed until 1875. It was exhibited at the Royal Academy the following year, but it is possible that Burton did not like it, because Leighton kept it at his house in Kensington. He intended to leave it to the National Portrait Gallery, of which he was a Trustee, but forgot, so the then Director, Lionel Cust, arranged for it to be donated by Leighton's sisters" (National Portrait Gallery).
"Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton was a British geographer, explorer, translator, writer, soldier, orientalist, cartographer, ethnologist, spy, linguist, poet, fencer and diplomat. He was known for his travels and explorations within Asia, Africa and the Americas as well as his extraordinary knowledge of languages and cultures. According to one count, he spoke 29 European, Asian and African languages.
Burton's best-known achievements include travelling in disguise to Mecca, an unexpurgated translation of One Thousand and One Nights (also commonly called The Arabian Nights in English after Andrew Lang's abridgement), bringing the Kama Sutra to publication in English, and journeying with John Hanning Speke as the first Europeans led by Africa's greatest explorer guide, Sidi Mubarak Bombay, utilizing route information by Indian and Omani merchants who traded in the region, to visit the Great Lakes of Africa in search of the source of the Nile. Burton extensively criticized colonial policies (to the detriment of his career) in his works and letters. He was a prolific and erudite author and wrote numerous books and scholarly articles about subjects including human behaviour, travel, falconry, fencing, sexual practices and ethnography. A unique feature of his books is the copious footnotes and appendices containing remarkable observations and unexpurgated information" (Wikipedia).

 

63. [CAIRO]
[A Pair of Egyptian Watercolour Views - The Pyramids at Giza (Two Egyptians on Camels in the Foreground) - Environs of Cairo (Three Egyptians, two on Camels in the Foreground) - Blind Stamped Lehnert & Landrock Cairo on Mounts].

Ca. 1925. Watercolours each ca. 22x31 cm (8 ½ x 12 in). Mounted on card, the mounts with some minor mild staining. The watercolour are both in very good condition.
"Lehnert wishe[d] to have a new start in Tunis but Landrock prefer[ed] Cairo. The discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamen gave the decisive push to establish their new venture in Egypt..., On 4 October 1924 Ernst and Emilie Landrock, Kurt Lambelet (Emilie’s 19 year old son), as well as Mrs. Lehnert and her daughter Eliane reached the port of Alexandria, Egypt. At first, Landrock and Lehnert started a wholesale business in Cairo, but they soon decided to open a retail shop between the Continental and Shepherds hotels, both managed by Swiss directors. Lehnert works conscientiously from Alexandria to Abu Simbel. He includes Palestine in his field of work. But Lehnert is first of all a portraitist and Egyptians dislike to be photographed. Lehnert is condemned to photograph "old stones," their clients being mostly foreigners..,
The partnership between Ernst Landrock and his friend and photographer Rudolf Lehnert lasted another six years. Lehnert, who had fallen in love with Tunisia, wanted to return to the country which so inspired him. So after withdrawing from his partnership with Landrock, he travelled back to Tunis on 15 June 1930" (lehnertandlandrock.net/bio.html).

 

64. [CENTRAL AFRICA]
DU CHAILLU, Paul Belloni (1831/35/39-1903)
[Autograph Letter Signed Regarding Du Chaillu’s Prospective Lectures in Leeds].

129 Mount Street (London), 2 October 1866. Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on Joynson laid paper with Du Chaillu’s monogram. Mild fold marks, overall a very good letter.
A letter by a noted African explorer and anthropologist Paul Belloni du Chaillu. In the course of his two major expeditions to West and Central Africa (1856-59, 1863-65) he became famous as “the first modern outsider to confirm the existence of gorillas, and later the Pygmy people” (Wikipedia).
“During his travels from 1856 to 1859, he observed numerous gorillas, known to non-locals in prior centuries only from an unreliable report by Hanno the Navigator of Carthage in the 5th century BC and known to scientists in the preceding years only by a few skeletons. He brought back dead specimens and presented himself as the first white person to have seen them. A subsequent expedition, from 1863 to 1865, enabled him to confirm the accounts given by the ancients of a pygmy people inhabiting the African forests. Du Chaillu sold his hunted gorillas to the Natural History Museum in London and his "cannibal skulls" to other European collections” (Wikipedia).
In the letter written just a year after his return from the second expedition, Du Chaillu turns down a proposal of his correspondent to give lectures at Leeds, saying that he is “not a professional lecturer. I do not seek such occupation and only can make such provincial visits at considerable personal inconvenience to myself and it will not be convenient for me to lecture at Leeds the coming winter”. Du Chaillu was in great demand at the time, giving public lectures in London, Paris and New York.

 

65. [CENTRAL AFRICA]
JOHNSTON, Sir Harry Hamilton (1858-1927)
[Autograph Letter Signed to Mr. Buckland Regarding Waste Land Regulations Intended for Use during Johnston’s Service in Central Africa].

Government House, Calcutta (printed letterhead), 14 February 1895. Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on paper. Small tears on the top and bottom of the left blank margin, paper age toned, otherwise a very good letter.
An interesting letter by a British African explorer and colonial administrator Sir Harry Johnson relates to his service as the first commissioner of Nyasaland (British Central African Protectorate, modern Malawi) in 1891-1896. The letter particularly refers to the land regulations which needed to be established in Africa: “Dear Mr. Buckland, I am much obliged to you for so very kindly sending me the Waste Land regulations which will I am sure be of much use to me for determining the policy to be pursued in Central Africa in regard to Land questions." A number of land property issues were later discussed in Johnston’s “British Central Africa: An attempt to give some account of a portion of the territories under British influence north of the Zambezi” (London, 1897).
Sir Harry Johnston was a “British explorer, botanist, linguist and colonial administrator, one of the key players in the "Scramble for Africa" that occurred at the end of the 19th century” (Wikipedia). In 1882-3 Johnston accompanied a geographical and sporting expedition to Angola‚ serving as artist‚ naturalist‚ and Portuguese interpreter. The party travelled slowly from Mossamedes to the upper Cunene‚ where Johnston left it‚ making his own way to the Congo estuary. There he was befriended by H. M. Stanley‚ who was then establishing the Congo Independent State for Leopold II of the Belgians. With Stanley's help‚ Johnston ascended the river as far as Bolobo‚ and spent some weeks collecting plants‚ birds‚ and insects‚ and vocabularies of the local Bantu languages. His books‚ The River Congo (1884) and The Kilimanjaro Expedition (1885) confirmed his reputation as an authority on Africa. He was resident in Nyasaland as British commissioner from 1891 to 1896. His other books were Liberia (1906) and The Negro in the New World (1910).

 

66. [COMOROS]
GUILLAIN, [Charles] (1808-1875)
[Two Part Tinted Lithograph Panorama of the City of Mutsamudu (Anjouan) Titled:] Vue de Moutsamoudou, Ville Principale de L'Ile D'Anjouan.

Paris: Arthus Bertrand, [1856-1857]. Two part tinted lithographs, each ca. 45x30 cm (18x12 in). With a library blind stamp in blank margin, but overall very good lithographs.
"Mutsamudu is the second largest city in the Comoros, founded in 1482. It is also the capital and largest city on the island of Anjouan" (Wikipedia). Plate #28 a & b from Voyage à la côte orientale d'Afrique exécuté pendant les années 1846, 1847 et 1848 par le brick Le Ducouëdic sous le commandement de M. Guillain. "Charles Guillain visited the Indian Ocean coasts of Africa and the Portuguese settlements in India aboard the Du Couedic between January 1846 and May 1849. He was appointed member of a commission in 1858 to investigate new possibilities of French emigration to the colonies, and governor of New Caledonia in 1861"(Sothebys); Guillain's Documents sur l'Histoire is also one of the only sources for the travels of Eugene Maizan (1819-1845), "Possibly the first European to penetrate East Africa.., Maizan proceeded as far as the district of Deje-la-Mhora, on the Uzaramo plateau about 80-150 kilometers from the coast, when he was set upon by Mazangera tribesmen under sub-chief Hembe, and bound to a calabash tree and savagely murdered.., [Guillain's Documents sur l'Histoire is] considered the finest account of East Africa for the period" (Howgego 1800-1850, M6); Guillain "sailed down the Indian Ocean coast and went ashore at Mogadishu, Marca, and Baraawe, penetrating some distance inland and collecting valuable geographic and ethnographic information" (Encyclopaedia Britannica Online); Gay 236; Hess & Coger 272; Ibrahim-Hilmy I, 280.

 

67. [EAST AFRICA]
ROCHET D'HÉRICOURT, Charles-Xavier (1801-1854)
[Autograph Letter Signed ‘Rochet d’Héricourt’ to a Magazine Editor].

Paris, 18 February 1846. On a folded Octavo leaf (ca. 19,5x12 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on white paper. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
Autograph letter by renowned French explorer of the East Africa, the leader of two expeditions to Ethiopia in 1839-40 and 1842-43, which resulted in his books, “Voyage sur la côte orientale de la Mer rouge dans le pays d'Adel et le royaume de Choa” (Paris, 1841) and “Second voyage sur les deux rives de la mer Rouge, dans le pays des Adels et le Royaume de Choa” (Paris, 1846).
In a letter to a magazine editor, Rochet d'Héricourt denies a proposal to publish his biography with the detailed description of his travels: “The relation of my travel has been published in the ‘Revue Novelle’ and I don’t have anything to add; regarding my biography the only event of my life which could be included are my travel adventures, and I don’t have anything to add to what I’ve published” [translated from French]. However he will send the editor a copy of the report to the French Academy of Sciences which will be printed soon, and is ready to give “verbal explanations” (“explications verbales“) which could be useful for the correspondent.
Interesting letter revealing the process of publication of the results of Rochet d'Héricourt’s second travel to Abyssinia (1842-43). He mentions the official account of the expedition (Arthus-Bertrand, 1846) and the extensive report prepared for to the French Academy of Sciences (see: La Revue Novelle. Tome 9. 2-me année. Paris, 1846, p. 147-165) which were both published that year.

 

68. [EGYPT - ALEXANDRIA]
[Unsigned Watercolour View of the Town and Harbour of Alexandria with Pompey's Pillar and the Attarine Mosque in the Foreground, Titled:] Alexandria, Egypt.

[Alexandria, Egypt], ca. 1870. Watercolour on paper ca. 23,5x33,5 cm (9 ¼ x 13 ¼ in). A very good watercolour, mounted in a recent mat.
This attractive bright watercolour by an unknown artist shows the town and harbour of Alexandria with Pompey's Pillar and the Attarine Mosque in the foreground. "Pompey's Pillar is a Roman triumphal column in Alexandria, Egypt, and the largest of its type constructed outside of the imperial capitals of Rome and Constantinople. The only known free-standing column in Roman Egypt which was not composed of drums, it is one of the largest ancient monoliths and one of the largest monolithic columns ever erected" (Wikipedia).

 

69. [EGYPT - CAIRO]
[Unsigned Watercolour View of the Tombs of the Caliphs in Cairo, Titled on Verso:] Tombs of the Caliphs.

Ca. 1870. Watercolour on paper ca. 17x22 cm (6 ¾ x 8 ¾ in). Period ink caption on verso. A very good watercolour, mounted in a recent mat.
This attractive bright watercolour by an unknown artist shows one of the Mamluk mausoleums in Cairo, known as "the Tombs of the Caliphs." "The Mamluk sultans and elites were eager patrons of religious and scholarly life, commonly building religious or funerary complexes whose functions could include a mosque, madrasa, khanqah (for Sufis), water distribution centers (sabils), and mausoleum for themselves and their families. Among the best-known examples of Mamluk monuments in Cairo are the huge Mosque-Madrasa of Sultan Hasan, the Mosque of Amir al-Maridani, the Mosque of Sultan al-Mu'ayyad (whose twin minarets were built above the gate of Bab Zuwayla), the Sultan Al-Ghuri complex, the funerary complex of Sultan Qaytbay in the Northern Cemetery, and the trio of monuments in the Bayn al-Qasrayn area comprising the complex of Sultan al-Mansur Qalawun, the Madrasa of al-Nasir Muhammad, and the Madrasa of Sultan Barquq" (Wikipedia).

 

70. [EGYPT - PORT SAID]
GREENE, Captain Dominick Sarsfield (1826-1892), Royal Artillery and Aide-de-Camp
[Original Mounted Watercolour Titled in Pencil on Verso:] Port Said.

Ca. 1857. Pencil, watercolour and bodycolour on paper ca. 9x16,5 cm (4 x 6 ½ in.). A recently matted very good watercolour.
Original attractive watercolour sketch of the lighthouse of Port Said at night from a series of sketches made by Captain Dominick Sarsfield Greene for his "Views in India, from drawing taken during the Seapoy Mutiny," Thos. Maclean: London, 1859. Provenance: Sir Alexander Moncrieff (1829-1906) and thence by descent.

 

71. [EGYPT - PYRAMIDS]
[Watercolour View of the Great Pyramids of Giza with the Nile in the Foreground].

Ca. 1900. Watercolour on paper, ca. 6x11 cm (4 ¼ x 2 ½ in). Initialed ‘A.B.’ in the lower right corner. Period ink inscription on verso “With love and all good wishes for happier times in the near future. From Peggie”. Recently matted, very good watercolour.
Nice watercolour view of the Great Pyramids of Giza taken at sunset, with the waters of Nile in the foreground reflecting the tender colours of the evening sky.

 

72. [EGYPT - SUEZ]
HEAD, Charles Francklin, Captain (1796-1849)
[Lithograph Titled:] View of Suez Taken from the North East.

London: Smith, Elder and Co., [1833]. Drawn on stone by W. Walton, printed by C. Hullmandel. Lithograph, printed image ca. 28x45 cm (11x18 in). Slightly age-toned, otherwise a very good lithograph.
A plate from Head’s "Eastern and Egyptian Scenery, Ruins &c. Accompanied with Descriptive Notes. of a Journey from India to Europe, Intended to shew the Advantage And Practicability of Steam Navigation from England to India" (London, 1833). The view shows a city panorama with boats in the foreground, and a European traveler being carried on to shore from a boat by a native servant.
"Captain Head describes his purpose in publishing this work as twofold: 'to promote a rapid communication with India by way of Egypt, through the agency of steam navigation, and, as a natural consequence of this measure, to secure our Indian frontier against the perils of northern invasion'. The plates are mostly of the monuments of Egypt but also include views of Bombay, Jedda, Mocha and Malta" (Blackmer sale 673); Blackmer 799, Gay 1846.
"Captain Head was an officer in the Queen’s Royal Regiment. After serving in India, he travelled home to England using a detour on what became the well-trodden Overland Route. Arriving from Qusayr from Jiddah and Bombay on 29 December 1829, he crossed the desert to the Nile, visited Thebes [Luxor], and travelled on down river reaching Alexandria on 18 February 1830. On his return to England he published Eastern and Egyptian Scenery, Ruins, &c (1833), a series of lithographs after his own sketches that showed the celebrated monuments accessible from the Overland Route" (Victoria and Albert Museum on-line).

 

73. [EGYPT]
BARNIM, Freiherrn Adalbert von (1841-1860)
[Tinted Lithograph:] Felsentempel bei Abu-Simbil. Temples de Abou-Simbil. Rock-Temple of Aboo-Simbel.

[Berlin: Reimer, 1863]. Tinted lithograph after original sketches by Freiherrn Adalbert von Barnim and drawn by Bellermann, printed image ca. 30x39 cm (12 x 15 ½ in). A very good wide margined tinted lithograph. Edges with minor tears not affecting printed surface.
From the rare work "Reise des Freiherrn Adalbert von Barnim durch Nord-Ost-Afrika in den Jahren 1859 und 1860." Aldalbert, Baron von Barnim and his doctor, Hartmann, travelled through Egypt, the Sudan and Nubia, although Barnim died, aged nineteen, on the return journey. "The party ascended the Nile into the Sudan, explored from Old Dongola to Khartoum, then proceeded up the Blue Nile as far as Fazogli on the border of Ethiopia. Von Barnim died during the expedition on 12.7.[18]60 at Roseres but Hartmann returned to Germany and in 1863 published an account of the expedition" (Howgego, Continental Exploration 1850-1940, B17).

 

74. [EGYPT]
FERRIER PERE, FILS ET SOULIER, LEON & LEVY SUCCRS.
[Collection of Twelve Glass Stereo Views of Egypt, Showing Mosques and Markets of Cairo, Cleopatra’s Needle in Alexandria before it was Moved to New York in 1880, the Temples of Karnak, Abu Simbel, Edfu and Philae (before it was flooded with the Construction of the Aswan Low Dam in 1902), and the Great Pyramids of Giza].

Ca. 1860 - early 1870s. Twelve glass slides, each with a pair of stereo views, ca. 7,5x7,5 cm (2 ¾ x 2 ¾ in). Each slide with a number and title in French on the lower margin, two signed “Ferrier p.f. & Soulier Leon & Levy Succrs.” Overall a very good collection.
Nice collection of attractive well preserved glass stereo views of Egypt issued by one of the largest French photographic firms (specializing in stereo views) founded by Claude-Marie Ferrier (1811-1889) and Charles Soulier (1840-1875). By the time these views were issued, the company was owned and operated by Ferrier & Soulier’s former employees Moise Léon and Isaac George Lévy.
Four views of Cairo show the Mosque of Ahmad Ibn Ţulun (numbered 8688, signed “Ferrier p.f. & Soulier Leon & Levy Succrs.”), interior of the Mosque-Madrassa of Sultan Hassan (654), Cairo Necropolis (8677), and camel market (653). A view of the Cleopatra’s Needle in Alexandria (631) shows the obelisk which was presented by the Khedive to the United States in 1877 and was moved to New York in 1880. There are also views of the Great Hypostyle Hall of the Karnak Temple (685), the Colossi of Memnon (682), the facade of the Abu Simbel Temple (657), panorama with the Great Pyramids of Giza (660), general view of the temple of Edfu (8798), and two views of the Philae Temple (674 and 678) before it was flooded with the construction of the Aswan Low Dam in 1902.
“The French photographic firm of Ferrier, Soulier, Lévy (FSL) produced a vast library of stereographic views in glass of mostly European monuments and sites during the second half of the nineteenth century. <…> Although FSL did from time to time produce paper stereographs, it was their superb glass stereographs which made the firm famous and rich. Their views are universally regarded as the finest product of stereography. They produced a sense of depth that stunned first-time viewers, including Queen Victoria, at the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London. What set the glass stereograph apart from all other kinds of stereo views – paper, tissue, daguerreotype – was the albumen-on-glass process, which offered a brilliant, very sharp, superbly contrasty and glisteningly transparent image. Viewed in direct light, it was incomparably superior to the paper stereograph, which like the stereo daguerreotype could only be viewed by reflected light. <…> [After the firm had been purchased by Léon and Lévy] Production of the highest quality of glass stereographs continued unabated <…>. Another general catalogue was published in 1870 under the Léon and Lévy imprimatur, and included views from the first two general catalogues, plus nos. 7001-10027. Léon disappeared from the FSL firm in 1872, when the company assumed a new name: “J. Lévy & Cie.” Lévy and later his sons ran the firm for almost a half-century, until its fusion with Neurdein in 1920” (Encyclopedia of Nineteenth-Century Photography. Vol 1. A-I. New York, 2008, p. 851-852).

 

75. [EGYPT]
FORBIN, Louis-Nicolas-Philippe-Auguste, de (1777-1841)
Ruines du Temple de Carnak à Thébes. Egypte [Ruins of the Temple of Thebes in Karnak, Egypt].

[Paris: Imprimerie Royale], 1819. Uncoloured aquatint, printed image ca. 46 x 53,5 cm (18 ½ x 21 ½ in). Engraved by M. Debucourt. Aquatint slightly waved, descriptive text closely trimmed, otherwise a very good aquatint.
Plate 62 from the Atlas to Forbin’s "Voyage dans Le Levant en 1817 et 1818" (Paris, 1819; two editions were published the same year, our plate is from one of them). This was "one of the first important French books to use lithography on a grand scale, with the scarce first edition, of which Brunet states that only 325 copies were printed. Most of the plates, after Lecomte, Deseynes, Castellan, Carle and Horace Vernet, Fragonard, Thienon, Legros, Isabey and others, illustrate views in Egypt and Syria, including the famous view of Drovetti, French consul in Egypt, measuring a giant head" (PBA Galleries).
"In 1816 Forbin replaced Denon as Director of Museums, and in August 1817 he undertook a semi-official year-long voyage to the Levant, having been authorized to purchase antiquities for the Louvre. He travelled to Milos, where his son-in-law Marcellus had negotiated the purchase of the recently discovered Venus de Milo, and from there to Athens, Constantinople, Asia Minor, Syria and Palestine, from Jaffa he travelled overland to Alexandria and visited Egypt" (Blackmer 614).

 

76. [EGYPT]
LEAKE, Lieutenant Colonel W[illiam] M[artin] Royal Engineers (1777-1860)
Map of Egypt [With Inset] Supplement to the Map of Egypt or Course of the Nile from Essouan to the Confines of Dongola.

London: J. Arrowsmith, 1840. A very large outline hand coloured copper engraved map ca. 130x76 cm (51x30 in). The map is dissected into 40 sections and backed on linen. The map is in very good condition.
"This extremely detailed map of the course of the Nile was produced by William Martin Leake, a leading British authority on the topography of the region. In March 1802, Leake was employed to make a general survey of Egypt together with W.R. Hamilton and Charles Hayes. On his return to England, his ship sank and all Leake's valuable notes on the Egyptian survey perished. His chart was subsequently published in 1818 after his retirement, incorporating additional material from Sir Alexander Bryce, M. Nouet, and others. The map provides extensive information on the Nile, ancient ruins, the Suez Canal, roads and railways, and is filled with voluminous notations. It extends south to Aswan, and beyond in an inset, as far as Dongola" (Old World Auctions); "A journey through Asia Minor in 1800 to join the British fleet at Cyprus inspired [Leake] with an interest in antiquarian topography. In 1801, after travelling across the desert with the Turkish army to Egypt, he was, on the expulsion of the French, employed in surveying the valley of the Nile as far as the cataracts; but having sailed with the ship engaged to convey the Elgin marbles from Athens to England, he lost all his maps and observations when the vessel foundered off Cerigo in Greece.
Shortly after his arrival in England he was sent out to survey the coast of Albania and the Morea, with the view of assisting the Turks against attacks of the French from Italy, and of this he took advantage to form a valuable collection of coins and inscriptions and to explore ancient sites. In 1807, war having broken out between Turkey and England, he was made prisoner at Salonica; but, obtaining his release the same year, he was sent on a diplomatic mission to Ali Pasha of Ioannina, whose confidence he completely won, and with whom he remained for more than a year as British representative.
In 1810 he was granted a yearly sum of £600 for his services in Turkey. In 1815 he retired from the army, in which he held the rank of colonel, devoting the remainder of his life to topographical and antiquarian studies. He was admitted a Fellow of the Royal Society on 13 April 1815.
He died at Brighton on the 6 January 1860. The marbles collected by him in Greece were presented to the British Museum; his bronzes, vases, gems and coins were purchased by the University of Cambridge after his death, and are now in the Fitzwilliam Museum. He was also elected a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, received the honorary DCL at Oxford (1816), and was a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences and correspondent of the Institute of France" (Wikipedia); Tooley K-P, p.104.

 

77. [EGYPT]
PIETSCHMANN, Richard (1851-1923)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Richard” to a German Historian Eduard Meyer; With: a Printed Obituary of Wilhelm Spitta (Director of the Khedival Library in Cairo), Authored and Inscribed by Meyer].

Breslau, 2 April, 1884. Octavo (ca. 22x14 cm). 12 pp. Brown ink on six folded cream paper leaves. Fold marks, two pages slightly soiled, otherwise a very good letter written in legible hand.
The obituary: MEYER, E. Wilhelm Spitta, Director der viceköniglichen Bibliothek in Kairo: Nekrolog. Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz, [1883]. Offprint from the “Centralblatt f. Bibiliothekswesen.”
Octavo. 7 pp. Original publisher’s wrappers. Inscribed by the author on verso of the front wrapper. Wrappers slightly soiled and with minor tears and losses on the corners, but overall a very good copy.
Important primary document illustrating German Oriental and ancient history studies in the latter half of the 19th century. This extensive letter by a prominent German Orientalist and Egyptologist Richard Pietschmann is addressed to his colleague and friend Eduard Meyer (1855-1930), a German historian, a specialist in ancient history. In the letter Pietschmann thanks Meyer for the obituary “you have done for our poor Spitta” and discussed several works of German Orientalists and historians – Wilhelm Spitta (1853-83), Meyer himself, Gaston Maspero (1846-1916), and Wolfgang Helbig (1839-1915).
The letter was written when Pietschmann was the university librarian in Breslau, later he also served as the librarian in the universities of Marburg, Göttingen (where he was also a Professor of Egyptology and ancient Oriental history), Greifswald, and the Royal Library in Berlin. Eduard Meyer was a professor of ancient history at Breslau in 1885, at Halle in 1889, and at Berlin in 1902. He lectured at Harvard in 1909. Honorary degrees were given him by Oxford, St. Andrews, Freiburg, and Chicago universities. His major work is Geschichte des Altertums (1884-1902)” (Wikipedia). Wilhelm Spitta was a German linguist who for the first time described the grammar of the Egyptian colloquial in his book “Grammatik des arabischen Vulgärdialects von Aegypten” (1880).

 

78. [ETHIOPIA]
WADDINGTON, George (1793-1869)
[Autograph Letter Signed “George Waddington” Declining to Participate in a Public Meeting].

London, 13 May 1864. Small Octavo (ca. 18,5x11 cm). 2 pp., with an integral blank leaf. Black ink on Joynson’s laid paper watermarked ‘1862’. Mild fold marks, small mount residue on verso of the second blank leaf, otherwise a very good letter.
“My dear Sir, I thank you for the compliment that you have paid me. But I have never at any time taken part in any public meetings with which I was not directly connected & now I think it rather far late to begin. Your practical local application of the principles of the Association appears to be to do you real honor.”
George Waddington was an English clergyman, traveller and church historian. A graduate of the Trinity College, Oxford, he was the Dean of Durham (1840-1869), Warden of Durham University (1862-69), an original member of the Athenaeum Club‚ London on its foundation in 1824. He travelled widely, having published “Journal of a Visit to some parts of Ethiopia” (together with Rev. B. Hanbury), “A Visit to Greece in 1823 and 1824” (1825), and several works on the Christian church history.
“Clergymen Hanbury and Waddington were both Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge, who accompanied the army of Muhammad Ali in its conquest of the Sudan in 1820. This was just after Napoleon's expedition through the Nile, during which time he ordered a team of scientists and architects to record all the ancient monuments and natural features of the country. Stimulated by this work many Europeans travelled to Egypt in search of ancient wonders. This included both Hanbury and Waddington who visited Egypt and Nubia together in 1821 and brought back the coffin set of Nespawashefyt (E.1.1822) which was the first Egyptian object to come into the possession of the [Fitzwilliam] University. In 1822 Waddington published an account of their travels up the Nile in Journal of a visit to some parts of Ethiopia, including accounts of visiting the temples at Abu Simbel and Soleb, and the sites of Napata and Meroe” (The Collections/Egypt/Fitzwilliam University online).

 

79. [GERMAN SOUTH WEST AFRICA]
[Collection of Forty-five Original Unmounted Photographs of German South West Africa, Apparently its Northern Part around Tsumeb, with Views of a German Settlement, Mining Operations, and Portraits of Colonists and Native People].

Ca. 1910. 44 unmounted gelatin silver prints, ca. 12,5x17 cm (ca. 4 ¾ x 6 ¾ in) or slightly smaller, and a real photo postcard ca. 8x13 cm (3 ¼ x 5 in). Several images numbered in negative, one image captioned “Ovambo” on verso, one with photographer’s ink stamp “E. Just, Tsumeb, D.-S.-W.-Africa” on verso. Most photographs with some degree of fading (mild to very), a few with tears and chipping on the margins, but overall a good collection.
This collection of original amateur photographs most likely shows the first German settlement and industrial infrastructure in Tsumeb (in 1905), a mining town founded by Germans in what is now Northern Namibia. Tsumeb is the home of the Ongopolo mine, world famous for its richness in various ores and minerals. The photographs include about ten general views of the area, with two panoramas taken from above and give a nice overview of the German settlement. Two images show the mining works, and one image shows a derailed train with overthrown cars full of ore. There is also a large group of collective photo portraits of German settlers – families and picnic parties, men posing next to their houses or carts, while on hunting trips or hikes in the African wilderness. One of the photos has a rare stamp on verso from a Tsumeb photographer E. Just. There are also pictures of native people of Namibia, apparently Ovambo people, showing families and social groups, native houses et al., including a nice group portrait of German and native men on a break. One of the photos showing a native man is captioned “Ovambo” on verso.

 

80. [GIBRALTAR]
GREENE, Captain Dominick Sarsfield (1826-1892), Royal Artillery and Aide-de-Camp
[Original Mounted Watercolour Signed "DSG" and Titled in ink on Mount:] The Galleries / Gibraltar / Europa Point / 24.8.57.

1857. Pencil, watercolour and bodycolour on paper ca. 24,5x36 cm (10x14 in). Some minor creasing of corners but overall a very good watercolour.
Original attractive watercolour sketch from a series of sketches made by Captain Dominick Sarsfield Greene for his "Views in India, from drawing taken during the Seapoy Mutiny," Thos. Maclean: London, 1859. The Galleries are the Great Siege Tunnels and Europa Point is the southernmost point of Gibraltar. Provenance: Sir Alexander Moncrieff (1829–1906) and thence by descent.

 

81. [GORDON OF KHARTOUM]
[Lithograph, Titled:] Major General Charles George Gordon. C.B. R.E. Hero of Khartoum.

London: Marlborough, Gould and Co. Publishers, ca. 1880. Lithograph, printed image ca. 49x32,5 cm (17x13 in). Proof copies 5 s. each. Tears and minor losses on extremities, otherwise a very good wide margined lithograph.
Large well executed lithograph portrait of Major-General Charles George Gordon, CB (1833-1885), known as Chinese Gordon, Gordon Pasha, and Gordon of Khartoum. "It may not be out of place to mention that by far the best portrait of General Gordon , to our mind, is a large lithograph published by Marlborough and Co., 52, old Bailey, London, and within reach of all purses" (General Gordon’s life and letters // Littell’s The Living Age. Fifth Series, Vol. 1. Boston, 1885. P. 465).
"Major-General Charles George Gordon, was a British army officer and administrator. He made his military reputation in China, where he was placed in command of the "Ever Victorious Army", a force of Chinese soldiers led by European officers. In the early 1860s, Gordon and his men were instrumental in putting down the Taiping Rebellion, regularly defeating much larger forces. For these accomplishments, he was given the nickname "Chinese" Gordon and honours from both the Emperor of China and the British.
He entered the service of the Khedive in 1873 (with British government approval) and later became the Governor-General of the Sudan, where he did much to suppress revolts and the slave trade. When a serious revolt broke out in the Sudan, led by a Muslim reformer and self-proclaimed Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad, Gordon was sent to Khartoum with instructions to secure the evacuation of loyal soldiers and civilians, and depart with them. After evacuating about 2,500 British civilians he retained a smaller group of soldiers and non-military men. As an ardent Christian evangelist he was determined to stand up to the Mahdi, his Muslim nemesis. In the build up to battle the two leaders corresponded attempting to convert the other to their respective faiths, but neither would comply. Besieged by the Mahdi's forces, Gordon organized a city-wide defence lasting almost a year that gained him the admiration of the British public, though not the government, which had not wished to become involved (as Gordon had known before setting out). Only when public pressure to act had become too great was a relief force reluctantly sent. It arrived two days after the city had fallen and Gordon had been beheaded" (Wikipedia).

 

82. [GORDON OF KHARTOUM], Charles George, Major-General (1833-1885)
[Two Items Relating to General Gordon Including: Printed Pamphlet]: SULLIVAN, Edward. The Truth About Gordon; [With: Signatures of Gordon's Sister ('M. A. Gordon') and Sister-in-Law ('M. F. M. Gordon').

Pamphlet: [London: National Union of Conservative and Constitutional Associations, 1885]. Series A. - No. 1.] Octavo (ca. 21,5x13,5 cm). 4 pp. Paper worn, with creases, stains and tears on extremities. Overall a good pamphlet. The signatures are cut from letters, and laid down on part of an octavo leaf from an autograph album, ca. 17,5x15 cm. The signatures are captioned in a contemporary hand. Both aged, but in good condition.
The very rare pamphlet is by Sir Edward Robert Sullivan (1826-1899), Lord Chancellor of Ireland, with only one electronic copy found in Worldcat. The pamphlet is a sharp criticism of the government of William Gladstone which is blamed for the death of Gordon. The initial paragraph reads: 'Before the British Elector makes up his mind as to whom he will entrust the honour of his country at the General Election, it will be well for him to "read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest" a plain, unvarnished history of the betrayal and death of one of the noblest heroes of this or any other age - GENERAL GORDON.' The text consists of several paragraphs, namely: 'Why he was sent', 'What he demanded', 'The hope that ended in despair', 'The end', 'Interest before duty' and 'Our duty and interest'.
The autograph note by Gordon's sister is on a slip ca. 4x10,5 cm, and reads 'Believe me yours very truly – M.A. Gordon'. The autograph of his sister-in-law (the wife of his brother General Samuel Enderby Gordon, 1824-1883) is on a slip ca. 4,5x7 cm, and reads 'Believe me Truly yours M. F. M. Gordon'.
"Gordon withstood a siege of 317 days supported by two white officers with native troops wasted by famine and disease. Then, on 26 January 1885, a fall in the level of the Nile enabled the Mahdists to succeed in a final assault on Khartoum. Gordon was speared by dervishes in his palace, and his dissevered head was displayed in the Mahdists' camp. Wolseley's river steamers came in sight of Khartoum on 28 January, then withdrew. Gordon's body was never found" (Oxford DNB).

 

83. [GOREE ISLAND]
[Period Manuscript Copy of]: An Address from the [Principal] Inhabitants of Goree to Lieut. Colonel Chisholm.

Goree Island, 26 May 1816. Folio (ca. 32x20,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Legible handwriting in secretarial hand. Mild fold marks, otherwise a near fine document.
Farewell gratitude letter to Lieutenant-Colonel James Chrisholm (ca. 1765 - 1821) of the Royal African Corps who has been the Commandant of Goree for seven years. British garrison was quartered in Goree during the last British occupation of the island of 1800-1817 (French reoccupied the colony on 25 January 1817). The letter is signed by twelve citizens of Goree, mostly French (Reni Dupuy, Pierre Lapolicett, Cader Francio, Martin Terranjou, Armond Laport, James Bradley, Ja. Lanim, Nicolas Jonga, Jn. Baudin, Pierre Louis, Fs. Defontnoy, Pierre Jurpin, Mayor).
“It is with sincere regret we the undersigned being the principal inhabitants of Goree, learn that you are about leaving this island, we cannot in Justice to our feeling allow you to depart without offering our most grateful thanks for your fatherly care and constant attention to forward our welfare”. The letter praises “the great improvements you have made in this Island”, “the state of defence you put the garrison in when surrounded by the Enemy’s Ships of War”, “the impartiality and moderation of your decisions in the Administration of Justice” and notes that “the high state of discipline you have maintained over the Troops under your Command not only secured to us our Property, but kept the most perfect harmony between the Soldiers and all Classes of Inhabitants.”
“The Friends of the African Institution are greatly indebted to you for your in remitted Exertions in carrying their humane and liberal views into execution. As a token of our regard and gratitude we beg you to accept of few Gold Rings and wear them in remembrance of us”.
James Chisholm was a British army officer who served in the Guzerat and Upper Bengal provinces of India (since 1796). In 1807 he took part in the British attack on Buenos Aires. “In 1808 he was promoted to a majority in the Royal African Corps, with which he served on the coast of Africa, and, during a part of that time, as Commandant of Goree. While thus employed, he uniformly and determinedly opposed the abominable and inhuman traffic in slaves, many of whom he rescued from their oppressors, and restored to their families and to freedom. On his departure from the Island in 1816, the inhabitants of Goree, French as well as English, voted him a gold medal, and an affectionate address, as a flattering testimony of the sense they entertained of his services, and as a mark of gratitude for the zeal with which he watched over the safety and interests of the Settlement. The Reports of the Royal African Institution contain abundant proofs of his cordial exertions in favour of the unhappy natives of Africa…” (Obituary/ Gentleman’s Magazine. February 1822. P. 182).

 

84. [LAKE NGAMI]
OSWELL, William Cotton (1818-1893)
[Autograph Letter Signed to ‘My dear Nat’‚ a lively letter about family arrangements‚ with a story about Lord Glenelg as Colonial Secretary].

St. Leonards, 20 December. Octavo ca. 18x11,5 cm. 4 pp. Black ink on laid paper. Mild fold marks, abrasion along one edge where formerly mounted, otherwise a very good letter.
A lively letter by a British African explorer William Cotton Oswell. “In the 1850-s he explored the Kalahari desert in Bechuanaland (now Botswana) and located Lake Ngami; later he participated in expeditions to the Zambezi river with David Livingstone, and one of Livingstone's children, born in Botswana in 1851, was named William Oswell Livingstone. The species Rhinoceros oswellii was named for him (this name is no longer used in modern taxonomy). Livingstone described Oswell as having had lucky escapes, having been tossed by a rhinoceros on two occasions” (Wikipedia).
From the letter: “I am not in town more than 6 times a year‚ & I find gentlemen who sit at home in their own arm chairs are not always very prone to take opinions from Mumbo Jumbo‚ latest arrival from the Mts. Of the Moon. We are so apt to side with our own ideas that we very diligently sift other people’s to see if they contain those pearls of great price and if they don’t why they’re rubbish! You remember the story told of Lord Glenelg when Colonial Sectry‚ receiving a deputation from Natal‚ suggest his own project plans & refusing to listen to said deputation on any point. ‘Good morning‚ my Lord’‚ ‘Good morning Gentlemen - by the way‚ how is Natal?’‚ this just as they were leaving the room.”

 

85. [LIBERIA]
ELLIS, Harrison W. (d. 1870)
[Autograph Letter Signed to the Secretary of the Missionary Board of the Presbyterian Church Walter Lowrie in which Ellis is sharing his Upcoming Plans as a Missionary in Monrovia].

Monrovia, Liberia, W[est] A[frica], 18 March 1850. Octavo (ca. 24,5x20 cm). Brown ink on blueish paper. 1 p. With the original envelope (unfolded), stamped and docketed. The letter is numbered in ink in both upper corners. Fold marks, paper of the envelope slightly age toned, but overall a very good letter.
An interesting letter from Harrison Ellis, a Black missionary in Africa, addressed to the secretary of the Presbyterian Board of Foreign Missions Walter Lowrie (1784-1868) at the main office in New York. Ellis shares some rather ambitious plans, including that "my object was to form an interior exploring and 'Road Company,' and this, we add, to be attached and form a part of our missionary and High school operation, the latter being the ‘primum mobile' <...> The effects then, produced by 'our' missionary educating and Evangelizing operation, will be visible, audible, sensible & tangible! Terminating in temporal and profitable reaction, in this world, and finally, bringing glory to 'Him,' and our eternal felicity in the world to come! I wish you would think on these things. I wish you would send us a Church-Bell, put to my account, and I will make the Church pay me for it when it gets here. Please send me some writing paper, some hymn books & some catechisms. <…> I remain your ever-grateful Missionary, H.W. Ellis."
“H.W. Ellis was born enslaved in Virginia, lived in Tennessee and Alabama, and became a Presbyterian minister of such renown that the Synod of Alabama purchased, emancipated, and sent him, with his wife and daughter, to be a missionary in Liberia” (Kazanjian, D. Unsettled Life: Early Liberia’s Epistolary Equivocations// Unsettled States: Nineteenth Century American Literary Studies/ Ed. By D. Luciano & I.G. Wilson. New York University Press, 2014). Ellis “was connected with the Presbyterian Board as a missionary in Liberia, from 1846 to 1851; and within the last year he was again taken on the list of missionaries, at the request of his Presbytery. He was a native of Alabama; his vigor of mind, and the considerable progress in education which he had made under unfavourable circumstances, awakened so much interest in his behalf, that his freedom was purchased by Christian friends in that part of the country, in order that he might carry into effect his desire of going to Africa as a missionary. The expectations of his friends as to his usefulness seemed to be disappointed for a time, but those of them who are yet living, and the friends of the mission generally, will be glad to learn that his last days seemed to be his best” (Death of the Learned Blacksmith// The African Repository. Vol. XLVI. Washington, July 1870, p. 223).
Walter Lowrie was an American politician who served in both houses in the state legislature and represented Pennsylvania in the United States Senate. Lowrie was the chairman of the Committee on Finance during the 2nd session of the 17th Congress, Secretary of the Senate in 1825-1836, and Secretary of the Missionary Board of the Presbyterian Church from 1836 until his death (Wikipedia)

 

86. [LIBYA]
LYON, After, Captain George Francis (1795-1832)
[Original Unsigned Watercolour Showing a Tuarick of Ghraat and Negresses of the Soudan Taken from Lyon's "A Narrative of Travels in Northern Africa," Titled in Brown ink:] Lyon's Travels in Africa.

After 1821. Watercolour ca. 18x23 cm (7x9 in) on beige artist's paper with blind stamp "Bristol Paper" in lower right corner. Watercolour with remains of the green paper mounting sheet, overall in very good condition.
Attractive well executed watercolour with slightly altered African costumed figures taken from two plates (Tuaricks of Ghraat Plate p.113 & Negresses of the Soudan Plate p.182) of Lyon's "A Narrative of Travels in Northern Africa, in the years 1818, 19, and 20, accompanied by geographical notices of Soudan, and of the course of the Niger. With a chart of the routes, and a variety of coloured plates, illustrative of the costumes of the several natives of Northern Africa:" London 1821. "Lyon was commissioned to accompany Joseph Ritchie on an expedition to reach the Niger by way of North Africa.., [they] were received by the Bashaw of Tripoli, Yusuf Karamanli, who informed them that they would be able to join the caravan of the Bey of Fezzan, Mohammed el Mukni, who was leaving on a slave trading expedition to the south. Thirty-nine days out of Tripoli the Caravan halted at Murzuk, but within two weeks of their arrival Lyon had gone down with dysentery.., and Ritchie was feverish and delirious.., [and later died at Murzuk]" (Howgego 1800-1850 L52 & R17).

 

87. [LIVINGSTONE]
[Portrait Pencil Drawing of David Livingstone].

Ca. 1879. Pencil on Whatman paper, watermarked “1879”, ca. 30,5x24,5 cm (12 x 9 ¾ in). Ink caption on the lower margin “Docteur David Livingstone, Exploratéur de l’Afrique centrale." Additional pencil caption in the right lower corner “L’univers illustre, 28 sept. 1863”. Recently matted, near fine drawing.
Skillful pencil portrait of the famous African explorer David Livingstone (1813-1873).
“David Livingstone, often misspelled as Livingston, was a Scottish Congregationalist pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and an explorer in Africa. His meeting with H. M. Stanley gave rise to the popular quotation "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"
Perhaps one of the most popular national heroes of the late 19th century in Victorian Britain, Livingstone had a mythic status, which operated on a number of interconnected levels: that of Protestant missionary martyr, that of working-class "rags to riches" inspirational story, that of scientific investigator and explorer, that of imperial reformer, anti-slavery crusader, and advocate of commercial empire.
His fame as an explorer helped drive forward the obsession with discovering the sources of the River Nile that formed the culmination of the classic period of European geographical discovery and colonial penetration of the African continent. At the same time his missionary travels, "disappearance" and death in Africa, and subsequent glorification as posthumous national hero in 1874 led to the founding of several major central African Christian missionary initiatives carried forward in the era of the European ‘Scramble for Africa’” (Wikipedia).

 

88. [LIVINGSTONE]
CARANTI, Biagio
[Biographical Notice of Dr. David Livingstone]. Notizie Biographiche sul Dottore David Livingstone.

Torino: Carlo Favale e Cia, 1876. First Edition. Large Octavo. 35 pp. With a lithographed portrait frontispiece and a folding map at rear. Title page with the author’s ink presentation inscription dated 1876. Original grey printed publisher’s wrappers. Paper slightly age toned, front wrapper with a couple of minor tears on extremities, but overall a very good uncut copy.
Very rare Italian biography of David Livingstone with only one paper copy found in Worldcat. The title page bears the author’s presentation inscription. The brochure is illustrated with a lithographed portrait of Livingstone and a map of Southern Africa showing the area of his explorations in 1853-1871.

 

89. [MAURITIUS]
RYAN, Rt. Rev. Vincent William (1816-1888)
[Autograph Letter Written when a Bishop of Mauritius to “The Lord Bishop of Carlisle”].

St. James’s [Cathedral?], Port Louis, 12 May 1856. Octavo (ca. 20,5x12,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on blue laid paper, docketed on top of the first page. Fold marks, minor tears and loss of paper on top and bottom of the centrefold after removing from a stab, repaired on the bottom with tape. Overall a very good letter.
An interesting letter from the first Anglican bishop of Mauritius Vincent William Ryan, written about a year after the beginning of his service on the island. It is addressed to the “Bishop of Carlisle” Samuel Waldegrave (1817-1869) who held this rank from 1860 until his death.
The letter expresses Ryan’s “sympathy, encouragement & earnest interception <…> in the midst of much infirmity” and continues with the latest news of the Mauritius diocese: “Many things here continue to impress the need of spiritual help. 128,550 Indians form the chief subject of my thoughts - 800 Chinese are ready for a working Missionary. The descendants of Madagascar & Mozambique slaves are located all over the Island. Romanism here is very repressive. A Major honoured by the whole island buried without any Christian Rites because he was a Freemason; a large church building from the products of a lottery are [?] the old story of arrogance and meanness <…> The Tamil congregation in Town meets in our school room near the cathedral church <…> On Friday of last week I visited an inland missionary station where our small schools are succeeding admirably and the palisaded church was full of parents and friends, all creole or Malegashe & Mozambique <…> The cholera had been very severe amidst them <…> There are 1600 soldiers here. The general & the several colonels very ready to forward our wishes. Last year 15,000 sailors visited the port”.
In 1854 Ryan “was nominated bishop of Mauritius, a post for which his knowledge of French particularly suited him. He set sail for Mauritius on 15 March 1855, and landed at Port Louis on 12 June, accompanied by a catechist from the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. Although the London Missionary Society was represented in other ports of Mauritius, Ryan found only two clergymen in Port Louis, along with one missionary in the country districts. Notwithstanding, he took full advantage of the awakening interest in evangelical Christianity there. On 8 January 1856 he consecrated a new church at Mahébourg. Later in the year (on 11 October) he made his first visit to the Seychelles, which were included in his diocese. In 1859 he visited the islands again, and consecrated the new church at Mahé. He was particularly interested in the schools in his diocese and in the Hindu population. <…>
On 12 July 1862 he went with the special commissioner to Madagascar, to explore the possibility of establishing a new mission there. He visited the capital and the scene of the massacres of Christians, and returned to Mauritius in poor health. In October 1862 he revisited the Seychelles after the hurricane of that year. <…> In 1867 he finally left Mauritius” (Oxford DNB).
Ryan published and account of his service in Mauritius titled “Mauritius & Madagascar, Journals of an Eight Years’ Residence in the Diocese of Mauritius, and of a Visit to Madagascar” (London, 1864).

 

90. [MOMBASA]
GUILLAIN, [Charles] (1808-1875)
[Tinted Lithograph Panorama of the City of Mombasa (Kenya) Titled:] Vue de la Ville de Mombase.

Paris: Arthus Bertrand, [1856-1857]. Tinted lithograph ca. 24x33 cm (9 ½ x 13 in). With a library blind stamp in blank margin, but overall a very good lithograph.
"Mombasa is the second-largest city in Kenya, with a population of about 1.2 million" (Wikipedia). Plate #44 from Voyage à la côte orientale d'Afrique exécuté pendant les années 1846, 1847 et 1848 par le brick Le Ducouëdic sous le commandement de M. Guillain. "Charles Guillain visited the Indian Ocean coasts of Africa and the Portuguese settlements in India aboard the Du Couedic between January 1846 and May 1849. He was appointed member of a commission in 1858 to investigate new possibilities of French emigration to the colonies, and governor of New Caledonia in 1861" (Sothebys). Guillain's Documents sur l'Histoire is also one of the only sources for the travels of Eugene Maizan (1819-1845), "Possibly the first European to penetrate East Africa.., Maizan proceeded as far as the district of Deje-la-Mhora, on the Uzaramo plateau about 80-150 kilometers from the coast, when he was set upon by Mazangera tribesmen under sub-chief Hembe, and bound to a calabash tree and savagely murdered.., [Guillain's Documents sur l'Histoire is] considered the finest account of East Africa for the period" (Howgego 1800-1850, M6); Guillain "sailed down the Indian Ocean coast and went ashore at Mogadishu, Marca, and Baraawe, penetrating some distance inland and collecting valuable geographic and ethnographic information" (Encyclopaedia Britannica Online); Gay 236; Hess & Coger 272; Ibrahim-Hilmy I, 280.

 

91. [MOROCCO]
WESTERMARCK, Edward Alexander (1862-1939)
[Two Autograph Letters Signed‚ Discussing Publication of a Chapter from his Latest Book, Apparently, “The Origin and Development of Moral Ideas” (London, 1906-1908, 2 vols.), and Mentioning His Recent Return from Morocco].

Two letters: London‚ 10 October 1908; Helsingfors‚ 26 April 1909. Each small octavo (ca. 17,5x11 cm); black ink on watermarked laid paper. In all 6 pp. Of text in English. Mild fold marks, otherwise near fine letters.
Two letters to fellow scientists from a Finnish philosopher and sociologist Edward Alexander Westermarck, who at the time worked as a professor of sociology at the London School of Economics and Political Science (1907-1931), and a professor of practical philosophy at the University of Helsinki (1906-1918). In the first letter Westermarck notes that he has just returned from Morocco and discusses his recent publication: “The article in Sexual Problems is a translation of the chapter in my book (which will be out at the end of this month or in the beginning of November), but I could not tell whether the translator has given all the footnotes. I thank you for your Chronique and for your kind appreciation of my article with contribution to the subject. The material is of course extremely defective, and the score of my work compelled me to be brief <…>. P.S. There is no foundation for the statement made by the editor of Sexual Problems that I consider the chapter in question to be the most important part of my book. I cannot understand from where he has got this notion.” This letter most likely refers to Westermarck’s “The Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas” (London, 1906-08, 2 vols.). The second letter states that Westermarck is in Helsinki and thus is not able meet his correspondent in London.
“Edvard Alexander Westermarck was a Finnish philosopher and sociologist. Among other subjects, he studied exogamy and the incest taboo. The phenomenon of reverse sexual imprinting (when two people live in close domestic proximity during the first few years in the life of either one, both are desensitized to later close sexual attraction), now known as the Westermarck effect, was first formally described by him in his book The History of Human Marriage (1891). He has been described as "first Darwinian sociologist" or "the first sociobiologist." He helped found academic sociology in the United Kingdom, becoming the first professor of sociology (with Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse) in 1907 in the University of London” (Wikipedia).

 

92. [MURCHISON]
MAGUIRE, Herbert (1821-1895)
[Portrait of Sir Roderick Murchison with his Facsimile Signature]: Rod. I. Murchison.

[Ipswich: George Ransome, 1849]. Lithograph on Indian paper ca. 33,5x24 cm (13 ½ x 9 ½ in), with large margins, blind stamp of Ipswich Museum on the lower margin. T. H. Maguire 1849 [signed on stone lower right.]; M. & N. Hanhart, Lith. Printers. With some edge wear, otherwise a very good lithograph.
Large lithographed portrait of noted geologist and geographer Sir Roderick Impey Murchison (1792-1871), shown with a hammer and eye-glass on a chord around his neck. "Murchison named and described the Silurian system and travelled extensively throughout Europe and Russia studying geological structures. He was one of the founders and a president of the Royal Geographical Society, director-general of the British Geological Survey and director of the Royal School of Mines and the Museum of Practical Geology"(Wikipedia).
"Thomas Herbert Maguire was an English artist and engraver, noted for his portraits of prominent figures. The well-known series of 60 scientific portraits by Maguire was privately commissioned by George Ransome, F.L.S., of Ipswich, in connection with the foundation of the Ipswich Museum (Portraits of the Honorary Members of the Ipswich Museum. Portfolio of 60 lithographs by T.H. Maguire. George Ransome, Ipswich, 1846-1852).
They were executed cumulatively between 1847 and 1852, as the Museum obtained fresh scientific sponsors. Some were made by the artist from life, and others from photographic portraits or (in the case of the Revd William Kirby) from an oil portrait. The exact total of this series is slightly above 60 because some (e.g. Edwin Lankester) were re-drawn. Copies of the lithographs were given to subscribing members of the Museum, and a bound portfolio copy of the series was presented by Professor J.S. Henslow to H.R.H. Prince Albert when he inspected the Museum on the occasion of the 1851 Ipswich Congress of the British Association for the Advancement of Science. George Ransome resigned his position as founding Secretary of the Museum in 1852 and the cumulative series was then discontinued" (Wikipedia).

 

93. [NACHTIGAL]
[Portrait Pencil Drawing of Gustav Nachtigal].

Ca. 1880. Pencil on paper, ca. 22x14 cm (8 ½ x 5 ½ in). With ink caption on the lower margin “Le Docteur Nachtigal, Anglais, Auteur de voyage de Bourno au Baguirmi”. Recently matted, near fine drawing.
Well executed pencil portrait of Gustav Nachtigal (1834-1885), a German Africa explorer. The same portrait was published in the French edition of his travel account, “Voyage du Bornou au Baguirmi” (Paris, 1880).
“Gustav Nachtigal was a German explorer of Central and West Africa. He is further known as the German Empire's consul-general for Tunisia and Commissioner for West Africa. His mission as commissioner resulted in Togoland and Kamerun becoming the first colonies of a German colonial empire. The Gustav-Nachtigal-Medal, awarded by the Berlin Geographical Society, is named after him.
Commissioned by King Wilhelm I of Prussia to carry gifts to Umar of Borno, sheik of the Bornu Empire, in acknowledgment of kindness shown to German travelers, he set out in 1869 from Ottoman Tripoli and succeeded after a two years journey in accomplishing his mission. During this period he visited Tibesti and Borku, regions of the central Sahara not previously known to Europeans.
From Bornu he traveled to Baguirmi, an independent state to the southeast of Bornu. From there he proceeded to Wadai (a powerful Muslim kingdom to the northeast of Baguirmi) and to Kordofan (a former province of central Sudan). Nachtigal emerged from darkest Africa at Khartoum (then an Egyptian outpost, today the capital of Sudan) in the winter of 1874, after having been given up for lost. His journey, graphically described in his Sahara and Sudan, placed him in the top ranking of discoverers.
Gustav Nachtigal is regarded as the other great German explorer of Africa, in company with Heinrich Barth. Like Barth, Nachtigal was primarily interested in ethnography, and additionally in tropical medicine. His works stand out because of their wealth of details and above all because of his unbiased views of Africans. In contrast to most contemporary explorers, Nachtigal did not hold to the alleged inferiority of Africans; his convictions are clearly reflected in his descriptions and choice of words” (Wikipedia).

 

94. [NIGER EXPEDITION]
PARRY, William Edward, Sir (1790-1855)
[Autograph Letter Signed “W. Parry” to “My dear Buxton” regarding the Ale Supply for the Niger Expedition 1841-42; With: Lithographed Portrait of William Parry].

Admiralty, 8 December 4[1]. Small Octavo (ca. 17,5x10,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Written on verso of the official note from the Controller of Victualling Department of the Royal Navy, dated “Admiralty, Somerset House, 6 December 1841”. Paper aged toned, mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter. Portrait: lithograph on paper, ca. 1830-s, ca. 9,5x7,5 cm; lithographed titled and printer’s address on the lower margin.
An interesting item of the Niger Expedition 1841-1842, this letter from the famous Arctic explorer Sir Edward Parry, was written when he was a high ranking Admiralty official. The letter is addressed to Charles Buxton (1823-1871), English brewer, philanthropist, and Member of Parliament, the letter concerns the ale supplies for the participating steamers. It was Charles’ father, Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton (1786–1845), a noted British politician and abolitionist, who was the initiator of the expedition.
Parry forwards Buxton the official answer from the Royal Navy “Controller of Victualling” which says that “the Ale required for the Niger Expedition has been ordered from the Parties who supplied it on the last occasion, namely Mr.s Hodgson & Abbott, Captain Trotter having written favorably respecting the former supplies made by the same parties” [Henry Dundas Trotter (1802-1859) – the commander of the Niger Expedition]. Parry further notes “I have great hopes of receiving better accounts from the Niger, when we next hear <…> I hope to write to your father today”.
“The Niger expedition of 1841 was a largely unsuccessful journey in 1841 and 1842 of three British iron steam vessels to Lokoja, at the confluence of the Niger River and Benue River, in what is now Nigeria. It was mounted by British missionary and activist groups, with the backing of the British government. The crews of the boats suffered a high mortality from disease” (Wikipedia).
“In mid-August 1841 the expedition entered one of the mouths of the Niger. Early in October the last of its ships was limping back, its commander prostrated by fever, the cabins crammed with sick and dying, the geologist working the engines with the aid of a textbook. Those seven weeks cost forty-one European lives” (Dictionary of African Christian Biography on-line).

 

95. [NIGER RIVER]
ALLEN, Captain William (1792-1864)
A Narrative Of The Expedition Sent By Her Majesty's Government To The River Niger In 1841. Under the Command of Captain H.D. Trotter and T.R.H. Thomson. Published with the Sanction of the Colonial Office and the Admiralty.

London: Richard Bentley, 1848. First Edition. Octavo 2 vols. in one. xviii, 509; viii, 511 pp. With a portrait frontispiece, two folding maps, a folding panorama, fourteen plates, and many wood engravings in text. Handsome period brown gilt tooled full morocco. Recased using the original spine, but overall a very good copy.
"In 1840 the abolitionist, Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton (1786-1845), proposed that a large expedition should be sent up the Niger with a threefold mission; to show the natives the advantages of legitimate trade; to sign treaties with the chiefs in which they promised to give up slaving; and to set up a model farm at the Benue-Niger confluence which could teach the Africans the merits of agriculture and the blessings of Christianity.., The expedition sailed in May 1841, and after recruiting 133 Africans on the west coast entered the Niger on 13.8.41" (Howgego 1800-1850 T18); "It was, without a doubt, the most ambitious expedition that had ever set out for the Niger" (De Gramont p.207); Hess & Coger 6939.

 

96. [NIGER RIVER]
ALLEN, William & PICKEN, Thomas (lithographer)
[Two Plates from the "Picturesque Views on the River Niger": First plate includes two panoramas]: Cliffs at Attàh; Mountains and market canoes near Borwèh. [Second plate shows seven strip views of the Niger with place names]: Béaufort Island looking up the river; Six miles below the confluence; Twenty miles above the confluence; The Terry Mountains; The Rennel mountains; Zagoshi - Cliifs about 150 m. High - The City of Rabba.

London: John Murray, Hodgson & Graves, Ackerman, 1840. Tinted lithographs ca. 22x28,5 cm (9 x 11 ½ in) and 24x33,5 cm (9 ½ x 13 ½ in). Day & Haghe, Lithrs to the Queen. Both recently matted. Plates edge worn with a couple of repaired small tears, old small ink stamp on one plate, otherwise in very good condition.
Two plates from Allen’s "Picturesque Views on the River Niger: sketched during Lander’s last visit in 1832-33" (London, 1840). "Allen had accompanied Richard Lander and Oldfield and carried out a survey of the River Niger in 1832-1833. The present work was published in light of the interest that the proposed expedition of 1841-1842 (under the command of Captain Trotter) generated. Allen went on to command the Wilberforce on this ill-fated expedition" (Christie’s); Abbey Travel 284.

 

97. [NIGER RIVER]
LUGARD, Frederick John Dealtry, Baron (1858-1945)
[Two Autograph Letters Signed "F.J.D. Lugard" to "Thomas" and "Fagan" (of Natural History Museum) Dated 1 Sept. 1895 and 15 Feb. 1896 Respectively].

[South Africa], 1895-6. Octavo. 3 pages each. Octavo letters each ca. 18x11 cm (7 x 4 ½ in). The letters are written in a legible hand and are in near fine condition.
The two interesting letters are full of content and in the 1895 letter Lugard discusses what "Thomas" has in his collections (especially the horns and skin of a hartebeest) and asks for a spare Kobus Kob skin. He has immature Kobus Kob horns if he wants them from" South of Lokoja on Niger bank." Perhaps he is discussing the results of his expedition to Borgu.
In the 1896 letter Lugard describes in detail the sort of man he wishes to employ looking after stores and doing "miscellaneous work", a taxidermist or collector. Presumably he is preparing for the expedition to Lake Ngami (1896-7).
"West Africa, 1894-1895:
Despite any disenchantment over his experience of two companies and his longed for but dwindling hope of returning to east Africa in senior government service, Lugard now embarked, however hesitatingly, on another roving company expedition. An offer of service came from Sir George Goldie, who had obtained a charter for his Royal Niger Company and in 1894 was busily concluding treaties with local chiefs so as to strengthen the company's capacity to repel the encroachments of the French in the Niger region. Aware that they were preparing an expedition to Borgu, Goldie wanted Lugard to proceed to Nikki, its chief town, and to forestall the French and Germans by securing a treaty from the ruler. In a rapid and remarkable march through unexplored country, Lugard won the so-called ‘steeplechase to Nikki’, to the dismay of the French, who had no doubt about the motives of one whom they stigmatized as ‘the conqueror of Uganda’.
Southern Africa, 1896-1897:
A brief interlude in southern Africa followed. Lugard left the Niger in April 1895, still hoping that the government would ask for his services in Africa. Agonizingly, his appointment as CB brought nothing more with it, so he accepted an offer from yet another African company, the new British West Charterland Company, and set off to explore a mineral commission near Lake Ngami in Bechuanaland. Here the main problem was not fighting but transport. The journey involved 700 miles across the Kalahari Desert, and a rinderpest epidemic had emptied the country of trek cattle. Nevertheless, the journey was accomplished by September 1896. In the following August, Lugard received an urgent and surprise message from the new colonial secretary, Joseph Chamberlain, inviting him to take up work in west Africa. It was an imperial appointment at last. What Lugard called his ‘destiny to Africa’ entered its third phase: after central and east Africa, henceforth it was to be west Africa. It turned out to be the longest connection of them all" (Oxford DNB).

 

98. [NILE]
BEKE, Charles T[ilstone] (1800-1874)
A Lecture on the Sources of the Nile and on the Means Requisite for their Final Determination. Delivered in the Theatre of the London Institution, on Wednesday, January 20th, 1864; [With: A Mounted Photograph (8,5x6 cm) of Mr. & Mrs. Beke ca. 1870 London: Ernest Edwards. With Six Pages of Loose Descriptive Text.]

London: Board of Management of the London Institution, 1864. First Edition. Octavo. 35 pp. With three maps, one outline hand colored. Recent gray wrappers. A fine copy.
Very Rare publication as only three copies found in Worldcat. Published after Speke's 'Discovery of the Sources of the Nile.' In this lecture to the London Institution, Beke took issue with Speke's claim that he had discovered the source of the Nile. Beke's counter claims were based on Beke's knowledge gained during his previous journeys to the region. "Beke spent the years 1840 to 1843 travelling in Abyssinia, spending most of his time in the provinces of Shoa and Gojam. His governing concerns were to advance commerce; aid the suppression of the slave trade; and make further geographical discovery, with the elucidation of the sources of the Nile River as his goal.., In the 1860s Beke's lifelong passions again brought him into the public eye. He continued, by lecture and articles, and his Sources of the Nile (1860), to debate the geography of the Nile basin" (Oxford DNB).

 

99. [NILE]
GOLDSMITH, George, Captain RN (1806-1875)
[Original Watercolour showing an African Village with Native Inhabitants, Titled]: Sir R. Baker’s Source of the Nile.

Ca. 1866. Grisaille watercolour and pencil on an album leaf, ca. 18x27 cm (ca. 7 x 10 ½ in). Captioned in pencil on the lower margin. With a pencil sketch of a native African man on verso. Mounted in a recent mat, overall a very good watercolour.
The talented artist was British navy officer George Goldsmith. He joined the Royal Navy in 1821 and was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant (1828), Commander (1841), Captain (1842), Vice-Admiral (1867) and Admiral (1875). Goldsmith served in the Mediterranean, West Coast Africa and the East Indies. He took part in the 1st Anglo-Chinese War, with HMS Hyacinth; and the Crimean War, with HMS Sidon under his command. Upon return to Britain he became Superintendent of the dockyard at Chatham and was created Companion of the Bath for his services in the Crimea.
The watercolour shows a native village, apparently near Lake Albert – one of the African Great Lakes which was discovered by Baker during his travel to the region in 1861-1865. Baker proved the lake to be, together with Lake Victoria, the source of the Nile – and for this achievement he was knighted and awarded with the gold medals of the Royal Geographical Society and Paris Geographical Society.
Curiously, Baker’s name in the caption is initialed as “R”, instead of “S”[amuel].

 

100. [NILE]
MALTE-BRUN, Victor Adolfe (1816-1889)
Résumé historique de l'exploration à la recherche des grands lacs de l'Afrique oriental faite en 1857-1858 par R.F. Burton et J.H. Speke [Historical Summary of Exploration of the Great Lakes in the East Africa Undertaken in 1857-58 by Burton and Speke].

Paris: A. Bertrand, ca. 1859. First Edition. Octavo. 63, [1] pp. With a large folding engraved map at rear. Original printed publisher’s wrappers with a booksellers’ paper label pasted on the front cover. Wrappers with minor chipping of margins, minor foxing of the text, but overall a very good copy.
An overview of Richard Burton's and John Speke’s discoveries of the Great African Lakes written shortly after the end of the expedition by noted French geographer and cartographer Victor Adolfe Malte-Brun. The text is supplemented with a large folding map of the Eastern Africa, based on the Burton and Speke’s latest discoveries (with the route of their expedition shown), as well as previous expeditions by d’Arnaud, Knoblecher, Brun-Rollet, Krapf, Rebmann, Erhardt, Monteiro, R.P. Leon des Avanchers and David Livingstone.

 

101. [PALESTINE]
BUCKINGHAM, James Silk (1786-1855)
[Autograph Letter Signed “J. S. Buckingham” to 'J. Upcott Esq' (English librarian and antiquary William Upcott) regarding his lectures at the Library of the London Institution].

12 February 1830. On a folded Octavo leaf (ca. 21x12,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on aged paper. Text complete and legible, addressed on verso of the second leaf. Traces of the old mount and minor holes on the last page, caused by removal of the letter from a stub, otherwise a very good letter.
Autograph signed letter by James Silk Buckingham, a noted British traveller, journalist and politician (MP in 1832-37), author of “Travels in Palestine” (London, 1821) and “Travels among the Arab Tribes Inhabiting the Countries East of Syria and Palestine” (London, 1825).
The letter obviously relates to the twelve lectures on “the Countries of the Eastern World” given by Buckingham in 1830 in the Library of the London Institution [for the advancement of Literature and the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge] (see: A Catalogue of the Library of the London Institution. London, 1835, vol. 1, p. Xi). Addressing William Upcott (1779-1845), a sub-librarian in the London Institution at the time, Buckingham is sending him the paragraphs, which he would 'be glad to have written out in some other hand than my own if it were possible'. He will be 'infinitely obliged to the kindness of Mrs. Phillipps if she can procure their insertion in any of the Papers'. In a long postscript covering the whole of the second page Buckingham invites Upcott and Mrs Phillipps 'to attend the Public Lectures on the Indian Question' which he is giving. He is sending half a dozen tickets 'as a very poor return for your great civility.'

 

102. [PETRA]
ROBERTS, David (1796-1864)
[Tinted Lithograph Panorama Titled:] Petra. March 10th 1839.

London: F.G. Moon, 1842. Tinted lithograph ca. 50x33 cm (20x13 in.) Some mild foxing otherwise a very good lithograph.
Petra, "established possibly as early as 312 BC as the capital city of the Nabataeans" (Wikipedia). Robert's left "London in August 1838 for Paris and thence travelling via Alexandria to Cairo, before visiting the pyramids at Giza. Hiring a cangia, he sailed up the Nile as far as Abu Simbel, stopping on his return north to sketch temples and ancient sites such as Philae, Karnak, Luxor, and Dendera. Back in Cairo he drew its streets and mosques before departing for Syria and Palestine in February 1839. He travelled through Sinai to Petra and thence north, via Hebron and Jaffa, to Jerusalem. From there he made an excursion to the Jordan, the Dead Sea, and Bethlehem and, after spending a further week in Jerusalem, he continued north, visiting many places associated with the Bible, before exploring Baalbek. He sailed for England from Beirut in May 1839, was quarantined in Malta, and returned to London in July. He was the first independent, professional British artist to travel so extensively in the Near East, and brought back 272 sketches, a panorama of Cairo, and three full sketchbooks, enough material to ‘serve me for the rest of my life’ (Roberts, eastern journal, 28 Jan 1839).
Over the next decade Roberts made ‘a serries of intire new drawings’ for the 247 large coloured lithographs executed by Louis Haghe for The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia (1842-9). No publication before this had presented so comprehensive a series of views of the monuments, landscape, and people of the Near East. Roberts was to paint more oils of the East than of any other region he visited, exhibiting thirty-one at the Royal Academy alone. These received critical acclaim and sold for high prices: for example, Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives (Holloway Collection at Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham) was commissioned for £330 in 1841 and his Ruins of Baalbec sold for £440 the same year, while The Island of Philae (1843; priv. Coll.) bought by a friend for £100, rapidly sold for £200, and in 1858 fetched 400 guineas. The works remain keenly sought after to this day" (Oxford DNB).

 

103. [PETRA]
ROBERTS, David (1796-1864)
[Tinted Lithograph Panorama Titled:] Remains of a Triumphal Arch at Petra, March 8th 1839.

London: F.G. Moon, 1842. Tinted lithograph ca. 33,5x50 cm (13 ½ x 20 in). Some mild foxing otherwise a very good lithograph.
Petra, "established possibly as early as 312 BC as the capital city of the Nabataeans" (Wikipedia). Robert's left "London in August 1838 for Paris and thence travelling via Alexandria to Cairo, before visiting the pyramids at Giza. Hiring a cangia, he sailed up the Nile as far as Abu Simbel, stopping on his return north to sketch temples and ancient sites such as Philae, Karnak, Luxor, and Dendera. Back in Cairo he drew its streets and mosques before departing for Syria and Palestine in February 1839. He travelled through Sinai to Petra and thence north, via Hebron and Jaffa, to Jerusalem. From there he made an excursion to the Jordan, the Dead Sea, and Bethlehem and, after spending a further week in Jerusalem, he continued north, visiting many places associated with the Bible, before exploring Baalbek. He sailed for England from Beirut in May 1839, was quarantined in Malta, and returned to London in July. He was the first independent, professional British artist to travel so extensively in the Near East, and brought back 272 sketches, a panorama of Cairo, and three full sketchbooks, enough material to ‘serve me for the rest of my life’ (Roberts, eastern journal, 28 Jan 1839).
Over the next decade Roberts made ‘a serries of intire new drawings’ for the 247 large coloured lithographs executed by Louis Haghe for The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia (1842-9). No publication before this had presented so comprehensive a series of views of the monuments, landscape, and people of the Near East. Roberts was to paint more oils of the East than of any other region he visited, exhibiting thirty-one at the Royal Academy alone. These received critical acclaim and sold for high prices: for example, Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives (Holloway Collection at Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham) was commissioned for £330 in 1841 and his Ruins of Baalbec sold for £440 the same year, while The Island of Philae (1843; priv. Coll.) bought by a friend for £100, rapidly sold for £200, and in 1858 fetched 400 guineas. The works remain keenly sought after to this day" (Oxford DNB).

 

104. [PETRA]
ROBERTS, David (1796-1864)
[Tinted Lithograph Panorama Titled:] Entrance to Petra. March 10th 1839.

London: F.G. Moon, 1842. Tinted lithograph ca. 52,5x34 cm (20 ½ x 13 ½ in.) A very good lithograph.
Petra, "established possibly as early as 312 BC as the capital city of the Nabataeans" (Wikipedia). Robert's left "London in August 1838 for Paris and thence travelling via Alexandria to Cairo, before visiting the pyramids at Giza. Hiring a cangia, he sailed up the Nile as far as Abu Simbel, stopping on his return north to sketch temples and ancient sites such as Philae, Karnak, Luxor, and Dendera. Back in Cairo he drew its streets and mosques before departing for Syria and Palestine in February 1839. He travelled through Sinai to Petra and thence north, via Hebron and Jaffa, to Jerusalem. From there he made an excursion to the Jordan, the Dead Sea, and Bethlehem and, after spending a further week in Jerusalem, he continued north, visiting many places associated with the Bible, before exploring Baalbek. He sailed for England from Beirut in May 1839, was quarantined in Malta, and returned to London in July. He was the first independent, professional British artist to travel so extensively in the Near East, and brought back 272 sketches, a panorama of Cairo, and three full sketchbooks, enough material to ‘serve me for the rest of my life’ (Roberts, eastern journal, 28 Jan 1839).
Over the next decade Roberts made ‘a serries of intire new drawings’ for the 247 large coloured lithographs executed by Louis Haghe for The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia (1842-9). No publication before this had presented so comprehensive a series of views of the monuments, landscape, and people of the Near East. Roberts was to paint more oils of the East than of any other region he visited, exhibiting thirty-one at the Royal Academy alone. These received critical acclaim and sold for high prices: for example, Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives (Holloway Collection at Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham) was commissioned for £330 in 1841 and his Ruins of Baalbec sold for £440 the same year, while The Island of Philae (1843; priv. Coll.) bought by a friend for £100, rapidly sold for £200, and in 1858 fetched 400 guineas. The works remain keenly sought after to this day" (Oxford DNB).

 

105. [SAINT HELENA]
[Original Pencil Sketch Showing a Panorama of St. Helena from the Sea].

Ca. 1845. Pencil and watercolour on cardboard, ca. 14x22 cm (5 ½ x 8 ¾ in). Captioned in ink "S’ Helena" in the right upper corner; ink caption "View of James’ Town, St. Helena" and signature on verso. Recently matted and with a couple of minor stains on the upper margin, otherwise a very good sketch.
The drawing shows a panorama of Jamestown and James Bay with its steep cliffs; three navy vessels are seen in the foreground. The spire of Saint James’ Church is also seen.
"Jamestown is the capital and historic chief settlement of the island of Saint Helena, in the South Atlantic Ocean. It was founded when English colonists settled on the island in 1659; St Helena is the second-oldest remaining British territory, after Bermuda. The town is built on igneous rock in a small enclave, sandwiched between steep cliffs (that form James Valley) that are unsuitable for building. The town is therefore rather long, thin and densely populated, with tightly knit, long and winding streets. Shrubs and trees decorate some of the street corners. The surrounding terrain is rough and steep, and rockfalls are an occurrence, sometimes damaging buildings" (Wikipedia).
"Saint James' Church in Jamestown is the oldest Anglican Church in the southern hemisphere (built in 1774). The present sketch shows the church after alterations made in 1843, with a high spire. Nowadays the church doesn’t have it as the spire was taken down in 1980 for safety reasons" (Wikipedia).

 

106. [SENEGAL]
BAUDIN, Auguste Laurent François (1800-1877)
[Official Autograph Letter Signed “A. Baudin,” written when he was the Commander-in-Chief of the French Navy on the West Coast of Africa, and addressed to the Minister of the French Navy and the Colonies].

Eldorado, rade de Gorée, 27 July 1848. Folio (ca. 30x20 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on paper, official manuscript letterhead of the “Direction du personnel. Bureau des Corps organises” in the upper left corner. Text in secretarial hand, signed by Baudin. Docketed and stamped in the Ministry of the French Navy (stamp dated 9 September 1848) on the upper margin. Later pencil notes on the lower margin, mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
Written on board French steam-powered frigate “Eldorado” (1843), this official letter from Auguste Baudin, Commander-in-chief of the French navy on the coast of West Africa (Goree Island, Senegal) is addressed to the Minister of the French Navy Raymond-Jean-Baptiste de Verninac Saint-Maur (17 July – 20 December 1848). Baudin forwards to the minister the report by “captaine Protet du brig le Dupetit-Thouars” and distinguishes two naval officers who have been exposed to the areas where sharks abound. “Capitaine Protet” was actually Auguste Léopold Protet (1808-1862), future governor of Senegal (1850-54) and the founder of the city of Dakar (1857). He fought in the Second Opium War, became the commander of a naval division in China and a rear admiral in 1860, and was killed in the Taiping Rebellion in 1862. The French aviso (corvette) Protet (F742) was named after him.
Auguste Laurent François Baudin was a French rear admiral (1855) and a colonial administrator. He spent most of his career as a naval officer in the French colonies, serving as the governor of Senegal and commander of French naval station on the West African Coast (Côtes occidentales d'Afrique) in 1847-50. During his service there he proclaimed the abolition of slavery in Senegal, decreed by the Second French Republic on 27 April 1848. Later he was the governor and commander in chief of the naval division of French Guyana (1855-59), and the commander of the navy in Algeria (1860-62). He was made a grand officer of the Legion of Honour on 19 September 1860 (Wikipedia).

 

107. [SENEGAL]
BINGER, Louis Gustave (1856-1936)
[Autograph Letter Signed “L. Binger” to “Mon cher compatriot” Regarding a Portrait of General Dobbs Ordered by the Governor of French Senegal].

Paris, 19 July 1902. Octavo (ca. 21x13,5 cm). 1 p. Black ink on paper on the printed letterhead of the “Ministére des Colonies”. Paper mildly soiled and worn on folds, with very small holes on the centrefold not affecting the text. Overall a very good letter.
In his letter to a French artist or art dealer, Louis Binger, then the director of the French Ministry of the Colonies, informs his correspondent, that “Monsieur General Governor Roume wanted to acquire the portrait of General Dodds at the price of 1000 francs. The portrait has been delivered to the framer and to the Magazin Central du Colonie which will send it off to Senegal. As soon as it arrives to the colony, the bill will be paid, and you’ll be able to get the money in three weeks or in about a month” (in translation).
“Louis Gustave Binger was a French officer and explorer who claimed the Côte d'Ivoire for France. In 1887 he travelled from Senegal up to the Niger River, arriving at Grand Bassam in 1889. During this expedition he discovered that the Mountains of Kong did not exist. He described this journey in his work Du Niger au golfe de Guinée par le pays de Kong et le Mossi (From the Niger to the Gulf of Guinea through the land of the Kong and the Mossi) (1891). In 1892 he returned to the Guinea Coast to superintend the forming of the boundaries between the British and French colonies. In 1893-1898 Binger was a governor of the Côte d'Ivoire. Louis Gustave Binger died at L'Isle-Adam, Île-de-France, France and was buried in the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris. The city of Bingerville is named after him” (Wikipedia).
Ernest Nestor Roume (1858-1941) was a French colonial administrator, a governor of French West Africa in 1902, and a governor of French Indochina in 1914-1917.
“Alfred-Amédée Dodds (1842-1922) was a French General, commander of French forces in Sénégal from 1890, commander of French forces in the second expeditionary force to suppress The Boxer Rebellion, and commander of French forces during the Second Franco-Dahomean War. As both an octoroon and a metis, he was famed in the African Diaspora at the beginning of the Twentieth century as an example of African leadership, despite the fact that he led the destruction of one of West Africa's most powerful pre-colonial states” (Wikipedia).

 

108. [SIERRA LEONE]
CORRY, J[oseph]
The Colony of Sierra Leone, A Bearing S.E. By E. Distant 3 Miles, and the Bananas, Bearing N.W. By W. Distant 2 Leagues.

London: G. & W. Nicol, Aug. 1, 1807. Hand coloured aquatint drawn by R Cocking from a sketch by J. Corry and engraved by I. C. Stadler. Printed image ca. 20 x 45cm (8 x 17.5 inches) Margins with chips but not affecting the printed surface, otherwise a good aquatint.
Plate #3 from Joseph Corry's Observations upon the Windward Coast of Africa, the religion, character, customs, &c. of the natives; with a system upon which they may be civilized, and a system upon which they may be civilized, and a knowledge attained of the interior of this extraordinary quarter of the globe; and upon the natural and commercial resources of the country made in the years 1805 and 1806... With an appendix containing a letter to Lord Howick, on the most simple and effectual means of abolishing the slave trade. London: W. Bulmer & Co. for G. & W. Nicol and James Asperne, 1807. Abbey Travel 278.

 

109. [SOLMALIA - MOGADISHU]
GUILLAIN, [Charles] (1808-1875)
[Tinted Lithograph Panorama of the City of Mogadishu (Somalia) Titled:] Vue de la Ville de Moguedchou, Prise de Moullage en Dehors du Recif.

Paris: Arthus Bertrand, [1856-1857]. Tinted lithograph ca. 22x42 cm (9 x 16 ½ in). With a library blind stamp in blank margin, but overall a very good lithograph.
"Mogadishu, known locally as Xamar (English: Hamar), is the largest city in Somalia and the nation's capital" (Wikipedia). Plate #22 from Voyage à la côte orientale d'Afrique exécuté pendant les années 1846, 1847 et 1848 par le brick Le Ducouëdic sous le commandement de M. Guillain. "Charles Guillain visited the Indian Ocean coasts of Africa and the Portuguese settlements in India aboard the Du Couedic between January 1846 and May 1849. He was appointed member of a commission in 1858 to investigate new possibilities of French emigration to the colonies, and governor of New Caledonia in 1861" (Sothebys); Guillain's Documents sur l'Histoire is also one of the only sources for the travels of Eugene Maizan (1819-1845), "Possibly the first European to penetrate East Africa.., Maizan proceeded as far as the district of Deje-la-Mhora, on the Uzaramo plateau about 80-150 kilometers from the coast, when he was set upon by Mazangera tribesmen under sub-chief Hembe, and bound to a calabash tree and savagely murdered.., [Guillain's Documents sur l'Histoire is] considered the finest account of East Africa for the period"(Howgego 1800-1850, M6); Guillain "sailed down the Indian Ocean coast and went ashore at Mogadishu, Marca, and Baraawe, penetrating some distance inland and collecting valuable geographic and ethnographic information" (Encyclopaedia Britannica Online); Gay 236; Hess & Coger 272; Ibrahim-Hilmy I, 280.

 

110. [SOMALIA - MOGADISHU]
GUILLAIN, [Charles] (1808-1875)
[Tinted Lithograph Panorama of the City of Mogadishu (Somalia) Titled:] Panorama de Moguedchou, vue Prise de la Terrasse de Notre Maison.

Paris: Arthus Bertrand, [1856-1857]. Tinted lithograph ca. 23x32,5 cm (9x13 in). With a library blind stamp in blank margin, but overall a very good lithograph.
"Mogadishu, known locally as Xamar (English: Hamar), is the largest city in Somalia and the nation's capital" (Wikipedia). Plate #23 from Voyage à la côte orientale d'Afrique exécuté pendant les années 1846, 1847 et 1848 par le brick Le Ducouëdic sous le commandement de M. Guillain. "Charles Guillain visited the Indian Ocean coasts of Africa and the Portuguese settlements in India aboard the Du Couedic between January 1846 and May 1849. He was appointed member of a commission in 1858 to investigate new possibilities of French emigration to the colonies, and governor of New Caledonia in 1861" (Sothebys); Guillain's Documents sur l'Histoire is also one of the only sources for the travels of Eugene Maizan (1819-1845), "Possibly the first European to penetrate East Africa.., Maizan proceeded as far as the district of Deje-la-Mhora, on the Uzaramo plateau about 80-150 kilometers from the coast, when he was set upon by Mazangera tribesmen under sub-chief Hembe, and bound to a calabash tree and savagely murdered.., [Guillain's Documents sur l'Histoire is] considered the finest account of East Africa for the period"(Howgego 1800-1850, M6); Guillain "sailed down the Indian Ocean coast and went ashore at Mogadishu, Marca, and Baraawe, penetrating some distance inland and collecting valuable geographic and ethnographic information" (Encyclopaedia Britannica Online); Gay 236; Hess & Coger 272; Ibrahim-Hilmy I, 280.

 

111. [STANLEY]
[Portrait Pencil Drawing of Henry Morton Stanley].

Ca. 1879-1880. Pencil on paper, ca. 32x24,5 cm (12 ½ x 9 ¾ in). Ink caption on the lower margin “H. M. Stanley, Voyageur anglais, Ne a Denbigh in 1840, Envoyé a la recherche de Livingstone en 1871, aussi connu sous le nom de John Rowland and Henry Moreton”. Artist’s [?] ink initials in the right lower corner. Recently matted, near fine drawing.
Unusual pencil portrait of Sir Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904), most likely executed for ‘L’Univers Illustré’, a popular French weekly illustrated magazine (Paris, 1858-1900). Stanley is shown up to the waist, almost in profile, sitting and supporting his head with his hand.
“Sir Henry Morton Stanley, GCB, born John Rowlands, Kongo byname Bula Matari (“Breaker of Rocks”), was a Welsh American journalist and explorer famous for his exploration of central Africa and his search for Scottish missionary and explorer David Livingstone. Upon finding Livingstone, Stanley allegedly uttered the now-famous greeting, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" Stanley is also known for his discoveries in and development of the Congo region. He was knighted in 1899” (Wikipedia).

 

112. [SUEZ CANAL]
[Three Original Stereo view Photographs Showing the Opening of the Suez Canal]: Inauguration du Canal de Suez. 801. Entrée de la flotte dans le canal a Port-Said; 808. La Themis portant le pavillon amiral a Port-Said; 816. La flotte au mouillage & montagnes akaka a Suez].

Ca. 1869 – early 1870s. Three pairs of albumen prints ca. 7,5x15 cm (3x6 in). Mounted on the original card with printed titles on the lower margins of the mount. Very good stereo views.
Collection of three early stereo views depicting the opening of the Suez Canal on the 17th of November 1869. The images show the entrance of the international fleet into the Canal at Port Said, French frigate Themis going through the Canal under the flag of admiral Moulac (Themis accompanied French Imperial yacht L’Aigle with Empress Eugenie on board), and the fleet at anchor in Suez.
“At 8 a.m. On the 17th a fleet of ships, headed by L’Aigle with Lesseps and [Empress] Eugenie on board, prepared to pass through. The length of L’Aigle was 99 meters and its beam 18 meters. In 4 hours it made 44 kilometers, reaching Kautara to receive the salute of the Latif. In the rear of the L’Aigle followed the Emperor of Austria; in their own yachts, the Prince Royal of Prussia, the Prince and Princess of Holland, the English ambassador at Constantinople, Lord Elliot, and the Russian ambassador at the same court, General Ignatieff. These were accompanied by the engineers of the canal, Voisin Bey, La Roche, Gioia, and others; the Prince of Holland by M. Ruyssenaers still the consul-general, and then vice-president of the Canal Company. After a delay at Ismailia, where a ball at the palace was attended by from four to five thousand guests, the fleet passed forward, L’Aigle, with the Empress Eugenie, reaching Suez on the 20th” (Nourse, Prof. J.E. The Maritime Canal of Suez, from its Inauguration, November 17, 1869, to the year 1884… Washington, 1884, p. 73).
“The magnificence of the three-week-long inaugural ceremonies reminded some observers of The Thousand and One Nights. Many notable political and literary figures attended the celebration, among them the Austrian emperor Franz Joseph, the king of Hungary, the prince of Prussia, and the prince and princess of Holland. Undoubtedly the most valued guest, however, was the French empress Eugénie, for whom the khedive built a palace on the Nile, a replica of her private apartments in the Tuileries. <…> Among the scholars and writers attending were the famous German Egyptologist Richard Lepsius, the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen, the French painter Jean-Léon Gérôme, and the French writer Théophile Gautier. A large contingent of journalists was also present” (Celik, Z. Displaying the Orient. Architecture of Islam at Nineteenth Century World Fairs. University of California Press, 1992, p. 145-146).

 

113. [SUEZ]
ROBERTS, David (1796-1864)
[Tinted Lithograph Panorama Titled:] Suez, Febry. 11th 1839.

London: F.G. Moon, 1841.Tinted lithograph ca. 33,5x50 cm (13 ½ x 19 ½ in). Some mild foxing otherwise a very good lithograph.
Suez is a seaport located near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal. Robert's left "London in August 1838 for Paris and thence travelling via Alexandria to Cairo, before visiting the pyramids at Giza. Hiring a cangia, he sailed up the Nile as far as Abu Simbel, stopping on his return north to sketch temples and ancient sites such as Philae, Karnak, Luxor, and Dendera. Back in Cairo he drew its streets and mosques before departing for Syria and Palestine in February 1839. He travelled through Sinai to Petra and thence north, via Hebron and Jaffa, to Jerusalem. From there he made an excursion to the Jordan, the Dead Sea, and Bethlehem and, after spending a further week in Jerusalem, he continued north, visiting many places associated with the Bible, before exploring Baalbek. He sailed for England from Beirut in May 1839, was quarantined in Malta, and returned to London in July. He was the first independent, professional British artist to travel so extensively in the Near East, and brought back 272 sketches, a panorama of Cairo, and three full sketchbooks, enough material to ‘serve me for the rest of my life’ (Roberts, eastern journal, 28 Jan 1839).
Over the next decade Roberts made ‘a serries of intire new drawings’ for the 247 large coloured lithographs executed by Louis Haghe for The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia (1842-9). No publication before this had presented so comprehensive a series of views of the monuments, landscape, and people of the Near East. Roberts was to paint more oils of the East than of any other region he visited, exhibiting thirty-one at the Royal Academy alone. These received critical acclaim and sold for high prices: for example, Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives (Holloway Collection at Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham) was commissioned for £330 in 1841 and his Ruins of Baalbec sold for £440 the same year, while The Island of Philae (1843; priv. Coll.) bought by a friend for £100, rapidly sold for £200, and in 1858 fetched 400 guineas. The works remain keenly sought after to this day" (Oxford DNB).

 

114. [TRIPOLI]
SPILSBURY, Francis B. (1756-1823)
[Hand Coloured Aquatint, Titled:] Tripoli.

London: T.M. McLean, 1819. Hand coloured aquatint, printed image ca. 28,5x36,5 cm (11 ½ x 14 ½ in). Minor crease in the image, otherwise a very good aquatint.
Sketched on the spot by D. Orme, Engraved by I.C. Stadler. Plate 18 from the second edition of Spilsbury’s "Picturesque Scenery In The Holy Land And Syria, Delineated During the Campaigns Of 1799 and 1800, 1803" (London, 1819; 1st ed. - 1803). The aquatint was prepared by Daniel Orme from Spilsbury's on-the-spot sketches.
Francis Spilsbury was a naval surgeon and participated in the British mission to the Mediterranean in 1799-1800 under command of Sir Sidney Smith. "The mission's task was to strengthen Turkish opposition to Napoleon and to assist the Turks in destroying the French army stranded in Egypt" (Wikipedia). Spilsbury served on Smith’s leading ship HMS Tigre and participated in the Siege of Acre.
See the description he gave to Tripoli in the "Picturesque Scenery": "Tripoli in Syria, according to tradition derived its name from the circumstances of its being formed by the junction of three cities contiguous to each other <...> The present town however is about a mile and a half from the site of the ancient one facing the Mediterranean Sea <..,>. Its situation is highly picturesque and romantic; the time-honoured summit of Lebanon, towering in sublime grandeur, at its back, while the mountain of Santa Crux presents itself on the left, the town appearing at a distance between the hills" (Spisbury. Picturesque Scenery: London, 1823, 3rd ed., p. 47-48); Abbey Travel 381; Blackmer 1585; Atabey 1168.

 

115. [TUNIS]
READE, Sir Thomas (1785-1849)
[Official Decree by the Bey of Tunis Appointing George William Crowe His Plenipotentiary in Order to Compile a Treaty of Friendship and Commerce with the City of Hamburg; With: Separate Document Containing the Italian Translation of the Decree Signed by Hassuna Morali, First Interpreter of the Court of Basha Bey of Tunis; Both Documents are Certified as Genuine by the British Consul General, Sir Thomas Reade (on verso of the leaf with the Italian text)]
.
Two documents, both Tunis, 1828. On two folded Elephant Folio leaves, each ca. 33x22 cm (when folded). Fold marks, paper aged and slightly soiled, otherwise very good documents. Each folded and consisting of two leaves. The Documents are in good condition.
Official decree of the Bey of Tunis: 1 p. Brown ink on French paper watermarked “Louis XVIII, Roi de France”. Text in Arabic, with the official ink seal of the Bey of Tunis.
Italian translation: 2 pp. Dated “9 Muharram, year 1244” [1828]. Brown ink on laid paper. Text in Italian and English (on verso), with the impressed seal of British Consul General in Tunis.
Rare and very interesting document from the time of establishment of diplomatic relations between Tunis and Germany.
Original decree with the seal of the Bey of Tunis (Hussein II Bey, ruled in 1824-1835) authorising certain George William Crowe to negotiate with the “Regno de Amburgo” in establishing friendship and commerce. Crowe is supposed to compile a treaty which needs to be presented to the Bey for examination, and “if God will, to be granted”. In the English certificate written on verso of the Italian translation of the decree, British Consul General in Tunis Sir Thomas Reade (1785-1849) extends Crowe’s rights, which “are not restricted to the specific object therein set forth, but that he instructed to act on behalf of His Highness as Charge of Affaires in all such matters as may be for the service of His Highness & particularly to treat for a loan for his use". The certificate is dated 11 August, 1828.
George William Crowe was later mentioned as British consul general in Tripoli (The Royal Calendar and Court and City Register for England, Scotland, Ireland and the Colonies. London, 1852, p. 193). Sir Thomas Reade, British Consul in Tunis, played an important role in the abolition of slavery. Reade was Deputy Adjutant-General on St. Helena during Napoleon’s captivity, was present at Napoleon’s post-mortem and left a valuable account of it preserved in the Lowe Papers.

 

116. [TURKEY]
HAMMER-PURGSTALL, Joseph Freiherr von (1774-1856)
[Autograph Letter in Secretarial Hand Signed by Hammer-Purgstall to “Charles Fellows, Esquire” Regarding the Latter’s Book.

Vienna, 12 January 1841. Quarto (ca. 25x20,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Clear and complete text in secretarial hand, signed by “Your obedient much servant J. Hammer-Purgstall”. Addressed, sealed and with the postal stamps on the 4th page. Paper soiled and slightly worn on folds, a hole on the 4th page after opening, not affecting the text, overall a very good letter.
Interesting scientific correspondence between two European Orientalists: Joseph Freiherr von Hammer-Purgstall, founder and the first president of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (1847-1849) and British archaeologist and traveller in Asia Minor Sir Charles Fellows (1799-1860).
In the letter Hammer-Purgstall informs his correspondent, that Mr Arneth, director of the Vienna Imperial Cabinet of Antics “has just transmitted to me in a small box sealed with the seal of the cabinet, the cast of all the coins which you desire and which the cabinet is possessed of. I’ll deliver this small box immediately at our Secretary of State’s office, to be forwarded with the next messenger”. He advices Fellows about the fastest way of the parcel’s delivery to London and later notes: “If you mention in our work the Vienna coins, be so good as to record Mr. Arneth’s name in order to encourage him to further communications of this kind. I am myself eager for the appearance of your work, of which I promise myself much pleasure and information”.
The letter most likely relates to one of the Fellows’ works about the archaeology of ancient Lycia: “An Account of Discoveries in Lycia, being a Journal kept during a Second Excursion in Asia Minor”, published later that year, or “Coins of Ancient Lycia before the Reign of Alexander; with an Essay on the Relative Dates of the Lycian Monuments in the British Museum” (1855).

 

117. [WEST AFRICAN SLAVE TRADE]
[HALL, Charles, Commander of H.M. Brig Rolla]
[Period Copy of Hall’s Letter to the Editor of the United Service Gazette, Regarding the West African Slave Trade, Titled:] The Present Slave Trade; Stating only a Tithe of Its Horrors. By an Eye-Witness.

Ca. 1840. Folio (ca. 33x20 cm). Brown ink on Stacey Wise laid paper watermarked “1840”. 4 pp. Unsigned, but written in a very legible hand. Fold marks, paper slightly age toned, but overall a very good manuscript.
The exact (apart from several words or grammatical forms) period copy of Commander Hall’s letter which was first published in the United Service Gazette (January 1843) and later in Rev. S.A. Walker’s “Missions in Western Africa among the Soosos, Bulloms, etc…” (London-Dublin, 1845, pp. 76-77). Hall commanded HMS Rolla at Cape of Good Hope and West coast of Africa in 1838-1842. He didn’t succeed in capturing many slave ships, but assisted in liberating slaves from several barracoons on shore at the Gallinas River (Sierra Leone), as well as destroying eleven large slave barracoons belonging to the white piratical slave dealers (see more: The Friend of Africa, London, October 1842, p. 156). The letter vividly describes the mechanism of West African Slave trade, huge profits made by traders, mode of transportation on slave ships, horrible conditions of slaves, et al.
“The cruel, unfeeling and heartless Slave Traders, or their agents, reside at the most convenient places at or near the Slaving Towns, or villages on the W. Coast of Africa, and have generally large, expensive establishments in the shape of barracoons for from 500 to 1000 men slaves to live in; others for women and boys, with comfortable Dwelling Houses and every luxury for themselves. They have also Factories, or Storehouses containing quantities of Slave goods, the only inland barter for Slaves. <…> The slaving piratical vessels which run across the Atlantic for Cargoes of Slaves sail very fast and are generally armed with large Guns, for the express purpose of killing and wounding the Seamen and sinking the Boat belonging to the British Cruisers showing at the time no flag of any nation. On their making to the Slave Coast where they are bound to, they immediately, night or day, communicate with the shore, by means of light canoes <…>, when they immediately make sail off the land, and at the appointed time stand I close to the beach <…> They have certain information where the [British] cruisers are on the coast, their sailing qualities to a nicety, having scouts along the coast and communication kept up by signals, fires, smokes and small kroo canoes which pull along shore very fast, giving timely notice of the approach of a Man of War.
The inducements to the Slave dealers are very great, if at all successful they realize a profit of 180 to 200 per cent and upwards. <…> The present System pursued in endeavouring to put down the Slave Trade by Cruisers is attended with great risk, anxiety and loss of life, with heavy expenses to the Country - it is also attended with unspeakable horrors and unutterable sufferings to the poor unfortunate Slaves who are doomed for exportation. They are frequently for months (from a man of war blockading the Slaving place) kept in a state of mere starving existence in the Barracoons on shore; from the heavy expense of feeding them, many are starved to death, chained together by the neck, in gangs from 12 to 20, or shackled by the legs in pairs. On an opportunity offering, they are shipped off in an exhausted, inanimate state, and packed in a Slaver’s hold nearly in bulk, when their miseries or sufferings increase, as they are deprived of fresh air, and almost deprived of Water, which they did not feel the want of in the Barracoons…
The articles made expressly for the Slave Trade are of the worst possible manufacture – the rum is horrible and drives the natives mad, the muskets burst to pieces in their hands, and the tobacco is made of the worst ingredients possible. The most worthless articles are exported, for which the natives are charged a very exorbitant price. Every possible imposition is practised on the poor, much benighted African; and debased in intellect to the lowest grade by the white piratical slave dealers, the scourge and curse of Africa, and to the utter disgrace of any thing in the shape of a human Being.”

 

118. [ZANZIBAR]
GUILLAIN, [Charles] (1808-1875)
[Tinted Lithograph Panorama of Zanzibar Titled:] Vue de la Ville de Zanzibar (Prise du Mouillage).

Paris: Arthus Bertrand, [1856-1857]. Tinted lithograph ca. 21x51 cm (8 ½ x 20 in). With some minor water staining of corners of blank left margin. With a library blind stamp (withdrawn) in blank margin, but overall a very good lithograph.
Zanzibar is a semi-autonomous Island of Tanzania. Plate #4 from Voyage à la côte orientale d'Afrique exécuté pendant les années 1846, 1847 et 1848 par le brick Le Ducouëdic sous le commandement de M. Guillain. "Charles Guillain visited the Indian Ocean coasts of Africa and the Portuguese settlements in India aboard the Du Couedic between January 1846 and May 1849. He was appointed member of a commission in 1858 to investigate new possibilities of French emigration to the colonies, and governor of New Caledonia in 1861" (Sothebys); Guillain's Documents sur l'Histoire is also one of the only sources for the travels of Eugene Maizan (1819-1845), "Possibly the first European to penetrate East Africa.., Maizan proceeded as far as the district of Deje-la-Mhora, on the Uzaramo plateau about 80-150 kilometers from the coast, when he was set upon by Mazangera tribesmen under sub-chief Hembe, and bound to a calabash tree and savagely murdered.., [Guillain's Documents sur l'Histoire is] considered the finest account of East Africa for the period"(Howgego 1800-1850, M6); Guillain "sailed down the Indian Ocean coast and went ashore at Mogadishu, Marca, and Baraawe, penetrating some distance inland and collecting valuable geographic and ethnographic information" (Encyclopaedia Britannica Online); Gay 236; Hess & Coger 272; Ibrahim-Hilmy I, 280.

 


 
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