March 2016 - Exploration, Travels & Voyages - Africa & Middle East


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1. [AFRICA]
HONDIUS, Jodocus (1563-1612)
[Africa Map Titled:] Africa Nova Tabula.
Amsterdam, 1619. First State. Copper engraved map ca. 47x61 cm (18 ½ x 24 in) with twelve city views and ten sets of figures in indigenous costumes in the decorative border. This map which consists of two joined sheets is restored to museum standards with remargined left and right margins, with outer edges of decorative printed borders affected but expertly redrawn in manuscript, blank upper and lower margins also restored but without affecting the printed surface. Despite the restorations this is still a very strong impression of this rare and attractive map. Probably because of it's oversize the majority of still existent copies of this map seem to have some kind of marginal restoration, often with loss of printed surface.
Very rare first state of this separately published famous Africa map by Hondius including four decorative borders with twelve city views which show Alcair (Cairo), Alexandria, Alger, Tunis. Tanger, Ceuta, S. Georgius della Mina (Elmina Castle), Mozambique (Maputo), Canaria (Las Palmas), Quiloa (Kilwa Kisiwani), Tzaffin (Safi) and Cefala (Sofala) and ten sets of figures which show costumes of Morocco, Senegal, Guinea, Cap-Verde, Congo, Egypt and Abyssinia, Mozambique, Madagascar and the Cape of Good Hope. Based largely on Willem Janszoon Blaeu's (1571-1638) maps of Africa, the present map does represents a significant improvement in detail and accuracy over previous maps, however, "the geography is [still] typical of the early seventeenth century with many fictitious names, rivers and lakes" (Norwich 29 (1623 issue)); Betz 58.1.

 

2. [AFRICA]
MUENSTER, Sebastian (1488-1552)
[Africa Map Titled:] Totius Africae Tabula & Descriptio Universalis Etiam Ultra Ptolemaei Limites Extensa.

Basel: Heinrich Petri, 1559. Map from the Fourth Latin Edition of Cosmographiae Universalis lib. VI. Woodcut map ca. 27x34,5 cm (10 ½ x 13 ½ in) including the title printed above. Latin title and text on verso. Map with original centrefold, some mild age toning but overall a very good strong impression of this map.
An important map by Sebastian Muenster, one of the most influential cartographers of the sixteenth century. "This is one of the first modern maps of the whole continent. The Ptolemaic geography, with large rivers and convoluted mountains, is augmented from Portuguese and Arabic sources. From the Portuguese comes Caput Bonespei (Cape of Good Hope) and a small group of islands off the eastern coast named Zaphala Aurifodina that were supposedly the region from which King Solomon imported gold and silver. The Arab kingdoms of Quiola and Melinde appear in eastern Africa and Hamarich, the capital of the mythical Christian king Prester John, is shown at the confluence of the twin sources of the Nile. The island of Madagascar is strangely absent, even though its presence was known from the time of Marco Polo. The map is illustrated with crowns and scepters indicating kingdoms, forests, parrots, an elephant, a Cyclops (Monoculi) and a large galleon under full sail. The strapwork cartouche contains a text description of the continent" (Old World Auctions); Norwich 2.

 

3. [ALGIERS]
[Collection of 52 Original Photographs of Algiers and Environs].
Ca. 1880. 52 beige leaves. 45 albumen prints and 7 heliotype prints all mounted and each ca. 19x25 cm (7 ½ x 10 in). Many captioned and numbered in negative. The photos are strong images with only a few mildly faded. A very good collection of photographs.
These strong images by different photographers include views of: Algiers port, quays, Square Bresson, Rue Kleber, Hotel D'Orient, Mustapha, Oasis St. Marie, Jardin Marengo, Chemin des Aqueducs, Fontaine du Jardin, D'Essai, Mosque Sidi Abderrhaman, Cimitiere Sidi Abderrhaman, Fontaine Bleue, Tribunal Musulman, Cercle Militaire, Pavilion du Coup D'Eventail, Theatre National, Palais du Gouvenour a Mustapha, Place Du Gouvernement, Place Bresson, Mustapha, Lycee, Mustapha, Pris du Fort, Faubourg Bar-El-Oued, Plage de St. Eugene, Pris du Phare, Pris de Bellecourt, L'Amiraute, etc..,

 

4. [ATLAS OF THE WORLD]
KÖHLER, J[ohann] D[avid] (1684-1755)
[Atlas of the Modern World Titled:] Atlas Manualis Scholasticus et Itinerarius Complectens Novae Geographiae Tabulas LI.

Nürnberg: Johann Christoph Weigel, [1723]. Revised edition with an updated index and title. Folio (37x25 cm). With a copper engraved title (index verso), double-page copper engraved frontispiece by J. G. Berckmüller, and fifty-one original hand coloured copper engraved maps on fifty (forty-nine double-page & one folding) leaves. Original brown limp full sheep with blind stamped title on spine. Covers mildly rubbed, titled page with a couple marginal tears (with old repairs), Frontispiece slightly shaved at top at, a few maps with marginal tears and old repairs. However the atlas overall in very good and very original condition, the maps are strong impressions and generally clean with attractive unfaded original hand colouring.
The fifty-one very decorative maps include: A World map, Europe, Portugal, Spain, France, Lorraine, Great Britain, England, Scotland, Ireland, Netherlands(3), Germany and fifteen maps of German states, Switzerland, Italy and five maps of Italian states, Scandinavia, Denmark, Sweden, Poland, Muscovy, Danube course, Hungary (two maps together), Greece (2), Asia, Ottoman Empire, Holy Land, Africa & America. The maps are based on designs by Homann, Moll and Goos and are decorated with very attractive cartouches. The historian Koehler and engraver and publisher Weigel collaborated on a number of atlases, this probably being the most elaborate. Johann David Kohler was a professor of logic and history at universities in Altdorf and later Göttingen and served briefly as university librarian at Altdorf. (Tooley K-P p.49). Johann Christoph Weigel (1654-1725), was a German engraver, illustrator and publisher (Tooley Q-Z p. 367); Phillips 569;

 

5. [BOER WAR]
CAPEL, Pvte W.B.
[Second Boer War Journal kept in the Field, Inscribed:] Written by Pvte W.B. Capel/ Vol. Special Service in South Africa.
South Africa, 1900. Duodecimo (13x10 cm). Ca. 20 pages. Home-made notebook cut down from a larger provisioning ledger, each page of which is printed with a list of commodities to be ordered, some 20 pages, written in indelible pencil on perforated pages, some leaves loose, first page smudged, otherwise in a good legible condition. Covers with part of the original volume's morocco label pasted on back cover, covers worn and front cover with chip of lower corner but overall in good condition.
Autograph journal kept in the field, inscribed on the inside cover: "Written by Pvte W.B. Capel/ Vol Special Service in South Africa/ If anything should happen to me will you kindly send this book to Mrs E.J. Capel/ my father and mother/ Gladstone Villa/ Wallingford/ Berks/ England/ Vol Co Royal Berks Regiment", beginning with his voyage out to the Cape in March 1900 and ending that July.
This vivid journal records Private Capel's experiences on his voyage to South Africa, where he disembarked at East London 9 April, and his company's march to join their regiment, the Berkshires, who they joined at Bloemfontein on 20 May, Capel keen to see active service ("...I feel as though I should like to smash into them to day Monday 16 [July] We marched off this morning at 7 o'clock with 2 days rations biscuits and beef whistling and singing. We marched to the kopjes where the Boers had been but we were disappointed they were gone bolted as usual..."). The last entry, dated Saturday 21 July 1900, breaks off abruptly: "we started from Camp about 7 am and had got fairly on the road when at 7x30 we heard guns fire and then the enemy started firing with big guns it was a row for about an hour ours against theres then the pom-poms started with their peculiar pop-pop there were also several sniping shots we lay under an hill just by one of our big guns. It was funny to hear the shells whistling through the air and then several seconds after you could hear the thud and a bang which shook the hills all round I am writing this while the shells are banging all round."

 

6. [CAMEROON]
AYMERICH, Joseph Gaudérique (1858-1937)
[Original French Manuscript of Aymerich’s Book “La conquête du Cameroun, 1er août 1914-20 février 1916” (Paris, 1933), with Seven Additional Maps not Present in the Printed Edition, Supplemented with Five Lectures on the French Colonization of North and West Africa in 1880-1900s, Read by Aymerich at the Academie du Var Society in the 1920s; With a Historical Overview of the Defense by the French of Fort du Camp des Romains south of Saint-Mihiel (Lorrain) in September 1914].

N.p., n.d. [ca. 1925]. Folio (ca. 34x22 cm). T.p., 269 numbered pages. Blue ink on lined paper; text clean and legible, occasional pencil and ink manuscript corrections in text. With 22 manuscript ink maps in text, several partly hand coloured. Original note book with marbled boards and cloth spine; paper label with manuscript ink title on the front board. With a hand drawn plan of Brazzaville (Republic of Congo), ca. 14x21 cm loosely inserted at rear. Paper slightly age toned, the notebook loose on hinges and rubbed on extremities, spine with minor tears; but overall a very good manuscript.
Important and extensive manuscript, illustrated with twenty-two hand drawn charts, by General Joseph Aymerich, Commandant-superior of French Equatorial Africa (AEF) in 1913-1916 and the administrator of French Cameroons in 1916. Most of the text (pp. 1-179) is occupied with the original manuscript of Aymerich’s book “La conquête du Cameroun, 1er août 1914-20 février 1916” (Paris, 1933, with 9 maps). Divided into 16 chapters, it contains a detailed account of the Kamerun Campaign of WW1 – the invasion of German Kamerun by the Allied forces in August 1914 - February 1916. An Anglo-French column landed in Douala (1914), and by 1916 reached the new capital of the colony in Jaunde where it met with the English and Belgian columns coming from Nigeria and Congo. When the Germans were expelled from the colony, the territory was divided between France (nine-tenths) and England.
Among the chapters are: Opening of the Hostilities, Early Success, M'Birou Massacre. - Operations on Various Fronts. – Capture of Nola, N'Zimou Combat, Rapid Advances of the Lobaye Column. - Defense Council of 6 February 1915, First Conference of Douala. - Interruption of Expeditionary Operations, Misunderstandings. - Second Conference of Douala, General Offensive Plan for October 1915. - My Journey, Arrival to Doumé, Operations of detachment of East Kamerun to Nanga Eboko. - Fierce Struggle around Mugan-Si, Gathering of the Allied forces in Jaunde. - Continuation of the Hostilities, Occupation of Ebolowa. - Junction with South Columns, Retreat of Germans to the Neutral Territory, End of the Campaign. - Organization of the Country, Anglo-French Demarcation of the Area.
The manuscript is illustrated with thirteen hand drawn maps, including six later reproduced in the printed edition, and seven unpublished. Among the unpublished maps are: sketch of N'Zimou; plan of fights near Ebom and M'Boulenzork (26 October 1914); large maps of the operations of the Lobave and Sangha column (August-December 1914); map of the advance of the Expeditionary corps in June 1915; map of the combined advance to Jaunde in October 1915 – January 1916; and a map of the operations under command of Nord, Brinet and Cunlif.
The second part is titled “Fragments of the Colonial epic” (pp. 183-253) and consists of 5 chapters: 1) Our civilizing influence in Africa; 2) A mission to Fouta Djallon in 1888-89 (Guinea, West Africa, with a map); 3) Military operations against the Baoule people in 1900-1 (Ivory Coast, with 4 maps); 4) The drama of Mayjirgui (description of the tragedy during the French military expedition to Lake Chad in 1898 under command of captain Voulet, near the village of Maijirgui, Niger; with 2 maps); 5) Two months in the Sahara (account of a travel from Agadez to Zinder (both in Niger, Southern Sahara) in 1904, with a map). The first three texts are excerpts from communications or lectures at the Academy of Var (Toulon) in 1923 and 1924. Finally, the last part (pp. 255-265) under the title "The Agony of a fortress (Le Camp des Romains)" recounts the heroic resistance of the French troops besieged by the Germans in a fort located south of Saint-Mihiel (Meuse, Lorraine) between 23 and September 25, 1914. The narration is illustrated by a plan of the Meuse heights and the Woëvre plain. The manuscript is supplemented with a detailed table of contents at rear and a hand drawn plan of Brazzaville (the capital of French Equatorial Africa in 1910-1958, now the capital of the Republic of Congo) loosely inserted at the end.

 

7. [CANARY ISLANDS, MADEIRA ETC]
CORDEYRO, Antonio S.J. (1641-1722)
[History of Portugal's Atlantic Islands..,] Historia Insulana das Ilhas a Portugal Sugeytas no Oceano Occidental.., Para a confirmaçam dos bons costumes, assim moraes, como sobrenaturaes, dos nobres antepassados Insulanos, nos presentes, e futuros Descendentes seus, & só para a salvação de suas almas, & mayor gloria de Deos.

Lisboa: Antonio Pedrozo Galram, 1717. First Edition. Folio. [xvi], 528 pp. With woodcut vignette on title-page, woodcut headpieces, tailpieces and initials. Handsome period brown elaborately gilt tooled full sheep. Title page with repaired upper right corner, not affecting text, rear cover with some repaired cut marks, otherwise a very good copy in very original condition.
Important history of Portugal's Atlantic islands, covering the prehistory and ancient history (including rumors that they were Atlantis) of the Canary Islands, Cabo Verde, Madeira (including Porto Santo), the Azores (sections on Santa Maria, São Miguel, Ilha Terceira, São Jorge, Graciosa, Fayal, Pico, Flores, and Corvo).
The author, a Jesuit, was a native of Angra on the island of Terceira in the Azores. He died at the Collegio de Sancto Antão in Lisbon."This work is an important source for the history and description of the Azores, Terceira in particular. Much of the material is derived from the Saudades da terra of Caspar Frutuoso. There are also chapters describing the Canaries, Cape Verde islands and Madeira, as well as some references to Brazil and the Americas. The section on Madeira includes an account of the introduction of sugarcane from Sicily, and the development of the industry. This declined with the gradual depletion of wood-fuel stocks and then moved first to Sao Tom, and then to Brazil" (Sotheby's); "A history of Portuguese exploration, colonization, and colonial administration in the islands of the Canary, Madeira, Azores, and Cape Verde groups" (Bell C619); Innocêncio I, 114; Sabin 16759.

 

8. [CAPE TOWN]
[Collection of Three Watercolours of Simonstown, Cape of Good Hope, South Africa].

Ca. 1908. Two watercolours ca. 18x35,5 cm (7x14 in) and one ca. 15x23 cm (6x9 in). Two watercolours initialled F.L. All three captioned in black ink on verso: From the slopes of the Simon's Berg Jan 1908; Bellevue, Simonstown, the Cape; Bellevue, Our Home, the Cape 1902. All on thick artist paper. The two larger watercolours have tape residue from earlier mounting on some outer margins but overall the watercolours are in very good condition.
These three scenic watercolours show views of early 20th century Simon's Town near Cape Town, South Africa, "which is home to the South African Navy. It is located on the shores of False Bay, on the eastern side of the Cape Peninsula. For more than two centuries it has been an important naval base and harbour (first for the Royal Navy and now the South African Navy). The town is named after Simon van der Stel, an early governor of the Cape Colony" (Wikipedia).

 

9. [CAPE TOWN]
GREENE, Captain Dominick Sarsfield (1826-1892), Royal Artillery and Aide-de-Camp
[Original Mounted Watercolour Signed "DSG" and Titled in ink on Mount:] On the road to Constantia / 12.5.58.

1858. Pencil, watercolour and bodycolour on paper ca. 17x25 cm (7x10 in). A very good watercolour.
Original attractive watercolour sketch from a series of sketches made by Captain Dominick Sarsfield Greene for his "Views in India, from drawing taken during the Seapoy Mutiny," Thos. Maclean: London, 1859. "Constantia is a suburb of Cape Town, South Africa, situated about 15 kilometres south of the centre of Cape Town. The Constantia Valley lies to the east of and at the foot of the Constantiaberg mountain. Constantia Nek is a low pass linking to Hout Bay in the west" (Wikipedia).
Provenance: Sir Alexander Moncrieff (1829-1906) and thence by descent.

 

10. [CAPE VERDE]
GREENE, Captain Dominick Sarsfield (1826-1892), Royal Artillery and Aide-de-Camp
[Original Mounted Watercolour Signed "DSG" and Titled in ink on Mount:] The Harbour, St. Vincent, Cape Verde / 19.6.58.

1858. Pencil, watercolour and bodycolour on paper ca. 17x25 cm (7x10 in). A very good watercolour.
Original attractive watercolour sketch of Cova de Inglesa, the harbour of Sao Vincente capital Mindelo, from a series of sketches made by Captain Dominick Sarsfield Greene for his "Views in India, from drawing taken during the Seapoy Mutiny," Thos. Maclean: London, 1859.
Provenance: Sir Alexander Moncrieff (1829-1906) and thence by descent.

 

11. [CENTRAL AFRICA]
SHARPE, Alfred, Sir (1853-1935)
[Collection of 25 Autograph Letters and Notes Signed “Alfred Sharpe” to his Literary Agent William Morris Colles, with a number of topics touched, including Sharpe’s prospective book about his travels, Central Africa, polemics with the Labour Party’s idea of Postwar International Administration of Equatorial Africa, and politics in the Balkans during WWI].

Various places in Britain (the majority – Elmhurst, Lancaster), 1915-1918. Various sizes, from Small Octavo (ca. 17,5x11 cm) to Quarto (ca. 23x19,5 cm). 39 pp. In total. Brown ink on various paper (blue laid paper, blue San Remo linen paper, white “Basildon Bond” paper et al.). Eighteen letters with blind stamped address “Elmhurst, Lancaster” on the upper margin, and two with the “Plâs Nantyr, Glyn” ink stamp; one letter on the printed form of “Euston Hotel, London”, and one – on the form of the “Royal Societies Club, St. James’s Street, London”. All but one letters with the ink stamp “Received” on the first page, specifying the date of reception; all letters with blue pencil numbers apparently put by Colles. Mild fold marks, holes in one of the corners after the letters having been stapled together, some letters with minor creases and tears on the margins, but overall a very good archive of interesting letters written in a legible hand.
Very interesting historically important archive of Sir Alfred Sharpe, British traveller and colonial administrator in Central Africa, who was actively engaged in the formation of the British Central Africa Protectorate (after 1964 - Malawi), became its High Commissioner (1896-1907) and later, when the colony was renamed to Nyasaland – its first governor (1907-1910). Sharpe was also a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society (RGS) since 1891, received its Cuthbert Peak Award in 1898 and became a member of the Society’s Council in 1913-1917. Much of the collection relates to the history of writing and publication of Sharpe’s memoirs about his travels in Africa. The first documents regarding this date from the end of 1916 (Nov 24 and Dec 11) when Sharpe had the diaries of his journey to South Africa retyped and sent to Colles “together with 100 photos from which a choice – or all – can be taken”. After that Sharpe went on another trip, writing to Colles: “I leave for Africa on Friday” (11 Dec, 1916), and already in July 1917 he sent to the agent “notes on my last journey” (9 Jul, 1917). From this time starts long correspondence about different aspects of the prospective book: what stories should be included, what should be edited or revised; whether it is possible to find paper to print a book (in wartime) et al. Some examples of the correspondence about “the Book”: Sharpe is talking about his travel to the German East Africa in 1904 – “to the magnificent high district immediately north of Lake Nyasa”. He encloses the diary he kept at the time saying that he can “complete a running narrative out of it” (5 March, 1918). “I can make out say 2000 or 3000 words on the German Kondeland – with a general description of that nice country, and the notes of the journey I sent you. Let me know if you want it” (6 March, 1918), “You said I owe a paper – Here is one of the Cape to Cairo fetish [?] <…> Would it do also to incorporate as a chapter in the book?” (9 March, 1918). Several letters reveal the negotiation process with prospective publisher Edward Arnold: he is first mentioned in a letter from 9 July 1917. Almost a year after, on 1 May 1918 Sharpe writes to Colles that Arnold wants him to rewrite the manuscript and make “a fresh book”. Throughout the next five letters continues the discussion about Sharpe’s royalty: the author wanted “20 % and £200 down” and then was ready “to go down to the South coast & shut myself up for 2 to 3 months & make the thing to work”. The outcome on 21 May was unfavourable, Sharpe writing: “It is not sufficiently attractive for me to go in for four months hard work. Moreover it is a form of agreement which would bend me to write, but leaves A. Open to publish or not according to when he likes, and if paper goes to his price. Will you kindly inform him that I can not consider his offer”. Note: Sharpe’s book was eventually published in 1921 by H.F. & G. Witherby under the title “The Backbone of Africa: A record of Travel During the Great War, with Some Suggestions for Administrative Reform." Other letters from the collection reveal a number of different interesting subjects: Four letters touch on the idea of post-war international administration of the Equatorial Africa suggested by the Labour Party, the idea which Sharpe was a passionate opponent of: “What on earth the Labour Gentlemen have to do with our African possessions <…>”; Their idea of a mixed up Africa governed by a mixed up international Govt is of course a farce. Does anyone really looks on it seriously?” (2 Jan, 1918). The other letters are dedicated to the article by H.G. Wells which supported the Labour’s idea and was published in the Daily Mail (30 Jan 1918) under the title “The African Riddle”. Sharpe wrote a reply article for the Daily Mail for 1000 words, and another one for 3500 words – and is asking Colles to find a magazine to publish it (5 Feb, 1918). From the next letter we get to know that it went to the “Land and Water” magazine (10 Feb, 1918).
Six letters dated October-December 1917 contain some interesting contemporary observations on the events in the Balkans theatre of WW1, e.g. Extensive notes on the “present German actions in Greece” also discusses Greek Prime-Minister Eleftherios Venizelos (31 Oct); letter about the British politics regarding Bulgaria and its desire to ally with the Entente (2 Nov); description of Sharpe’s private meeting with Venizelos when the conditions of Bulgaria’s alliance with the Entente were discussed (15 Nov); or thoughts about the future of the Balkan and Mediterranean fronts: “It is now sticking out for anyone to see that Germany, after she has done what she can in Italy, will send her spare army down to the Balkans, & make a big effort to force us out to the sea. After that she will go for Mesopotamia & Gaza. And how can we do anything there to stand up to her? – These many fronts are our weakness” (6 Nov).
William Morris Colles (1865-1926) was English literary agent, the founder and managing director of The Authors' Syndicate, Ltd. (1890); a Member of the Council of the Society of Authors, and of the Copyright Association. His extensive correspondence with numerous writers is held in several depositories, including the library of UCLA (correspondence with James Barrie, Arnold Bennett, E. F. Benson, R. Haggard, and S. Maugham), and the University of Columbia (Thomas Hardy, Alfred Ollivant, John Pendleton, William H. Rideing, Peter Kropotkin and others).

 

12. [EGYPT - EARLY PHOTOGRAPHS]
[Keepsake Album with Thirty Original Early Photographs and Nine Watercolour or Ink Drawings of Egypt, Including Portraits of Joseph Hekekyan-Bey, Dr. James Grant-Bey, Scottish Engineer Inglis who Measured the Great Pyramids of Giza, Arab Dragomans, Copts, Donkey Boys, Views of the Nile and the Great Pyramids, et al.]

Ca. 1885. Octavo 18,5x12 cm or 7 ¼ x 4 ¾ in). Twenty-four laid paper leaves numbered in pencil in the lower corners. With thirty mounted albumen prints (taken in ca. 1850s-1880s, four photos hand coloured), from ca. 7x15,5 cm (2 ¾ x 6 in) to ca. 5x7,5 cm (2x3 in). Also with nine watercolour or ink drawings, three hand drawn plans, newspaper clippings, and dried Egyptian plants mounted on the leaves. Most photos, drawings and plans with manuscript captions on the mounts, two drawings signed “F. George” in the corners. Period maroon quarter morocco with cloth boards and gilt tooled spine. Rebacked in style with original boards and marbled paper endpapers preserved. Original watercolour drawing depicting the coat of arms (apparently, the compiler’s) with his manuscript dedication is attached to the first free endpaper (the dedication is “Presented to my dear wife Barbara. July 18th, 1885”). A couple photos are mildly faded, but overall a very good album.
Interesting keepsake album compiled by a British official or missionary who resided in Cairo in the 1850-60s. The photos include portraits of “Our friend the well known Hekekian Bey” (Joseph Hekekyan-Bey (1807-75), Armenian civil engineer who received training in England and served the Egyptian government of Muhammad Ali until 1850), “Doctor Grant of Cairo, who was my associate and friend during the terrible crisis of the cholera in Egypt [in 1865]” (Dr. James Grant-Bey, physician of the Khedive and Cairo resident), Scottish engineer Inglis measuring the “Socket Hole, ancient casing of the Great Pyramid” (featuring also “C.E. Sheikh Murrer, Abdul Samud, Ali Dobrer”); “Shakeem Dragoman, East Tombs Great Pyramid,” “Coptic family, one of these was my clerk;” portraits of European missionaries; Egyptian women in native costumes, black slave girl “bringing pipes and coffee,” local barber, the compiler’s “two favourite donkey boys in Cairo;” and others. There are also two photos of the Nile “at its overflow,” and a view of the Pompey’s Pillar. Hand drawn plans depict the Great Pyramids of Giza looking from above and in cross sections. The drawings show “The Pyramids at night,” “Domes of the Coptic Cathedral & walls of the city. Here it was the French made a breach & took the city,” “Mohamet Ali’s tomb & the Mamelook’s Leap,” Egyptian ovals with hieroglyphs (one of which the compiler bought from a local tomb raider), “Egyptian artillery. Isthmus of Suez,” and others.
The first view of the Nile is supplemented with a noteworthy manuscript text: “The Nile has neither the pure crystal waters nor the beauty of the St. Lawrence. But there is no stream to compare with it on the surface of the earth; it makes millions of acres fruitful, it makes Egypt. Egypt is the Nile, and the Nile is Egypt.” Overall an attractive piece of early Egyptian memorabilia.

 

13. [EGYPT - NILE VOYAGE]
MONK, Charles James (1824-1900)
[Collection of Five Autograph Letters Signed From Charles Monk to his Mother and Sister, Written during his Travels up and down the Nile, With Interesting Notes on the Temples and Sites Visited, Latest Events in Egypt, His Dragoman and the Boat Crew, Hunting Trips, Other European and American Travellers on the Nile et al.].

Kenneh, Thebes, Cairo, on board French mail packet “Lycurgue,” 1848-1849. Five Autograph Letters Signed, all Quarto (from ca. 26,5x21,5 cm to ca. 24,5x20 cm). Brown ink on white or blueish paper. In total 19 pp. Of text. Each letter addressed and with postal and quarantine stamps on the 4th page, four letters numbered from 50 to 53 in the upper left corners of the first leaves. Fold marks, paper mildly age toned, four letters with minor holes on the margins of the second leaves after opening, affecting several letters or words, one letter with minor tears on fold, affecting several letters, but overall a very good collection.
Important collection of original letters written by British politician Charles James Monk during his travel to Asia Minor and Egypt in 1848-1849 shortly after his graduation from Cambridge. The letters describe Monk’s travels along the Nile and give a valuable private commentary to his printed account “The Golden Horn and Sketches is Asia Minor, Egypt, Syria, and the Hauraan” (London, 1851, 2 vols.). Monk arrived in Alexandria in the beginning of October 1848 and proceeded to Cairo from where he sailed up the Nile turning back at the second cataract near Wadi Halfa in the end of November. Two letters were written during the trip in Upper Egypt – in Thebes and Kenneh. Monk talks about sites visited, his Dragoman and the crew of his boat, travel companion and other European and American travel groups in Egypt, excessive heat and flies, his numerous hunting trips when he shot among others several plovers, pigeons, a “splendid solan goose,” and a crocodile; cheap prices for local eggs and bread; mentions the death of the Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt (1789-1848); the election of Louis Napoleon the President of the French Republic and shares his plans for the further travel to Sinai, Palestine and Syria. The last letter written at the end of the travel contains a critique on Alphonse de Lamartine’s book “Voyage en Orient” (1835).
Later in life Monk became a director of the Suez Canal Company (1884).
Some excerpts from the letters:
1) The Thebaid, Upper Egypt, Kenneh 9 November 1848.
“The waters are now rapidly subsiding, but the breadth of this extraordinary river & the body of water which is spread upon the lands for miles on either side is quite wonderful, when we consider that it is unassisted by any tributary streams. The flies are so annoying that I scarcely have patience to endure them <…> We have fortunately left mosquitoes behind us a little above Cairo <…> our Reis & crew continue to give us satisfaction, but they always have that […?] word “Baksheesh” <…> in their mouths. I have been perfectly well ever since I have been in the Nile, as also has my companion Mr. May. This is the most delightful mode of travelling you can imagine. I am afraid I begin to take a selfish pleasure in it <…> Note that the Nile is falling, the peasants are busy at work with the shadoof raising water for the irrigation of their lands…”
2) Thebes. Upper Egypt. 17 December 1848 & Kenneh 21 December 1848.
“After leaving Kenneh we reached Thebes in two days, spent Sunday on the Western bank, where are the temples of El Koorhen, the Memnonium containing the fallen granite statue of Remeses the Great (1350 B.C.), the largest statue in the world, & that of Medeenet Aboo, & the two Colossal statues in the Plain, one of which is called the vocal Memnon from the circumstance of a sound having come from its mouth every morning at sunrise. From Thebes to Esouan, the first cataract we were about a week. The falls here are not more than 6 or 7 feet & we passed with the united efforts of about 200 men, who hauled the boat up with an enormous rope; & the same afternoon we came to the small island of Philae, on which are two temples of singular interest. <…> Our furthest point was Wadi Halfeh, the second grand cataract beyond which no boat can pass, lying between 21° & 22° N. Latitude. <…> The Governor at Wady Halfeh was a kind & agreeable Turk & came on board & dined with us & paid us several visits. He would have assisted us in going up to Dongola, but of course that was not on the question, & in fact I did not feel any desire so to do in camels by the river’s bank. <…> The death of Ibrahim Pasha, which you […?] from my last letter was daily expected, has fortunately not caused the slightest disturbance in Upper Egypt <…> Our Dragoman we were obliged to put on shore at Edfoo above Thebes, for he proved to be a perfect scoundrel.”
3) Hotel d’Orient, Cairo. 5 January 1849.
“We have enjoyed our Nile tour excessively & since leaving Kenneh we have seen some monuments of extreme interest including the grottoes of Beni Hassan, which illustrate the manners & avocations of ancient Egyptians even better than the royal tombs of Thebes. The Pyramids we have visited & examined throughout their details with great care, & we have certainly returned from our tour impressed with a high idea of the wonderful excellence which the Egyptians had attained in the arts & sciences in the early ages of the world. <…> At Beni Hassan I shot another crocodile. It is the most Northerly point at which they are ever found, & not very often there. Mt. May likewise killed a very small one in Nubia measuring 4 ft 3 inch.”
4) Oriental Hotel, Cairo. 18 January 1849.
“I little expected to see in Africa the prettiest gardens that I have ever met with; yet such if the case. The gardens of Mohammad Ali at Shubra are perfectly beautiful. They are filled with orange trees. <…> Ibrahim Pasha’s gardens in the Island of Rhoda are very pretty, but they were unfortunately 4 feet underwater last August owing to the excessive rise of the Nile. The Cairine bazaars, Mosques, Baths, & all other public buildings are so far inferior & even mean in comparison with those at Stamboul, that it would not be worth while giving any detailed account of them…”
5). On board the French mail packet “Lycurgue,” 100 leagues off Malta. 24 April 1849.
“I now feel my painful duty - don’t be alarmed – to denounce M. De la Martin as a gross impostor & unworthy of credit. His book is [full?] of misrepresentations from beginning to end & was the cause of much disappointment to me especially in respect to Beirut. Like many towns on the coast Beirut is very pretty from the Sea, but its environs can lay no claim to the extraordinary beauty with which La Martin has clothed them. The Lebanon both alone & below Beirut has much lovely scenery & I spent two or three most delightful days among the mountains, for we made up a very pleasant party (5 of us) & visited <…> Deir el Kammor [Deir al-Qamar], the Capital of the Druzes, where the banished Emir Beschir [Bashir Shihab II] used to live.”

 

14. [EGYPT & MALTA]
[Album with Seventy-nine Early Albumen Photographs Taken or Bought on Various Voyages on the H.M.S. "Crocodile (3)" to Egypt (42 including Suez), Malta (14), Ireland (9) & India (11) in 1872-4].

1872-1874. Quarto (30x24 cm). 28 Beige Stiff Card Album Leaves. 79 mounted albumen photos including 31 larger ones ca. 20,5x27 cm (8 x 10 ½ in) and slightly smaller and 48 smaller ones ca. 8x11 cm (3 ½ x 4 ½ in). Majority captioned in manuscript pencil on album leaves. Attractive period brown full sheep album with blind stamped frames in gilt, red and black. Extremities and covers rubbed, a couple of images with minor surface damage, but overall a very good album of sharp strong images.
This album of early albumen photographs was most likely compiled by an English crewman of the HMS Crocodile during his various voyages on the ship. The interesting images include: three of HMS Crocodile, nine of Ireland including Cork, Queenstown, Blarney Castle and Killarney, etc.; fourteen of Malta including the Grand Harbour, St. Anne's Square, Palace of the Knights of St. John, etc.; fourteen of the Suez Canal including a plan, Kantara, various points along the canal, a dredge, Ismailia, Port-Said, Moses Well, etc.; eleven of India including Elephanta, Temple of Karlee near Poonah, various Indians in local costume, etc.; twenty-eight of Egypt including Cairo, Pyramids, Sphinx, Mosque of Omar, Rue de la Citadelle and many Egyptians in local costumes.
"HMS Crocodile was a Euphrates-class troopship launched into the Thames from the Blackwall Yard of Money Wigram & Sons on 7 January 1867..., She was built for the transport of troops between the United Kingdom and the Indian sub-continent, and was operated by the Royal Navy. She carried up to 1,200 troops and family on a passage of approximately 70 days" (Wikipedia).

 

15. [EGYPT, GREECE, ETC]
GOLDSMITH, George, Admiral RN (1806-1875)
[Album of Over Thirty Watercolour, Pen and Wash, and Pencil Drawings of the Mediterranean, Including Coastal Views of Greece, Italy, Alexandria, Egypt, Several Greek Islands, Apes Hill on the African Side of the Strait of Gibraltar, Algiers, Tunis, Smyrna, and others].

Ca. 1834-1839. Oblong Quarto (ca. 19,5x24,5 cm). 31 leaves. With over thirty watercolours and drawings (mostly pen and wash or pencil drawings, eleven coloured), including six double-page panoramas and several pages with smaller drawings placed together. All but two with period pencil or ink captions and notes. Period style maroon gilt tooled straight grained half morocco with marbled paper boards. Several album leaves slightly soiled or with minor tears on margins, but the watercolours and drawings and the album are overall in very good condition.
Attractive collection of watercolour views and panoramas of the Mediterranean coast, drawn by skillful amateur artist, British naval officer George Goldsmith. The album was compiled during his service as lieutenant on HMS brig-sloop Childers (commanded by Henry Keppel) in the Mediterranean in May 1834 - April 1839. Among the interesting views are a double-page panorama of the Apes Hill on the African side of the Strait of Gibraltar, two panoramas drawn under each other: of La Goulette (the port of Tunis) and of “Plains where the Ruins of Ancient Carthage stand,” coastal panoramas of Smyrna and Alexandria, views of the Sappho’s Leap (Leucadia Island, Ionian Sea), Isles of Patmos and Delos, Malta harbour, Mount Vesuvius, Algiers, colourful “Grotto of Pausillipo with Virgil’s Tomb” (near Naples), pencil drawn “Front view of the Temple of Minerva on Cape Colonna, Attica;” pen and wash drawings of HMS Martin in the Smyrna Bay, “Loss of HM Schooner Telegraph in Plymouth Sound,” ruins of the temple of Bacchus, “Remains of a Grecian Tomb near Macri now standing in the Water” (East Attica, Greece, the coast of the Aegean Sea), watercolour of a sailing ship under the British flag, and others. There are also small portraits of an Albanian, an Arab man and a woman, Mamelukes and a Bedouin Arab.
George Goldsmith joined the Royal Navy in 1821 and was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant (1828), Commander (1841), Captain (1842), Vice-Admiral (1867) and Admiral (1875). Goldsmith served in the Mediterranean, West Coast Africa and the East Indies. He took part in the 1st Anglo-Chinese War, with HMS Hyacinth; and the Crimean War, with HMS Sidon under his command. Upon return to Britain he became Superintendent of the dockyard at Chatham and was created Companion of the Bath for his services in the Crimea.

 

16. [EGYPT]
[Collection of 63 Original Photographs of Egypt].

Ca. 1900. Mounted on 14 grey card leaves. 63 gelatin silver prints each ca. 9x14,5 cm (3 ½ x 6 in) and slightly smaller, each captioned in black ink on mounts. Overall a very good collection of strong vivid images with only a few photographs mildly faded.
The vivid and interesting photos in this collection include views of: Street and market scenes in Cairo and Aswan including many Egyptians shown in traditional clothing; The tourist's bartering and buying souvenirs at various important tourist sites; Shepheard's Hotel, Cairo; The Sphinx and Pyramids; Avenue of Sphinxes, Thebes; Temple of Queen Hatasu; Thebes; Temple of Abydos, Nile; Dendera; Nile scenes including sailing vessels; Temple of Ramses; Khedive at Egypt at Review of Troops, Cairo; Colossi of Memnon; Karnak; Luxor; Valley of the Kings; Temple of Philae etc..,
The photographer, most likely an English tourist, took many lively shots on this Nile voyage and captured better than most what it was like to travel along the down the Nile as a western tourist at the turn of the 20th century.

 

17. [GIBRALTAR]
[British Military Memorandum Book with Manuscript Records of 18 Manoeuvres Performed during Field Days or Reviews in Gibraltar, with two Records from Devonport and Cork (Ireland); Referencing the 64th, 23rd, 43rd and 37th Regiments of Foot, Titled in Manuscript:] Memorandum Book of Captain Le Blanc’s Company. Belfast, 24th March 1819.

Ca. 1824-1827. Oblong Small Octavo (ca. 11,5x18,5 cm). Over 130 leaves, with [30]; [6], [3] filled in on both sides. Brown ink on laid paper. Manuscript title on the front pastedown. Original brown full calf album with a metal clasp; spine with two morocco labels, including a gilt lettered red label “Memorandum Book” and a gilt lettered green label numbered “1”. The album slightly rubbed on extremities, several leaves in the beginning removed, but overall a very good album.
Original manuscript military memorandum book with detailed descriptions of the manoeuvres performed by British regiments stationed in Gibraltar during 18 reviews in December 1824 – May 1825. The records document regular “field days,” reviews by the Earl of Chatham (December 1824, May 1825) and half yearly inspections by General Sir George Dow (December 1824, May and December 1825). Two later entries describe a “Field Day of the 43rd Rt. Infy. Depot, Commanding by Major [?]. Devonport, October 1826” and “A Field Day of the 37th Regt., half yearly inspection before Gen. Sir George Bingham, Cork, 5th May 1827.”
“Gibraltar is a heavily fortified British air and naval base that guards the Strait of Gibraltar, which is the only entrance to the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean. Since the 18th century, Gibraltar has been a symbol of British naval strength, and it is commonly known in that context as “the Rock.” <…> In 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession, Sir George Rooke captured Gibraltar for the British, and Spain formally ceded it to Britain under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. The Spanish nevertheless made several attempts to retake Gibraltar from Britain, most notably in a protracted but unsuccessful military siege that lasted from 1779 to 1783. In 1830 Gibraltar became a British crown colony. The opening of the Suez Canal (1869) heightened British determination to keep possession of Gibraltar, since the Mediterranean was the main route to Britain’s colonies in East Africa and southern Asia” (Encyclopaedia Britannica).

 

18. [GIBRALTAR]
MACKAY, J., Royal Engineers
[Large Signed Watercolour Panorama of Gibraltar, Titled]: Gibraltar.

Gibraltar, 1889. Watercolour on paper, heightened in white, ca. 30,5x45,5 cm (ca. 12x18 in) within hand drawn ink border. Traces of an old mount visible on verso, otherwise a very good watercolour.
This attractive scenic and skillfully executed watercolour shows the panorama of Gibraltar from across the Bay of Gibraltar in Algeciras with a merchant boat and fishing boats in the foreground. The skilled artist was probably serving in Gibraltar with the Royal Engineers when he created the painting. "Gibraltar became a key base for the British Royal Navy and played an important role prior to the Battle of Trafalgar and during the Crimean War of 1854–56, due to its strategic location. Its strategic value increased with the opening of the Suez Canal, as it lay on the sea route between the UK and the British Empire east of Suez. In the later 19th century there were major investments in improving the fortifications and the port" (Wikipedia).

 

19. [GOLD COAST - RAILWAY]
DICKINSON, F.C.
[Original Untitled Watercolour prepared for the “Graphic”, Titled]: Combating the Difficulties of a new Route to Kumassi.

1 July 1899. Grisaille watercolour on cardboard, heightened in white, ca. 16x22 cm (ca. 6 ¼ x 8 ½ in), within hand drawn ink frame. Signed “F.C.D.” in watercolour in the left lower corner. Ink stamp “1 Jul 99” on verso. Mounted in a recent mat, overall a very good watercolour.
This captivating watercolour was published in “The Graphic” (# 1544, 1 July 1899, p. 8), as one of the four illustrations to "Railway enterprise in West Africa: With a surveying expedition to Kumassi”. The scene shows a European explorer on his way through the deep jungle of the “Dark” Africa, knee-deep in black mud and armed with a sword and a revolver. His white military uniform and pith helmet are shown in strong contrast with almost naked native porters, who are carrying heavy expedition supplies, including a surveyor's distance wheel.
The explorer shown was British railway engineer Frederic Shelford (1871-1943), who undertook the very difficult task of surveying the previously impenetrable jungle of the Gold Coast (Southern Ghana) for the prospective railroad from the gold mines of Tarkwa to Kumasi.
“The Graphic” described his expedition in these words: “We reproduce this week some sketches by Mr. Frederick Shelford, who has made many trips to some most outlandish parts of the African and American continents for the Colonial Office, seeking for desirable routes for the construction of light railways to open up and render accessible some of our beautiful and fertile, but very remote tropical possessions. <…> The sketches refer to Mr. Shelford’s latest exploration – namely, through the great West African forest belt to Kumassi, not by one of the well-known routes from the coast to the capital of Ashanti, but in a bee line from the Turkwa Gold Mines through unknown country, a journey involving a five weeks’ tramp of 360 miles. There being no road, and no native being found capable of guiding the expedition, Mr. Shelford had to pick his way through the forest by compass and such information as the few natives encountered were able to afford, and was compelled to follow bush hunters’ tracks densely overgrown and frequently knee deep in water and black, oozy mud.
Kumassi, so long a thorn in the side of Great Britain, was found now to be a smart up-to-date military station, with the only draw-back that a three-shilling bag of rice costs twenty-five shillings more to get there. There is a large fort, from which centre of the whole country for many scores of miles in every direction is administered by the British Resident, a post now ably filled by Captain Donald Stewart, C.M.G. <…> Mr. Shelford was accompanied during this trip by Dr. J.C. Matthews and sixty carriers” (# 1544, 1 July 1899, p. 7).

 

20. [GOLD COAST - WHITE MAN'S GRAVE]
ARTHY, E.
[Original Manuscript, Titled:] List of Death Among the Late African Company Officers in the Settlements on the Gold Coast from the 1st of January 1812, to 1st of January 1822 Being a Period of Ten Years.

Gold Coast, 1822. 4 pages. Folio manuscript ca. 34x21 cm (13x8 in). Manuscript with tears but no loss of text housed in a blue cloth custom made portfolio with a red gilt morocco cover label. In very good condition.
The author was Assistant Surgeon in the late African Company. The manuscript gives an annual account of the deaths of the officers of the company including their names and then a 1 1/2 page remarks section comparing the mortality of Europeans in the Gold coast and other colonies. "The African Company Establishment when fully appointed consisted of forty-five commissioned and non commissioned European officers but during the period of time stated above, there was not more than thirty-five residing in the Settlements on a yearly average & the deaths among them being five annually on an average..,"
"The African Company of Merchants was a Chartered Company in the Gold Coast area of modern Ghana, in the coastal area where the Fante people lived. It was founded in 1752 and replaced the Royal African Company which was dissolved in that year.
In 1817 the Company had signed a treaty of friendship that recognized Asante claims to sovereignty over large areas of the coast, including areas claimed by the Fante. The Company was abolished in 1821, as the slave trade had not been suppressed in these privately held areas. Authority over the area was given to Governor Charles MacCarthy, the governor of Sierra Leone, who was subsequently killed in the First Anglo-Asante War" (Wikipedia).

 

21. [HOLY LAND]
FRIES, Laurent (c.1485-1532) & WALDSEEMUELLER, Martin (1470-1518)
[Map of the Holy Land Titled:] Tabula Nova Terrae Sanctae.

Vienna: G. Treschel, 1541. Woodcut map ca. 24x41,5 cm (9 ½ x 16 ½ in) with the title printed above. Map with large blank margins and original centrefold, some minor worming on outer edges of blank margins, a couple of mild small stains, but overall a very good strong impression of this map.
"This map of the Holy Land is based on the first 'modern' depiction of Palestine by Sanuto-Vesconte in 1320. The area is divided among the Twelve Tribes of Israel. The coast is oriented with east at the top, in a configuration that set the standard for maps of the region for the next 150 years. This edition, published in Vienna by Gaspar Trechsel, is a re-issue of the 1535 edition edited by Michael Servetus, but with the 'heretical' remarks about Palestine on the verso cautiously omitted, and without the banner title. Blank verso" (Old World Auctions); Laor 614.

 

22. [ISTANBUL]
MUENSTER, Sebastian (1488-1552)
[Bird's Eye View of Istanbul Titled:] Constantinopolitanae urbis effigies, quam hodie sub Turcae in habitatione habet.

Basel: Heinrich Petri, 1559. Map from the Fourth Latin Edition of Cosmographiae Universalis lib. VI. Woodcut view ca. 20x38 cm (8x15 in) including the title printed above. Latin title and text on verso. Map with original centrefold, a repaired tear affecting image, some mild age toning but overall a very good strong impression of this map.
An important bird's eye view of Istanbul by Sebastian Muenster, one of the most influential cartographers of the sixteenth century. This view shows Fatih (old town) and Beyoglu districts of Istanbul as seen from above Scutari (Uskudar) which is the Asian part of the city.

 

23. [JERUSALEM]
MUENSTER, Sebastian (1488-1552)
[Bird's Eye View of Jerusalem Titled:] Jerusalem Ciuitas Sancta, olim Metropolis Regni Judaici, Hodie vero Colonia Turcae.

Basel: Heinrich Petri, 1559. Map from the Fourth Latin Edition of Cosmographiae Universalis lib. VI. Woodcut view ca. 15x38 cm (6x15 in). Latin and Hebrew title and text on verso. Map with original centrefold, some mild age toning but overall a very good strong impression of this map.
An important bird's eye view of Jerusalem by Sebastian Muenster, one of the most influential cartographers of the sixteenth century. The old town of Jerusalem is shown enclosed by it walls and in the centre of the view is Temple Mount. The crescents shown on top of several landmarks underline the fact that Jerusalem was a part of the Ottoman Empire at this time.

 

24. [KING WILLIAM’S TOWN, SOUTH AFRICA]
[Large Anonymous Four-Part Albumen Photograph Panorama of King William’s Town in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa].

Ca. 1880s. Four-part folding albumen photograph panorama ca. 18x98 cm (7 x 38 ½ in), dissected and mounted on linen. Unsigned. Pencil note in English “King Williams’ Town” on verso. Image mildly faded, but overall in very good condition.
Interesting panorama of King William’s Town shows a wide-spread settlement with the downtown core in the centre and residential quarters with vegetable gardens to the left and right.
“Founded by Sir Benjamin d'Urban in May 1835 during the Xhosa War of that year, the town is named after William IV. It was abandoned in December 1836, but was reoccupied in 1846 and was the capital of British Kaffraria from its creation in 1847 to its incorporation in 1865 with the Cape Colony. Many of the colonists in the neighboring districts are descendants of members of the British German Legion disbanded after the Crimean War and provided with homes in Cape Colony; hence such names as Berlin, Braunschweig, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Potsdam and Stutterheim given to settlements in this part of the country. King William's Town was originally declared the provincial capital of the surrounding Adelaide District in the 1830s. On 5 May 1877, the Cape Government of Prime Minister John Molteno opened the first railway, connecting the town to East London on the coast and to the Xhosa lands inland and further east. With its direct railway communication, the town became an important entrepot for trade with the Xhosa people throughout "Kaffraria". The area's economy depended on cattle and sheep ranching, and the town itself has a large industrial base producing textiles, soap, candles, sweets, cartons and clothing” (Wikipedia).

 

25. [LIVINGSTONE]
[Complete Set of Forty Numbered Magic Lantern Slides. With the Explanatory Text (16 pages) Titled:] The Life and Work of David Livingstone, Missionary and Explorer.

London: London Missionary Society, ca. 1880. Forty numbered magic lantern slides ca. 8x8 cm (3x3 in) Some of the slides with pigment that has mildly congealed (minor manufacturing flaw) but overall the slides are in very good condition. [With] explanatory text in original publishers' blue printed wrappers. Folded with two creases, some mild edge wear, front cover mildly faded but overall still a very good collection.
This rare complete set of forty numbered magic lantern slides (glass positives) includes images of Livingstone's early life, the routes of Livingstone's travels, his missionary travels, his crossing of Africa, Victoria Falls, the Zambezi Expedition, his last expedition including his meeting with Stanley and finally his death and memorial.

 

26. [LIVINGSTONE]
BATES, Leo
[Collection of Five Large Signed Mounted Black and White Watercolours Showing Scenes of David Livingstone's Last Expedition Including his Meeting with Henry Stanley].

Ca. 1920. Watercolours each ca. 39x30 cm (15 ½ x 12 in), two captioned "Dr. Livingstone" in pencil on verso and two captioned in blue crayon "Advance copy" Page 110-1 & page 221 respectively on verso. Corners of mounts with some mild wear but overall the collection is in very good condition.
The five vivid and evocative watercolours show: Dr. Livingstone and Henry Stanley; An audience with an African Ruler; an East African slave caravan; Dr. Livingstone's canoe with three native rowers being capsized by a Hippopotamus; Dr. Livingstone waving good bye to Henry Stanley. Leo Bates was a prolific boys adventure book illustrator from about 1920 to 1950. He illustrated Coral Island, The Road to Mandalay, Elephant Swamp, Island Born: A Tale of Hawaii, The Lost Crown of Ghorapora, Peril on the Amazon, etc.., as well as illustrations for Wide World and Astounding Stories magazines. These watercolours are archetypes for illustrations in one of Bates' publications as evidenced by the notations on the verso of a couple of the watercolours.

 

27. [LIVINGSTONE]
TROTTER, A[lexander] M[ason] (Scotland 1891-1946)
[Original Watercolour, Apparently Used as an Illustration in 'The Graphic', Titled On Verso:] Death of Livingstone.

London, 1917. Matted watercolour on Whatman board ca. 27x38 cm (11x15 in). With an old fold (cracked at margins) on lower margin not affecting the main image, otherwise a very striking watercolour in very good condition.
This striking watercolour is a latter reworking of the famous scene of the death of David Livingstone. "David Livingstone died in that area in Chief Chitambo's village at Ilala southeast of Lake Bangweulu in present-day Zambia on 1 May 1873 from malaria and internal bleeding caused by dysentery. He took his final breaths while kneeling in prayer at his bedside. (His journal indicates that the date of his death would have been 1 May, but his attendants noted the date as 4 May, which they carved on a tree and later reported; this is the date on his grave.) Britain wanted the body to give it a proper ceremony, but the tribe would not give his body to them. Finally they relented, but cut the heart out and put a note on the body that said, "You can have his body, but his heart belongs in Africa!". Livingstone's heart was buried under a Mvula tree near the spot where he died, now the site of the Livingstone Memorial. His body together with his journal was carried over a thousand miles by his loyal attendants Chuma and Susi to the coast to Bagamoyo, and was returned to Britain for burial. After lying in repose at No.1 Savile Row "then the headquarters of the Royal Geographical Society, now the home of bespoke tailors Gieves & Hawkes" his remains were interred at Westminster Abbey" (Wikipedia).

 

28. [MADAGASCAR]
FLACOURT, [Etienne] Sieur de (1607-1660)
Histoire de la Grande Isle de Madagascar [History of the Great Island of Madagascar].

Paris: Jean Henault, 1658. First Edition. Quarto, 3 parts in one volume. [xxiv], 192, [xviii], 193-384, 42 pp. With a total of fifteen engraved plates and maps including two double page illustrated dedication leaves, six maps (two folding and four double page) and seven plates (one folding and five double page). With two period engraved exlibris. Handsome period brown gilt tooled mottled full calf. Rebacked using original spine, one map with expertly repaired tear, one leaf with expert repair of blank margin (stain from previous repair still present), some mild age toning, but overall a very good copy in very original condition.
Very rare and important first edition of the first monograph on Madagascar. The works contains a description of the provinces, rivers and natural history of Madagascar and adjacent islands and the religion, language, customs and government of its inhabitants. Many areas are described for the first time. Flacourt was named governor of Madagascar by the French East India Company from 1648-55. "Flacourt restored order among the French soldiers, who had mutinied, but in his dealings with the natives he was less successful, and their intrigues and attacks kept him in continual harassment during his entire term of office. In 1655 he returned to France. Not long after he was appointed director general of the company; but having again returned to Madagascar, he drowned on his voyage home on the 10th of June 1660.., Flacourt was one of the few, if not the only, Western persons to have recorded knowledge of the elephant birds of Madagascar when they were possibly still extant. Flacourtia, a genus of flowering plants in the willow family, Salicaceae, was named in honor of him"(Wikipedia); "Flacourt re-established the French garrison at Fort Dauphin" (Howgego P168); Grandidier 1776.

 

29. [MAURITIUS]
A Collection of the over 100 Bound-up Original Ordinances, issued by the Government of Mauritius during the years 1857 - 1867.

[Port Louis], 1857-1867. First Edition. Folio. The original ordinances are printed on beige and blue paper. Period brown gilt tooled half calf with marbled boards and a recent black gilt label. Recent rebacked in style, otherwise a very good collection of ordinances.
A collection of very rare early Mauritius printings. The collection includes ordinances which cover topics like Indian immigrants, rivers and canals, asylums, sugar exports, marriage, paper currency, public roads, vacant estates, taxes, police force, health care, postage and postal service, courts, royal college and schools, transfer of land, harbours and ports, railways, custom duties, warehouses, poor relief, banks, prisoners, tobacco, quarantine, vagrants, bankruptcy, hospitals, distilling liquor, opium, death sentences, introduction of dogs etc.., "Mauritius was captured on 3 December 1810 by the British under Commodore Josias Rowley. Their possession of the island was confirmed four years later by the Treaty of Paris (1814). French institutions, including the Napoleonic Code of law, were maintained. The French language was at that moment still used more widely than English.
The British administration, which began with Robert Townsend Farquhar as governor, was followed by rapid social and economic changes. One of the most important events was the abolition of slavery on 1 February 1835. The planters received a compensation of two million pounds sterling for the loss of their slaves which had been imported from Africa and Madagascar during the French occupation" (Wikipedia).

 

30. [MAURITIUS]
A Collection of the 33 Ordinances Enacted by the Governor of Mauritius with the Advice and Consent of the Council of Government Port Louis, 1876. 211 pp. [with] A Collection of Proclamations and Government Notices Published at Mauritius during the Year 1876, iv + 49 pp. [with] Index of Government Notices of 1876, xxxiii + Government Notices + 343 pp.

Mauritius: G.H. Griffiths, Government Printer, 1876. Firts Edition. Octavo. Period style brown gilt tooled half calf with marbled boards. With a few library markings on title page and in text. Overall a very good copy.
A very rare early Mauritius publication with no copies found in Worldcat. The ordinances cover topics such as railways, lotteries, customs duties, vacant estates, fisheries, paper currency, postal and telegraph service etc.., The regulations cover topics such as public markets, scholarships, long voyages, postal regulations, notices to mariners, Civil service in India, municipal regulations etc.., "Mauritius was captured on 3 December 1810 by the British under Commodore Josias Rowley. Their possession of the island was confirmed four years later by the Treaty of Paris (1814). French institutions, including the Napoleonic Code of law, were maintained. The French language was at that moment still used more widely than English.
The British administration, which began with Robert Townsend Farquhar as governor, was followed by rapid social and economic changes. One of the most important events was the abolition of slavery on 1 February 1835. The planters received a compensation of two million pounds sterling for the loss of their slaves which had been imported from Africa and Madagascar during the French occupation" (Wikipedia).

 

31. [MESOPOTAMIA – TURKEY AND IRAQ]
ESTCOURT, James Bucknall (1802-1855)
[Seven Watercolour and Ink Drawings of the Euphrates Valley and the Environs of Baghdad After Plates from J. Buckingham’s “Travels in Mesopotamia” and R. Mignan’s “Travels in Chaldaea”].

1828-1830. Watercolour, ink and pencil on grey and white paper, from ca. 11,5x18,5 cm (ca. 4 ½ x 7 ¼ in) to ca. 10x10,5 cm (ca. 4 x 4 ¼ in). Five drawings mounted on two larger album leaves, each ca. 28x22,5 cm (11 x 8 ¾ in); two are loose, with the traces on the old mounts visible on verso. All drawings either signed, dated or captioned, in ink or in pencil, on the lower margins or on versos. One drawing slightly soiled, with the pencil captions faded, otherwise a very good collection.
Skillful watercolour and ink drawings after the plates from “Travels in Mesopotamia, including a Journey from Aleppo to Bagdad” by J.S. Buckingham (2 vols., London, 1827) and “Travels in Chaldaea” by R. Mignan (London, 1829). Made shortly after both books had been published, the sketches were produced by British military officer and MP James Bucknall Estcourt. He was second in command of Liet.-Colonel F.R. Chesney during famous Euphrates Valley Expedition 1834-37, an important survey of the navigability of the Euphrates River undertaken in order to ascertain a new overland route to India. The present drawings testify of Estcourt long interest in the subject which resulted in his senior position in the expedition several years later.
After the plates from Buckingham’s “Travels in Mesopotamia” include:
Halt of the Caravan and diversions of the guards by Moonlight – near Orfah (vol. 1, p. 68).
Approach to Mardin, a city seated on a Rock. Dated: Sept. 12th 1828, signed on verso: M.J.E. (vol. 1, p. 314).
Crossing the Tigris, and first approach to Drarbekr Dated: 20 Sept. 1828. Noted: “Horribly done, <…> try again” (vol. 1, p. 364).
Rocky Defile between Kara Tuppee and Delhi Abass, near Bagdad (vol. 2, p. 147).
Akkerkoof, or the Castle of Nimrod, 12 miles from Bagdad. Signed on verso: M.J.B. Estcourt. September (vol. 2, p. 217).
Tower of Babel & plain of Shinar near the banks of the Euphrates. Signed on verso: M.J. Estcourt, February 21st 1828 (vol. 2, p. 359).
The plate after Mignan’s “Travels in Chaldaea” is: Birs Nemrood from the N.N.W. Signed on verso: M.J.E. April 30th 1830 (p. 202).
With a small pencil drawing of a pyramid, ca. 8,5x12,5 (3 ½ x 5 in) mounted on verso of one of the leaves. Ink caption on verso of the drawing: View from the top of the Piramid [sic!] from M. Wyld’s Travels. C.A.W. July 18, 1842.
Estcourt "purchased a commission as ensign in the 44th foot on 13 July 1820, exchanging on 7 June 1821 into the 43rd foot (Monmouthshire light infantry) before purchasing promotion to lieutenant (9 December 1824) and captain (5 November 1825). Estcourt served with the regiment, which formed part of Lieutenant-General Sir William Clinton's division sent to garrison towns in Portugal (1826-7) during disruption over the succession to the throne. He appears then to have returned with the 43rd to Gibraltar, before sailing for Plymouth and, in 1832, Ireland. From January 1835 until June 1837, he was second in command to Colonel F. R. Chesney during his expedition to the Euphrates valley, which sought to prove that the river was navigable from within overland reach of the Mediterranean to its mouth on the Persian Gulf, thus shortening the journey to India. Despite a torrid period, during which one steamer was wrecked and twenty lives lost at Basrah on 31 August 1836, Estcourt produced a detailed report for Chesney, anticipating ‘no difficulties’ in passage during the ‘season of high water’, provided that accurate knowledge of the deep channel and a vessel of suitable length were acquired. He was less sure about the ‘low season’, owing to lack of information, though he was confident that local Arabs would not be hostile, once they became used to the steamers" (Oxford DNB).

 

32. [MESOPOTAMIAN CAMPAIGN - WW I]
[Album of 53 Original Photographs Documenting an British Officers Involvement in the Mesopotamian Campaign in World War I].

1916-9. 27 beige card leaves. Oblong Large Octavo (17x23 cm) album with 53 mounted gelatin silver prints with 18 larger ones ca. 8x13,5 cm (3 ½ x 5 ½ in) and the majority of the rest ca. 8,5x8,5 cm (3 ½ x 3 ½ in) or slightly smaller. Many photos captioned in black ink on mounts. Period light brown linen album held together with a later black string. Some images mildly faded but overall still a very good album with strong images.
The interesting images in this album which has photographs dated from March 1916 to May 1919 include: British soldiers at leisure and on duty, a British biplane, Turkish prisoners road making, aerial views of Baghdad, the Arch of the Ctesiphon, Zubayda's Tomb, Ezra's Tomb, Street scenes Baghdad, Zobeir Gate, Sailing Bellum at Beit Haama, Officers Hospital Beit Haama, Hospital ship, Mosque of the Seven Gates (Baghdad), horse tramway (Baghdad), Arab Bibis at Magil, Market (Baghdad), etc.., The album also names many of the British Officers shown including Williams, Bell, Mowforth, Byron, Wake, Thornton, Mackey and also mentions their regiments. Some of the photo captions are quite extensive and detailed. The Mesopotamian campaign was a campaign in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I fought between the Allies represented by the British Empire, mostly troops from Britain and the Indian Empire, and the Central Powers, mostly troops of the Ottoman Empire.

 

33. [MOMBASA]
[Original Watercolour Panorama of Mombasa].

Mombasa, ca. 1880. Watercolour and ink on paper, ca. 11,5x29,5 cm (5 ½ x 11 ½ in). Mounted on period beige laid paper and recently matted. Captioned in ink "Mombasa through the Glass from the Anchorage" in the left lower corner; additional ink caption on the laid paper "Mombasa - a town on the coast north from Zanzibar." Minor creases on the left corners, with a minor stain, otherwise a very good watercolour.
A tranquil view of Mombasa, likely just before the time when it came under the administration of the British East Africa Association.

 

34. [MOROCCO]
[LOGERAIS, Jean]
[Collection of Five Folders with Over 290 Original Photographs of French Military Campaigns during the Pacification of Morocco in 1911-1912, taken by a Doctor Who Accompanied French Troops during the Campaigns].

Ca. 1911-1912. Five paper folders, from ca. 36x23 cm (14 ¼ x 9 in) to ca. 31,5x20 cm (12 ¼ x 8 in). All but one with manuscript titles in French on the first blank leaves. Almost all images with period manuscript captions in French on the mounts, several with additional captions on versos. Cover of one folder with large tears and creases, several images faded, but overall a very good collection of strong interesting images.
Historically important extensive collection of original photographs giving an eye-witness account of the early stage of the French conquest of Morocco in 1911-1912 (many mountainous regions would remain revolt until 1934). Jean Logerais, a military doctor, accompanied French troops in their advance to the foothills of the Middle Atlas Mountains, documenting the troops’ movement, their stops at camps, photographing several important French and Moroccan military leaders (Colonel Henry Gourad, Colonel Gueydon de Dives, General Louis Franchet d’Espèrey, Marabout of Boujad, and others), as well as interesting panoramas and street views of Fez, Meknes, Marrakesh, Medhia, Beni Amar, Tiflet, Ain Lourma, El Borough, Oued Zem, Boujad, Berrechid, Setan, Rabat, Sale, and other places.
“The French conquest of Morocco took place in 1911 in the aftermath of the Agadir Crisis, when Moroccan forces besieged the French-occupied city of Fez. On 30 March 1912, Sultan Abdelhafid signed the Treaty of Fez, formally ceding Moroccan sovereignty to France, transforming Morocco into a protectorate of France. However, many regions remained in revolt until 1934, when Morocco was declared to be pacified, but in several regions French authority was maintained by cooperation with local chiefs and not military strength. On 17 April 1912, Moroccan infantrymen mutinied in the French garrison in Fez. The Moroccans were unable to take the city and were defeated by a French relief force. In late May 1912, Moroccan forces unsuccessfully attacked the enhanced French garrison at Fez. The last aftermath of the conquest of Morocco occurred in 1933-1934, the pacification of Morocco took over 22 years” (Wikipedia).
The folders include:
1) Maroc, mai 1911. Montée à Fez. Gibraltar-Fez, 1er mai, 26 mai 1911.
Paper folder ca. 31,5x20 cm (12 ¼ x 8 in). 62 gelatin silver prints ca. 13,5x8 cm (5 ¼ x 3 in).
The folder contains views of Rabat and Fez, seventeen views of the coastal town of Medhia (including images of the French military camp near Medhia, ambulance tents, portraits of General Ditte (?), colonel Gouraud, soldiers and medical staff); seven views of the French military camp at El Kenitra (including a portrait of colonel Gouraud giving orders for the combat on May 19, 1911), scenes of the troops crossing a river and traversing the plains on the way to Fez (dated 19-26 May 1911, one image shows an ear of the photographer’s horse); portrait of colonel Gouraud with a Moroccan sheikh talking about the coming combat, distant panoramas of Fez, and several scenes taken during a sea voyage from Gibraltar to Rabat.
2) [Untitled folder with 88 photos of a Military Campaign in Central Morocco, Including Views of Fez, Beni Amar, Meknes, Tiflet, Lourma, Rabat, and other places in Morocco].
[Ca. July-August 1911]. Paper folder ca. 36x23 cm (14 ¼ x 9 in). 88 gelatin silver prints, each ca. 8,5x13,5 cm (3 ¼ x 5 ¼ in) printed in pairs on the same prolonged leaves of photo paper, ca. 9,5x30 cm (3 ¾ x 11 ¾ in). One leaf of photo paper with two images is missing.
The folder houses over twenty-five views of Meknes and environs: city panoramas, street views, photos of Meknes market, cemetery, Bab Berdieyinne mosque and minaret, city ramparts; portraits of the locals, including photo of a group of wives of the Sultan of Mogador (Essaouira) mounted on horses. One photo shows bombardment of a part of Mecknes on the 8th of July, 1911. There are also over a dozen images of French military camps near Meknes (camp de Olivier) or in other places (including a portrait of two military doctors playing chess next to their tent), two scenes of bombardment of Beni Amar village, views of French troops on their way to Meknes, several portraits of colonel Henry Gouraud (with soldiers or his wife who accompanied him during the campaign), and other. Four panoramas depict Tiflet, five photos show Fez (general views, city gates, cemetery), there are also six photos of Ain Lourma village (including two group portraits of soldiers), several views of Rabat (panoramas taken from water, street views, market) and Sale (panoramas, a view of the market).
3) Colonne des Zaers, août 1911. Maroc.
Paper folder ca. 36x23 cm (14 ¼ x 9 in). 26 gelatin silver prints, each ca. 8,5x13,5 cm (3 ¼ x 5 ¼ in), printed in pairs on the same prolonged leaves of photo paper, ca. 9,5x30 cm or 3 ¾ x 11 ¾ in). The last leaf of photo paper with two images is missing.
Folder with twenty-six views of French military camps (general and interior views with tents, carts and horses), troops on the move, portraits of French and native soldiers.
4) Colonne Gueydon de Dives, septembre-décembre 1912.
Paper folder ca. 32,5x21,5 cm (12 ¾ x 8 ½ in). Forty-two gelatin silver prints ca. 8x13,5 cm (3 ¼ x 5 ¼ in). One image is missing.
The folder opens with eleven views of the French military camp at El Borough, including several portraits of French commanders and the Marabout of Boujad, and a scene of arrival of the “first auto in El Borough” (with Lieut.-Col. Coudein); there are also several views of French camps in Oued Zem and Mechia ben Abbou, portraits of doctor Logerais in his tent, interesting scenes of surrender of the Moroccan rebels, portraits of the locals. Ten photos depict Boujad and surroundings - city panoramas and street views taken in November 1912, including a scene of reconciliation of the Marabout and his nephew, and a portrait of General Louis Franchet d’Espèrey (1856-1942) with the Marabout’s nephew.
5) Marakech et Ber Rechid. Maroc, 1911-1912.
Paper folder ca. 32,5x21,5 cm (12 ¾ x 8 ½ in). Over 70 photos of various size, including over fifty gelatin silver prints ca. 9x14,5 cm (3 ½ x 5 ¾ in), one large gelatin silver print ca. 12x17,5 cm (4 ¾ x 6 ¾ in); other images are ca. 8,5x11,5 cm (3 ¼ x 4 ½ in) or smaller.
The folder contains over a dozen interesting views of Marrakesh: city panoramas, views of the house of the German consul, city gates, the open air market, two scenes of the Mawlid celebration in the city, portrait of local water bearers; six views of the Marrakesh racecourse (showing the tribunes, galloping horses, and an aeroplane flying over the course), several portraits of the Logerais spouses in their salon in Marrakesh. A group of photos is dedicated to Berrechid and includes portraits of French officers and residents next to Logerais’ house, group portrait of Moroccan women, French residents next to the train in Berrechid (faded), and others. There are also interesting images of the camp of the rebels in Fez, large group portrait of the officers of the Berrechid garnizon (taken in March 1912, and features doctor Logerais), two views of Settat, and a series of eight portraits of French officers and ladies with the Caid, or Moroccan military leader.

 

35. [NIGER RIVER EXPEDITION]
WINTERBOTTOM, Thomas, Rear Admiral (1847-1928) C.B.E.
[Small Archive of Documents Relating to the Naval Career of Rear Admiral Thomas Winterbottom but Focusing on the 1867 Niger River Expedition of H.M.S. Investigator; Including an 18 1/2 page Manuscript Very Content Rich Journal of the Day to Day Events of the Expedition of the H.M.S. Investigator up the Niger from the 27th July to the 14th August 1867; With: Winterbottom's Admiralty Commission as Assistant Paymaster Dated 25th November 1868; With: Winterbottom's Admiralty Commission as Paymaster-in-Chief Dated 1st October 1903; With: Winterbottom's Envelope and note from the Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood; With: Winterbottom's 1928 Obituary Clipped from a Newspaper].

Folio manuscript journal (ca. 33x21 cm) dark brown in on brownish wove paper on five bifoliums for a total of 20 pages written on 18 1/2 rectos and versos. Journal with original folds and toning and minor chips to margins, not affecting text, written in a legible hand and overall in very good condition. Commission folios on vellum and paper completed in manuscript, with original fold marks and the paper one with some minor staining and tears not affecting text, but overall the documents are in very good condition as are the envelope, note and obituary also included in the collection.
"Paymaster Rear-Admiral Thomas Winterbottom.., entered the Navy as a clerk in the 'Sixties, and during his early career saw much war service on the West Coast of Africa. He served through the Niger Expedition of 1867, and was specially promoted [commission included in this archive] to Paymaster for his gallantry. During the Ashanti War of 1873-4 he was serving in H.M.S. Druid, and was present at the bombardment of Elmina and other operations on the Gold Coast, for which he received the Ashanti Medal. The Egyptian war of 1882 found him serving in H.M.S. Thalis, and he secured the Egyptian Medal and the Khedive's Bronze Star. Twelve years later, whilst Fleet Paymaster of H.M.S. Raleigh, the flagship of the West Africa Station, he was present at Bathurst during the landing of the Naval Brigade for the Gambia Expedition. He was promoted to Paymaster-Captain in 1903 (Commission included in this archive), and shortly afterwards retired from the active service. In the Great War he was again actively employed and for his services he was awarded the C.B.E. he was advanced to the rank of Paymaster Rear-Admiral on the retired list" (Obituary).
HMS Investigator was a two gun wooden paddle survey vessel of the Royal Navy, launched in 1861 to carry out expeditions in West Africa. On "28 Jul 1867 under the command of Lieut. A. E. Kay [H.M.S. Investigator] proceeded up the River Niger, with the pinnace Vindictive in tow, to carry wood and to assist with laying out anchors, the Investigator's boats being too small.., The expedition to last for 60 days should provisions last or to return earlier in the event severe sickness attacking the crew.
6 Sep 1867 a report was received by the Commodore in the Bristol, then in the Bights, that the Investigator was aground for 5 days off Mebhanna and that the natives had fired on the vessel killing a krooman and wounding 4 others. Stores and provisions were thrown over-board to get off, the provisions being replaced by the steamer Thomas Bazley: Mr. McLeod, H.M. Consul in the Niger was reported to be sick" (Naval Database).
The journal chronicles the day-to-day events of the H.M.S. Investigator's 1867 voyage up the Niger from the 27th July to the14th August when they reach Osamari and includes descriptions of the grounding of the Investigator and the many sometimes deadly skirmishes with hostile natives.
Excerpts from the manuscript include:
"July 27th. "Arrived at the mouth of the Nun and anchored for the night, sent Pinnace per signal from 'Espoir' with empty coal bags. Went on board 'Espoir' & reported to Captain Peile, that being battened down, ship straining and leaking, it would be impossible to coal that night."
July 31st. "... Passed the hostile villages Aloberi, Kiamah, & Opotolo which fired just after passing, 6 guns - 10. Passed the hostile villages of Imblamah, a canoe pulling off with wood. 11:45 grounded suddenly on a sand bank, marked on the chart as I thought an island... Two canoes came alongside, one with a goat... The other canoe containing about 15 men making demands for drink... I deemed it advisable to lighten her forward, having 15 tons of coal... Landed coal, about 4 tons... When suddenly a heavy fire of musketry was opened on us, and the ship, the krooman guarding coal attacked and driven into the water, natives swimming after him, severely wounding him on head with some sharp weapon...
...most of my kroowmen having jumped overboard, I hailed the ship to open fire... Having only one man left with me... The krooman who had been attacked floating down the River - Sent Sub-Lieutenant [Mallory] to pick him up, a heavy fire being opened on the boat... I used ten rounds of ammunition to each white man & armed the kroomen with cutlass, pikes, knives & every available weapon...
... Casualties - 1. Kroomen on shore badly wounded... But as they [natives] saw the paddles in motion they kept up heavy fire", my korromen being very frightened, I was obliged to draw my sword on some who would not work under fire... When the natives saw no men on deck they ceased firing. Water rising a little, commenced lightening the ship, & heaving overboard everything heavy... Unfortunately they pitched two more bread pancheons overboard than I intended...
2 August. "... 9.10. Departed this life from wounds Mr Grants - Engineer Steward... 2.20 PM. Committed to the deep the remains of Mr. Grants deceased... Having been up since the ship grounded, over exertion & anxiety produced a feverish attack...the men also beginning to feel the effects of want of rest... "
3 August. "... The ship still aground... Coal getting short, drew fires & blew out boiler, intending to try and dig the sand clear of paddle wheels. Employed heaving overboard private gear, got Bickford's fuze ready for blowing the ship up... I see no possible chance of getting the ship off, as I find less water every day... The natives being reinforced every day... "
"... At about 2 PM heard natives on shore hailing & shewing a white flag, I returned it by shewing a handkerchief, when a Boast with four men came alongside, by means of an interpreter the following intercourse took place. - It appears by their statement that ...when the krooman was left to look after the coal, he strayed as he states 'to go to the rear' but the natives on shore say he went into their plantation...
... The saw either the body of the deceased man or us burying him, and being afraid of the consequences... The hostile villages had sent them a message that if they hurt any white men next year large steamers would come up & take their country - They said they wished for us peace, but in my own belief they were short of ammunition... Frightened of what they had already done... They also said that another steamer had passed up the river a short time back, near this place, & that for a dash, they had dug her out... They would do the same for me, they then wanted me to give a present for their chief, which I did & also a bottle of Brandy, they promised to return..."
4th August. "... Captain beginning to get very weak, also men gradually getting weaker after four days hard work, & exposure I deemed it advisable to give them a little rest. A canoe came alongside with fowls to barter and a present... Mr. Mallory also presented the chief with a new coat... They then left promising to bring 20 men & dig us out, natives coming freely round the ship, the greater part of them being females. 1 PM. Natives came off & commenced digging ship out... I deemed it advisable to send them away for the night & to have an interview with the chief on shore...
...I then informed him that I came to see King Masaba, that I would not hurt him, or any of his people... If he would dig the ship out... To come onboard & see what he would like, for having thrown overboard nearly everything, I was placed in a very strange position... "
5th August. "... Lighted fire, got up steam, kroomen having dug trench deeper... Ship still hard aground... I fear my only chance of getting ship off will be to wait until the River flows, or with the assistance of the steamer 'Thomas Bazley' returning...
... Canoe going to and for with messages from chief concerning what I would give him to get me off & he wanted rum... I would not give a single thing more until the ship was afloat... Received a message requesting to know if I would send one man, as hostage for the 20 he would send, and a guarantee for the present... I immediately send the man, (one krooman John Brown who volunteered), not fearing treachery... Canoe left with cowries (5 bags) and John Brown Krooman (Benin Boy)... Suddenly a heavy crop fire with large guns & musquets was opened on us from the bush... I returned do. With both Howitzer loaded... & rifles... When the shell from the Howitzer burnt among them I heard screams as though some of them had been killed, or wounded, them firing also... Eventually ceasing about 3.30 PM...
I find it almost impossible, my crew being mostly composed of Kroomen, & they having been under fire before, to heave the ship off. I fear very much that John Brown krooman is killed, but being a Benin Boy they may sell him..."
7th August. "... Only 1/2 ton of coal left... Water still falling... 12.12 foremost Howitzer dismounted by recoil... Heavy firing still going on down the river... A canoe was observed pulling for the ship, holding up an umbrella, I shewed a white flag... The man informed me had come from his father, at a place near Onitsha, having heard that a man was aground in the river, & also to enquire the reason of the natives firing on us, that he was going on shore immediately to hold a palaver... I asked him if it were possible to get back my Benin Boy... He said that with the aid of a bottle of rum he might be able to restore the Benin Boy, & sent his canoe with the rum, for that purpose, himself remaining on board... The canoe in a short time returned, bringing back the rum, not having seen anyone... I then gave them food, observed four musquets & several swords in the Boat. About 4:30 they left the ship, being called by the natives on shore & did not return."
9th August. "... This being the 10th day we have been on shore, water having left us... The same who informed us he had come from his father at Onitsha... He had held palaver... Tried to bring off the man they had made prisoner... Is I would give him a tail-coat he would bring off my man... As the man was taken prisoner as an hostage, not in a fight, I would not..."
10th August. "... Kroomen over side digging away sand... Ship slightly started, draught of water about from 6ft to 10ft, forward 3 feet 8 inches... Weather threatening & at noon commenced to rain. 1.45 sent kroomen to dig away sand, heaving in on cables... 2. ship floated, opening on starboard cable... Got up steam, clearing pinnace & stowing chain ... Sent pinnace for the coals that were landed before reaching shore, a fire was opened on her & ship... Returned do. With rifles, but ship swinging stern on the guns would not bear, most of the kroomen jumped overboard from boat but pinnace got alongside, mostly by the aid of the gunner's mate... Went in gig & brought off canoe, natives deserting her as I approached..."
11th August. "... Proceeded towards hostile villages with white flag at fore. 11.20 anchored off ditto & informed them that if they did not deliver up my man, I would open fire in them. White flag responded to by villages on shore... 2 PM. Natives took man over to the opposite shore, abreast the ship, in an unarmed boat, send boat to communicate with do. But boat having waited over half an hour, & kroomen not coming towards the gig & finding they would not give up the man, & not being the least alarmed about his safety, weighed & steamed up river, it being my intention to recover him by force, on my return down the river..."
12th August. "... 6.15 Weighed, proceeded slowly up the river, soundings very irregular, numerous sand spits not shown in chart... 10. Touched ground, backed astern, sent gig to sound a canoe... 10.40 Allowed a canoe with pilot Jack flying, pilot came alongside, hoisted his canoe up... He knew very little about river... 12.50 Stopped & anchored off Ebo. 1.20 Chief from Ohaghi[?] visited the ship, gave him a dash... Informed him that I had come to visit chiefs & also that I wanted wood, which I would pay for, he swent the canoe for ditto. 3. The chief of Ebo & his wife came on board, presented him with gifts which seemed to please him very much... The next day both chiefs still remaining on board, their great desire being to get rum, I gave them as much as I thought proper. 5. Chief of Odaghi's canoe came off with a little wood, promising more in the morning & wishing to be paid for what he already brought off. I gave him 1 bag of cowries =25/. The chief of Ebo presented me with a Bullock providing I came on shore, the first thing in the morning, to shoot it.
14th August. "... Anchored off Osamari... 9.30 Chief came off, presented him with Government Present... 2 PM. Passing Oki village... 4.10 anchored at Onitsha, laid out warps to steamer Thomas Bazley to keep ship from swinging into the eddy... At Mission House the Bishop kindly offered his services to go with us. Presented chief with his present... Heard from Mr. Jervis, that the steamer Thomas Bazley had been on shore... For 9 days, but natives were friendly, she also grounded on the same spit that I had been on shore on,, but being a powerful steamer, backed off, they also informed me that the river being so low, the charts could not be relied on..,"

 

36. [RHODESIA]
[Collection of Two Official Reports Dedicated to the Development of Agricultural and Stock Farming in Rhodesia and Compiled for the British South Africa Company; With Typewritten Copies of Seven Articles on Rhodesia and its Economy:] Rhodesia, Report by Professor Wallace, October 1908; Travels in Rhodesia by London M. Douglas, F.R.S.E; The Progress of Rhodesia.

Ca. 1908-1911. Two Folio bound volumes of typewritten text (ca. 33x21 cm). Report by Wallace: [1], 3, 70, 4 leaves, period pencil corrections in text. Report by Douglas: [1], 100, [1], 43, [8], 30 leaves, with fourteen leaves of related newspaper clippings and ephemera bound in; period ink corrections in text; period ink note “London M. Douglas (personal copy)” on the first free endpaper. Two uniform red cloth bindings with gilt lettered titles on the front boards and spines. Collection of the typewritten articles: 10, 10, 10, 8, 9, 11, 9 = 67 leaves, put together with original staples. The articles numbered from 1 to VIII (article VII is apparently missing). Bindings of the reports slightly rubbed, with corners bumped, the leaves of the articles with minor creases, but overall a very good collection.
Interesting collection of original reports and essays on the perspectives of farming and agriculture in Rhodesia, compiled on special request of the British South Africa Company. The first report was made by Robert Wallace (1853-1939), professor of agriculture and rural economy in the University of Edinburgh, who toured Southern Rhodesia on 29 June – 2 September 1908. His main findings were that it was “essentially a live stock country,” and for future it was necessary to built a land bank, a hospital and fever camps, to introduce breeding programs for cattle, horses and pigs and to overhaul veterinary regulations. The report presents the statistics for the sheep and camel population and it seems that the “future of Rhodesia as a tame ostrich country still hangs in the balance.” One of the main problems for the industry is the native labour “not only of its irregularity, unreliability and inferior quality, but its short supply and its costliness on account of the competition of the mines.”
The second report by London M. Douglas, “Technical Advisor on Animal Industries” was made after a trip to Rhodesia in July-September 1911, undertaken with the goal to evaluate the present state and possible development of the swine, meat, and dairy industries, together with the building of a bacon curing plant. The volume, from Douglas’s personal collection, includes the report together with the detailed travel diary and related Rhodesia newspaper clippings and ephemera mounted on separate leaves. Although agriculture was progressing, Douglas reported that an agricultural college was sorely needed, together with an ice and creamery plant and a bacon factory.
The collection of articles titled “The Progress of Rhodesia” consists of 8 essays, dedicated to the country’s history, geography, population, agricultural produce, forestry, tobacco, live stock, fruit and vegetables, the author also gives recommendations to prospective farmers. The articles were most probably published in a newspaper titled “Country Life” (or in a column of the same name).
“British South Africa Company (BSAC, BSACO, or BSA Company), mercantile company based in London that was incorporated in October 1889 under a royal charter at the instigation of Cecil Rhodes, with the object of acquiring and exercising commercial and administrative rights in south-central Africa. The charter was initially granted for 25 years, and it was extended for a 10-year period in 1915. <…> After 1897 the BSAC administered the two Rhodesia's, encouraging the immigration of white settlers with exaggerated tales of gold deposits. When these claims were proved to be overstated, settlers were encouraged as farmers. Company rule ended in Southern Rhodesia in 1923, when the white settlers were granted responsible government, and in Northern Rhodesia in 1924, when the British Colonial Office assumed control” (Encyclopaedia Britannica).

 

37. [SENEGAL - GOLD MINES]
GRANDJEAN, J. S., Adjutant-General
[Signed Manuscript Regarding French Possessions in Africa]: Note Sur Les Possessions Francaises En Afrique.

Paris, 19 Pluviôse, 3rd Year of the Republic [1795]. Folio (ca. 31,5x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Manuscript in fine condition and housed in a custom made red gilt tooled quarter morocco portfolio.
Manuscript signed by the Adjutant-General J.S. Grandjean is a summary of the main points of the report submitted by him in 1766, on his return from Gorée, to minister Choiseul. The report discusses the gold mines at Galam (Senegal), gum arabic that should be shared with the Dutch, and special water resistant wood found on the Island of Boulam.
"The island of Gorée was one of the first places in Africa to be settled by Europeans.., After the French gained control in 1677, the island remained continuously French until 1960.., Gorée was principally a trading post, administratively attached to Saint-Louis, capital of the Colony of Senegal. Apart from slaves, beeswax, hides and grain were also traded..., Étienne-François, comte de Stainville, duc de Choiseul (1719-1785) was a French military officer, diplomat and statesman. Between 1758 and 1761, and 1766 and 1770, he was Foreign Minister of France and had a strong influence on France's global strategy throughout the period. He is closely associated with France's defeat in the Seven Years War and subsequent efforts to rebuild French prestige" (Wikipedia).

 

38. [SENEGAL]
BERENGER-FERAUD, Laurent Jean Baptiste (1832 -1900) & POQUET, A. (Artist)
[Album of Seventeen Original Watercolours Titled:] Vues et types du Sénégal [Views and Types of Senegal].

1873. Large Quarto (31x21 cm). 14 pp. The seventeen captioned (in French) watercolours each between ca. 9,5x21 cm and 16x9 cm are mounted on thirteen pages. Booklet with original beige paper wrappers with manuscript French title in red and the name of Berenger Feraud in ink crossed out in pencil on front cover with a list of illustrations and the name of the artist A. Poquet (Del.) 1873 in ink on verso. Rear cover creased and with small tears and a small hole in the last watercolour mounted on recto of rear cover.
In 1872-3 Bérenger-Féraud was Director of Health Services in Senegal, and most of these attractive watercolours must have made by the accompanying artist Poquet on Bérenger-Féraud's Senegal River expedition to inspect the medical facilities at the various French outposts along the River. The subjects of the watercolours include: View of the town of Dagana; View of the town of Richard-Toll; View of Fort Bakel; Moorish Princess, Emirate of Trarza; Moorish Goldsmith, Emirate of Trarza; Mandingo Costume; Bambara Man; Bambara Woman; Fula Woman; Mandingo Woman; Young Darmanko Moor; Wolof woman carrying her child; Ronier Palm; Second dam above Felou Falls; Mountains of Maka Gnian; View of Koundian, Mali; View of Dabou Outpost, Ivory Coast. In 1879, Bérenger-Féraud published "Les peuplades de la Sénégambie. Histoire. Ethnographie. Moeurs et coutumes. Légendes, etc. (Paris: Ernest Leroux)." In that work he announced the preparation of a book on Senegal, which was never published. Most likely the paintings in this present booklet had been prepared by Poquet for the publication of that unpublished book on Senegal.

 

39. [SENEGAL]
RAFFENEL, Anne (1809-58)
Voyage dans l'Afrique occidentale comprenant l'exploration du Senegal, depuis Saint-Louis jusqu'a la Faleme, au-dela de Bakel; de la Faleme, depuis son embouchure jusqu'a Sansandig; des mines d'or de Kenieba, dans le Bambouk; des pays de Galam, Bondou et Woolli; et de la Gambie, depuis Baracounda jusqu'a l'Ocean; execute, en 1843 et 1844, par une commission composee de MM. Huard-Bessinieres, Jamin, Raffenel, Peyre-Ferry et Pottin-Patterson. [Travels in West Africa Including the Exploration of Senegal ..,].

Paris: Arthus Bertrand, 1846. First Edition. Small Quarto Text & Folio Atlas. vii, 512 pp. With two lithographed folding maps and twenty-two hand coloured illustrations on eleven lithographed plates. Text in period brown gilt tooled quarter calf with marbled boards. Atlas in period-style green gilt tooled quarter calf with marbled boards. One map with expertly repaired tears, text with some very minor foxing and rubbed on extremities but overall still a very good set.
Text with the bookplate of John Ralph Willis. "In 1843-4 the marine officer Anne Raffenel explored Bambouk, and in 1846-48 made his way into Kaarta. Raffenel. Born at Versailles, had joined the navy in 1826 and for the next sixteen years voyaged to different parts of the world. He was appointed governor of Madagascar in 1855 and died there in June 1858" (Howgego 1800-1850, W23). "Explorations made in 1843 on the upper [Faleme] river by Raffenel carried him to Bambouk and the gold-bearing regions of the Faleme; he then traveled into Kaarta, the country of the Bambara, where he was held prisoner for eight months, but the ministry quietly avoided acting on the proposal to stop native razzias on the posts by direct annexation" (Priestley, France Overseas, 52); Gay, 2915.

 

40. [SOUTH AFRICA]
TEMPLER, Charles Bertram, Major (1860-1931)
[Collection of Six Original Watercolours of South Africa, with two Watercolour Views taken at the coast of Normandy, France].

Ca. 1923. Oblong Folio (27,5x37,5 cm). 4 card leaves. Eight watercolours mounted on recto and verso of the card album leaves, each ca. 17,5x25 cm (7x10 in). All watercolours captioned in ink on lower margins of the album leaves, signed “CBT” and dated in the lower left or right corners of the drawings. Period style black half sheep with brown cloth boards. Card mounts slightly age toned, otherwise a very good album.
An album of interesting watercolours of South Africa created by Major C.B. Templer of the Indian Army, 19th Regiment of Bengal Lancers (Fane’s Horse). He served in India in 1880-1893 and took part in the second Mirazai Expedition of 1891. During his service with the 19th Lancers Templer participated in the horse races and was the first holder of the Indian Grand National Trophy (Some reminiscences of Indian Sport// The Field, The Country Gentleman's Newspaper, Christmas 1922, p. 5). After the end of his career Templer lived in Execliff (Exmouth), actively travelled around Europe and also visited South Africa.
The watercolours, dated December 1922-March 1923 include two views of Cape Town’s Sea Point area showing the Lion’s Head Mountain, Camps Bay and Twelve Apostles mountain range. Three watercolours taken near George (Western Cape Province) show the George Peak (Outeniqua Mountains), historic Montagu Pass and a pine plantation in the town’s vicinity. There is also a humorous portrait of a rickshaw in Johannesburg with the commentary: “A Conveyance much used by the Dutch in Jo'burg, something after the style of the Indian Jin-Rickoshaw! The men with them wear fantastic costumes!!!” The album additionally contains two later watercolours (dated July 1923) depicting an island commune of Mont Saint Michel in Normandy and a coastal view, apparently also in France. Overall a very good album with unusual views of South Africa.

 

41. [SPEKE FAMILY]
[Manuscript Poetry Book of Frances Speke, an Aunt of the Famous African Explorer John Hanning Speke, Written Mostly in Jordans, Ilminster, the Ancestral Home of the Speke Family].

Ca. 1822-1834. . Octavo (ca. 18,5 x12 cm). Brown ink on paper. Presentation inscription on the first leaf "Frances Speke from Her Papa, February 16th, 1822", many entries noting the place as Jordans (Ilminster, Somerset) and date. Period green gilt tooled half sheep notebook with marbled boards and endpapers. Binding slightly rubbed on extremities, otherwise a very good manuscript.
Nice manuscript book of poems and quotations which belonged to Frances Speke, an aunt of the famous African explorer John Hanning Speke (1827-1864). She was a daughter from the second marriage of John Speke’s grandfather, William Speke (1798-1886). The book contains a presentation inscription on the first leaf: “Frances Speke from Her Papa, February 16th, 1822.” There are over a hundred poems or sentences in the book, either written by Frances Speke and her acquaintances or copied from Byron, Thomas Moore and other poets, with occasional ink drawn vignettes. A number of entries was written in Jordans, Ilminster (Somerset) - the hereditary seat of the Speke family.
“The tiny village of Dowlish Wake lies in the heart of Somersetshire, some two miles south-east of Ilminster and about 45 miles from Bath: and here, in the presence of his old travelling companion Grant, of Dr. Livingstone (who had returned to England two months before) and of Sir Roderick Murchinson, Speke was buried. The parish church is the shrine of many generations of the Speke family, and a window and monument have been erected to the explorer’s memory. Jordans, the ancestral home and still in the hands of the Speke family, is in a neighbourhood parish, Ashill, lying about 2 miles to the north of Ilminster” (Thomas, H.B. Notes on the death of Speke in 1864// The Uganda Journal. Vol. 13, 1949. P. 106-107).

 

42. [ST. HELENA]
GREENE, Captain Dominick Sarsfield (1826-1892), Royal Artillery and Aide-de-Camp
[Original Mounted Watercolour Signed "DSG" and Titled in ink on Mount:] From Sandy Bay Ridge, St. Helena / 3.6.58.

1858. Pencil, watercolour and bodycolour on paper ca. 17x25 cm (7x10 in). A very good watercolour.
Original attractive watercolour sketch of Sandy Bay, which is a bay on the island of Saint Helena and a district of the island, from a series of sketches made by Captain Dominick Sarsfield Greene for his "Views in India, from drawing taken during the Seapoy Mutiny," Thos. Maclean: London, 1859.
Provenance: Sir Alexander Moncrieff (1829-1906) and thence by descent.

 

43. [SUDAN - MAHDIST WAR]
[Album of Eight Original Photographs of Khartoum and Omdurman].

Oblong Folio (28x38 cm). 4 Beige Card Leaves. With eight platinum prints each ca. 15x21 cm (6x8 in). Photos captioned in black ink and in pencil on mounts. Period brown gilt tooled morocco half morocco with brown pebbled cloth boards. Rebacked and recornered in style, covers and mounts with some mild staining and wear, but overall a very good album.
Unique album of privately taken rare images of the main sites of the Mahdist War 1881-99, The album includes a photo of Slatin Pasha and associates in Khartoum in 1907, who at the time had just been made an honorary major-general in the British army and then became Inspector-General of the Sudan, a position he held until 1914. The other photographs include: Two of Sirdar's body guard & Band Sargeant, 60th Rifles, Khartoum 1907; Officers' Mess, Khartoum; Mahdi's House at Modurman as it now appears, 1907; Remains of Mahdi's Tomb; Sirdar's Steamer alongside Palace Landing, Khartoum; Khalifa's Council Room; Mahdi's old carriage in Arsenal, Omdurman.
"The Mahdist War (1881-99) was a British colonial war of the late 19th century, which was fought between the Mahdist Sudanese of the religious leader Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah, who had proclaimed himself the "Mahdi" of Islam (the “Guided One”), and the forces of the Khedivate of Egypt, initially, and later the forces of Britain. From 18 years of colonial war resulted the joint-rule state of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956), a condominium of the British Empire and the Kingdom of Egypt" (Wikipedia).

 

44. [SUDAN]
[Collection of Seventy-Four Embossed Toy Cardboard Soldiers in the Original Publisher's Card Box, Titled:] The Recent War in the Soudan. La Guerra en el Sudan. Der Krieg im Sudan. La Guerre dans le Soudan.

Germany, ca. 1890s. 74 embossed toy cardboard soldiers, all hand coloured, height from ca. 10 cm (4 in) to ca. 7,5 cm (3 in). With eight cardboard cards from ca. 12,5x11,5 cm (4 ¾ x 4 ½ in) to ca. 10x7,5 cm (3 ¾ x 2 ¾ cm) with colouring guide sheets for the figures, and 61 metal stands. Housed in the original publisher's grey card box with compartments; the lid with a printed title and two mounted hand coloured figures of a British cavalry man and a Mahdist camel rider (the same as in the set). Printed monogram “W. & S. B.” on the lid. Minor losses of the figures on the lid (the horse’s ear and leg, the Mahdist rider’s left arm and a spear), eight cardboard soldiers with minor losses (e.g. Tips of spears, tails of camels), the lid with a minor tear on the side, but overall a very good set with bright and sound cardboard soldiers.
A rare collection of toy cardboard soldiers inspired by the events of the Anglo-Sudan, or Mahdist War (1881-99). Most likely, the set was issued in Germany in the early 1890s, after the beginning of the British reconquest of Sudan (1895-1898), led by Lord Horatio Kitchener (1850-1916).
The collection includes 41 soldiers representing the united British-Egyptian forces, including 9 Cameron highlanders (red jackets, green kilts, white helmets, armed with rifles); 7 soldiers from the Naval Brigade (blue uniforms, sailor’s caps, armed with rifles), 6 mounted British cavalrymen (red jackets, blue pants, white cross-belts and helmets, armed with sables), 1 soldier of the Yorkshire regiment (red jacket, blue pants, white helmet, armed with a sable); 10 soldiers of the Egyptian infantry (brown uniform, red fez), led by a commander and a bugler with a trumpet; 6 mounted riders from the Egyptian camel troops (blue uniform, red fez, armed with rifles). The Mahdist forces are represented with a Mahdi military commander, mounted on a horse, with a spear, and a banner - probably, a portrait of the Mahdi himself or of his successor, “The Khalifa,” who was defeated in the battles of Atbara and Omdurman in 1898. The other Mahdist warriors include 12 riders from the camel troops, armed with spears, and 20 infantry soldiers with shields and spears (in two different positions, ten of each kind).
The collection is supplemented with 8 paper cards showing the colour patterns for specific types of troops (British cavalryman, soldiers from the Naval Brigade and Yorkshire regiment, Cameron highlander, Sudanese camel rider, Sudanese infantry commander and a bugler, Mahdist military leader and an infantry man). Overall an interesting collection in very good condition.
“The Mahdist War (1881-99) , was a British colonial war of the late 19th century, which was fought between the Mahdist Sudanese, of the religious leader Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah, the Mahdi (the “Guided One”), and the forces of the Khedivate of Egypt, initially, and later the forces of Britain. From 18 years of colonial war resulted the joint-rule state of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899–1956), a condominium of the British Empire and the Kingdom of Egypt” (Wikipedia).

 

45. [SUDAN]
[Watercolour] Nubian with his Camel.

Ca. 1850. Watercolour ca. 25x35 cm (10x14 in). Fine matted watercolour captioned with the title. A little soiled around edge of mat, otherwise a very good watercolour.
A fine watercolour by a unknown British artist, perhaps an explorer or traveller. "Northern Nubia was brought under Egyptian control while the south came under the control of the Kingdom of Sennar in the 16th century. The entire region would come under Egyptian control during the rule of Mehemet Ali in the early 19th century, and later became a joint Anglo-Egyptian condominium" (Wikipedia).

 

46. [TANGIER]
ESTCOURT, James Bucknall (1802-1855)
[Three Works: a Watercolour, an Ink and a Pencil Sketch of Tangier].

Ca. 1825. Each on separate album leaves, one double-page. Image sizes 55x21 cm (21 ½ x 8 ¼ in); 25,5x20 cm (10x8 in); 28x19,5 cm (11 x 7 ¾ in). All captioned in ink with the same hand on verso. This group is in very good condition.
The group includes a watercolour panoramic view of Tangier Bay captioned "№ 15 & 16. Two views of the point of Malabat. Tanjir Bay. The Light House and Isla at Tarifa. The bank of sand which unites the Isla to the main land" (with the second description regarding view № 16 not present here). The view represents Cape Malabata (6 miles east of Tangier) facing the Strait of Gibraltar; the mentioned lighthouse still exists. The Isla de Tarifa (modern La Isla de las Palomas) is the island opposite the town of Tarifa at the southern end of the Punta de Tarifa, the southern most point of the Iberian Peninsula.
The second view of Tangier Bay is in pencil and captioned "The Castle and port of the Fortifications of Tanjirs taken from the harbour." There is also a smaller monochrome brownish watercolour and ink sketch captioned "A View from the top of the British Vice Consul’s House in Tetuan" and dated "Jan. [?]th 1825." Tetouan is a city in northern Morocco, one of the two major ports of Morocco on the Mediterranean Sea. It lies a few miles south of the Strait of Gibraltar, and about 40 mi (60 km) east of Tangier. Historical Text Archive on-line notes that in 1825 the post of British vice-consul in Tetuan was held by a Moroccan Jew Salvador D. Hassan, who also acted as Consul of Portugal and Italy.
Estcourt "purchased a commission as ensign in the 44th foot on 13 July 1820, exchanging on 7 June 1821 into the 43rd foot (Monmouthshire light infantry) before purchasing promotion to lieutenant (9 December 1824) and captain (5 November 1825). Estcourt served with the regiment, which formed part of Lieutenant-General Sir William Clinton's division sent to garrison towns in Portugal (1826-7) during disruption over the succession to the throne. He appears then to have returned with the 43rd to Gibraltar, before sailing for Plymouth and, in 1832, Ireland. From January 1835 until June 1837, he was second in command to Colonel F. R. Chesney during his expedition to the Euphrates valley, which sought to prove that the river was navigable from within overland reach of the Mediterranean to its mouth on the Persian Gulf, thus shortening the journey to India. Despite a torrid period, during which one steamer was wrecked and twenty lives lost at Basrah on 31 August 1836, Estcourt produced a detailed report for Chesney, anticipating ‘no difficulties’ in passage during the ‘season of high water’, provided that accurate knowledge of the deep channel and a vessel of suitable length were acquired. He was less sure about the ‘low season’, owing to lack of information, though he was confident that local Arabs would not be hostile, once they became used to the steamers" (Oxford DNB). This collection was obviously made from Estcourt first posting in Gibraltar.

 

47. [TENERIFE]
GREENE, Captain Dominick Sarsfield (1826-1892), Royal Artillery and Aide-de-Camp
[Original Mounted Watercolour Signed "DSG" and Titled in ink and Pencil on Mount:] Peak of Tenerife / Height 12,500 ft. Above the sea / Jutland 11 miles from Orotava / Early Morning.

Ca. 1857. Pencil, watercolour and bodycolour on paper ca. 32x25 cm (12 ½ x 10 in). Mount with a mild crease of bottom blank margin, but overall a very good watercolour.
Original attractive watercolour sketch of Mount Teide (3,718 m) seen from the ocean with a sailing ship in the foreground, from a series of sketches made by Captain Dominick Sarsfield Greene for his "Views in India, from drawing taken during the Seapoy Mutiny," Thos. Maclean: London, 1859.
Provenance: Sir Alexander Moncrieff (1829-1906) and thence by descent.

 

48. [TIMBUKTU]
RITCHIE, Joseph (ca. 1788-1819)
[Interesting Autograph Letter to John Whishaw, Secretary of the African Institution, Written at the Beginning of Ritchie's Ill-Fated Expedition to Africa, to Introduce Sidi Hassuna D'Ghies, who was a son of the Prime Minister of the Pasha of Tripoli, and Later Would Become the Pasha’s Foreign Minister, and Additionally he was Later also Connected to the Fate of Alexander Laing].

Marseilles, 28 August 1818. Quarto (ca. 25,5x19,5 cm). 1 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Mild fold marks and light chipping of the top margin, ink slightly faded, but overall a very good legible letter.
Rare historically important letter by Joseph Ritchie, an English surgeon and African explorer, written during his ill-fated expedition to Northern Africa in 1818-1819, which tried to ascertain the course of the Niger and the location of the fabled Timbuktu. Ritchie and George Lyon followed the route of Frederick Hornemann’s expedition of 1797, crossing the Sahara via Murzuq. “The expedition was underfunded, lacked support and because of the ideas of Barrow departed from Tripoli and thus had to cross the Sahara as part of their journey. A year later, due to much officialdom they had only got as far as Murzuk, the capital of Fezzan, where they both fell ill. Ritchie never recovered and died there” (Wikipedia).
The letter, written in Marseille shortly before Ritchie's departure for Malta was addressed to John Whisham (1764-1840), the secretary of the African Institution and the biographer of Mungo Park. Ritchie introduced to him 'Sidi Hassuna D'Ghies, a Tripolitan who has passed some time in this Town - & son of the present Minister of the Pacha. I am anxious in some measure to repay the Services which he has rendered me during a tedious detention here (waiting for a passage to Malta) by giving me much useful information respecting Africa; the interest which has been so kindly taken in the Attempt I am about to make, emboldens me to hope that his liberality & goodness will be well-appreciated in England'.
Hassuna D’Ghies was appointed the foreign minister of the Pasha of Tripoli in 1825. He “came from a wealthy merchant family with commercial interests in Ghadamis, Fazzan, and various European countries. Having spent seven years in London and Paris on business and diplomatic missions, he was familiar with European ways. [British consul in Tripoli] Warrington, who had most to lose from Hassuna D’Ghies insistence on conducting business with the consuls in a way which prevented their intervention in local affairs, used the death near Timbuktu in 1826 of the English explorer Major Laing as an occasion to force the pasha to dismiss his foreign minister. <…> Warrington claimed, without any substantial evidence, that Laing’s assassination had been plotted by the Pasha and D’Ghies, that the latter had given Laing’s papers to the French consul in return for a forty per cent reduction of a debt which he owed him and that Caillie had never set foot in Timbuktu and the diary he had published under his name was compiled from Laing’s papers.” As a result in 1829 D’Ghies was announced by the pasha responsible for Laing’s death and replaced as foreign minister by his brother Muhammed (Abun-Nasr, Jamil M. A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period. Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 202).
Ritchie was involved into scientific and literary circles of London. He foretold the exceptional literary future of John Keats, and “possibly from some association of ‘Endymion’ with the Mountains of the Moon, promised to carry a copy of the poem with him to Africa and fling it into the midst of the Sahara” (Oxford DNB).

 

49. [WORLD MAP]
PLANCIUS, Petrus (1552-1622)
[World Map Titled:] Orbis Terrarum Typus de Integro Multis in Locis Emendatus.

Amsterdam: B. Van Deutecum, ca. 1604. Second State with the Addition of "Magallanica". Hand coloured copper engraved map ca. 28,5x51 cm (11 ½ x 20 in). Repair to split in lower left part of map with a piece of blank margin expertly repaired with old paper. Right side remargined with old paper and with lower part of printed border expertly replaced in manuscript. A strong impression and overall still a very good copy of this rare map.
This attractive and very rare world map in two hemispheres is from a Dutch bible from 1604. First published in 1590, here in its second state from a Dutch bible; with "Magellanica" at bottom. Plancius "Was one of the first to appreciate the significance of earlier Portuguese charts and in 1602 was appointed official cartographer to the Dutch East India Company. Most of the maps prepared by Plancius are uncommon, if not rare, as they were not reprinted in standard atlas form. One of his earliest productions is this world map in double hemispherical form after Rumold Mercator's world map of 1587. It incorporates the improvements found on the post-1587 world map of Ortelius including a re-shaped South America and the insertion of the Solomon Isles. Plancius has introduced yet further changes on his own, based on the latest Portuguese information regarding the far west coast of America and the west coast of Asia. Japan is shown for the first time (not entirely correctly) as one small and three larger islands" (Shirley 177); The map "is beautifully engraved in a strapwork surround with a compass rose and armillary sphere tucked between the hemispheres. This example is the very rare second state from a Dutch Bible. Engraved by Baptista Doeticum, with Dutch text on verso" (Old World Auction).

 

50. [YEMEN - ADEN]
[A Collection of Eleven Early Albumen Photographs of Aden].

Ca. 1872. Eleven loose albumen prints including five larger ones each ca. 9x25 cm (7 ½ x 10 in) and slightly smaller and six smaller ones each ca. 5,5x8,5 cm (2 ½ x 3 ½ in). Overall a collection of very good strong images.
The larger images include panoramic views around the old town of Aden then controlled by the British to help them secure British shipping routes to India in the Arabian Sea from pirates, and include one photo of a review of British troops. The smaller images show a city view and five images of locals in native costumes including one of children.

 

51. LIVINGSTONE, David (1813-1873)
Autograph Letter Signed "David Livingstone" Dated at Mr. Stearns', Malabar Hill, Nov. 2nd 1865 and Addressed on the Verso “To H. Chowfussy." “I expect a telegram from James Young... On a subject of considerable importance to me, but as it would appear from your careful investigation that no telegram has come from England for me, the only other source I can imagine must have been from the Governor and as I have written to him to-day he will see that I have not received any - I think that no further search need be made but with hearty thanks I remain sincerely yours..,”

Nov. 2nd 1865. Octavo letter (ca. 18x11,5 cm) in four pages on a bifolium. Brown ink written in a legible hand on laid beige paper. Fold marks and with residue of mounting paste, but overall the letter is in very good condition.
In November 1864, Livingstone had decided that he "would try to ‘settle’ the watersheds of central Africa, though he insisted that he remained primarily a missionary. He planned to return to the Rovuma, pass to the north of Lake Nyasa, look for the Nile headwaters, and then make for Ujiji, on Lake Tanganyika; but he still hoped to find a site for a trading mission. The expedition was to be small-scale, without a steamboat, and without other Europeans. The RGS put up £500, as did the British government; and £1000 came from James Young, a friend from Livingstone's student days in Glasgow, who had made a fortune from distilling paraffin" (Oxford DNB). James Young's (1811-1883) £1000 contribution is perhaps what explains the importance of the mentioned telegram to Livingstone. This letter dates from Livingstone's time in Bombay where he organized and recruited for this expedition. "In Bombay, Livingstone recruited several sepoys, and twelve Africans from mission schools.., [and] the governor, Sir Bartle Frere.., gave the party passage in a government ship to Zanzibar [in January 1866]" (Oxford DNB). This was to be Livingstone's last expedition where after a long period without contact to the outside world, Stanley found him at Ujiji in 1871 and greeted him there with the famous salutation, "Dr Livingstone, I presume?" William French Stearns (1835-74) was the son of the distinguished President of Amherst College, Massachusetts. He was engaged in the business of Stearns, Hobart & Co. Of Bombay from 1857 to 1868. Livingstone had met Stearns in 1865 on a steamer to Bombay and had become firm friends. Stearns letters from Livingstone were published by Boston University's African Studies Centre in 1968.

 

52. ROBERTS, David (1796-1864)
[Tinted Lithograph Panorama Titled:] Ruins of Baalbec, May 5th 1839.

London: F.G. Moon, 1843. Tinted lithograph ca. 35x51 cm (14x20 in). Some mild foxing otherwise a very good lithograph.
Baalbek, "known as Heliopolis during the period of Roman rule, it was one of the largest sanctuaries in the empire and contains some of the best preserved Roman ruins in Lebanon" (Wikipedia). Robert's left "London in August 1838 for Paris and thence travelling via Alexandria to Cairo, before visiting the pyramids at Giza. Hiring a cangia, he sailed up the Nile as far as Abu Simbel, stopping on his return north to sketch temples and ancient sites such as Philae, Karnak, Luxor, and Dendera. Back in Cairo he drew its streets and mosques before departing for Syria and Palestine in February 1839. He travelled through Sinai to Petra and thence north, via Hebron and Jaffa, to Jerusalem. From there he made an excursion to the Jordan, the Dead Sea, and Bethlehem and, after spending a further week in Jerusalem, he continued north, visiting many places associated with the Bible, before exploring Baalbek. He sailed for England from Beirut in May 1839, was quarantined in Malta, and returned to London in July. He was the first independent, professional British artist to travel so extensively in the Near East, and brought back 272 sketches, a panorama of Cairo, and three full sketchbooks, enough material to ‘serve me for the rest of my life’ (Roberts, eastern journal, 28 Jan 1839).
Over the next decade Roberts made ‘a serries of intire new drawings’ for the 247 large coloured lithographs executed by Louis Haghe for The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia (1842–9). No publication before this had presented so comprehensive a series of views of the monuments, landscape, and people of the Near East. Roberts was to paint more oils of the East than of any other region he visited, exhibiting thirty-one at the Royal Academy alone. These received critical acclaim and sold for high prices: for example, Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives (Holloway Collection at Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham) was commissioned for £330 in 1841 and his Ruins of Baalbec sold for £440 the same year, while The Island of Philae (1843; priv. Coll.) bought by a friend for £100, rapidly sold for £200, and in 1858 fetched 400 guineas. The works remain keenly sought after to this day" (Oxford DNB).

 




 
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