March 2013 - Exploration, Travel and Voyages: Drawings, Paintings and Watercolours


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1. [ADEN]
[Large Panoramic Unsigned British School Watercolour of Aden].

[Aden], ca. 1845. Recently matted watercolour on thick paper ca. 26x77 cm (10 x 30 ½ in). Margins strengthened and with a couple of repaired tears and some old crease marks, but still an attractive and impressive watercolour.
An interesting and historically important early and large panoramic watercolour view of Aden including the port, British military installations and town from the early period of British control.
"In 1609 The Ascension was the first English ship to visit Aden, before sailing on to Mocha during the Fourth voyage of the East India Company. After Ottoman rule, Aden was ruled by the Sultanate of Lahej, under suzerainty of the Zaidi imams of Yemen. Aden was at this time a small village with a population of 600 Arabs, Somalis, Jews and Indians housed for the most part in huts of reed matting erected among ruins recalling a vanished era of wealth and prosperity. Haines stated that it could become a major trading centre and the latter part of the British period proved him correct with Aden growing to become one of the busiest ports in the world.
In 1838, Sultan Muhsin bin Fadl of the nearby state of Lahej ceded 194 km² (75 sq. Miles) including Aden to the British. On 19 January 1839, the British East India Company landed Royal Marines at Aden to occupy the territory and stop attacks by pirates against British shipping to India. The port lies about equidistant from the Suez Canal, Bombay (now Mumbai), and Zanzibar, which were all important British possessions. Aden had been an entrepôt and a way-station for seamen in the ancient world. There, supplies, particularly water, were replenished. So, in the mid-19th century, it became necessary to replenish coal and boiler water. Thus Aden acquired a coaling station at Steamer Point. Aden was to remain under British control until 1967" (Wikipedia).

 


2. [ASCENSION ISLAND]
[Drawing Heightened with Watercolour, Unsigned but Titled and Dated]: "Ascension 1847."

1847. Drawing ca. 21,5x30 cm (8 ½ x 12 in). Recently matted, the drawing is in very good condition.
This historically important sketch most likely shows Fort Cockburn, the main British military installation on the island at the time.
"Ascension Island is an isolated volcanic island in the equatorial waters of the South Atlantic Ocean, around 1,600 kilometres (1,000 mi) from the coast of Africa and 2,250 kilometres (1,400 mi) from the coast of South America, which is roughly midway between the horn of South America and Africa. It is governed as part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, of which the main island, Saint Helena, is around 1,300 kilometres (800 mi) to the southeast. The territory also includes the "remotest populated archipelago" on earth, the sparsely populated Tristan da Cunha archipelago, some thirty degrees farther south and about half the way to the Antarctic Circle. The location of the island made it a useful stopping-point for ships and communications. The Royal Navy used the island as a victualling station for ships, particularly those of the West Africa Squadron working against the slave trade. A garrison of Royal Marines was based at Ascension from 1823" (Wikipedia).


3. [AUSTRALIA]
[Original Watercolour Titled]: Australian Bush Scene.

Ca. 1880. Watercolour and pencil on paper, heightened in white, ca. 11x15 cm (4 ½ x 6 in). Captioned and initialed in watercolour underneath the image. Recently matted, very good watercolour.
Interesting watercolour sketch of a camp in the Australian wilderness, with a settler posing in front of a tent and a wooden cabin surrounded by dense bush.
The term ‘bush’ "is iconic in Australia. In reference to the landscape, "bush" refers to any sparsely inhabited region regardless of vegetation. The bush in this sense was something that was uniquely Australian and very different from the green European landscapes familiar to many new immigrants" (Wikipedia).

 

4. [BOMBAY]
WALKER, [A.H.]
[Large Watercolour Panorama of Bombay Harbour with Boats in the Foreground and Hills in the Distance].

Ca. May 1873. Watercolour and pencil on paper, ca. 17x49,5 cm (6 ¾ x19 ½ in). Pencil caption ‘Bombay’ in the right lower corner. Recently matted, very good watercolour.
A lively panorama of the Bombay harbour, made by a skilful amateur artist – on a voyage back to England from India in 1873. The watercolour comes from a disbound album which belonged to A.H. Walker who worked in Jubbulpore and documented his return journey to England in a series of watercolours. The panorama was most likely taken from the heart of the city, the so called ‘Old Mumbai’, and shows a great view of the Bombay harbour and its islands, with soft outlines of a chain of hills in the distance. The artist shows fishing boats in the harbour, houses and buildings on the harbour islands and in ‘Old Bombay.'


5. [CAPE TOWN]
[Three Original Watercolour Views of Cape Town].

Ca. 1820-es. Watercolours on paper, two ca. 16,5x24 cm (6 ½ x 9 ¼ in) and a double-page leaf ca. 16,5x47 cm (6 ½ x 18 ½ in). All unsigned, two with pencil captions on verso "Table Bay, Cape of Good Hope." Recently matted, very good watercolours.
The first watercolour is a view of Cape Town from the harbour, with Table Mountain, Lion’s Head, Signal Hill and numerous boats and schooners in the harbour. A light shroud of clouds, or so called “Table cloth” is seen over the Table Mountain, pencil captions are added above the landmarks (Signal Hill is captioned “Lion’s Rump”). The second watercolour shows Table Bay from above, with numerous ships in the harbour. The third watercolour is a beautiful close-up view of Cape Town with nice examples of Dutch Cape style buildings and a carriage with horses in the foreground.
The watercolours were made during one of the voyages of ‘Elphinstone’, and the artist was very likely the crew member, Lieutenant William Bowater (the sketch book was inscribed in ink with the initials 'W.B.' on the front endpaper). Bowater was later dismissed from the navy.
“On the 2nd of November, 1829, a court-martial, presided over by Captain R. Morgan, of the Marine, was convened at Bombay, to inquire into certain charges for “insubordinate and disrespectful conduct” on the part of Lieutenant W. Bowater, of the Hon. Company’s ship ‘Elphinstone’, preferred against him by his commanding officer, Captain F.W. Greer and that the sentence of the Court, which was dismissal from the service, was confirmed by the Commander-in-chief of the Bombay Army, Lieutenant-General Sir Sydney Beckwith, K.C.B” (Low, C.R. History of the Indian Navy. 2 vols. Vol. 1. London, 1877. P. 498-499).
The Honourable East India Company’s sloop-of war ‘Elphinstone’, of 18 guns and 387 tons, “was built by Hilhouse & Sons and launched in 1824. She operated out of London as an East Indiaman and participated with the Royal Navy in the New Zealand land wars. She was sold in 1862” (Wikipedia). The ‘Elphinstone’ sailed to the Mediterranean, around the southern tip of Africa and on to the East Indies and Australia.
As Richard Burton noted in ‘First footsteps in East Africa’, the sloop carried out a naval blockade of the Somalian coast in 1825-1833, after a British brig from the Mauritius had been seized, plundered and broken up near Berberah in 1825. “The ‘Elphinstone’ sloop of war (Capt. Greer commanding) was sent to blockade the coast; when her guns opened fire, the people fled with their wives and children, and the spot where a horseman was killed by a cannon ball is still shown on the plain near the town”. <…> Eventually “the Somal bound themselves to abstain from future attacks upon English vessels, and also to refund by annual statements the full amount of plundered property. For the purpose of enforcing the latter stipulation it was resolved that a vessel of war should remain upon the coast until the whole was liquidated. When attempts at evasion occurred, the traffic was stopped by sending all craft outside the guardship, and forbidding intercourse with the shore. The ‘Coote’, the ‘Palinus’ and the ‘Tigris’, in turn with the ‘Elphinstone’, maintained the blockade through the trading season till 1833 (Burton, R. First Footsteps in East Africa. London, 1856. P. Xxxiv-xxxv).


6. [CAPE TOWN]
[Brown Sepia Watercolour of Cape Town with a Dutch Cape Style House, a European Woman and a Native Servant Holding an Umbrella Above her].

Ca. 1820es. Brown watercolour and pencil on paper, ca. 15,5x23 cm (6x9 in). Recently matted, very good watercolour.
The brown sepia watercolour scene shows a serpentine road leading from a Dutch Cape style house to the mountains in the distance; with a European woman in a long dress approaching the viewer and followed by a native servant with an umbrella. A serene drawing with light outlines of the mountains and the road, and nice details of the house and a couple in the foreground.
The watercolour was made during one of the voyages of ‘Elphinstone’, and the artist was very likely the crew member, Lieutenant William Bowater (the sketch book was inscribed in ink with the initials 'W.B.' on the front endpaper). Bowater was later dismissed from the navy.
“On the 2nd of November, 1829, a court-martial, presided over by Captain R. Morgan, of the Marine, was convened at Bombay, to inquire into certain charges for “insubordinate and disrespectful conduct” on the part of Lieutenant W. Bowater, of the Hon. Company’s ship ‘Elphinstone’, preferred against him by his commanding officer, Captain F.W. Greer and that the sentence of the Court, which was dismissal from the service, was confirmed by the Commander-in-chief of the Bombay Army, Lieutenant-General Sir Sydney Beckwith, K.C.B” (Low, C.R. History of the Indian Navy. 2 vols. Vol. 1. London, 1877. P. 498-499).
The Honourable East India Company’s sloop-of war ‘Elphinstone’, of 18 guns and 387 tons, “was built by Hilhouse & Sons and launched in 1824. She operated out of London as an East Indiaman and participated with the Royal Navy in the New Zealand land wars. She was sold in 1862” (Wikipedia). The ‘Elphinstone’ sailed to the Mediterranean, around the southern tip of Africa and on to the East Indies and Australia.
As Richard Burton noted in ‘First footsteps in East Africa’, the sloop carried out a naval blockade of the Somalian coast in 1825-1833, after a British brig from the Mauritius had been seized, plundered and broken up near Berberah in 1825. “The ‘Elphinstone’ sloop of war (Capt. Greer commanding) was sent to blockade the coast; when her guns opened fire, the people fled with their wives and children, and the spot where a horseman was killed by a cannon ball is still shown on the plain near the town”. <…> Eventually “the Somal bound themselves to abstain from future attacks upon English vessels, and also to refund by annual statements the full amount of plundered property. For the purpose of enforcing the latter stipulation it was resolved that a vessel of war should remain upon the coast until the whole was liquidated. When attempts at evasion occurred, the traffic was stopped by sending all craft outside the guardship, and forbidding intercourse with the shore. The ‘Coote’, the ‘Palinus’ and the ‘Tigris’, in turn with the ‘Elphinstone’, maintained the blockade through the trading season till 1833 (Burton, R. First Footsteps in East Africa. London, 1856. P. Xxxiv-xxxv).

 

7. [CEYLON]
[Original Watercolour View of a Settlement most Likely in Ceylon (Sri Lanka) with a European Colonial House and Several Native Houses, a Cart Harnessed with Oxen, Hills in the Background and a Glimpse of the Sea in the Distance].

Ca. 1820es. Watercolour on paper, ca. 15x23 cm (6x9 in). Recently matted, very good watercolour.
Attractive watercolour scene of everyday life in a settlement in Ceylon, with fine details of a European wooden colonial house and native dwellings, impressive hills in the background and vague silhouettes of ships at sea.
The watercolour was made during one of the voyages of ‘Elphinstone’, and the artist was very likely the crew member, Lieutenant William Bowater (the sketch book was inscribed in ink with the initials 'W.B.' on the front endpaper). Bowater was later dismissed from the navy.
“On the 2nd of November, 1829, a court-martial, presided over by Captain R. Morgan, of the Marine, was convened at Bombay, to inquire into certain charges for “insubordinate and disrespectful conduct” on the part of Lieutenant W. Bowater, of the Hon. Company’s ship ‘Elphinstone’, preferred against him by his commanding officer, Captain F.W. Greer and that the sentence of the Court, which was dismissal from the service, was confirmed by the Commander-in-chief of the Bombay Army, Lieutenant-General Sir Sydney Beckwith, K.C.B” (Low, C.R. History of the Indian Navy. 2 vols. Vol. 1. London, 1877. P. 498-499).
The Honourable East India Company’s sloop-of war ‘Elphinstone’, of 18 guns and 387 tons, “was built by Hilhouse & Sons and launched in 1824. She operated out of London as an East Indiaman and participated with the Royal Navy in the New Zealand land wars. She was sold in 1862” (Wikipedia). The ‘Elphinstone’ sailed to the Mediterranean, around the southern tip of Africa and on to the East Indies and Australia.
As Richard Burton noted in ‘First footsteps in East Africa’, the sloop carried out a naval blockade of the Somalian coast in 1825-1833, after a British brig from the Mauritius had been seized, plundered and broken up near Berberah in 1825. “The ‘Elphinstone’ sloop of war (Capt. Greer commanding) was sent to blockade the coast; when her guns opened fire, the people fled with their wives and children, and the spot where a horseman was killed by a cannon ball is still shown on the plain near the town”. <…> Eventually “the Somal bound themselves to abstain from future attacks upon English vessels, and also to refund by annual statements the full amount of plundered property. For the purpose of enforcing the latter stipulation it was resolved that a vessel of war should remain upon the coast until the whole was liquidated. When attempts at evasion occurred, the traffic was stopped by sending all craft outside the guardship, and forbidding intercourse with the shore. The ‘Coote’, the ‘Palinus’ and the ‘Tigris’, in turn with the ‘Elphinstone’, maintained the blockade through the trading season till 1833 (Burton, R. First Footsteps in East Africa. London, 1856. P. Xxxiv-xxxv).

 

8. [CHILE]
PRITCHETT, B.J.
[Original Watercolour Showing the Harbour of Coquimbo, Chile].

January 1851. Watercolour and pencil on paper, ca. 13x17,5 cm (5 ¼ x 7 in). Captioned and signed in pencil in the left lower corner. Mounted on paper within a hand drawn watercolour border. Recently matted, very good watercolour.
Early important view of the Chilean city of Coquimbo, which developed from a fishing village into an important international port in the 1840-es, but was officially designated as a town only in 1867. The view was made at the time of the crucial initial stage of Coquimbo’s development and gives a wide panorama of the harbour with several large sailing vessels, and the core of the growing settlement, then just a small fishing village, with several houses and a church in the distance.
“Coquimbo is a port city, commune and capital of the Elqui Province, located on the Pan-American Highway, in the Coquimbo Region of Chile. The natural harbor in Coquimbo was taken over by Pedro de Valdivia from Spain in 1550. The gold and copper industry in the region led to the city's importance as a port around 1840 and many Europeans especially from England settled in Coquimbo. In 1867 it was recognized as a town” (Wikipedia).


9. [CHINESE JUNK]
[Original Watercolour Showing a Chinese Junk at Sea, with a Native Fisherman Working with a Net in the Foreground, and two European Ships in the Background].

Ca. 1820-es. Watercolour and pen on paper, ca. 15x23 cm (6x9 in). Recently matted, very good watercolour.
The artist shows a maritime scene with a Chinese junk sailing near the coast, a fisherman working with a net from a small boat in the foreground, and two European ships in the distance.
The drawings were made during one of the voyages of ‘Elphinstone’, and the artist was very likely the crew member, Lieutenant William Bowater (the sketch book was inscribed in ink with the initials 'W.B.' on the front endpaper). Bowater was later dismissed from the navy.
“On the 2nd of November, 1829, a court-martial, presided over by Captain R. Morgan, of the Marine, was convened at Bombay, to inquire into certain charges for “insubordinate and disrespectful conduct” on the part of Lieutenant W. Bowater, of the Hon. Company’s ship ‘Elphinstone’, preferred against him by his commanding officer, Captain F.W. Greer and that the sentence of the Court, which was dismissal from the service, was confirmed by the Commander-in-chief of the Bombay Army, Lieutenant-General Sir Sydney Beckwith, K.C.B” (Low, C.R. History of the Indian Navy. 2 vols. Vol. 1. London, 1877. P. 498-499).
The Honourable East India Company’s sloop-of war ‘Elphinstone’, of 18 guns and 387 tons, “was built by Hilhouse & Sons and launched in 1824. She operated out of London as an East Indiaman and participated with the Royal Navy in the New Zealand land wars. She was sold in 1862” (Wikipedia). The ‘Elphinstone’ sailed to the Mediterranean, around the southern tip of Africa and on to the East Indies and Australia.
As Richard Burton noted in ‘First footsteps in East Africa’, the sloop carried out a naval blockade of the Somalian coast in 1825-1833, after a British brig from the Mauritius had been seized, plundered and broken up near Berberah in 1825. “The ‘Elphinstone’ sloop of war (Capt. Greer commanding) was sent to blockade the coast; when her guns opened fire, the people fled with their wives and children, and the spot where a horseman was killed by a cannon ball is still shown on the plain near the town”. <…> Eventually “the Somal bound themselves to abstain from future attacks upon English vessels, and also to refund by annual statements the full amount of plundered property. For the purpose of enforcing the latter stipulation it was resolved that a vessel of war should remain upon the coast until the whole was liquidated. When attempts at evasion occurred, the traffic was stopped by sending all craft outside the guardship, and forbidding intercourse with the shore. The ‘Coote’, the ‘Palinus’ and the ‘Tigris’, in turn with the ‘Elphinstone’, maintained the blockade through the trading season till 1833 (Burton, R. First Footsteps in East Africa. London, 1856. P. Xxxiv-xxxv).

 

10. [CHINESE JUNK]
HAMILTON, Peter William, Captain RN (1812-1868)
[Original Watercolour Showing a Chinese Junk at Sea under Dutch Flag].

Ca. 1840. Watercolour and pencil on laid paper, ca. 20x32 cm (8 x 12 ½ in). Recently matted, very good watercolour.
A colourful sketch of a Chinese junk taken by a British Royal Navy officer during the First Opium War (1839-1842). Captain Peter William Hamilton was a son of Sir William Hamilton (1788-1877), British Consul at Boulogne-sur-Mer from 1826 to 1873. As a young master's mate, Hamilton Junior served in the Mediterranean on board HMS Malabar, visiting Italy, Malta, Greece, Turkey and the Levant in 1834-5. He later served in the Royal Navy during the First Opium War (1839-42), seeing action at Hong Kong.

 

11. [COLOSSEUM, ROME]
[Attractive Unsigned Watercolour of the Colosseum and the Arch of Constantine in Rome].

Ca. 1860. Watercolour ca. 14x40 cm (5 ½ x 15 ½ in) Recently matted and framed, and with a minor faint crease mark in upper right corner, but overall a very good watercolour.
This attractive watercolour shows the Colosseum (left) and the Arch of Constantine (right) and several dozen visitors in the fore and background. "The Colosseum, or the Coliseum, originally the Amphitheatrum Flavium is an elliptical amphitheatre in the centre of the city of Rome, Italy, the largest ever built in the Roman Empire, built of concrete and stone. It is considered one of the greatest works of Roman architecture and Roman engineering...,The Arch of Constantine is a triumphal arch in Rome, situated between the Colosseum and the Palatine Hill. It was erected by the Roman Senate to commemorate Constantine I's victory over Maxentius at the Battle of Milvian Bridge on October 28, 312" (Wikipedia).


12. [COLUMBUS]
[Elegant Grisaille Watercolour Showing Columbus Landing in America with the Explorer Encouraging his Party to go Forward, and a Group of Native Americans and a Spanish Ship in the Background].

Early 19th century. Grisaille watercolour, pen and ink on laid paper, ca. 12x8 cm (4 ¾ x 3 ¼ in). Recently matted within hand drawn ink border, a very good watercolour.
Fine watercolour showing Christopher Columbus landing in the New World. Apparently the watercolour shows his first landing which took place on October 12, 1492 in San Salvador Island (Guanahani), now in the Bahamas archipelago.
The entry in Columbus journal from the 12 October 1492 describes the natives: "Many of the men I have seen have scars on their bodies, and when I made signs to them to find out how this happened, they indicated that people from other nearby islands come to San Salvador to capture them; they defend themselves the best they can. I believe that people from the mainland come here to take them as slaves. They ought to make good and skilled servants, for they repeat very quickly whatever we say to them. I think they can very easily be made Christians, for they seem to have no religion. If it pleases our Lord, I will take six of them to Your Highnesses when I depart, in order that they may learn our language." He remarked that their lack of modern weaponry and even metal-forged swords or pikes was a tactical vulnerability, writing, "I could conquer the whole of them with 50 men, and govern them as I pleased" (Wikipedia).

 

13. [CORFU]
HAMILTON, Captain Peter William, R.N. (1812-1868)
[Unsigned Watercolour Panorama of the Old Citadel of Corfu Taken from the Sea].

Ca. 1834. Ink and grey wash on paper, ca. 15x31,5 cm (6 x 12 ½ in). Recently matted, very good watercolour.
Impressive panorama of the Old Citadel (Palaio Frourio) of Corfu with the fortifications, towers and city stretching along the sea, and the mountain range towering in the distance. Executed in the elegant grisaille manner, the watercolour was made by a skilled amateur artist, Captain Peter William Hamilton (1812-1868) of the Royal Navy. He was a son of Sir William Hamilton (1788-1877), British Consul at Boulogne-sur-Mer from 1826 to 1873. As a young master's mate Hamilton Junior served in the Mediterranean on board HMS Malabar, visiting Italy, Malta, Greece, Turkey and the Levant in 1834-1835. He later served in the Royal Navy during the First Opium War (1839-42), seeing action at Hong Kong.
“The old citadel (in Greek Palaio Frourio (Παλαιό Φρούριο)) is an old Venetian fortress built on an artificial islet with fortifications surrounding its entire perimeter <…> Kerkyra, the "Door of Venice" during the centuries when the whole Adriatic was the Gulf of Venice, remained in Venetian hands from 1401 until 1797, though several times assailed by Turkish naval and land forces and subjected to four notable sieges in 1537, 1571, 1573 and 1716, in which the great natural strength of the city and its defenders asserted itself time after time. The effectiveness of the powerful Venetian fortifications of the island as well as the strength of some old Byzantine fortifications in Angelokastro, Kassiopi, Gardiki and others, was another strong factor that enabled Corfu to remain free. Will Durant claims that Corfu owed to the Republic of Venice the fact that it was the only part of Greece never conquered by the Muslim Turks” (Wikipedia).

 

14. [DALMATIA, TRANSYLVANIA]
DANFORD, Charles George (fl. 1870s-1890s)
[Collection of Twenty-Seven Original Watercolour Views of Dalmatia and Transylvania, Modern Croatia and Romania].

Ca. 1870-es. Watercolour and pencil on paper: one ca. 17,5x23 cm (6 ¾ x 9 ¼ in), seven ca. 19,5x14 cm (7 ¾ x 5 ½ in), four ca. 12x16 cm (4 ¾ x 6 ½ in) or slightly smaller, and four smaller ones, ca. 8,5x13,5 cm (3 ¼ x 5 ¼ in). Each signed by the artist in one of the lower corners; the majority with pencil captions underneath. Mounted on both sides of three large album leaves. Mounts slightly soiled, but the watercolours are bright and in very good condition.
Nice collection of watercolour views of Dalmatia and Transylvania, by Scottish artist, sportsman and ornithologist Charles George Danford. The drawings taken from life reflect Danford’s extensive travels across the Balkans and Southern Europe in the 1870-1880-es. Dalmatia is represented with large watercolours showing the environs of Dubrovnik (Ragusa): one of the city’s narrow streets and the cathedral and then ‘Castello nuovo’ in Katar (Cattaro), a street in Cetinje (Cettigne), Katar’s panorama with a serpentine road leading to Cetinje et al. A group of smaller images show Zadar (Zara), Neretva (Narenta) Gorge, small ‘Hotel Europa’ on the ‘Montenegrin frontier’, a distant view of Ogulin town with surrounding mountains et al. A series of watercolours is dedicated to the Pâclişa village in Transylvania (now a neighbourhood of Alba Iulia, Romania). Overall a beautiful collection of attractive views of the Dinaric Alps, the Adriatic Sea, and Dalmatian villages and towns with bright red-roofed houses.
“Charles G. Danford (fl. 1870s-1890s), born in Scotland, was an accomplished artist, sportsman and ornithologist. He was elected as a Fellow of the Zoological Society of London in 1874. In the 1870s Danford travelled extensively in the Near East. Some of these watercolours may have been painted on his travels with Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria (1858-1889), whose book, Jagden und Beobachtungen (Vienna, 1887) Danford translated into English as Notes on Sport and Ornithology (London, 1889)” (Sotheby’s).


15. [DAVID LIVINGSTONE]
[Portrait Pencil Drawing of David Livingstone].

Ca. 1879. Pencil on Whatman paper, watermarked “1879”, ca. 30,5x24,5 cm (12 x 9 ¾ in). Ink caption on the lower margin “Docteur David Livingstone, Exploratéur de l’Afrique centrale," Additional pencil caption in the right lower corner “L’univers illustre, 28 sept. 1863”. Recently matted, near fine drawing.
Skillful pencil portrait of the famous African explorer David Livingstone (1813-1873).
“David Livingstone, often misspelled as Livingston, was a Scottish Congregationalist pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and an explorer in Africa. His meeting with H. M. Stanley gave rise to the popular quotation "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"
Perhaps one of the most popular national heroes of the late 19th century in Victorian Britain, Livingstone had a mythic status, which operated on a number of interconnected levels: that of Protestant missionary martyr, that of working-class "rags to riches" inspirational story, that of scientific investigator and explorer, that of imperial reformer, anti-slavery crusader, and advocate of commercial empire.
His fame as an explorer helped drive forward the obsession with discovering the sources of the River Nile that formed the culmination of the classic period of European geographical discovery and colonial penetration of the African continent. At the same time his missionary travels, "disappearance" and death in Africa, and subsequent glorification as posthumous national hero in 1874 led to the founding of several major central African Christian missionary initiatives carried forward in the era of the European ‘Scramble for Africa’” (Wikipedia).

 

16. [ENGLISH LAKE DISTRICT AND SCOTLAND]
[Album of Twenty-Two Watercolours of the English Lake District and Western Scotland].

Ca. 1870-es. Oblong Folio (ca. 31x43 cm). 23 leaves. With 22 mounted watercolours, the majority ca. 17x25 cm (6 ½ x 10 in), others slightly larger or smaller. All watercolours with period ink captions in the lower corners of the album leaves. Period dark green gilt tooled half morocco with green pebble-grain cloth boards and moire endpapers. A very good album.
Album of excellent watercolour drawings made on the spot by an anonymous 19th century artist showing the natural beauty of the English Lake District and western Scotland. The majority of the watercolours show different views of the famous English lakes – Coniston Water, Rhydal Water, Grasmere, Easedale Tarn, Grisedale Tarn, Thirlmere, Derwent Water, Patterdale, Ullswater – with occasional islands, churches, cottages or rural fences on shore, boats in water et al. There are also impressive pictures of the surrounding hills and mountains: a view of Langdale Pikes taken from Lowood hotel, Mt. Helvellyn, St. Sunday’s Craig, colourful picture of Dungeon Ghyll Force waterfall, interesting view of the Bowder Stone depicted without a staircase (it was added not earlier than 1890) et al. The ‘Scottish’ views include a stunning view of the renowned bay of the Oban town with Kerrera and Mull Islands, several mountainous panoramas showing Ben Cruachan, ‘The Shepherds, Glen Etive’ (or ‘The Herdsmen of Etive’), pictures of the mountain pass of “Murford”(?) and of the magnificent Falls of Foyers.
“The Lake District is a mountainous region in North West England, a National Park of the United Kingdom (since 1951). All the land in England higher than three thousand feet above sea level lays within the National Park, including Scafell Pike, the highest mountain in England. It also contains the deepest and longest lakes in England, Wastwater and Windermere, respectively. A popular holiday destination, it is famous not only for its lakes, forests, and mountains (or fells), but also for its associations with the early nineteenth-century poetry and writings of William Wordsworth and the other Lake Poets” (Wikipedia).


17. [EUROPEAN TRAVELS]
SMITH, Charlotte J.
[Collection of Thirteen Watercolours and Drawings Made on a Trip to the Rhine Castles, Tagus River in Spain, Moreton Hall in Cheshire, Ghent, and Italy].

1827-1829. Oblong Folio (ca. 26,5x37,5 cm). 57 leaves. With 13 mounted watercolours and drawings (five within hand drawn ink frames), the majority ca. 17x25 cm (6 ½ x 10 in), others slightly larger or smaller. Watercolour, ink and pencil on paper. Six works captioned, signed or dated by the artist; also with her ink inscription on the front pastedown endpaper “Charlotte Smith. Nov. 30th 1829”. Album with period marble papered boards, neatly rebacked (gilt tooled brown red half straight grained morocco). A near fine album.
An attractive collection of watercolours and drawings by a skilled artist, showing preciseness and attention to the smallest details. The pencil drawings include three impressive views of the German Rhine castles – ‘Vautsberg’ (Burg Rheinstein) and the castle of Heidelberg (general panorama and a view of the inner yard); there are also two large ink drawings of the Tagus River with fishermen's’ boats, and a serene ink drawn view of Moreton Hall, a 16th century half-timbered manor in Cheshire. The watercolours are represented with a sketch of a baroque building in Ghent, two large views of an Italian city, probably Venice, with gondolas on water, locals lazily strolling down the street and laundry drying outside; an interior of an Italian (?) courtyard with impressive columns, a scene with two men in Turkish costumes taking water from a street fountain, an architectural style drawing of a reception hall, and a colourful sketch of a manor.


18. [FLORENCE]
GORDON, George Huntley, Major
[Original Watercolour View of Florence, Titled]: San Miniato and Porta St. Nicholo – Florence. March 1896.

March 1896. Watercolour and pencil on paper, ca. 25x35,5 cm (10x14 in). Mounted on cardboard, with a manuscript caption on the lower margin. A very good bright watercolour.
This attractive watercolour view of Florence shows the embankment of the Arno with the medieval city gate Porta San Niccolo in the centre and the famous staircase leading to the basilica of San Miniato al Monte. The scene shows people and carriages crossing the central square where the gate stands (modern Piazza Giuseppe Poggi), several fishermen working on the low bank of the Arno; with distant city hills covered with cypresses and houses, and the silhouettes of the Apenninesto in the background.
“Built in the 1320s, the best preserved of the city’s medieval gates still stands sentinel on the banks of the Arno. Behind it, a monumental staircase designed by Giuseppe Poggi winds its way up towards Chiesa di San Miniato al Monte” (Lonely Planet about Porta San Niccolo).
“San Miniato al Monte (St. Minias on the Mountain) is a basilica in Florence, central Italy, standing atop one of the highest points in the city. It has been described as one of the finest Romanesque structures in Tuscany and one of the most beautiful churches in Italy” (Wikipedia).
The artist, George Huntley Gordon, an officer of the British Indian Army and a participant of the First Mahsud or Waziri Expedition on the North-West Frontier (1860).

 

19. [FRENCH TOURISTS IN ALGERIA]
ASSUS, Salomon (1850-1919)
[A Pair of Exquisite Caricature Portraits of a French Couple Travelling in Algeria].

Alger [Algiers], 1909. Two works, watercolour and ink on paper, heightened in white, ca. 24x20 cm (9 ½ x 7 ¾ in). Signed and dated in ink in the lower corners. Original wooden frames by H.J. McBurney (ink stamp labels of his workshop on verso, with the address ‘129, Ashway Road, Brooklands’), outside dimensions ca. 28,5x24 cm (11 ¼ x 9 ½ in). Near fine set.
A set of excellent watercolor caricatures humorously showing a French tourist couple in Algiers – two elegant well dressed Parisians equipped with some necessary attributes of leisure travelers, such as a guidebook and tennis rackets. They are accompanied by picturesque locals – a heavily loaded porter, and not less heavy loaded donkey (the French lady is riding it), who are not so enchanted with their refined clients. The portraits were made by a very skilful hand, with some curious and amusing details.
Salomon Assus was a renowned French Algerian artist and caricaturist, famous for his humorous portraits published in the Algerian newspapers and magazines, including ‘La Dépêche Algérienne’, ‘Le Turco’ and ‘Charivari Oranais’, as well as for numerous postcards with his caricatures which were distributed throughout the whole Mediterranean region and as far as Aden. He was born in Algiers and studied in the local l'Ecole des Beaux-Arts, later finishing his education in Paris and London. In Paris Assus met famous French caricaturist André Gill (1840-1885) and adopted his manner of enlargement of his subjects' heads, which sat upon undersized bodies. Assus portrayed many celebrities of his time, including French president Emile Loubet, General Consul in Algeria Joseph-Francois Aumerat, General Felix Gustave Saussier, Rabbi Salomon Zernati (an intermediary between Emir Abd el-Kader and King Louis-Philippe in 1839), and others.
Assus was a sharp witness of his time, describing people or street scenes he saw both with humour and truth. His portraits in addition to the political appeal showcased the scenes of Algerian life and thus are important illustrations of the atmosphere in the fin de siècle Algeria. As recounted his son, also an Algerian artist Armand Assus, Salomon had ‘rare ability of observation and a keen sense of life’; ‘Indeed, one looks in vain in his drawings for traces of malice or intolerance: the truth is only made evident by exaggeration of certain human traits, in the sense of humor perhaps, but always with the focus of sympathy and the unique and innocent desire to entertain’. Salomon Assus had several children, including painters Mauris Assus (1879-1950) and Armand Assus (1892-1977). He died in Algiers in 1919 during the Spanish flu epidemic. A street in Algiers bears his name.
Salomon Assus’ biographical note is based on the materials of the article in L'Algérianiste (September 1995, # 71, p.112); See also: Assus, A.; Badia, J.-P. Salomon Assus – illustrateur humoristique de l'Algérie, 1850-1919 (1999).


20. [FRIDTJOF NANSEN]
[Ink Portrait Drawing of Fridtjof Nansen].

1925. Ink on paper, ca. 16x10,5 cm (6 ½ x 4 ¼ in). Manuscript title under the image, initialed by the artist and dated in the right lower corner. Recently matted, very good drawing.
Excellent ink drawn portrait of the great Norwegian Arctic explorer and Nobel Prize laureate Fridtjof Nansen (1861-1930); the portrait is based on a photograph published in Hjalmar Johansen’s account of the Fram Expedition (1893-96) ‘With Nansen in the North’ (Ward, Lock and Co, 1899). It was this expedition that brought Nansen international fame with his achievement of a record northern latitude of 86°14′. Afterwards Nansen’s “techniques of polar travel and his innovations in equipment and clothing influenced a generation of subsequent Arctic and Antarctic expeditions” (Wikipedia). Executed with something of a stipple effect, the portrait was presumably made to be engraved for a magazine such as the Illustrated London News (1925).

 

21. [GERMAN SOUTH WEST AFRICA]
[A Pair of Attractive Historically Important Watercolour Views]: Angra Pequena (Lüderitzbucht) von der Höhe der Nautilus Spitze gesehen [Angra Pequena (Lüderitz) viewed from the top of the Nautilus Peak]; [With]: Blick von den Höhen östlich von Angra Pequena auf das Flugsandgebiet und die Berge östlich desselben. [View from the Heights east of Angra Pequena..,]."

Ca. 1884. Two watercolours each ca. 19,5x44 cm (7 ½ x 17 ½ in). Mounted on stiff card with manuscript titles on mounts. Mounts lightly dust soiled, otherwise two very good watercolours.
These two historically important views are most likely some of first views of the German occupation of Namibia. The first view shows the bay (Lüderitzbucht) with a cross (Magellan Cross) on the hill in the foreground with several barracks shown below which are most likely Fort Vogelsang. The second view shows the dune landscape of the area looking into the interior. "On 16 November 1882 a German merchant from Bremen, Adolf Lüderitz, requested protection for a station that he planned to build in South-West Africa, from Chancellor Bismarck. Once this was granted, his employee Heinrich Vogelsang purchased land from a native chief and established a city at Angra Pequena which was renamed Lüderitz. On 24 April 1884, he placed the area under the protection of Imperial Germany to deter British encroachment. In early 1884, the Kaiserliche Marine ship SMS Nautilus visited to review the situation. A favourable report from the government, and acquiescence from the British, resulted in a visit from the SMS Leipzig and SMS Elisabeth. The German flag was finally raised in South-West Africa on 7 August 1884. The German claims on this land were confirmed during the Conference of Berlin" (Wikipedia).


22. [GIBRALTAR?]
[Large Unsigned and Untitled Watercolour of Most Likely the East Side of the Rock, Gibraltar?].

Ca. 1850. Watercolour ca. 35x49,5 cm (14 x 19 ½ in) Recently matted watercolour with an old repaired tear and a couple of old small minor stains, otherwise a very good watercolour.
This attractive large watercolour most likely shows the rugged rocky mountainous coastline of the East Side of the Rock, Gibraltar. Three boys are playing in the foreground and a merchant is shown behind them riding a donkey with another donkey in tow and various buildings and a fortress are shown in the background.


23. [GIZA PYRAMIDS]
[Watercolour View of the Great Pyramids of Giza with the Nile in the Foreground].

Ca. 1900. Watercolour on paper, ca. 6x11 cm (4 ¼ x 2 ½ in). Initialed ‘A.B.’ in the lower right corner. Period ink inscription on verso “With love and all good wishes for happier times in the near future. From Peggie”. Recently matted, very good watercolour.
Nice watercolour view of the Great Pyramids of Giza taken at sunset, with the waters of Nile in the foreground reflecting the tender colours of the evening sky.

 

24. [GUSTAV NACHTIGAL]
[Portrait Pencil Drawing of Gustav Nachtigal].

Ca. 1880. Pencil on paper, ca. 22x14 cm (8 ½ x 5 ½ in). With ink caption on the lower margin “Le Docteur Nachtigal, Anglais, Auteur de voyage de Bourno au Baguirmi”. Recently matted, near fine drawing.
Well executed pencil portrait of Gustav Nachtigal (1834-1885), a German Africa explorer. The same portrait was published in the French edition of his travel account, “Voyage du Bornou au Baguirmi” (Paris, 1880).
Gustav Nachtigal was a German explorer of Central and West Africa. He is further known as the German Empire's consul-general for Tunisia and Commissioner for West Africa. His mission as commissioner resulted in Togoland and Kamerun becoming the first colonies of a German colonial empire. The Gustav-Nachtigal-Medal, awarded by the Berlin Geographical Society, is named after him.
Commissioned by King Wilhelm I of Prussia to carry gifts to Umar of Borno, sheik of the Bornu Empire, in acknowledgment of kindness shown to German travelers, he set out in 1869 from Ottoman Tripoli and succeeded after a two years journey in accomplishing his mission. During this period he visited Tibesti and Borku, regions of the central Sahara not previously known to Europeans.
From Bornu he traveled to Baguirmi, an independent state to the southeast of Bornu. From there he proceeded to Wadai (a powerful Muslim kingdom to the northeast of Baguirmi) and to Kordofan (a former province of central Sudan). Nachtigal emerged from darkest Africa at Khartoum (then an Egyptian outpost, today the capital of Sudan) in the winter of 1874, after having been given up for lost. His journey, graphically described in his Sahara and Sudan, placed him in the top ranking of discoverers.
Gustav Nachtigal is regarded as the other great German explorer of Africa, in company with Heinrich Barth. Like Barth, Nachtigal was primarily interested in ethnography, and additionally in tropical medicine. His works stand out because of their wealth of details and above all because of his unbiased views of Africans. In contrast to most contemporary explorers, Nachtigal did not hold to the alleged inferiority of Africans; his convictions are clearly reflected in his descriptions and choice of words” (Wikipedia).

 

25. [HEBRON]
[Original Pencil Drawn Panorama of Hebron].

Early 19th century. Pencil on paper, ca. 15x25,5 cm (6x10 in). Pencil caption ‘Hebron’ on the lower margin. Recently matted, very good drawing.
Fine pencil drawn panorama of Hebron showing the skyline of the old city, with two travellers entering the city gate, a shepherd talking to a woman carrying water in the foreground, and the Judean mountains in the distance.
“Hebron also known as City of the Patriarchs, is a Palestinian city located in the southern West Bank, 30 km (19 mi) south of Jerusalem. Nestled in the Judean Mountains, it lies 930 meters (3,050 ft) above sea level. It is the largest city in the West Bank and home to approximately 250,000 Palestinians, and between 500 and 800 Jewish settlers concentrated in and around the old quarter. The city is most notable for containing the traditional burial site of the biblical Patriarchs and Matriarchs and is therefore considered the second-holiest city in Judaism after Jerusalem. The city is also venerated by Muslims for its association with Abraham and was traditionally viewed as one of the "four holy cities of Islam."” (Wikipedia).

 

26. [HENRY STANLEY]
[Portrait Pencil Drawing of Henry Morton Stanley].

Ca. 1879-1880. Pencil on paper, ca. 32x24,5 cm (12 ½ x 9 ¾ in). Ink caption on the lower margin “H. M. Stanley, Voyageur anglais, Ne a Denbigh in 1840, Envoyé a la recherche de Livingstone en 1871, aussi connu sous le nom de John Rowland and Henry Moreton”. Artist’s [?] ink initials in the right lower corner. Recently matted, near fine drawing.
Unusual pencil portrait of Sir Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904), most likely executed for ‘L’Univers Illustré’, a popular French weekly illustrated magazine (Paris, 1858-1900). Stanley is shown up to the waist, almost in profile, sitting and supporting his head with his hand.
“Sir Henry Morton Stanley, GCB, born John Rowlands, Kongo byname Bula Matari (“Breaker of Rocks”), was a Welsh American journalist and explorer famous for his exploration of central Africa and his search for Scottish missionary and explorer David Livingstone. Upon finding Livingstone, Stanley allegedly uttered the now-famous greeting, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" Stanley is also known for his discoveries in and development of the Congo region. He was knighted in 1899” (Wikipedia).

 

27. [HILDEBRANDT, Attributed to, Eduard] (1818-1868)
[Original Watercolour View of Praya Grande, Macao].

Ca. 1863. Watercolour on paper, ca. 25x37 cm (9 ¾ x 14 ½ in). Unsigned. Recently matted, very good watercolour.
This well executed watercolour of Macao harbour and Avenida de Praia Grande was most likely created by the German artist Eduard Hildebrandt during his travel around the world in 1862-64. Hildebrandt usually made several sketches and studies of his views which he later reworked into a final version in oil. He created an almost identical oil painting: "View of Praya Grande, Macau 1863" (now in the Hong Kong Museum of Art), and a almost identical chromolithograph was included into the series of his works: "Aquarelle. Auf seiner Reise um die Erde" (Berlin 1871-4 ).
Eduard Hildebrandt was a German painter. "He studied in Berlin and Paris and was a friend of scientist and explorer Alexander von Humboldt. Under the latter’s influence he took a voyage around the world in 1862-64, making watercolour views of many places he visited. "Fantasies in red, yellow and opal, sunset, sunrise and moonshine, distances of hundreds of miles like those of the Andes and the Himalaya, narrow streets in the bazaars of Cairo or Suez, panoramas as seen from mast-heads, wide cities like Bombay or Pekin, narrow strips of desert with measure-less expanses of sky all alike display his quality of bravura" (Wikipedia).

 

28. [INDOCHINA]
CASPARI, Chrétien Edouard (1840-1918)
[Eleven Original Watercolour Views of Saigon, Bangkok and Scenes of Everyday life in French Indochina].

1877-1878. Watercolour and ink on paper; seven larger sketches, ca. 13x21 cm (5x8 in), and four smaller ones, ca. 10,5x14 cm (4 x 5 ½ in). All captioned and dated in ink in the lower margins of the images, with additional pencil captions or notes on the mounts. Watercolours mounted on ten period watermarked laid paper leaves. Mounts slightly soiled and stained, but the watercolours are bright and in very good condition.
Beautiful sketches taken from life by a skilful amateur artist, a French colonial engineer, while serving in Indochina. The collection includes several interesting views of Saigon showing the La Sainte Enfance School, St. Joseph Seminary (‘Seminaire annamite’), the house of the director of the French arsenal, a horse-driven carriage or ‘Malabar’ et al. The watercolours include some nice portraits of the locals, including a sketch of a Chinese merchant followed by a servant carrying his goods, portraits of Vietnamese women with children, people driving oxen carts, villagers et al. There is also a great view of Dong Nai River near Bien Hoa city (32 km east from Saigon) – a peaceful picture of a river with two people paddling in a boat and several village houses amidst lush tropical greenery on shore. The earliest watercolour in the collection, dated 1877, is a view of Bangkok. One sketch shows local plants – mango tree, bamboo and an Erythrina tree covered with bright red flowers.
Chrétien Édouard Caspari was a French hydrographer and astronomer. He graduated from École polytechnique in 1860, and in 1862-1902 he worked as a hydrographer and engineer in France, the Caribbean and French Indochina (the Gulf of Siam, Annam and Tonkin). Caspari was the author of an astronomy textbook for the Service Hydrographique de la Marine, and of numerous scientific papers, some relating to Indochina. He was awarded with the Prix Montijon of the French Academy of Sciences (1878), and in 1905 he became President of the Astronomical Society of France.

 

29. [IVITTUUT, GREENLAND]
[Original Pen and Wash Drawing of the Town of Ivittuut in South Greenland].

[Ca. 1865]. Drawing matted to approximately 15x20 cm (6 x 7 ½ in). In a period gilt trimmed frame. Drawing and frame in very good condition.
Original pen and wash drawing of the mining town of Ivittuut (formerly Ivigtut), in South Greenland. Contemporary inscriptions on the back of the frame appear to indicate that the drawing is either the basis for, or has been done after, an 1865 photogravure by Thomas Schniat. "The name of the settlement means the grassy place in Greenlandic. The town has a 5 kilometer road that connects it to Kangilinnguit. Ivittuut is also the only town in Greenland to have roads leading to another town.., Ivittuut stands at the site of the Norse Middle Settlement, which is sometimes considered part of the Western Settlement. This was the smallest of the three settlements, including about 20 farms, and less is known about it than about either of the others, as no written records survive.., In 1806, cryolite was found in the area, with mining operations starting in 1865. The mineral deposits were exhausted by 1987,and the town lost its economic base. It was abandoned soon after" (Wikipedia).

 

30. [JAPAN, WATERCOLOUR VIEWS]
COUCHOUD, Paul-Louis (1879-1959) & FAURE, André

[A Collection of Watercolours and Ink Drawings By a European Depicting Japanese Landscapes and Scenes and Influenced by the Style of Japanese Woodcuts].
Japan: , 1903-4. Nine watercolours and six ink drawings, on album leaves ca. 22,5x14,5 cm (8 ¾ x 5 ¾ in). The leaves are originally from the same album, but seven on vellum paper and eight on laid paper; all mounted in recent mats and housed in a custom made dark brown half cloth clam-shell portfolio with marbled boards and gilt black morocco labels on front cover and spine. Several leaves captioned in pencil in Japanese, one in French (also in pencil, on verso): "Portrait de Couchoud (au cours de son voyage)." Two leaves with minor stains not affecting images, otherwise a fine set.
Beautiful watercolours and drawings from the first trip to Japan in 1903-4 by French poet and philosopher Paul-Louis Couchoud, an admirer of Japan and the first French author to compose Haiku poems. He travelled to Japan twice; the first time in September 1903 - May 1904 with his friends, sculptor Albert Poncin and painter André Faure. While going on a boat cruise along Japanese canals, the party wrote "Au fil de l’eau" - a collection of 72 haiku poems privately published in only 30 copies (1905). After the next trip to Japan and China Couchoud published the anthology "Les épigrammes lyriques du Japon" (1906) and "Sages et poètes d'Asie" (1916, English translation - "Japanese Impressions," 1920).
Our collection was most likely produced during his first trip and is clearly influenced by the elegant Ukiyo-e, the technique of Japanese woodcuts. Poetical and attentive, the artist notes the smallest details and creates the atmosphere of harmonious serene life of traditional Japan. Most likely, it was Couchoud’s travel companion, painter André Faure, who made the drawings and watercolours. The watercolours include a view of Mount Fuji, two views of Japanese temples, scene with Japanese musicians and dancers, two marine landscapes, a portrait of a reading woman, a palanquin, and the "Portrait of Couchoud (during the trip)" as indicated in the caption. The ink drawings include: Geisha playing shamisen, two students writing and counting, a family in front of a stall, sketches of women's costumes, old laundresses and Buddha sculpture. One of the leaves has an ink sketch of traditional women’s knots on verso; the other - a watercolour with a temple and a Buddhist monk in front. Overall a beautiful collection.
"However it is only with the publication of Au fil de l’eau in 1905 that a first serious attempt was made to compose Haiku in French. During a canal-boat cruise in 1903, the authors, Paul-Louis Couchoud, Albert Poncin and André Faure composed 72 haikai that were compiled into a collection privately published. Couchoud who taught his friends the Japanese genre, was a professor of philosophy and doctor of medicine. He had traveled to Japan and had been seduced by Japanese poetry and the haiku. Without any doubt not only did he initiate French language Haiku but he also became the first true French expounder and initiator of the genre in a series of two articles entitled "Les épigrammes lyriques du Japon" in 1906: (Agostini, B. The Development of French Haiku in the First Half of the 20th Century: Historical Perspectives // Modern haiku. Vol. 32.2. Summer 2001).

 

31. [JOHANNA (ANJOUAN) ISLAND]
LIND, J[ames](1736-1812)
[Original Sepia and Ink Watercolour View of Anjouan Island in the Indian Ocean, Titled on Verso]: Island of Johanna from the Anchoring Ground May 1766. Signed in ink "J. Lind Delit" in the lower right corner.

1766. Mounted on larger sheet of laid paper with a hand coloured border ca. 13,5x29 cm (5 ½ x 11 ½ in). Recently matted, with a small minor stain on right upper margin, otherwise a very good watercolour.
This early and historically important watercolour shows a view of a settlement and its harbour with two native boats. Anjouan which also known as Ndzuwani or Nzwani, and historically as Johanna is an autonomous island, part of the Union of Comoros. The island is located in the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Mutsamudu which is most likely the settlement shown in the watercolour.
The artist was a physician, who "went out as surgeon in an East Indiaman in 1766 and visited China. In 1768 he graduated MD at Edinburgh, and his inaugural dissertation, on a fever in Bengal in 1762, was published at Edinburgh in 1768..., Thomas Pennant was indebted to Lind for the true latitude of Islay, and for a beautiful map of the isle, from which he derived his measurements (Tour to the Hebrides, 1790, 262). Lind accompanied Joseph Banks on his voyage to Iceland, in 1772. He reported several astronomical observations to the Royal Society, London, and a paper by him was read there in 1775.., In 1792 Joseph Banks recommended Lind as a useful member of Lord Macartney's embassy to the emperor of China" (Oxford DNB).


32. [LEHNERT & LANDROCK, CAIRO]
[A Pair of Egyptian Watercolour Views - The Pyramids at Giza (Two Egyptians on Camels in the Foreground) - Environs of Cairo (Three Egyptians, two on Camels in the Foreground)- Blind Stamped Lehnert & Landrock Cairo on Mounts].

Ca. 1925. Watercolours each ca. 22x31 cm (8 ½ x 12 in). Mounted on card, the mounts with some minor mild staining. The watercolour are both in very good condition.
"Lehnert wishe[d] to have a new start in Tunis but Landrock prefer[ed] Cairo. The discovery of the tomb of Tutankhamen gave the decisive push to establish their new venture in Egypt...,
On 4 October 1924 Ernst and Emilie Landrock, Kurt Lambelet (Emilie’s 19 year old son), as well as Mrs. Lehnert and her daughter Eliane reached the port of Alexandria, Egypt. At first, Landrock and Lehnert started a wholesale business in Cairo, but they soon decided to open a retail shop between the Continental and Shepherds hotels, both managed by Swiss directors. Lehnert works conscientiously from Alexandria to Abu Simbel. He includes Palestine in his field of work. But Lehnert is first of all a portraitist and Egyptians dislike to be photographed. Lehnert is condemned to photograph "old stones," their clients being mostly foreigners..,
The partnership between Ernst Landrock and his friend and photographer Rudolf Lehnert lasted another six years. Lehnert, who had fallen in love with Tunisia, wanted to return to the country which so inspired him. So after withdrawing from his partnership with Landrock, he travelled back to Tunis on 15 June 1930" (lehnertandlandrock.net/bio.html).

 

33. [MADAGASCAR]
[Original Drawing of Nosy Ankarea Island, Madagascar].

Ca. 1840. Pencil on paper, heightened in white and colours, ca. 30,5x47 cm (12 x 18 ½ in). Mounted on larger sheet of card, ca. 39x56 cm (15 ½ x 21 ¾ in). Captioned in pencil "anKarea" in the left lower corner. Minor staining on blank margins, otherwise a very good drawing.
This detailed and nicely executed drawing represents a small pristine island in the Indian Ocean, known as a place of worship by the local people. The view was most likely taken from a ship and shows Nosy Ankarea’s steep rock (219 m), a small camp of tents, a group of local people and a canoe on the beach, and a boat with sailors going to shore.

 

34. [MEXICO]
[A Collection of Four Watercolours of the Aztec Ruins at Cuernavaca and Two Views Around Mexico City].

[Mexico], ca. 1880. Four matted watercolours, on variously sized sheets of cardstock (see below). One watercolour (item three listed below) with a rough left edge and a small chip in the top edge, else overall in near fine condition.
A very attractive collection of four watercolours of scenes in the countryside around Mexico City, ca. 1880. The scenes are undated but appear to have been created by a traveller in the late 19th century. The identity of the traveller is unknown, but two of the watercolours have a small monogrammed "A.T." in the lower left corner. The first two show the famed Aztec ruins at Cuernavaca, just south of Mexico City, and the other two show village and country scenes near the Mexican capital. Three of the four paintings are labeled on the verso. The watercolours are as follow:
1) "Sculptured Stone. Cuernavaca, Mexico." ca. 16,5 x 25,5 cm (6 ½ x 10 in). Shows a large stone featuring Aztec carvings.
2) [Aztec Ruins]. Ca. 16,5x25,5 cm (6 ½ x 10 in). Shows the walls and base of a large Aztec structure, overgrown by weeds and trees.
3) "Near Mexico City." ca. 18x27 cm (7 x 10 ½ in). A marshy landscape, with a small stream cutting through a wetland, and with mountains in the distance.
4) "Mexican Village near La Turba." ca. 19x29 cm (7 ½ x 11 ½ in). A lively rendering of a group of Mexicans - men, women, and children - lining up to buy fruits and vegetables from a small stand. A large, whitewashed church is seen in the left background, and other stone dwellings are shown as well.
"Cuernavaca is the capital and largest city of the state of Morelos in Mexico. It was established at the archeological site of Gualupita I by the Olmec, "the mother culture" of Mesoamerica, approximately 3200 years ago. It is also a municipality located about 85 km (53 mi) south of Mexico City on the D-95 freeway. The city was nicknamed the "City of Eternal Spring" by Alexander von Humboldt in the nineteenth century. It has long been a favorite escape for Mexico City and foreign visitors because of this warm, stable climate and abundant vegetation. Aztec emperors had summer residences there, and even today, many famous people as well as Mexico City residents maintain homes there" (Wikipedia).

 

35. [MOMBASA, KENYA]
[Original Watercolour Panorama of Mombasa].

Mombasa, ca. 1880. Watercolour and ink on paper, ca. 11,5x29,5 cm (5 ½ x11 ½ in). Mounted on period beige laid paper and recently matted. Captioned in ink "Mombasa through the Glass from the Anchorage" in the left lower corner; additional ink caption on the laid paper "Mombasa - a town on the coast north from Zanzibar." Minor creases on the left corners, with a minor stain, otherwise a very good watercolour.
A tranquil view of Mombasa, likely just before the time when it came under the administration of the British East Africa Association.

 

36. [MONTREAL]
LEWIS, C.
[Fine Ink Drawing Titled]: A View of the Town and Fortifications of Montreal.

Ca. 1760. Pen and ink on laid paper, ca. 6,5x12 cm (2 ½ x 4 ¾ in). Manuscript title above the image, artist’s signature underneath. Recently matted, very good drawing.
Early bird’s-eye view of the town and fortifications of Montreal made after it had been ceded to the British in 1760, during the Seven Years’ War. This fine ink drawing shows the fortifications of Montreal taken from above the St. Lawrence River, with a British flag over the walls. The drawing is similar to an engraved view of Montreal first published in the “London Magazine” (Vol. 29, 1760, p. 504), and later reissued: a version re-engraved by D. Pomarede was printed in “The Annual Register of World Events” (Dublin: J. Exshaw, 1774, p. 407), another version – in ‘Pennsylvania Magazine’ (1775).
See: Phillips, P.L. A List of Maps of America in the Library of Congress, p. 450.

 

37. [NAPLES]
[Original Watercolour View of Naples from Posilippo, Showing Mount Vesuvius and the Gulf of Naples with numerous Ships and Boats; Port of Naples with the Lighthouse on the far left].

Ca. 1850. Watercolour and ink on watermarked Whatman paper, ca. 20x29,5 cm (7 ¾ x11 ½ in). With a fragment of a watercolour and ink architectural drawing on verso, and a pencil caption "Mai 1850 [?]. Blick von Posilippo." Recently matted, near fine watercolour.
The watercolour was most likely created on a patio of one of the villas of Posilippo, "a residential quarter of Naples, located along the northern coast of the Gulf of Naples" (Wikipedia); with two chairs or benches on the foreground. Some smoke coming from above the right peak of Vesuvius.

 

38. [NAPOLEON BONAPARTE]
[A Pair of Attractive Miniature Portraits of Napoleon and Josephine Bonaparte].

Ca. 1890-es. Gouache on ivory ca. 8x6 cm (2 ½ x 3 ¼ in). Napoleon’s portrait signed ‘Moy’, and Josephine’s portrait signed ‘Girard’, both in the right margins. Housed in later fine brass filigree frames, with convex glass and maroon velvet backing; outside dimensions ca. 12,5x10,5 cm (5 x 4 ¼ in). A fine set.
A pair of beautiful miniature portraits of Napoleon Bonaparte and his first wife Josephine. The miniatures are based on the official portraits which were made during Napoleon’s reign as the Emperor of the French (1804-1815). The first miniature copies a portrait of Napoleon by Paul Delaroche, while the second is based on the portrait of Josephine by Jean Baptiste Regnault. Napoleon is shown three quarters in his green colonel uniform of the Chasseur à Cheval Napoleon, with the cross and Grand Eagle of the Légion d'Honneur. Josephine is shown in an Empire waisted pink gown, wearing jewelry including a tiara, earrings and a necklace with emeralds, rubies and pearls.

 

39. [NAPOLEON ON SAINT HELENA]
DEGIDI [?], C.
[Mariner’s Artwork, with Manuscript Notes and Poems, and Seven Pencil Sketches, Including a View of Longwood House, Napoleon's Home-in-exile on St Helena].

May 1851. Seven pencil sketches and eight works of poetry on album leaf, ca. 21,5x26,5 cm (8 ½ x 10 ½ in). Signed and dated in ink in the lower margin. Recently matted, and in very good condition.
Album sheet with seven pencil sketches of a mariner’s life including one of Longwood House, Napoleon's home-in-exile on St Helena. The drawings are supplemented with eight stanzas of poetry in German, and a note stating that the sketches were made by a sailor in May 1851 while on board the Prussian bark Mercur (1833). The ship was built in East Prussia and made a series of voyages along the Western coast of Africa and to Brazil, visiting Cape Verde Islands, Bahia and Rio de Janeiro in 1850-52; it was eventually sold to Norwegians in 1854.
“Longwood House was the residence of Napoleon Bonaparte, during his exile on the island of Saint Helena, from 10 December 1815 until his death on 5 May 1821. It lies on a windswept plain some 6 km (3.7 mi) from Jamestown.
Following Napoleon's death, Longwood House reverted to the East India Company and later to the Crown, and was used for agricultural purposes. Reports of its neglect reached Napoleon III who, from 1854, negotiated with the British Government for its transfer to France. In 1858 it was transferred to the French Government along with the Valley of the Tomb for a sum of £7,100. Since then they have been under the control of the French Foreign Ministry and a French Government representative has lived on the island and has been responsible for managing both properties” (Wikipedia).

 

40. [NEW GUINEA]
MACKELLAR, Campbell D.
[Eight Original Watercolour Views of New Guinea and Its Natives, Some of Which are Reproduced in Mackellar’s Book "Scented Isles and Coral Gardens"];

[With]: MACKELLAR, C.D. Scented Isles and Coral Gardens: Torres Straits, German New Guinea and the Dutch East Indies. Presentation copy, Signed "To: Theron G. Damon with the compliments of the author. Campbell D. Mackellar. 1912" on the first free endpaper.
Ca. 1895. Eight watercolours, including three large, ca. 35x25 cm (13 ¾ x 9 ¾ in); four slightly smaller, ca. 25x17 cm (9 ¾ x 6 ¾ in); and one small, ca. 15,5x12 cm (6 x 4 ¾ in); all recently matted. On album paper, with four watercolours mounted on period larger cardboard. Five watercolours signed "C. Mackellar" in the right lower corner (one signature not finished, reads "C. Mack"); others unsigned. Four watercolours captioned in ink on verso by Mackellar; others with later pencil captions. The group of watercolours is in near fine condition.
London: John Murray, 1912. First edition. Octavo. Xiii, 351 pp. With eight color and 28 black and white plates. Publisher’s green pale cloth gilt lettered and tooled on the upper board and spine. Front joint weak and with a small tear, spine faded, otherwise a very good copy.
Beautiful and evocative original watercolours showing very interesting views of New Guinea’s natives including: A meeting of two natives on a road, native ritual house with masks, a woman with a child, man in ritual mask and with a shield, beautiful bird of paradise, and a ceremonial corroboree meeting of Aboriginals.
The watercolours were made by the "Scottish pleasure-pilgrim" C.D. Mackellar who made several trips to New Guinea by steamer in 1885-1900. They were published in his book "Scented Isles and Coral Gardens." This collection includes four of the ones included in the book and four additional ones. The watercolours are very amusing and skilful. As he noticed in the preface, "the author, as is evident, is no artist, and they are only published here to try and give even a small and imperfect idea of the colour which the pen can only tell of but never paint" (Preface). The book itself is a series of letters describing a trip by steamer around former German New Guinea. Mackellar also published "A pleasure pilgrim in South America" (London: John Murray, 1908).
The watercolours reproduced as plates are:
Mask House and Masked Natives, New Guinea (p. 110). Image size ca. 35x25 cm (13 ¾ x 9 ¾ in). Mounted on larger cardboard. Signed "C. Mackellar" in the right lower corner, captioned in ink on verso by Mackellar.
The Old, old story, New Guinea (p. 154). Image size ca. 35x25 cm (13 ¾ x 9 ¾ in). Album paper. Signed "C. Mackellar" in the right lower corner, later pencil caption.
Bird of Paradise (Pteridophora Alberti) (p. 158). Image size ca. 35x25 cm (13 ¾ x 9 ¾ in). Album paper. Signed "C. Mackellar" in the right lower corner, later pencil caption.
"Very singular is the Pteridophora alberti, a bird of paradise that has two long, wiry strings from its head ornamented with pale blue horny discs like shells" (p. 159).
Native with Mask and Shield, New Guinea (p. 194). Image size ca. 25x17 cm (9 ¾ x 6 ¾ in). Mounted on larger cardboard. Unsigned, captioned in ink on verso by Mackellar.
Other watercolours:
Native with Mask, New Guinea. Image size ca. 25x17 cm (9 ¾ x 6 ¾ in). Mounted on larger cardboard. Signed "C. Mackellar" in the right lower corner, captioned in ink on verso by Mackellar.
Mother and Child, New Guinea, German New Guinea. Image size ca. 25x17 cm (9 ¾ x 6 ¾ in). Mounted on larger cardboard. Unsigned, captioned in ink on verso by Mackellar.
Australian [Corrobborea]. Torres Strait. Image size ca. 25x17 cm (9 ¾ x 6 ¾ in). Album paper. Signed "C. Mack"in the right lower corner, later pencil caption.
[Native Woman at Sea Shore], German New Guinea. Image size ca. 15,5x12 cm (6 x 4 ¾ in). Album paper. Unsigned, later pencil caption.
See: Annotated bibliography of the Southwest Pacific and Adjacent Areas. Vol. 2, p.20.

 

41. [NEW ZEALAND]
[Three Original Miniature Watercolours Showing the Landscapes of the North Island of New Zealand].

Ca. 1850. Watercolours on card, each ca. 7x10 cm (2 ¾ x 4 in). Period stiff card mats, each ca. 24x27,5 cm (9 ½ x 11 in), the watercolours mounted within oval openings with gilt rims. Each watercolour with a manuscript ink caption under the image. Mats slightly soiled and worn on the edge sand corners, but the watercolours are bright and in very good condition.
Colourful attractive watercolour miniature views of the landscapes of New Zealand’s North Island, produced before the destructive eruption of Mt. Tarawera in 1886. The watercolours show the original landscapes of Tarawera and Rotomahana lakes. The first sketch shows the shore of Lake Tarawera with two natives sitting at a camp fire near a tent, a canoe nearing the shore, a sail boat in the middle of the lake and the dormant volcano, Tarawera, towering in the background. The second view shows an erupting geyser at the Rotomahana lake. The third watercolour shows the vast plains near Wellington with the peaks of the Tararua Range in the distance.
“Mount Tarawera is the volcano responsible for New Zealand's largest dome volcano eruption and largest historic eruption. Located 24 kilometres southeast of Rotorua in the North Island, it consists of a series of rhyolitic lava domes that were fissured down the middle by an explosive basaltic eruption in 1886, which killed over a hundred people. These fissures run for about 17 kilometres northeast-southwest.
The volcano's component domes include Ruawahia Dome (the highest at 1111 metres), Tarawera Dome and Wahanga Dome. It is surrounded by several lakes, most of which were created or drastically altered in the 1886 eruption. These lakes include Lakes Tarawera, Rotomahana, Rerewhakaaitu, Okataina, Okareka, Tikitapu (Blue Lake) and Rotokakahi (Green Lake). The Tarawera River runs northeastwards across the northern flank of the mountain from Lake Tarawera” (Wikipedia).

 

42. [NIAGARA FALLS]
[Unsigned Coloured Pencil and Watercolour Sketch of Niagara Falls Viewed from the Canadian Side Showing the Horseshoe Falls].

Ca. 1850. Coloured pencil and watercolour ca. 24x16 cm (9 ½ x 6 ½ in). The sketch is recently matted and in near fine condition.
This attractive sketch shows the Horseshoe Falls with six people in period costume viewing them from a natural rock platform. "The Horseshoe Falls, also known as the Canadian Falls, is part of Niagara Falls, on the Niagara River. Approximately 90% of the Niagara River, after diversions for hydropower generation, flows over Horseshoe Falls" (Wikipedia).

 

43. [NICARAGUA]
[A Collection of Four Watercolours of the British Settlement of Bluefields, Nicaragua].

Nicaragua, 1845. Four matted watercolour views on paper, three sheets measuring ca. 14,5x25,5 cm (5 ½ x 10 in), the fourth measuring ca. 14,5 x 23 cm (5 ½ x 9 in). Two of the views with manuscript captions on verso, the other two with later paper backing. Two of the watercolours have old fold creases, otherwise a very good collection of watercolours.
An attractive collection of watercolours of the British settlement at Bluefields, Nicaragua, showing the area as it appeared in the 1840s. Two of the images are captioned in a contemporary hand on the verso, and show the home of a "Mr. Ninoud" as it appeared when the artist was at Bluefields on July 10, 1845. They show a small, thatched-roof structure on stilts near the coast. The other two watercolours show a more substantial building, two stories in height and with a thatched roof and a porch. In one of the images a Union Jack is shown flying outside the building, indicating the presence of a British merchant, trader, or official.
Bluefields is Nicaragua's chief Caribbean port, and has been a location of interest to Europeans since the early seventeenth century. The British founded a colony there in 1730, and it remained under British control for more than a century. Moravian missionaries arrived at Bluefields in 1847, and established a church two years later. In 1844, a year before these watercolours were made, the British government sent a new envoy, Patrick Walker, to live in the town. This was part of a British effort to shore up the region in the face of possible encroachment by the United States and European powers.

 

44. [NORMANDY]
TAVENOR-PERRY, John (1842-1915)
[Manuscript with Thirty Superb Ink Drawings Titled]: A Corner of Normandy.

1904. Quarto (ca. 28 x 21,5 cm). [ii], 88 numbered pp.with thirty plates of original drawings, including the frontispiece and title page. Text: brown ink on creamy laid paper. Drawings: black and brown ink on thick album or laid paper, all within red ink border, with handwritten titles. Occasional period pencil corrections in text. Original custom made quarter cloth with stiff card boards and two manuscript labels on the spine. Binding worn and rubbed, loose on hinges, but internally very good clean copy with bright drawings.
Beautiful handwritten manuscript most likely made with the intent of publishing a book, with thirty charming ink drawings made by a renowned British architect and medievalist John Tavenor-Perry. The manuscript is about the pastoral Pays de Bray region of Upper Normandy, “the dairy of Paris”, which is known for its medieval churches and historical buildings. The territory of the English Duchy of Normandy in the 12th century, Pays de Bray became the area where French and English architectural traditions merged, thus producing some unique examples of Gothic architecture.
Perry’s book consists of five chapters dedicated to several small towns and villages on the banks of the Béthune River – Neufchâtel-en-Bray, Mesnières (Mesnières-en-Bray), Bures-en-Bray, Saint-Valery-sous-Bures, Osmoy and Dieppe. The illustrations include attractive views of exteriors and interiors of the churches, with skillful sketches of the architectural details (windows, roofs, spires, pinnacles, entrances, columns) or church articles, like a consecration cross or an eagle lectern. There are also images of the town’s coats of arms and several secular buildings, e.g. Maison des Templiers and Grand Café in Neufchâtel-en-Bray, and the Castle in Mesnières-en-Bray.
The design of Perry’s appealing manuscript: ‘A Corner of Normandy’ is composed as a typical art book of its time and contains a half title, a title page, a table of contents, Introduction, List of Plates , and five chapters. The text of the first chapter, dedicated to Neufchâtel-en-Bray, was published as an independent article in “The Builder” (January 14, 1905. P. 33-34).
John Tavenor-Perry was a British architect and specialist on medieval architecture and crafts, a member of the British Archaeological Association. He wrote over ten books and numerous articles on the subject, including “Dinanderie; a history and description of mediæval art work in copper, brass and bronze” (London, 1910), “The chronology of medieval and renaissance architecture” (London, 1893), “Memorials of old Middlesex” (London, 1909) et al.

 

45. [NORTHERN SUDAN]
[Watercolour] Nubian with his Camel.

Ca. 1850. Watercolour ca.25x35 cm (10 x 14 in). Fine matted watercolour captioned with the title. A little soiled around edge of mat, otherwise a very good watercolour.
A fine watercolour by a unknown British artist, perhaps an explorer or traveller. "Northern Nubia was brought under Egyptian control while the south came under the control of the Kingdom of Sennar in the 16th century. The entire region would come under Egyptian control during the rule of Mehemet Ali in the early 19th century, and later became a joint Anglo-Egyptian condominium" (Wikipedia).

 

46. [OTTOMAN EMPIRE]
[Attributed to MAYER , Luigi] (ITALIAN, 1755-1803)
[Watercolour View of Temple Ruins in the Ottoman Empire, most Likely in Egypt].

Ca. 1780-1790. Watercolour on paper, ca. 10x17 cm (4 x 6 ¾ in). Pencil sketch of antique columns on verso. Recently matted, very good watercolour.
Attractive watercolour sketch of temple ruins attributed (in pencil note on verso) to the renowned master of Middle Eastern landscapes Luigi Mayer. This sketch continues Mayer’s tradition of showing picturesque ruins, as shown in his works: “Views in Egypt…” (1801), “Views in the Ottoman Dominions” (1810), and “Interesting views in Turkey” (1819). Our watercolour, apparently made during his travels across the Middle East with Sir Robert Ainslie (1729/30-1812), shows ruins of a temple with a massive Egyptian style column and outlines of the bas-reliefs on the walls, and two shepherds with a goat. The artist once again gives us his impression of the Levant, where the remnants of long gone ancient world interact with its modern inhabitants – and he does it philosophically, but not less poetically.
“Mayer trained in Rome, yet very little is known about his origins or personality, nor even if he was German, Swiss or Italian in origin. After painting landscapes for the King of Naples, he found employment in about 1786 with the British Ambassador to Istanbul, Sir Robert Ainslie, as well as journeying with other English travellers. For a time he became the ambassador’s painter, paid 50 guineas a year, and had to paint swiftly whatever caught his Lordship’s fancy when travelling. This did not seem to quell his painterly vigour and enthusiasm, so that his lively watercolours of antiquities, architecture, landscapes, manners and customs of the inhabitants of Egypt, Syria, Turkey, Greece, Romania and even Suffolk are still eagerly collected. Mayer went to England with Sir Robert in 1794, and between 1801 and 1810 aquatints after his watercolours were published in several volumes sponsored by Ainslie. Luigi’s paintings necessarily reflect his employer’s attitudes to the peoples he visited. However, according to the Dictionary of National Biography, Ainslie was alleged to be ‘strongly attached to the manner of the people … in his house, his garden, and his table he assumed the style and fashion of a Musselman [Muslim] of rank; in fine, he lived en Turk, and pleased the natives so much by this seeming policy … that he became more popular than any of the Christian ministers’. (St James's Chronicle, 9 Dec 1790).
Luigi died in 1803, survived by his widow Clara, daughter of Mr. Barthold, an interpreter employed by Sir Robert. Clara continued to live in London, painting and selling her own landscapes, publishing her own work and assisting in the publication of her late husband's paintings” (Victoria and Albert Museum on-line).

 

47. [PAKISTAN - GREAT GAME]
GORDON, George Huntley, Major
[Three Original Watercolour Views of the North-West Frontier of British India, including Peshawar and Waziristan].

1853-1860. Three watercolour and pencil works on paper, each ca. 25x35 cm (10 x 13 ¾ in). One work unmounted, two recently mounted on cardboard; one work with a manuscript caption in the lower margin, another with a pencil caption on verso. Very good bright watercolours.
Spectacular watercolour views of the mountainous country of the North-West Frontier of the British India, a volatile region of continuous raids by the local tribes. “Tribal raiding into British-ruled territory was a constant problem for the British, requiring frequent punitive expeditions between 1860 and 1945. Troops of the British Raj coined a name for this region "Hell's Door Knocker" in recognition of the fearsome reputation of the local fighters and inhospitable terrain” (Wikipedia).
The earliest view is dated 1853 and shows the formidable walls of the Peshawar fort, or Bala Hisar, lit by the summer sun. The fort was a winter residence of the Afghan Durrani Empire and became a British possession in 1849. Another watercolour shows a night scene on the North-West frontier, showing a fortress in a mountain valley with three men in traditional Afghan dress standing by a river bank in the foreground. The fortress is most likely also Bala Hisar, which in the 19th century was located beyond the city limits of Peshawar, and the river in the foreground is the Kabul River.
The third watercolour is an impressive view of the Derwesta Mountain in modern North Waziristan, a tribal administrated area of Pakistan. The watercolour was created during the First Mahsud, or Waziri Expedition (1860) under the command of colonel Sir Henry (Harry) Lumsden (1821-1896). The punitive expedition was eventually successful for the British troops, although the contemporary press reported of some serious losses: “The second expedition against the freebooting tribes of the Punjah frontier has not yet met with any brilliant success. Colonel Lumsden’s column has been surprised in a night attack by Wuzerees, and 200 of our men killed and wounded before the enemy was driven off” (Wellington Independent. Vol. XIV. Issue 1438, 3 July 1860, p. 5). The watercolour is captioned ‘Summit of Durwishta. Wuz-e-ree expedition 1860’.
The artist, George Huntley Gordon, is first mentioned as a Captain, and then as a Major; obviously a participant of the Wasiri Expedition 1860.

 

48. [PENANG]
[Three Ink and Pencil Drawings of Penang, Malaysia - View of the Harbour with Fort Cornwallis - View from Penang Hill - Penang Waterfall].

Ca. 1811. Two large ink drawings, heightened in grey watercolour, ca. 22x14 cm (5 ½ x 8 ¾ in), and a smaller pencil drawn panorama, ca. 5x23 cm (2 x 9 in). Unsigned, one drawing with manuscript caption ‘Waterfalls of Penang’ underneath. All mounted on a period brown paper sheet, ca. 45x30,5 cm (17 ½ x 12 in), with six 19th century steel engravings and woodcuts pasted on verso. Paper aged and slightly soiled, with minor creases, overall a good collection of drawings.
The collection includes an early interesting view of Fort Cornwallis on the Penang Island – the first British possession on the Malay Peninsula. A pencil drawn panorama gives a nice overview of the fort from the harbor, showing its recently built stone walls (completed in 1810) and a British flag; several large sailing vessels are seen in the harbor. A larger ink drawing taken from the hills above the fort shows the fortifications, with ships’ masts seen above them, and Penang harbor with boats in it. A British resident is sitting in the foreground, taking a sketch of the landscape, with a native servant gazing at the view.
Another drawing shows the famous waterfall now in the modern Penang Botanical Garden. “Early visitors to Penang Island described it as one of the key attractions of the island, including Ibrahim Munshi, son of Munshi Abdullah, who described it in his journal, the "Kisah Pelayaran". The waterfall was an important source of water for ships calling at Penang port in the early part of the 19th century. In 1804, the first water treatment plant in Malaysia was set up here, to supply the needs of 10,000 people in Penang. In 1805, an aqueduct was constructed to channel water from the fall via Pulau Tikus to a reservoir near the port. The quality of the water, filtered through the aged rocks of Penang Hill, was very high, and was described by the early sailors as "sweet" (Wikipedia).
Overall a nice collection of early historically significant views of Penang.
“Fort Cornwallis is an old star fort located on the northeastern coast of Penang, Malaysia. It is named after the late 18th century Governor-General of Bengal, India, Charles Cornwallis, 1st Marquess Cornwallis. Fort Cornwallis is the largest standing fort in Malaysia. In its entire history, the fort had never engaged in any battle.Captain Sir Francis Light took possession of the island from the Sultan of Kedah in 1786 and built the original fort. It was a nibong (Malay: palm trunk) stockade with no permanent structures, covering an area of 417.6 square feet (38.80 m2). The fort's purpose was to protect Penang from pirates and Kedah.
In 1804, after the outbreak of the Napoleonic Wars, and during Colonel R.T. Farquhar’s term as Governor of Penang, Indian convict labourers rebuilt the fort using brick and stone. Fort Cornwallis was completed in 1810, at the cost of $80,000, during Norman Macalister’s term as Governor of Penang. A moat 9 metres wide by 2 metres deep once surrounded the fort but it was filled in in the 1920s due to a malaria outbreak in the area.
Even though the fort was originally built for the British military, its function, historically, was more administrative than defensive. For example, the judge of the Supreme Court of Penang, Sir Edmond Stanley, was first housed at Fort Cornwallis when the court opened on 31 May, 1808. During the 1920s Sikh police of the Straits Settlements occupied the fort” (Wikipedia).

 

49. [PENDRAY, Phyllis Manning?]
[Unsigned Original Oil Painting of West Coast Totem Poles and a Native Village (Queen Charlotte Islands?)].

Ca. 1930. Oil on canvas board ca. 49x39 cm (20 x 16 in). Reeves & Sons (established 1927) (Canada) Superior Canvas Board). Painting in very good condition and framed in the original period white with light brown trim frame.
Annotated on the reverse of the frame: "Painted by Pendray - Bought from Son Directly (early Pioneer family)." Although no location is specified, the landscape looks very much like the Queen Charlotte Islands. Victoria’s founding Pendray family has produced many painters since the late 1800s. According to the person who originally bought this painting from the Pendray family, the artist was one of the granddaughters (perhaps Phyllis Manning?) of William Joseph Pendray, the patriach of the family who started a soap factory in Victoria in 1875. This attractive and skillfully executed painting is definitely influenced by the work of Emily Carr and so one could say that the artist was a follower and admirer of Emily Carr's work. Emily Carr is also known to have painted on the grounds of the Pendray family home. Additionally, the fact that the artist and Carr were Victoria contemporaries means that they almost certainly knew each other personally.
See: Victoriahistoricalsociety.bc.ca/newsletter09.pdf; winchestergalleriesltd.com/artists.

 

50. [PIG STICKING IN INDIA]
[Attractive Unsigned Watercolour of Pig Sticking in India].

Ca. 1870. Watercolour ca. 24,5x41,5 cm (9 ½ x 16 ½ in). Recently matted, with a couple of minor scratches, but overall a very good watercolour.
The well executed watercolour show a wild boar being chased by two British hunters with spears on horseback in the foreground and native Indians and an Indian castle in the background.
"In India, pigsticking was popular among the Jatts, Gujjars, Rajputs, Sikhs, Maharajas, and with British officers during Victorian and Edwardian times. According to the 1911 edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, it was encouraged by military authorities as good training because "a startled or angry wild boar is ... A desperate fighter [and therefore] the pig-sticker must possess a good eye, a steady hand, a firm seat, a cool head and a courageous heart" (Wikipedia).

 

51. [PORT LOUIS, MAURITIUS]
[Two Original Watercolour Panoramas of Port Louis in Mauritius].

Ca. 1820-es. Watercolours on paper, first ca. 16,5x23,5 cm (6 ½ x 9 ¼ in) and second ca. 16,5x33 cm (6 ½ x 13 in). Both watercolours unsigned, but with period ink captions on verso. Recently matted, very good watercolours.
Two early captivating views of Mauritius taken from life by a skillful amateur artist during a voyage of the East India Company’s sloop ‘Elphinstone’ in the 1820-es. The first watercolour is an early depiction of Port Louis from the harbour, with surrounding mountains of the Moka Range (including Le Pouce) in the background, mostly wooden houses on the shore and several naval vessels in the harbour. The second view shows Port Louis from above, with the famous Champ de Mars Racecourse in the foreground. “The Racecourse was inaugurated on 25 June 1812, by The Mauritius Turf Club (MTC) which was founded earlier in the same year by Colonel Edward A. Draper. The Mauritius Turf Club is the oldest horse-racing club in the Southern Hemisphere and the second oldest in the world” (Wikipedia).
The watercolours were made during one of the voyages of ‘Elphinstone’, and the artist was very likely the crew member, Lieutenant William Bowater (the sketch book was inscribed in ink with the initials 'W.B.' on the front endpaper). Bowater was later dismissed from the navy.
“On the 2nd of November, 1829, a court-martial, presided over by Captain R. Morgan, of the Marine, was convened at Bombay, to inquire into certain charges for “insubordinate and disrespectful conduct” on the part of Lieutenant W. Bowater, of the Hon. Company’s ship ‘Elphinstone’, preferred against him by his commanding officer, Captain F.W. Greer and that the sentence of the Court, which was dismissal from the service, was confirmed by the Commander-in-chief of the Bombay Army, Lieutenant-General Sir Sydney Beckwith, K.C.B” (Low, C.R. History of the Indian Navy. 2 vols. Vol. 1. London, 1877. P. 498-499).
The Honourable East India Company’s sloop-of war ‘Elphinstone’, of 18 guns and 387 tons, “was built by Hilhouse & Sons and launched in 1824. She operated out of London as an East Indiaman and participated with the Royal Navy in the New Zealand land wars. She was sold in 1862” (Wikipedia). The ‘Elphinstone’ sailed to the Mediterranean, around the southern tip of Africa and on to the East Indies and Australia.
As Richard Burton noted in ‘First footsteps in East Africa’, the sloop carried out a naval blockade of the Somalian coast in 1825-1833, after a British brig from the Mauritius had been seized, plundered and broken up near Berberah in 1825. “The ‘Elphinstone’ sloop of war (Capt. Greer commanding) was sent to blockade the coast; when her guns opened fire, the people fled with their wives and children, and the spot where a horseman was killed by a cannon ball is still shown on the plain near the town”. <…> Eventually “the Somal bound themselves to abstain from future attacks upon English vessels, and also to refund by annual statements the full amount of plundered property. For the purpose of enforcing the latter stipulation it was resolved that a vessel of war should remain upon the coast until the whole was liquidated. When attempts at evasion occurred, the traffic was stopped by sending all craft outside the guardship, and forbidding intercourse with the shore. The ‘Coote’, the ‘Palinus’ and the ‘Tigris’, in turn with the ‘Elphinstone’, maintained the blockade through the trading season till 1833 (Burton, R. First Footsteps in East Africa. London, 1856. P. Xxxiv-xxxv).

 

52. [PRINCES’ ISLANDS, THE SEA OF MARMARA]
MORAL, Felix
Prinzeninseln Antigone, ‘Halki’ und Proti im Marmara Meere. Von der Insel Prinkipo aus gesehen [Princes‘ Islands Antigone, Halki and Proti in the Sea of Marmara, taken from the Prinkipo Island].

January 1879. Watercolour on paper, ca. 21,5x45,5 cm (8 ¼ x 18 in). Watercolour within double ink border, signed in the right lower corner ‘Nach der Natur gezeichnet von Felix Moral and 5/17.1.79 und 9/21.1.1879’. Extensive ink caption under the image. Paper slightly soiled, but overall a very good watercolour.
Bright watercolour panorama of the Princes’ Islands in the Sea of Marmara, with the minarets and greenery of Istanbul (Constantinople) seen in the distance. The view was taken from the main island of the group – Büyükada (Prinkipos) and shows the second and the third largest islands – Heybeliada (Chalki) and Burgazada (Antigoni), with a small Kaşık Island (Greek: Πίτα or νήσος) in the background.
The watercolour is supplemented with an extensive caption and several notes about the buildings shown on the islands, including Greek trade school (Handelsschule) on Kasik Island; Greek Orthodox seminary (Priesterschule), a village and a Turkish marine school (Seeschule) on Heybeliada. The outlines of Istanbul in the background are captioned ‘Constantinopel’. The Greek seminary is known today as Halki seminary (defunct since 1791), and the Turkish marine school is now a Cadet School of the Turkish Navy.
“The Princes' Islands (Turkish: Prens Adaları "Prince Islands", or more commonly Kızıl Adalar "Red Islands" or just Adalar as they are officially named; classical Greek: Prinkēpōn nēsoi), are a chain of nine islands off the coast of Istanbul, Turkey, in the Sea of Marmara. During the summer months the Princes’ Islands are popular destinations for day trips from Istanbul. As there is no traffic on the Islands, the only transport being horse and cart, they are incredibly peaceful compared with the city of Istanbul.
During the Byzantine period, princes and other royalty were exiled on the islands, and later members of the Ottoman sultans’ family were exiled there too, giving the islands their present name. They were taken by the Ottoman fleet during the siege of Constantinople in 1453. During the nineteenth century, the islands became a popular resort for Istanbul's wealthy, and Victorian-era cottages and houses are still preserved on the largest of the Princes' Islands” (Wikipedia).

 

53. [PUNE, INDIA]
[Finely Executed Unsigned Watercolour of]: Residence of the Rev. Isaac N. Allen, Poona. 1846.

[Pune], 1846. Watercolour ca. 13,5x21,5 cm (5 ½ x 8 ½ in). Mounted on paper with a manuscript title and lengthy manuscript quote from Walter Scott on verso.
This finely executed watercolour shows Allen's residence with a garden tended by a native Indian, three Englishmen (two on horseback) and two dogs playing in the foreground with Pune's rolling hill landscape shown in the background. Reverend Allen went to India and then on to Scinde and Afghanistan in 1840 to preach to wounded soldiers from the First Anglo-Afghan War which was fought between British East India Company and Afghanistan from 1839 to 1842. Then in 1843 he went on to Gujarat before ending up in Pune (Ecclesiastical Gazette).

 

54. [QUEBEC ATLANTIC COAST DRAWINGS]
[Four Pencil Sketches of the Atlantic Coast of Quebec Showing the St. Lawrence River Below Quebec City and the Gaspe Peninsula]. First Sight of Land After Crossing the Atlantic. 1847. Done on Board Ship "Marquis of Bute."

Four pencil drawings each ca. 10,5x18 cm (4 ¼ x 7 in). All captioned in English, and signed "F.L." in the lower margin. With the original manuscript caption to the whole group: "First Sight of Land After Crossing the Atlantic. 1847. Done on Board Ship "Marquis of Bute," which is written by the same hand as the captions to each of the sketches, and mounted under them. Two sketches captioned "Coast of Gaspe. Canada East. May 26. 1847," one captioned "Coast of Gaspe. Canada East. May 28. 1847," and one - "On the St. Lawrence below Quebec. June 5. 1847." Later matting with hand drawn borders and manuscript caption. Drawings in near fine condition.
According to the database www.shiplist.com basing on the materials of Quebec "Morning Chronicle" 1847, Bark "Marquis of Bute" arrived in the port of Quebec on the 4th of June 1847, with a cargo of coal and 8 passengers. The ship under command of Captain Harvey was consigned to LeMesurier & Co. And departed from Cardiff on the 15th of April, 1847.

 

55. [SAINT HELENA]
[Original Pencil Sketch Showing a Panorama of St. Helena from the Sea].

Ca. 1845. Pencil and watercolour on cardboard, ca. 14x22 cm (5 ½ x 8 ¾ in). Captioned in ink "S’ Helena" in the right upper corner; ink caption "View of James’ Town, St. Helena" and signature on verso. Recently matted and with a couple of minor stains on the upper margin, otherwise a very good sketch.
The drawing shows a panorama of Jamestown and James Bay with its steep cliffs; three navy vessels are seen in the foreground. The spire of Saint James’ Church is also seen.
"Jamestown is the capital and historic chief settlement of the island of Saint Helena, in the South Atlantic Ocean. It was founded when English colonists settled on the island in 1659; St Helena is the second-oldest remaining British territory, after Bermuda. The town is built on igneous rock in a small enclave, sandwiched between steep cliffs (that form James Valley) that are unsuitable for building. The town is therefore rather long, thin and densely populated, with tightly knit, long and winding streets. Shrubs and trees decorate some of the street corners. The surrounding terrain is rough and steep, and rockfalls are an occurrence, sometimes damaging buildings" (Wikipedia).
"Saint James' Church in Jamestown is the oldest Anglican Church in the southern hemisphere (built in 1774). The present sketch shows the church after alterations made in 1843, with a high spire. Nowadays the church doesn’t have it as the spire was taken down in 1980 for safety reasons" (Wikipedia).

 

56. [SALONA DURING THE GREEK WAR OF INDEPENDENCE]
[Original Very Large Drawing of Salona [Amfissa], Greece].

Ca. 1821. Pencil on Whatman paper watermarked "1821," ca. 58x86 cm (23x34 in). Unsigned, captioned in pencil "Salona" in the upper margin. With a small marginal tear, otherwise a very good drawing.
This detailed pencil drawing shows the panoramic view of Amfissa (known as "Salona" from the 13th century until 1833) surrounded by the adjacent foothills and city’s landmark, the Castle of Salona (or the Castle of Oria) in the centre. The drawing was most likely made during the Greek War of Independence (1821-32) and is especially significant as Salona was the first town of Central Greece to revolt against Turks (Wikipedia). The drawing clearly represents the English school and is a good example of "Philellenism," a "tremendous sympathy" (Wikipedia) and wide support for the Greek Revolution throughout the Western Europe.
"On March 27, 1821, Dimitrios Panourgias [Greek military commander] invaded the town and on April 10 the Greeks captured the Castle of Salona, the first fortress which fell in Greek hands, and extinguished the six hundred people of the Ottoman garrison in it. On 15-20 November 1821, a council was held in Salona, where the main local notables and military chiefs participated. Under the direction of Theodoros Negris, they set down a proto-constitution for the region, the "Legal Order of Eastern Continental Greece", and established a governing council, the Areopagus of Eastern Continental Greece, composed of 71 notables from Eastern Greece, Thessaly and Macedonia. Salona became the capital of Eastern Continental Greece and the regime existed until the Ottoman recapture of Greece, in 1825" (Wikipedia).

 

57. [SIALKOT, PAKISTAN]
[Original Watercolour View of the Surroundings of Sialkot, Pakistan].

Ca. 1856. Watercolour and ink on cardboard, ca. 29,5x44 cm (17 ½ x23 in). Mounted on period grey cardboard ca. 44x58,5 cm (17 ½ x 23 in), with period ink caption on the lower margin of the mount “N.E. Of Sealkote”. Minor staining, otherwise a very good watercolour.
Beautiful watercolour birds-eye view of ‘Headmarala’ –a wetlands area 20 km from Sialkot, with the foothills and distant peaks of the Jammu and Cashmere Range (lower Himalayas), and a river (probably, Chenab) in the foreground.
“Sialkot is a city and capital of Sialkot District located in the north-east of the Punjab province in Pakistan at the foot of Kashmir hills near the Chenab River. The city is about 125 km (78 mi) north of Lahore. The recorded history of Sialkot covers thousands of years. Sialkot has, since its foundation, changed hands from Hindu, Buddhist, Persian, Greek, Afghan, Turk, Sikh, Mughal and British rule to that of present-day Pakistan. Sialkot has been the birthplace of many noted personalities, including philosopher and poet Dr Muhammad Iqbal, poet Faiz Ahmad Faiz, the second Prime Minister of India, Sri Gulzarilal Nanda, writer Rajinder Singh Bedi, Kuldip Nayyar and a number of sports and art personalities” (Wikipedia).

 

58. [SIMLA, ENGLISH SCHOOL]
[A View of a Himalayan Range, Most Likely Near Simla, With Men Wearing Native Indian Dress in the Foreground].

N.d. [ca. 1860]. Watercolour and pencil ca. 51x34 cm (20 x 13 ¼ in). The painting is on the artist’s original wash-line mount on the thicker Whatman paper, and in a recent matting. Unsigned. There are some areas of browning on the upper part of the painting, otherwise a very good watercolour.
The watercolour shows a mountainous landscape with gorgeous snowy peaks occupying the upper part of the view, and with a serpentine road and men wearing Indian native dress in the foreground. Most likely an area near Simla (Shimla), a favourite summer refuge for the British in India in the 19th century and the official summer capital of British Raj from 1864.
Located in the north-west Himalayas at an average altitude of 2250 m (7234 ft), Simla was the star of the hill stations - mountainous resorts providing relief to British society from the heat and disease of the plains. "The Himalayan resorts were at an average altitude of six thousand feet and offered magnificent views of range after range of jagged snowy peaks. This region became a venue for leisure activities and the towns in the hills rapidly acquired the character of English villages" (British library).
Drawings of hill stations’ mountainous landscapes quickly became a popular pastime for professional and amateur artists: "These places appeared as a Garden of Eden to the British. Here they found relief from the poverty, disease, dirt and heat of the Plains.., For both men and women, holidays in the Hills gave them unbroken leisure to sit and sketch with worries set aside, among scenes anglicised to look like home.., [Simla in particular was apprehended as a place of] a grander less-tamed nature with dark woods and conifers set against a staggering backcloth of stupendous peaks" (Archer M., R. Lightbown. India Observed: India as viewed by British Artists, 1760-1860. London, 1982).

 

59. [SPANISH COSTUMES]
[WILLOUGHBY, Avarilla]
[Eight Very Attractive Original Watercolours of Seventeen Spanish Costumes].

[Warwickshire?], ca. 1829-31. Folio (ca. 39,5x25 cm). Five leaves of Whatman paper watermarked “1821” with three large drawings directly on the leaves, and five smaller mounted drawings (ca. 15,5x15,5 cm and 12x7 cm or slightly smaller), all in pencil, ink and gouache. Period ink captions in French and English, dated 1829-31. Period style red straight-grained half morocco with gilt tooled spine and marbled boards and endpapers. A very good collection of watercolours.
Charming collection of eight colourful watercolours showing seventeen costumes of the Spanish county of Aragon, including Vallée de Gistain (de Chistau), Valle de Broto and Riviere de Broto. Details are shown in a masterly manner; the gouaches show peasants, musicians, a mountain shepherd, a water bearer, a woman with a child, and even a contrabandist from Gavarni with a gun.
Apparently (from a note which was included with other items from this estate) drawn by Avarilla Willoughby after she was 46 for her affectionate daughter Cecilia.

 

60. [ST. VINCENT, CAPE VERDE]
[Two Unsigned Watercolour Views: Mindelo, St. Vincent - Washington's Head, St. Vincent [Cape Verde Islands].

Ca. 1840. Watercolours each ca. 16x34 cm (6 ½ x 13 in). Recently matted in one mat, watercolours in near fine condition.
The two well executed watercolours show: 1) Mindelo with its harbour and several boats and ships; 2) Washington's Head with a ship and launch with sailors diving and swimming in the foreground.
St. Vincent (São Vicente) "was discovered on Saint Vincent's Day (January 22) in 1462. Due to its lack of water, the island was initially used only as a cattle pasture by some proprietors of the neighboring island of Santo Antão. The island remained practically uninhabited until the middle of the 19th century. It was only in 1838, when a coal deposit was established in Porto Grande to supply ships on Atlantic routes, that the population started to grow rapidly. Due to the lack of rain and consequent lack of natural resources, the economy of São Vicente is based mainly on commerce and services...,Because of its excellent harbour, Mindelo (on the island of São Vicente) became an important commercial centre during the 19th century" (Wikipedia).

 

61. [SURINAME]
[Original Watercolour Showing a Suriname Village with Locals and Dutch settlers].

Early 19th century. Watercolour and pencil on paper, ca. 33,5x47 cm (13 ¼ x 18 ½ in). Unsigned, captioned “Suriname” on verso. Recently matted, very good bright watercolour.
Picturesque view of a Suriname native settlement showing a village street with three traditional grass covered houses, palms and a boat in the foreground. The attractive watercolour shows over twenty people, the majority dressed in native clothes, and a small group of presumably Dutch settlers, with a native woman and a child dressed in European clothing. The villagers are shown making pottery, displaying their textiles and weaved baskets, milling grain, shooting a bow or carving. Overall a great illustration of native life in Suriname.
“Suriname is a country in northern South America. It is bordered by French Guiana to the east, Guyana to the west, Brazil to the south and the Atlantic Ocean to the north. Suriname was first colonized by the British, and captured by the Dutch in 1667, who governed it as Dutch Guiana until 1954” (Wikipedia).

 

62. [SYDNEY, AUSTRALIA]
[Original Pencil Sketch of Sydney from the Royal Botanical Gardens Showing Cremorne, Sydney Harbour, Farm Cove and Bennelong Point].

Ca. 1860. Pencil and watercolour on paper, ca. 24,5x15 cm (9 ¾ x 6 in). Captioned in pencil "From Botanic Gads. Sydney" in the left lower corner. Recently matted, a very good drawing.
An interesting sketch of downtown Sydney showing the Cremorne, Sydney harbour with several vessels (anchored or moving out), the Farm Cove and Bennelong Point, a place where Sydney Opera House will be built in 1973. The foreground shows the garden’s shore of Farm Cove with a woman sitting at the water and two playing children.
"The Botanic Gardens were founded on this site by Governor Macquarie in 1816 as part of the Governor’s Domain. Australia's long history of collection and study of plants began with the appointment of the first Colonial Botanist, Charles Fraser, in 1817. The Botanic Gardens is thus the oldest scientific institution in Australia and, from the earliest days, has played a major role in the acclimatization of plants from other regions" (Wikipedia).

 

63. [TEXAS]
LEE, V.H.
[Signed Watercolour on Paper Captioned]: "Conception Mission, San Antonio, Texas."

San Antonio, Texas, ca. 1880. Matted watercolour on paper ca. 23x30 cm (9x12 in). Captioned in pencil. Matted watercolour in very good condition.
A well executed and atmospheric watercolour of this San Antonio landmark. "Mission Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción de Acuña (also Mission Concepcion) was established in 1716 as Nuestra Señora de la Purísima Concepción de los Hainais in East Texas. It was originally meant to be a base for converting the Hasinai. The mission was moved in 1731 to San Antonio. After its relocation most of the people in the mission were Pajalats who spoke a Coahuiltecan language. Founded by Franciscan friars, this is the best preserved of the Texas missions.
The Battle of Concepción was fought here on October 28, 1835 between Mexican troops under Colonel Domingo Ugartechea and Texan insurgents led by James Bowie and James Fannin. The 30-minute engagement, is described as "the first major engagement of the Texas Revolution" by historian J.R. Edmondson" (Wikipedia).

 

64. [TIMOR SEA]
[Brown Sepia Watercolour View of the Coast of Timor with Natives Boats, and a Mountainous Shore in the Distance].

Ca. 1820es. Brown watercolour and pencil on paper, ca. 15,5x23 cm (6x9 in). Recently matted, very good watercolour.
The view obviously taken from the ship’s deck, shows the inhabitants of Timor approaching in boats in attempt to sell their goods; a mountainous shore reveals itself in the background.
The drawings were made during one of the voyages of ‘Elphinstone’, and the artist was very likely the crew member, Lieutenant William Bowater (the sketch book was inscribed in ink with the initials 'W.B.' on the front endpaper). Bowater was later dismissed from the navy.
“On the 2nd of November, 1829, a court-martial, presided over by Captain R. Morgan, of the Marine, was convened at Bombay, to inquire into certain charges for “insubordinate and disrespectful conduct” on the part of Lieutenant W. Bowater, of the Hon. Company’s ship ‘Elphinstone’, preferred against him by his commanding officer, Captain F.W. Greer and that the sentence of the Court, which was dismissal from the service, was confirmed by the Commander-in-chief of the Bombay Army, Lieutenant-General Sir Sydney Beckwith, K.C.B” (Low, C.R. History of the Indian Navy. 2 vols. Vol. 1. London, 1877. P. 498-499).
The Honourable East India Company’s sloop-of war ‘Elphinstone’, of 18 guns and 387 tons, “was built by Hilhouse & Sons and launched in 1824. She operated out of London as an East Indiaman and participated with the Royal Navy in the New Zealand land wars. She was sold in 1862” (Wikipedia). The ‘Elphinstone’ sailed to the Mediterranean, around the southern tip of Africa and on to the East Indies and Australia.
As Richard Burton noted in ‘First footsteps in East Africa’, the sloop carried out a naval blockade of the Somalian coast in 1825-1833, after a British brig from the Mauritius had been seized, plundered and broken up near Berberah in 1825. “The ‘Elphinstone’ sloop of war (Capt. Greer commanding) was sent to blockade the coast; when her guns opened fire, the people fled with their wives and children, and the spot where a horseman was killed by a cannon ball is still shown on the plain near the town”. <…> Eventually “the Somal bound themselves to abstain from future attacks upon English vessels, and also to refund by annual statements the full amount of plundered property. For the purpose of enforcing the latter stipulation it was resolved that a vessel of war should remain upon the coast until the whole was liquidated. When attempts at evasion occurred, the traffic was stopped by sending all craft outside the guardship, and forbidding intercourse with the shore. The ‘Coote’, the ‘Palinus’ and the ‘Tigris’, in turn with the ‘Elphinstone’, maintained the blockade through the trading season till 1833 (Burton, R. First Footsteps in East Africa. London, 1856. P. Xxxiv-xxxv).

 

65. [VENICE]
LEONETTI
[Watercolour View of the Riva Degli Schiavoni Waterfront in Venice].

Ca. 1890. Watercolour on paper, heightened in white, ca. 15x29,5 cm (6 x 11 ½ in). Signed ‘Leonetti’ in the right lower corner. Period wooden elaborately decorated frame with faded bronze gilt, outside dimensions ca. 25x39,5 cm (9 ¾ x 15 ½ in). Frame aged, with some losses of the decorative layer, but the watercolour is near fine condition.
Excellent watercolor view of Riva degli Schiavoni waterfront street in Venice, ‘one of the world’s greatest promenades’ (Lonely Planet) which stretches from Palazzo Ducale to the Arsenal, adjoining to Piazza San Marco. The view shows a part of the embankment with the monument to Victor Emmanuel II, the first king of the united Italy, in the foreground, and Chiesa di Santa Maria della Salute in the distance.
Charming, bright and featuring some exquisite details, the watercolour has an Impressionistic aura, as the emphasis of the painting is given to a little girl being led by her mother through the square, and the beautiful architecture appears as their natural surroundings. The watercolour was made by a local artist (signed ‘Leonetti’), apparently as a Grand Tour souvenir for European or American tourists. A similar work by Leonetti was sold at Christie’s in 1992.

 

66. [VIETNAM]
[Three Original Watercolours Showing a Vietnamese Carrier, a Palanquin and a Porter].

Ca. 1919. Three works, watercolour and pencil on French watermarked bluish album paper, two ca. 31x23,5 cm (12 ¼ x 9 ¼ in), one slightly smaller. Mounted on period slightly larger brown paper leaves. Pencil captions under the images, and pencil notes on the mounts. Overall a very good collection.
The collection includes interesting images of a Vietnamese palanquin carrier, dressed in traditional red ao-dai (robe) with yellow mount, and a head dress; one of the watercolours shows him while holding the carcass of a palanquin. The third picture presents a colourful red palanquin with green decorations and yellow ornaments. Overall a nice collection illustrating the traditional transport of Vietnam.

 

67. [VOYAGE FROM INDIA TO SCOTLAND]
[An Album of Watercolours and Gouaches by an Englishman Showing Southern India, Mt. Sinai, Cape Guardafui in Somalia, the Isle of Man, Views of Scotland, and a Series of Views of the Swiss Alps and the French Riviera].

1869-1881. Small Folio (32x26 cm). 36 leaves. With 36 watercolours, including larger ones ca. 16x25 cm (6 ½ x 10 in), and smaller ones ca. 9x15 cm (3 ½ x 6 in). The watercolours are mounted on slightly larger leaves supplemented with manuscript captions (In English) and then mounted on the album leaves. All but two watercolours have captions. Period full cloth album, elaborately blind, gilt and colour tooled. A very good album.
An album of accomplished watercolour views of two travels. Firstly a Voyage from India to Scotland which took place in 1869-1870 and started in southern India. The earliest watercolours, dated the 27th October 1869, show views of Tellicherry (Thalassery) and Cannonore (Kannur) on the Malabar coast of south-west India. Then there are four views of Cape Comorin (Kanyakumari), the southernmost tip of India, all dated the 1st of November, and a view of Vizagapatam (Visakhapatnam) on the Indian east coast (12th of November).
In May 1870 the artist was on his/her way back to Europe via the Red Sea, which is illustrated with a view of a sunrise over Mt. Horeb (Sinai) and two views of Cape Guardafui in Somalia. One of the captions noted that this voyage was made aboard the S.S. Hooghly, a vessel of the renowned French maritime company Messagerie Impériale, which was founded in 1851 and specialized in voyages from France to India, Ceylon and South-East Asia through the Suez Canal. This voyage was a very early one through the Suez Canal as the canal had only been completed in November 1869.
The album then contains views from the summer of 1870 including a nice panorama of Tivoli, across the Italian Campagna (June) and a whole series of views of northwestern England and Scotland, executed in August: sea landscapes of the Isle of Man and the Island of Eigg from Roshven, Kirkcudbright from the Senwick Shore, a view of the Loch Katrine on the Ellen’s Isle, a picture of hotel at Patterdale with mount Helvellyn in the background and extensive manuscript description of the artist's activities there.
The second trip dates 1875-1876 and contains two "Italian" sketches - a chapel of San Giovanni Battista in vicinity of San Remo and the Gulf of La Spezia (both 1875), and a series of twelve nice large drawings of the Swiss Alps (all 1876) including views of Les Diablerets, Mount Pilatus from Lucerne (July), Niesen Mountain "from our window at Oberhofen" (June), "The Eiger, Mönch and the Jüngfrau from Oberhofen on lake of Thun" (June); "The Stockhorn from our window at Oberhofen" (June), several watercolours of Lake Geneva and the Château de Chillon (August), panoramas of Mont Blanc "from Morges" and "Dent de Jaman, Rochers de Naye and Doldenhorn" (September).
Later drawings represent French and Spanish Riviera - views of Menton (April 1878), Pyrenees and coast of Spain, Biarritz (May 1878), Hyeres (1880), and Cannes (2 views, both 1881).
Overall a very interesting collection of views by an accomplished amateur artist.

 

68. [VOYAGE TO INDIA]
LLOYD BROWNE, C.E.
[Album of Thirty-Six Watercolours and Drawings of India, Ceylon and Coast of the Red Sea, Titled]: Overland Route to Calcutta 1866.

November 1866 - April 1868. Oblong Octavo (13,5x17,5 cm). With thirty-two watercolours and four pencil drawings, including three panoramas on double-sheets. All with period pen or pencil captions and precise dates (usually on the opposing versos). Artist’s name and title inscribed to the front pastedown. Period black gilt tooled half morocco with cloth boards. Expertly rebacked and recornered in style. A couple of leaves with tears and chipping at edges. Otherwise a very good album.
An album of scenic watercolour views of the Red Sea, Arabian Peninsula, India and Ceylon taken from the board of a ship and on site. The watercolours include a series of 12 coastal profiles of the Red Sea, with two large mountainous panoramas, views of Shadwan (entrance to the Gulf of Suez), Jibbel Tir volcano, Twelve Apostles rocks, mountains in Abyssinia, Arabian coast, nice views of Bab-el-Mandel Strait with Perim Island and steamship "Candia”"et al. Egypt is shown on five watercolours: a view of Suez, two pictures of Alexandria (Pompey’s Pillar, and Pasha’s summer palace), and two views of Cairo including a stunning city panorama with the pyramids in the distance. There are also two superb mountainous views of Aden, and a watercolour of the part of Socotra Island in the Gulf of Aden.
Ceylon views are represented with two watercolours of Point de Galle and Haycock Mountain, and with a picture of sacred mountain Sri Pada (Adam’s Peak).
Eleven watercolour views of India include Madras (Fort St. George) and a series of ‘field’ images apparently taken in camps in different parts of the country: river view of Fort Gloster Mills on the Ganges, Hindu temple in Raibarelli, Oudh; a camp scene in Monghyr (Munger, Bihar State); several camp scenes from Asukera (Oudh region), including one titled "Cooking Route"; stunning view of the Himalayas et al. Three pencil drawings show Qutub Mnar in Delhi, Lucknow (?) and a large panorama of Marseille.
The album is supplemented with a folded ink letter from Sir George Brown (1790-1865) loosely inserted, dated 8th October 1849, to a relation, General Browne; and with a photograph portrait inscribed "May 19 1913. Golden Wedding. L & C. Browne," showing the author of the watercolours.
A unique record of an early overland journey from Europe to India by an intrepid traveller and talented artist.

 

69. [WEST AFRICA, MARTINIQUE]
[Album of 58 Watercolours and Drawings of the West Coast of Africa and Martinique].

1886-1894. Oblong Quarto (22x31,5 cm). The works are done using a variety of methods including watercolour, pencil, charcoal, ink wash, occasional pen or pastel on paper. 51 leaves with tissue guards. With 49 watercolours and drawings; the majority are on the album leaves, but also with six works mounted on recto and verso of the leaves ca. 17,5x2 cm (6x9 in) and slightly smaller, and a small pencil sketch of a Datura flower ca. 13x10,5 cm (5 ½ x 4 ½ in). The vast majority of the watercolours have period pen or pencil captions and dates. With a large contemporary photo panorama of Fort de France in Martinique ca. 16,5x26,5 cm (6 ½ x 10 ½ in). Also with nine later watercolours possibly by a different artist, at rear (dated 1932-1935, signed "FR"). Period gray cloth with later manuscript titles on the paper labels. A couple of leaves with tears and chipping on the edges, three small tears of the lower margin of the photograph, otherwise a very good album.
A beautiful collection of watercolours showing numerous views of the coast of West Africa.
The watercolours include four views of Dakar (two panoramas of the harbour, a view of the port administration, and a native village) with a beautiful panorama of the Goree Island, near the main harbour of Dakar. There is also a series of views of Angola which includes seven evocative panoramas or street scenes of Luanda (including views of Fort St. Miguel); and panoramas of the shores of Mossamedes city (modern Namibe) and Elephant Bay. Pictures of Gabon contain a wonderful view of the Glass district of Libreville (first European settlement in Gabon), et al. Sierra Leone is represented with two colourful views of Free Town; and a lovely watercolour of San Antonio Bay on Principe Island (the Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe, in the Gulf of Guinea) is included.
African people are depicted in two coloured sketches of Nano and Caluri tribesmen (Angola), and a portrait of a Hottentote woman shown in the style of the "Hottentote Venus" (Cape Town). Several watercolours and drawings, with or without captions, show West African landscapes and forest scenes with native houses; there is also a group of nicely done sketches of baobabs in Angola and Gabon, a coconut alley (Gabon), two sketches of Datura flowers (Dakar) et al.
Stopovers during the travel resulted in views of the Canary Islands, including a picture of La Orotava on Tenerife; and pictures of Martinique show Rue Saint-Antoine in Fort de France and a city scene after the fire of July 1890. The Martinique group is supplemented with a contemporary panoramic photo of Fort de France. There are also several views and landscapes of the French Riviera, including Saint Mandrier (six views of 1886), Bormes-les-Mimosas, Le Lavandou and Le Brusc (all in 1893-94). The watercolours at rear, dated from 1932 to 1935, mostly represent seascapes and views of Brittany.
Overall an important collection of beautiful images of many settlements of the West African coast.

 

70. ALEXANDER, Sir James Edward (1803-1855)
[Original Watercolour View of the Coast of Jamaica with the Blue Mountains in the Background and Two Fishing Boats in the Foreground].

1831. Watercolour and ink on paper, ca. 29x38 cm (11 ½ x 15 in). Signed in pencil "Blue Mt. Jamaica" in the right lower corner. Mounted on period grey cardboard ca. 44x55,5 cm (17 ½ x 22 in), within an additional dark grey border. Manuscript caption in red ink on the lower margin "Blue Mountain. Jamaica. 1831 - J.E.A." Card mount with small marginal chips and tears, but overall watercolour in very good condition.
An evocative watercolour view of the Jamaican shore with the Blue Mountains, the longest mountain range of the island, declared a National Park in 1992. "As one of the longest continuous mountain ranges in the Caribbean, the Blue Mountains dominate the eastern third of Jamaica <..,>. They rise to the elevation of over 2200 m (7400 ft) from the coastal plain in the space of about sixteen kilometers, thus producing one of the steepest general gradients in the world" (Wikipedia).
Sir James Alexander, the artist, also noted the steepness and grandeur of the Blue Mountains in his travel account: "After a week’s run we sighted afar off the dim outline of part of St. Domingo, and then the lofty mountains near Point Morant, the eastern cape of Jamaica. It was a magnificent scene, this part of the island; the Blue Mountains, eight thousand feet high, towered above a stratum of clouds, and the rugged hills below them were furrowed by ravines; we could see no level land, but the steep cliffs descended abruptly into the sea, on which were one or two small coasting vessels. As we approached nearer, we observed that the hills were not altogether barren, black forests were upon their sides, and patches of bright emerald green, and white houses, were seen as we ran along the south coast towards Port Royal" (Transatlantic Sketches, Comprising Visits to the Most Interesting Scenes in North and South America, and the West Indies, with notes on Negro Slavery and Canadian Emigration’, by Captain J. E. Alexander, 42nd Royal Highlanders, F.R.G.S. M.R.A.S. London, 1833. 2 vols. Vol. 1. P. 285).
Sir James Edward Alexander was a British army officer and a fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. He served in India, Persia, South Africa, Canada, New Zealand, participated in the First Anglo-Burmese War, Crimean War et al. "He saved Cleopatra's Needle from destruction, and had much to do with its transfer to England in 1877. At its base he buried, among other artefacts, photographs of the twelve best-looking English women of the day. His extensive travels provided material for his varied publications, which included Travels from India to England (1827) and Cleopatra's Needle (1879)" (Oxford DNB).
In 1831, in the rank of Captain of 42nd Royal Highlanders, Alexander travelled to British Guiana, West Indies, United States and Canada. In South America he went up the Essequibo River, in the West Indies extensively travelled around Barbados, Tobago, Trinidad, Grenada, St. Vincent, Jamaica “with its blue mountains, fertile savannahs, and deadly lagoons” and Cuba. Then he sailed to New Orleans and went up the Mississippi to Memphis, through Tennessee and Kentucky to Louisville and the Falls of Ohio. After that he went to Virginia, visited Lake Erie, Niagara Falls, crossed Lake Ontario to York (Upper Canada), saw Kingston, Ottawa and along St. Lawrence River went to Quebec. Then he moved to New York, Washington (where met the US President), Boston and from there returned to Liverpool. Alexander “volunteered to execute commissions” for Royal Geographical Society and “other literary and scientific individuals” regarding places he visited and was very interested in the problems of “slavery, military matters, state of society and manners” (from the Preface).
Our watercolour was probably intended to be an illustration for Alexander’s “Transatlantic Sketches”, but was not included in the book; the West Indies were represented there with views of St. Vincent and Havana.

 

71. ATKINSON, James (1780-1852)
[Three Original Watercolours from the "Sketches in Afghaunistan" (1842)].

[1841-42].Brown and black watercolours heightened in white. A very good set.
These three watercolours were mostly likely used as the original archetype for lithographed plates № 2, 3 and 19 in "Sketches in Afghaunistan," one of the earliest collections of views of Afghanistan.
As a Superintending Surgeon to the Army of the Indus, Atkinson participated in the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839-42) and completed many sketches portraying the military skirmishes of the campaign as well as landscape views and the lives of local people (British Library). Atkinson's "Expedition into Affghanistan provides an interesting personal narrative, supplemented by his Sketches in Afghanistan (1842) containing a series of lithographed drawings which complete the picture of what was then an unexplored country" (Oxford DNB).
The colors of our set (mostly brown-black tones heightened in white) and the quality of the detailed work differs from same Atkinson watercolour made on the spot which are now in the collection of British Library. Our set is notable for sharp lines and thorough detail work while the watercolour made on the spot are more like sketches. Thus our group of watercolour are most likely later reworked versions especially for use as archetypes for the lithographs.
The watercolour include:
The Town of Roree and the Fortress of Bhukker on the Indus. 44x27 cm (17x10 ½ in).
A fine view presents the town of Rohri (in Sukkur district, Sindh province of Pakistan) - the encampment ground of the British Army during the campaign, the Fortress of Bukkur and the shore of Sukkur on the Indus on the background.
The fortress of Bukkur was on a strategically important island in the Indus river, between Rohri and Sukkur. The walls of the fortress enclosed the entire island, ending the water's edge. In 1831, the fort was obtained by the British from the Emir of Khirpur, Mir Rostum, after lengthy negotiations conducted by Sir Alexander Burnes, the Political Agent of the East India Company. It was agreed that the fort should remain in British hands, as long as they feared attack from the west. During the 1st Afghan War (1839-1842) it was used as a depot for Sir John Keane's Army of the Indus. (British Library. Asia, Pacific and Africa Collections on-line).
The watercolour also shows a group of travellers in Native dress in the foreground, together with the renowned local camels which were sold by Singh Maharaja at considerable profit to the British for their Afghan expedition.
The Encampment at Dadur, with the entrance to the Bolan Pass. 43x29 cm (17x11 ½ in).
Atkinson depicted the British troops’ encampment at the entrance of the Bolan Pass, about a mile from the town of Dadhar. On their march to Afghanistan the Army of the Indus had opted for the longer southern route round through the Bolan Pass rather than the shorter route through the Khyber Pass. By the spring of 1839 they arrived at the 60-mile long Bolan, which was in the heart of rough terrain controlled by Baluchi chieftains.
Atkinson wrote: "On the foreground is Khalik Dad, Belooch, governor of Dadur and his attendant, and some of the wearied camp-followers preparing their scanty meal. As far as the eye can reach from the camp, desolation has marked this arid spot, and the progress to it was a most arduous one; water rarely met with, but in small quantities, and forage equally scarce" (British Library).
The Main Street in the Bazaar at Caubul in the Fruit Season. 41x26 cm (16x10 in).
The watercolour depicts a market square in Kabul, with fruits in abundance, falling over small stores, with food sellers, traders and customers, dog and donkeys and a young man in the European clothes with a bunch of grapes and a fruit on the foreground.
In 1839, the strongest fortress of Afghanistan, Ghazni, having fallen, the Army of the Indus advanced to Kabul, 80 miles north. Dost Mohammad had retreated even further north, abandoning Kabul, so the British had a relatively peaceful entry into the city and enthroned their new Emir, Shah Shuja. Atkinson wrote, 'The entrance into Caubul was by a narrow street, presenting to the view a scene of the most busy description. The numerous shops, little better than sheds, exhibited fruit, not only surprising for its beauty, but for its prodigious abundance... Other articles are also presented for sale. Cooks are preparing kabobs and confectioners sweetmeats; cutlers and farriers, guns, swords, and horseshoes; silk-mercers, dealers in carpets, furs, lace, chintz, saddlery, &c., are all attentive to their several occupations.' Lithographs: Abbey Travel 508; Tooley 73; Colas 173; Lipperheide 1493.

 

72. BURTON, I[nger] M[aria] (1828-1897)
[Two Signed Stone Town, Zanzibar Watercolours Created at Around the Time When David Livingstone was There Preparing for his Last Expedition].

[Zanzibar], ca. 1865. Two matted watercolours each ca. 14x37 cm (5 ½ x 14 ½ in). The upper watercolour with some mild foxing, otherwise very good watercolours.
The two well executed and scenic watercolours show port scenes in Stone Town, Zanzibar.
"In 1840, Sultan Said bin Sultan moved his seat from Muscat, Oman, to Stone Town, which thus entered an era of quick development as the new capital of the Sultanate of Oman and Zanzibar. In 1861, as a consequence of a war of succession within the Omani royal family, Zanzibar and Oman were separated, with Zanzibar becoming an independent sultanate under Sultan Majid bin Said.
In the 19th century Stone Town also flourished as a trading centre. It was especially renowned for the commerce of spices (mostly cloves) and slaves. Around middle of the century, the sultanate had a close relationship with the British; David Livingstone, for example, is known to have stayed in Stone Town in 1866 while he was preparing his final expedition into the interior of East Africa. In the same period, several immigrant communities from Oman, Persia and India formed as a consequence of the town's intense commercial activity" (Wikipedia).

 

73. CARTHEW-YORSTOUN, Morden, Lt. Colonel (1832 - after 1905)
[Mawlamyine, Burma: Original Double-Page Watercolour Showing a Panoramic View of Moulmein].

Ca. 1853. Watercolour and pencil on two conjoined leaves, total size ca. 25,5x70 cm (10 x 27 ½ in). Weak pencil caption "M. Carthew. Moulmein" on verso. Recent matting. A very good watercolour.
An impressive panoramic view of Mawlamyine or Mawlamyaing (formerly Moulmein), the third-largest city in modern Burma and an important port and trade centre in British Burma and its first capital in 1826-1852. The wide panorama shows the city from the Taungnyo hills on the right to the Thanlwin (Salween) River on the left, with the British ships in the harbor and rice fields, houses and small pagoda also shown. Most likely the watercolour was made from the famous viewpoint on Kyaikthanlan Pagoda located on the hills overlooking Moulmein.
The artist, Lt. Colonel Morden Carthew, was a prominent British colonial officer who served in India and Burma for 12 years and had several important posts in the administration of Moulmein.
The view from the pagoda, created by a British soldier could have been the basis for Rudyard Kipling’s poem "Mandalay":
By the old Moulmein Pagoda, lookin' lazy at the sea,
There's a Burma girl a-settin', and I know she thinks o' me;
For the wind is in the palm-trees, and the temple-bells they say:
"Come you back, you British soldier; come you back to Mandalay!"

General Morden Carthew, C.B., started in 1848 as a cadet in the Madras Presidency of the East India Company. In around 1850 with his own regiment, the 26th Madras Native Infantry, he was sent to Moulmein, Burma. "When the second Burmese war broke out in 1852, young Carthew, then a Lieutenant, was in England on sick leave; but he hastened out and rejoined his regiment just after a capture of Martaban, a fortified town belonging to the Burmese on the opposite side of the river on which Moulmein stands. Some tedious months of garrison work in Martaban followed, which Carthew utilized by setting to work to study the Burmese language." Thanks to his skills he obtained a place in the Civil Department of the British province of Moulmein as an officer assisting "in the pacification and civil administration of the newly annexed territory." "During the course of the war in 1852-53 Carthew saw a good deal of what was going on, and was present at several of the small actions that took place, for there were no pitched battles, the Burmese troops being very inferior in armament and courage." Carthew made the first survey of the town of Sittang and after "obtained a regular certificate for surveying." He was awarded with the Burmese war medal.
"On getting to Moulmein early in 1853, Morden Carthew, at twenty years of age, was appointed Assistant Magistrate of Moulmein, a large town and seaport of over 40,000 inhabitants of every race"; at twenty one he became a Civil Judge in the Civil Court of the Moulmein town and province. In 1855 he was appointed the Senior Magistrate of Moulmein "with all its police duties, with a convict jail chiefly composed of prisoners transported from India to the number of about 1500 men, charge of all the roads and bridges in the town district, and with a multitude of the other duties that only one accustomed to the life and work of an Indian soldier civilian can understand or even count." In 1858 he took the post of the Deputy Commissioner of the Province of Mergui, "the most southern point of British possessions on the Malay Peninsula, under the Indian Government." Altogether he spent 12 years in India and Burma and returned to England in 1860. He afterwards lived in Dumfriesshire (Scotland) and took an active part in the county affairs. He was known of his wood carving skills and exhibited his work in London and Edinburgh.
[Abstracts of the] Carthew Yorstoun family [genealogy] // The Gallovidian: An Illustrated Southern Counties Quarterly Magazine. Spring 1905. # 25. Vol. Viii. P. 1-9 (Open Library on-line).

 

74. CLEVELEY, John the Younger (1747-1786)
[Original Watercolour Showing Several British Warships (with possibly HMS Devonshire in the foreground), in the English Channel off the Needles, West of the Isle of Wight].

Ca. 1770. Watercolour and ink on paper, ca. 13x18,5 cm (5 1/8 x 7 3/8 in). Signed in pencil "J. Cleveley" in the left lower corner. Blind stamp "VWN" in the right lower corner [ex collection of V. Winthrop Newman]. In a 19th century black lacquered frame under glass, with a cracked and chipped label on verso with "Cleveley, John, 1747-1786" written in ink. A very good watercolour.
John Cleveley was a prominent British marine painter who participated in Sir Joseph Banks’ expedition to Iceland (1772), Captain Phipp’s Arctic expedition (1773), and produced watercolour scenes of Captain Cook’s last Pacific Voyage (1776-80) based on sketches brought back by his brother James (1752 - after 1780) who was a ship carpenter on the Resolution.
This watercolour shows a group of British warships of the Needles, "a row of three distinctive stacks of chalk that rises out of the sea off the western extremity of the Isle of Wight, England, close to Alum Bay. The Isle of Wight is the largest island in England, located in the English Channel, on average about 2-5 miles (3-7 km) off the south coast of the county of Hampshire, separated from the mainland by Solent strait. The Island has many resorts which have been holiday destinations since Victorian times" (Wikipedia).
John Cleveley the Younger "was known primarily as a watercolour painter and draughtsman, winning a premium for this from the Society of Arts. Many of his drawings were also engraved. He first exhibited two drawings at the Free Society in 1767 <..,> In 1770-71 he was appointed draughtsman to (Sir) Joseph Banks' expedition to Iceland in 1772, and he exhibited two drawings of Iceland at the Royal Academy in 1773. He is widely reported to have been on Captain Phipps's Arctic expedition, which sailed in the Racehorse and Carcass on 3 June 1773, an error springing from his various drawings of it, including those engraved in Phipps's published account and elsewhere <..,> Cleveley's views of this subject are mainly in the British Museum, the Victoria and Albert Museum, and the National Maritime Museum, but which were the pair exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1774 is uncertain.
On 23 June 1773 Cleveley himself was present at George III's review of the fleet at Spithead; he exhibited two drawings of it at the Academy in each of the years 1774 and 1775, of which three are now in the National Maritime Museum. He also painted this in oils. <..,> from 27 August 1775 to January 1776 he made a voyage to Lisbon. This also produced exhibited views, and a bound-up volume of thirty-seven watercolour and wash drawings from it was sold at Sotheby’s in 1983 and subsequently dispersed. A number of later watercolours, one shown at the academy in 1781 (and a painting of 1784), were of episodes on Captain Cook's last Pacific voyage (1776-80) and four engraved in aquatint by Francis Jukes were advertised as being based on sketches brought back by his brother James, in the Resolution.
John Cleveley the Younger's exhibited oil works show a broad range of marine subjects, mostly of British and north European situation, but there are few in public collections: the National Maritime Museum has only one confirmed example, with drawings, which are more widely encountered"(Oxford DNB).
This watercolour had a prominent previous owner, namely V. Winthrop Newman, who collected French paintings, drawings from the Dutch, English, French, and Spanish Schools in addition to Americana. Newman's collection was sold in auctions held from 1920-1934 in New York City at the American Art Galleries (Archives Directory for the History of Collecting in America on-line).
A watercolour similar to this one - with the same composition but slightly different colours and titled "Ships of the fleet and other smaller vessels becalmed off the Needles" - was sold at Christies on November 4th, 2010 for GBP 2375.

 

75. CORBETT, Sir John, Lieut. RN (1822-1893)
[Original Watercolour View of Malaga].

Malaga, 1846. Watercolour and pencil on thick paper, ca. 24x34 cm (9 ¼ x13 ¼ in). Later pencil caption "Malaga. 1846" on verso. Recently matted, and with a couple weak minor stains on the upper margin, otherwise a very good watercolour.
A view of Malaga with Montes de Málaga in the background, Mount Gibralfaro with its famous Moorish castle on the right, Málaga Cathedral and lighthouse on the left, and a local sailing boat in the foreground.
John Corbett was a Royal Navy officer who went on to be Commander-in-Chief of the East Indies Station. He joined the Royal Navy in 1835 and sailed in the Mediterranean, Africa & the Far East. Promoted to Commander in 1852, he served in the Second Opium War. Following his promotion to Captain in 1857, he commanded HMS Scout, HMS Hastings, HMS Black Prince and then the training ship HMS Britannia. In 1867 he commanded HMS Warrior. He was made Commander-in-Chief, East Indies Station in 1877 and Commander-in-Chief, The Nore in 1884. He retired in 1887.
Corbett was an amateur artist who painted watercolours during his travels in the 1850s and 1860s. (Wikipedia).

 

76. DURSTON, R.T.S. (Canadian)
[Signed Watercolour: The Entrance to the Souk - Morocco?].

Ca. 1930. Watercolour ca. 45x29 cm (18 x 11 ½ in). Period matting, otherwise in near fine condition.
This attractive watercolour shows the entrance to a Souk (Arab market) most likely in Morocco with several merchants shown in the background.

 

77. DYNES, Joseph (Canadian, 1825-1897)
[Sepia Watercolour and Ink Painting]: Mount of the Holy Cross, Colorado - Drawn from Nature by J. Dynes. Quebec V.C. [Canada].

1879. Watercolour ca. 25x40 cm (10x16 in). Mounted on period board with manuscript title on recto and verso. One small spot mildly rubbed, otherwise a very good watercolour.
This attractive painting by a listed Canadian artist shows the Mount of the Holy Cross, which "is the northernmost 14,000-foot mountain in the Sawatch Range, part of the Rocky Mountains in Colorado.., It was named for the distinctive cross-shaped snowfield on the northeast face. Under USDA Forest Service administration, the mountain was proclaimed "Holy Cross National Monument" by Herbert Hoover on May 11, 1929. The monument was transferred to the National Park Service in 1933..,
This mountain has been the subject of painters, photographers and even a poem by Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, (The Cross of Snow). The first publicly available photograph was published in National Geographic magazine. Thomas Moran depicted the mountain in an oil painting, which now is part of the collection of the Museum of the American West, part of the Autry National Center in Los Angeles, California.., The first recorded ascent of Holy Cross was in 1873, by F. V. Hayden and photographer W. H. Jackson during one of Hayden's geographical surveys"(Wikipedia).
"The Canadian painters Samuel C. Hawksett (act. 1856-1903) and Joseph Dynes (1825-1897).., opened their studio in Montreal in the early 1860s, advertising "Photographs taken in all sizes and painted in Oil or Water Colours." One product of their apparently brief collaboration is a painted photograph - Portrait of Alphonse Poitras - now in the collection of the Château de Ramezay in Montreal"(http://www.gallery.ca/bulletin/num20/thomas1.html).

 

78. ESTCOURT, James Bucknall (1802-1855)
[Fine Collection of Thirteen Attractive Ink and Watercolour Sketches of Gibraltar. Some Views Dated 1824 & 1825].

Gibraltar, 1824-5. Recently matted, the watercolours are in near fine condition.
This fine collection of attractive watercolours and ink sketches includes:
Top of the Rock. 19x26 cm (7 ½ x 10 ½ in);
The Bay as seen from the Rock. 19x26 cm (7 ½ x 10 ½ in);
O'Hara's Tower 1. 13x9,5 cm (5x4 in);
O'Hara's Tower 2. 9,5x13 cm (4 x 5 ½ in);
Castellar with Gibraltar in the Distance. 19,5x27,5 cm (7 ½ x 11 in);
Ferry Across the River Guadacorte and Algeciras in the Distance. 16x23,5 cm (6 ½ x 9 ½ in);
Gibraltar with the Moorish Castle. 21x32,5 cm (8 ½ x 13 in);
British Soldiers in Gibraltar. 16,5x23,5 cm (6 ½ x 9 ½ in);
Interior of St. Geoge's Hall Gibraltar (Artist in the Foreground). 18x26 cm (7 x 10 ½ in);
South Part of Gibraltar from Ragged Staff. 19,5x26,5 cm (8 x 10 ½ in);
Interior of the Officer's Guard Room at Ragged Staff, Gibraltar. 21,5x26,5 cm (8 ½ x 10 ½ in);
Tangier Bay in the Distance. 15x26 cm (6 x 10 ½ in);
View from O'Hara Tower. 21x20,5 cm (8 ½ x 8 in).
Estcourt "purchased a commission as ensign in the 44th foot on 13 July 1820, exchanging on 7 June 1821 into the 43rd foot (Monmouthshire light infantry) before purchasing promotion to lieutenant (9 December 1824) and captain (5 November 1825). Estcourt served with the regiment, which formed part of Lieutenant-General Sir William Clinton's division sent to garrison towns in Portugal (1826-7) during disruption over the succession to the throne. He appears then to have returned with the 43rd to Gibraltar, before sailing for Plymouth and, in 1832, Ireland. From January 1835 until June 1837, he was second in command to Colonel F. R. Chesney during his expedition to the Euphrates valley, which sought to prove that the river was navigable from within overland reach of the Mediterranean to its mouth on the Persian Gulf, thus shortening the journey to India. Despite a torrid period, during which one steamer was wrecked and twenty lives lost at Basrah on 31 August 1836, Estcourt produced a detailed report for Chesney, anticipating ‘no difficulties’ in passage during the ‘season of high water’, provided that accurate knowledge of the deep channel and a vessel of suitable length were acquired. He was less sure about the ‘low season’, owing to lack of information, though he was confident that local Arabs would not be hostile, once they became used to the steamers" (Oxford DNB).
This collection was obviously made from Estcourt first posting in Gibraltar.

 

79. ESTCOURT, James Bucknall (1802-1855)
[Three Works: a Watercolour, an Ink and a Pencil Sketch of Tangier].

Ca. 1825. Each on separate album leaves, one double-page. Image sizes 55x21 cm (21 ½ x 8 ¼ in); 25,5x20 cm (10x8 in); 28x19,5 cm (11 x 7 ¾ in). All captioned in ink with the same hand on verso. This group is in very good condition.
The group includes a watercolour panoramic view of Tangier Bay captioned "№ 15 & 16. Two views of the point of Malabat. Tanjir Bay. The Light House and Isla at Tarifa. The bank of sand which unites the Isla to the main land" (with the second description regarding view № 16 not present here). The view represents Cape Malabata (6 miles east of Tangier) facing the Strait of Gibraltar; the mentioned lighthouse still exists. The Isla de Tarifa (modern La Isla de las Palomas) is the island opposite the town of Tarifa at the southern end of the Punta de Tarifa, the southern most point of the Iberian Peninsula.
The second view of Tangier Bay is in pencil and captioned "The Castle and port of the Fortifications of Tanjirs taken from the harbour." There is also a smaller monochrome brownish watercolour and ink sketch captioned "A View from the top of the British Vice Consul’s House in Tetuan" and dated "Jan. [?]th 1825." Tetouan is a city in northern Morocco, one of the two major ports of Morocco on the Mediterranean Sea. It lies a few miles south of the Strait of Gibraltar, and about 40 mi (60 km) east of Tangier. Historical Text Archive on-line notes that in 1825 the post of British vice-consul in Tetuan was held by a Moroccan Jew Salvador D. Hassan, who also acted as Consul of Portugal and Italy.
Estcourt "purchased a commission as ensign in the 44th foot on 13 July 1820, exchanging on 7 June 1821 into the 43rd foot (Monmouthshire light infantry) before purchasing promotion to lieutenant (9 December 1824) and captain (5 November 1825). Estcourt served with the regiment, which formed part of Lieutenant-General Sir William Clinton's division sent to garrison towns in Portugal (1826-7) during disruption over the succession to the throne. He appears then to have returned with the 43rd to Gibraltar, before sailing for Plymouth and, in 1832, Ireland. From January 1835 until June 1837, he was second in command to Colonel F. R. Chesney during his expedition to the Euphrates valley, which sought to prove that the river was navigable from within overland reach of the Mediterranean to its mouth on the Persian Gulf, thus shortening the journey to India. Despite a torrid period, during which one steamer was wrecked and twenty lives lost at Basrah on 31 August 1836, Estcourt produced a detailed report for Chesney, anticipating ‘no difficulties’ in passage during the ‘season of high water’, provided that accurate knowledge of the deep channel and a vessel of suitable length were acquired. He was less sure about the ‘low season’, owing to lack of information, though he was confident that local Arabs would not be hostile, once they became used to the steamers" (Oxford DNB).
This collection was obviously made from Estcourt first posting in Gibraltar.

 

80. GIGANTE, Achille (1823-1846)
[Three Large Pencil Drawings of Naples, Sorrento and the Castle in Scaletta Zanclea, Sicily].

Ca. 1842-1843. Pencil on paper, occasional hints of watercolour. Three drawings, ca. 26x40 cm (10 ¼ x 15 ¾ in) or slightly larger or smaller. Each signed and dated in one of the lower corners, with pencil captions and notes on the mounts. Mounted in period mats within double pencil borders. A very good collection.
These three skillful pencil drawings by listed artist Achille Gigante show the coast of the southern Italy; the first drawing shows the hill of Pizzofalcone in Naples, with houses descending to the shore of the Gulf of Naples, fishermen in boats, and a girl on shore collecting shells. The second view most likely shows a coastal view of Sorrento, with villas on shore, and Capri Island seen in the distance; a small steamer is going in the direction of Naples. Several pencil captions above the drawing indicate different villas and sites of the area: Villa Creven, Villa Traletta, Casino di Creven, Grotta S. Giovani, Isola Capri et al. The third drawing shows Castello di Scaletta Zanclea in Sicily; the castle stands on a hill in the distance, and ruins of a fortress ‘believed to be built by the Saracens’ are seen in the foreground.
“The hill of Pizzofalcone, also known as the Mountain of God, is an area of Naples, including in the San Ferdinando, situated between the village Saint Lucia, the Chiatamone and Chiaia” (Wikipedia).
Achille Gigante was an Italian lithographer and designer of acquaforte. He came from a family of artists: his father Gaetano Gigante (Naples, 1770-1840) was an Italian painter and engraver, active mainly in Naples; brother – Giacinto Gigante, one of the main painters of the School of Posillipo; another brother, Ercole Gigante (1815-1860) – a landscape painter (Wikipedia). Achille Gigante was known for his etchings published in several illustrated editions about Italy or Naples, e.g. “Vues d'Italie: recueil artificiel de 24 gravures et 1 crayon” (N.p., 1842-1852); “Viaggio da napoli a Castellammare, con 42 vedute incise all' acqua forte” (Naples, 1845), “Napoli e i luoghi celebri delle sue vicinanze” (Naples, 1845). Two similar drawings sold for 3,290 GBP at Christies in 2003.

 

81. GRESLEY, G[eoffrey] F[errers] (1851-1933)
[Three Signed Watercolours of Ceylon (Sri Lanka): View in Negombo, Ceylon 1874 - In the Low Country, Ceylon Oct. 11 1873 - Ceylon Woman?]

1873-4. Ca. 25,5x21,5 cm (10x8 in); 21,5x28 cm (8 ½ x 11 in); 17,5x7,5 cm (7x3 in). Recently matted, the watercolour are in very good to near fine condition.
The three attractive watercolours show: 1) a street scene in Negombo, the second largest city in Western province after Colombo; 2) A view of a village in the "Low Country" (southern plains) of Sri Lanka with the hill country to the north in the background; 3) A Sinhalese woman in native costume.
"Geoffrey Ferrers Gresley, was a nephew of Sir William Nigel Gresley (1806-1847), ninth baronet, of Drakelowe Park in Derbyshire. He was born on 17 August 1851 but was thought too delicate to go either to public school or to university. He went to Ceylon as a tea planter but soon fell seriously ill and had to return to England. He evidently made a good recovery as he lived to the age of 82, despite a life of considerable hardship" (http://butleigh.org/images/Gresley1.pdf).

 

82. HARVEY, Robert (1848-1920)
[Original Watercolour View of the Government House in Georgetown, Guyana].

Ca. 1905. Watercolour on paper, heightened in white. Ca. 17,5x11 cm (7 x 4 ½ in). Captioned in pencil "Government House, Demerara" in the right lower corner; and with additional pencil sketches of human figures on verso (a rider, a noble woman in dress and hat, a woman with a basket on head et al.) and caption "Georgetown, Demerara." Mounted on period grey cardboard ca. 27,5x38,5 cm (10 ¾ x 15 in), with additional caption on the lower margin of the mount. A near fine watercolour.
The watercolour view shows the State House in Georgetown, Guyana (built in 1858) with a group of soldiers in red uniform at the entrance.
Georgetown is the capital and largest city of Guyana, located in the Demerara-Mahaica region. It is situated on the Atlantic Ocean coast at the mouth of the Demerara River and it was nicknamed "Garden City of the Caribbean" (Wikipedia). At the time when the watercolour was created Georgetown was the capital of British Guiana.

 

83. HARVEY, Robert (1848-1920)
[Original Watercolour View of the Morro Castle in Havana].

1905. Watercolour on paper, heightened in white. Ca. 17,5x25,5 cm (7x10 in). Mounted on period grey cardboard ca. 27,5x38,5 cm (10 ¾ x 15 in). Captioned in pencil on verso "Moro Castle. Havana, Cuba, April 1905" and with additional caption on the lower margin of the mount “Entrance to Havana, Cuba”. A near fine watercolour.
Morro Castle (Castillo de los Tres Reyes Magos del Morro) is a picturesque fortress guarding the entrance to Havana bay in Havana, Cuba (Wikipedia).

 

84. HARVEY, Robert (1848-1920)
[Three Original Watercolour Views of the Vicinity of Ponce, Puerto Rico].

April 1905. Watercolours on paper, heightened in white, each ca. 17,5x25,5 cm (7x10 in). Mounted on period grey cardboard ca. 27,5x38,5 cm (10 ¾ x 15 in); captioned in pencil on verso, and with additional captions on the lower margins of the mounts. A near fine set of watercolours.
The watercolours show several views of the vicinity of Ponce city, including two sketches of the "Old Laba Tree near Ponce, Porto Rico, April 1905" with a small settlement and a river flowing by; and a riverside view in Ponce vicinity with women washing clothes in the left foreground. Most likely, "laba tree" is a breadfruit tree ("laba" in Creole).
Ponce, Puerto Rico's most populous city outside the San Juan metropolitan area, is named for Juan Ponce de León y Loayza, the great-grandson of Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León. Ponce is often referred to as La Perla del Sur (The Pearl of the South), La Ciudad Señorial (The Noble, or Lordly, City), and La Ciudad de las Quenepas (Genip City). The city serves as the governmental seat of the autonomous municipality as well as the regional hub for various Government of Puerto Rico entities, such as the Judiciary of Puerto Rico. It is also the regional center for various other commonwealth and federal government agencies (Wikipedia).

 

85. JACKSON, Welby Brown (1802-1890)
[Original Watercolour View of Benares (Varanasi)].

Ca. 1856. Watercolour and pencil on cardboard, heightened in white, ca. 42x58 cm (16 ¾ x22 ¾ in). Later pencil caption "Welby Jackson. 1856. Benares" on verso. Recently matted, near fine, bright watercolour.
This beautiful view of Benares shows the River Ganges with white temples and ghats in the background, and clothes washers on the riverbank in the foreground. The right part of the picture details a wooden bridge spanned across the Ganges, with bull carts crossing.
Welby Jackson was an official in British India in the first half of the 19th century. He was noted to be in Calcutta in 1823 and held the office of Judge of Sudder Court there; in 1826 he was appointed Register to the Nizamut Adawlut for the Western Provinces at Allahabad (The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Regicter for British India and its dependencies. Vol. XXII. London, 1826. P. 469). The beginning of 1860's sees him back in Buckinghamshire, England (see The Peerage, A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe, on-line).
Two of Jackson’s sepia sketches of the city of Gaya (Bihar, India) executed in 1830 are now in the Asia, Pacific and Africa collections of the British Library.

 

86. KEATING, E.
[Three Fishermen - Signed and Place Named Oil Painting] - Victoria [B.C.] [Langford Lake?].

Ca. 1880. Oil painting ca. 30x46 cm (12x18 in). Framed in an elaborate period gold gilt wooden frame with some very minor chipping of gilted plaster. Painting with a few very minor spots of loss, otherwise in very good condition.
This attractive oil painting shows three fishermen in a wooded foreground, situated besides a body of water (perhaps Langford Lake?) with mountains in the background.

 

87. LAW, Arthur
[Watercolour View of the Fraser River in British Colombia]: Fraser River Cañon, near Yale, B.C., 1911.

Yale B.C., 1911. Ca. 31,5x48 cm (12 ¼ x 19 in). Signed "Arthur Law" in the left lower corner. Later matting with hand drawn borders and manuscript caption. The watercolour is in near fine condition.
A very beautifully and skilfully executed watercolour Fraser Canyon near Yale during most likely an Indian summer evening in 1911.
"Yale is on the Fraser River and is generally considered to be on the dividing line between the Coast and the Interior. Immediately north of the village the Fraser Canyon begins, and the river is generally considered un-navigable past this point, although rough water is common on the Fraser anywhere upstream from Chilliwack, and even more so above Hope, about 20 miles south of Yale. But steamers could make it to Yale, good pilots and water conditions permitting, and the town had a busy dockside life as well as a variety of bars, restaurants, hotels, saloons and various services. Its maximum population during the gold rush was in the 15,000 range, although typically it housed 5-8,000. The higher figure relates to the evacuation of the Canyon during the Fraser Canyon War of 1858" (Wikipedia).

 

88. MEYNELL, Francis, Lieut. RN (1821-1870)
Calcutta from Garden Reach. HMS Calliope Saluting. [Original Watercolour].

1841. Watercolour on paper, ca. 31x54 cm (12 x 21 ¼ in). Signed in ink "G. Meynell" in the left lower corner. Captioned and dated in pencil on verso by the artist. Recently mounted and matted. A very good watercolour.
The watercolour shows the British warship HMS Calliope going through the Garden Reach - the entrance to the port of Kolkata on the Hooghly River. "The port of Kolkata is the oldest operational port in India, having originally been constructed by the British East India Company, and it was the premier port in British India in the 19th century" (Wikipedia). The port’s buildings and a grand residence on the bank to the left, as well as a boat carrying two Europeans being rowed by Indians, are shown in the watercolour.
The time of the event shown by the artist is known to be August-September 1841 when HMS Calliope arrived to Kolkata from Canton with $6 million of ransom money taken during the marine operations of the First Opium War (1839-1842). HMS Calliope (28 guns, built in 1837) participated in the blockade of the mouth of the Pearl River and operations at Canton in 1841. Circa Aug 1841 it departed for Calcutta with the bulk of the Canton ransom money (See: Clowes, W.L. The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the Present. In 7 vols. Vol. 6. London, 1901. P. 294).
The artist, Francis Meynell, was a midshipman on Calliope (See: Allen, J. The New Navy List and General Record of the Service of Officers of the Royal Navy and Royal Marines. London, 1853. P. 146).
"Meynell entered the navy as midshipman during the campaign in China, on board the Calliope. He was mentioned for the assistance rendered at the capture on 13 March 1841 of the last fort protecting the approaches of the city of Canton" (National Maritime Museum (Greenwich) on-line). [Later he served as] mate in the Penelope during anti-slavery operations off the west coast of Africa, [and was promoted Lieutenant in 1846]. During the Crimean War 1853-55 he served on HMS Royal George. His illustrated journal mostly dedicated to the Baltic campaign of the Crimean War (1853-55) is now in the collection of the National Maritime Museum (Greenwich).

 

89. PAGET, Walter Stanley (1863-1935) & JAMES, Lionel (1871-1955)
[FIRST MOHMAND CAMPAIGN, Original Watercolour Titled]: Men of the Royal West Kent Regiment Recovering the Body of a Wounded Officer During General Jeffrey’s Action With General Bindon Blood’s Division.

Ca. 1897. Watercolour on cardboard, heightened in white, image size ca. 17,5x26,5 cm (7 x 10 ½ in). Signed in pencil "W Paget" on the left lower margin. Period printed label on verso with the watercolour with the name of the artist and a brief historical note about the event shown. Recently matted, very good watercolour.
A moving battle scene illustrating the events of the First Mohmand Campaign (1897-98) by the British army in the North-West Frontier region of the British Raj. The watercolour shows the battle in the Mamund valley on the 30th of September 1897, when Brigadier general Jeffreys’ resumed punitive operations, where he "encountered strong opposition at Agrah, and [the British] had 61 casualties" (Wikipedia). The watercolour shows British soldiers carrying a wounded officer and shooting at a group of Mahsuds in native dress, armed with sables and guns. A more detailed description of the work is provided by the printed label mounted on the back of the frame:
"During General Jeffrey’s action, on September 30, the Mahsuds at one time attacked the centre so vigorously that the men of the Royal West Kent came to close quarters, and had difficulty for a few minutes in recovering the body of a wounded officer. By a staunch stand it was eventually recovered”.
The original sketch was made by a first-hand witness of the events, British war journalist Lionel James who acted as Reuter’s Special Correspondent during the campaign and later published a book based on his experiences "The Frontier Indian War, Being an Account of the Mohmund and Tirah Expedition 1897" (London, 1898) illustrated with 31 photographs and drawings based on his own sketches.
This sketch wasn’t included in the book and was very likely intended to be published in a magazine, as its "final" artist was Walter Stanley Paget, one of three brothers - renowned British illustrators of books and magazines of the 19-20th centuries. Paget illustrated the Arabian Nights, Robinson Crusoe et al, while his brother Sidney became world-famous for his illustrations of several editions of Conan Doyle’s stories of Sherlock Holmes. Paget received a gold medal from the Royal Academy of Art and worked in The Sphere, Illustrated London News and The Strand Magazine. It is known that one of his "duties" while working in The Sphere was "turning the rough sketches sent by the paper's "specials" in South Africa into complete illustrations for publication" (See: Allingham, P.V. A Biographical Sketch of Illustrator Walter Paget (1863-1935) // The Victorian Web on-line). Most likely the same process happened with the James’ sketch of a Mohmand Campaign’s engagement.
Lionel James, F.R.G.S. Worked as Reuter’s Special Correspondent in the Chitral campaign (1894-5), Mohmand, Malakand and Tirah campaigns (1897-8), in Soudan (1898); also acted as Times Special Correspondent in South Africa (1899-1901) and during Russian-Japanese War (1904-1905). He was the author of over ten books including With the Chitral Relief Force (1895); Frontier Indian War (1898), On the Heels of De Wet (1902), A Study of the Russo-Japanese War (1905) et al.

 

90. PATEY, Russell, R.N. (b. 1817)
[Five Watercolours in Sepia of Moulmein (Mawlamyine), Burma 1846-7].

1846-7. Recently matted, the watercolours are in fine condition.
Five attractive watercolours of the capital of British colonial Burma,
The titles of the watercolours as written on the verso of each painting by the artist are:
View of Large Pagoda, Moulmein Sept 46 as seen from the West. 24x34 cm (9 ½ x 13 ½ in);
A Punghi House, Moulmein June 46. 24x34 cm (9 ½ x 13 ½ in);
Farm Caves, Moulmein as Seen from the East Side Sept. 47 Russell Patey. 23x28 cm (9x11 in);
Farm Caves, Moulmein Taken from the Interior Sept. 47 Russell Patey. 22x27,5 cm (8 ½ x 11 in);
Austin's House, Moulmein May 46. 24x34 cm (9 ½ x 13 ½ in).
"Mawlamyine (Moulmein) was the first capital of British Burma between 1826 and 1852 after the Tanintharyi (Tenassarim) coast, along with Arakan, was ceded to Britain under the Treaty of Yandabo at the end of the First Anglo-Burmese War.., Mawlamyine is the third largest city of Burma situated 300 km south east of Yangon" (Wikipedia).

 

91. PEDDER, John (1850-1929) & CAINE, William Sproston (1842-1903)
[Collection of Eighteen Watercolours and Drawings of the Canadian Rockies and British Columbia with two Drawings of Niagara and Japan. Sixteen of These Works were used to Illustrate the Book by W.S. Caine M.P.: "A Trip Around the World in 1887-8" London: Routledge, 1888].

British Columbia, [1887-8]. Eighteen watercolours and ink drawings, individually matted. Housed in a recent black cloth clamshell box, with a maroon gilt titled morocco label. The collection is in very good condition.
W.S. Caine, a British politician and Temperance advocate, started his around world journey in Liverpool and then crossed the Atlantic to Quebec, where he went overland crossing Canada to B.C., and then continued his trip to Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Ceylon and India. With the exception of one Niagara picture and one drawing in Japan, all of these works were done in the Canadian Rockies or British Columbia. Caine produced four of the works while John Pedder produced the remaining fourteen. The B.C. Archives holds an additional four of Pedder's B.C. Ink drawings used as illustrations in the book. Caine and Pedder were skilled artists in both ink and watercolour, which is clearly shown in this collection:
1) "The Whirlpool Rapids - Niagara" (Illustration p.31). Ink drawing, 5½ x 6¾ inches.
2) "Calgary Canada - Rocky Mountains in Distance" (By W.S. Caine) (Illustration p.59). Watercolour with touches of gouache, over pencil, 4¼ x 7½ inches.
3) "The Bow River leaving the Rocky Mountains at the Gap. Near Calgary Canada" (Illustration p.69 "The Gap: Entrance to the Rocky Mountains). Initialed: "J P." watercolour with touches of gouache, over pencil, 8¼ x 14 inches.
4) "Castle Mountain Range - National Park - Rocky Mountains - Canada" (By W.S. Caine) (Illustration p.72 "Castle Mountain"). Ink drawing, 4¼ x 8 inches. Backed. A few small holes in upper border and margin.
5) "The National Park. Rocky Mountains. Canada" (Illustration p.73 "View of Banff from above the Sanatorium" ). Initialed: "J P." watercolour and ink with touches of gouache, over pencil, 7¼ x 12¼ inches.
6) "Cascade Mountain - National Park - Rocky Mountains - Canada" (By W.S. Caine) (Illustration p. 80). Ink drawing, 4¼ x 8 inches. Backed. A few small holes in upper border and margin
7) "W.S. And Hannah Caine on the Bow River - Rocky Mountains - Canada" (Illustration p.81). Signed: "J. Pedder." watercolour with touches of gouache, over pencil, 8¼ x 12 inches. Backed. Margins chipped; short, clean tear affecting inch and a half near lower border (repaired).
8) ["Vermillion Lake, National Park"] (Illustration p.85). Watercolour with touches of gouache, 6¾ x 10½ inches. Backed. Margins chipped with one-inch tear above lower border (repaired).
9) "Canadian Pacific Railway Hotel -National Park - Canada" (Illustration p.91). Initialed: "J P." Ink drawing, 8½ x 4 ½inches.
10) "The Hermit Range Selkirk Mountains" (Illustration p.92). Watercolour with touches of gouache, 5¾ x 6 inches (entire sheet).
11) "Summit Lake Rocky Mountains" (Illustration p.93). Initialed: "J P." Ink, 8¾ x 6½ inches (entire sheet). Mounted. Margins chipped.
12) [Kicking Horse Pass] (Illustration p.96). Initialed: "J P." Ink drawing, 6¼ x 10½ inches.
13) ["The Monarchs of the Rocky Mountains - Cathedral Peak - Mount Stephen"] (Illustration p.99). Watercolour with touches of gouache, over pencil, 8¼ x 13 inches.
14) ["Mount Sir Donald and the Great Glacier"] (Illustration p. 107). Signed: "J. Pedder Dec." Watercolour and ink with touches of gouache, over pencil, 8½ x 12½ inches.
15) "Indians catching Salmon - Fraser River - British Columbia" (Illustration p.121). Mounted. Image 5½ x 6 inches. Margins chipped.
16) "Nikko Japan."(By W.S. Caine) (Illustration p.176 "Row of Buddhas at Nikko: Nan-Tai-San Mountains in the Distance). Ink drawing, 6¼ x 10½ inches. One and a half inches loss of top surface of paper near lower border.
Not Illustrated in the Book:
17) "Above St. Andre...[?]. Dated...[?] 24/[8?]6." Pencil, heightened in white, on blue paper, 9¾ x 13¼ inches. Short tear in upper edge.
18) [Untitled illustration of Rocky Mountains]. Watercolour with touches of gouache, 7 x 10 inches.

 

92. PINCITI, E. L.
[Signed and Titled Watercolour]: Monaco.

Ca. 1870. Watercolour ca., 27x37 cm (11 x 14 ½ in). Under old matting, a few scattered mild spots of foxing, otherwise a very good watercolour.
This scenic watercolour shows Monaco-Ville from Fontvieille with a young woman and her pack horse in the foreground. "Monaco's sovereignty was recognized by the Franco-Monegasque Treaty of 1861. In 1869, the principality stopped collecting income tax from its residents, an indulgence the Grimaldis could afford to entertain thanks solely to the extraordinary success of the casino. This made Monaco not only a playground for the rich, but a favored place for them to live" (Wikipedia).

 

93. RAEBURN, Henry Macbeth (1860-1947)
[GEORGE VI, Original Pencil Drawing Portrait in Scottish Regimental Uniform].

1937. Pencil on thick album paper, image size ca. 65x39,5 cm (25 ½ x 15 ½ in). Signed in pencil "H.M.R. 1937" in the right lower corner; title space is blank. Corners and centers of the margins strengthened, otherwise a very good drawing.
A handsome portrait of King George VI (1895-1952) made during the first year of his reign (ascended the throne in 1936). The King is shown in Scottish Regimental Uniform, full length, with the Scottish Highlands in the background.
This drawing by Henry Macbeth-Raeburn, a prominent Scottish portrait painter and mezzotint and aquatint engraver, was preparatory drawing to a mezzotint plate that was engraved, but never published. Raeburn exhibited at the Royal Academy from 1881 to 1904. He changed his name because of his devotion to the paintings of Henry Raeburn after whom he often etched.
King George VI (1895-1952), reigned 1936-52. The second son of George V and Queen Mary, he served in the navy (1909-17), and qualified as a pilot in the Royal Flying Corps in 1919. He was President of the Industrial Welfare Society, an area of special concern. He married Lady Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon in 1923. He became King on the abdication of his brother Edward VIII in 1936. He and Queen Elizabeth ‘The Queen Mother’ were held in great affection by the population for the courage and sense of duty they showed during the World War II. His popularity was recently much revived due to the 2010 film "The King's Speech" starring Colin Firth as George VI.
Benezit, Dictionnaire de Peintres, Sculpteurs, Dessinateurs et Graveurs, vol. 7, p. 37 (reprint 1976).

 

94. ROBINSON, W[illiam] R. (ca. 1810 - ca. 1875)
[Signed British School Watercolour on Paper Captioned On Verso]: S. W. St. Lawrence River, Canada.

[Ontario], ca. 1850. Matted watercolour on paper ca. 27x43 cm (11x17 in). With a couple of minor repaired marginal tears, otherwise a very good watercolour.
A well executed and atmospheric watercolour of the South West St. Lawrence River. Robinson had a studio in Durham in the 1840's and was active earlier in Richmond, UK.

 

95. SHORT, Edward Morrison de Courcy (b. 1857)
[Finely Executed Pencil Drawing Titled]: Saigon.

1887. Drawing ca. 9x20 cm (3 ½ x 8 in). Drawing recently matted and in fine condition.
A view of Saigon, capital of the French colony of Cochinchina from 1864-1948 and capital of the independent state of South Vietnam from 1954-75, when it was officially renamed Ho Chi Minh City. From an album of "Sketches made on a trip Round the World." By Edward Morrison de Courcy Short, who attended Charterhouse School, Surrey (1870-6). He passed the Ceylon Civil Service exam in 1878, and in 1905 became Chairman of the Municipal Council and Mayor of Colombo, retiring in 1910.

 

96. SHORT, Edward Morrison de Courcy (b. 1857)
[Two Finely Executed Pencil Drawings of Colombo, Ceylon].

1887. Recently matted, the drawings are in fine condition.
The two drawings are: Breakwater - Colombo - Ceylon ca. 10,5x19 cm (4 x 7 ½ in); Harbour - Colombo - Ceylon ca. 11x19 cm (4 x 7 ½ in).
"Although the British captured Colombo in 1796, it remained a British military outpost until the Kandyan Kingdom was ceded to them in 1815 and they made Colombo the capital of their newly created crown colony of British Ceylon. Unlike the Portuguese and Dutch before them, whose primary use of Colombo was as a military fort, the British began constructing houses and other civilian structures around the fort, giving rise to the current City of Colombo"(Wikipedia).
Two views of Colombo, Ceylon, are from an album of "Sketches made on a trip Round the World." By Edward Morrison de Courcy Short, who attended Charterhouse School, Surrey (1870-6). He passed the Ceylon Civil Service exam in 1878, and in 1905 became Chairman of the Municipal Council and Mayor of Colombo, retiring in 1910.
List of Carthusians, 1800-1879, by W.D. Parrish.

 

97. SHORT, Edward Morrison de Courcy (b. 1857)
[A Collection of Thirteen Finely Executed Drawings of Various Places in China].

1887. Recently matted, the drawings are in fine condition.
Collection of thirteen finely executed drawings showing late 19th century China including:
City Wall – Pekin, ca. 9,5x19 cm (4 x 7 ½ in).
Pekin, ca. 9,5x20 cm (4 x 8 in).
Ming Tombs – Pekin, ca. 9,5x20,5 cm (4 x 8 in).
The Great Wall – China, ca. 11x19,5 cm (4 ½ x 7 ½ in).
Harbour Amoy – China, ca. 7x20 cm (2 ½ x 7 ½ in).
Kulansu Island. Amoy – China, ca. 7x20 cm (2.5 x 7 ½ in).
Pagoda - Near Canton, ca. 9,5x9 cm (3 ½ x 3 ½ in).
Canton, ca. 9x20 cm (3 ½ x 7 ½ in).
Bogue Forts - Canton River, ca. 7x20 cm (2 ½ x 7 ½ in).
Taku Forts (from the Baz) China, ca. 5x19,5 cm (2 x 7 ½ in).
Temple Point – Chafoo – China, ca. 9x19,5 cm (3 ½ x 7 ½ in).
Temple in Kusan Monastery – Foochow – China, ca. 11,5x10,5 cm (4 ½ x 4 in).
Pagoda Anchorage – Foochow – China, ca. 10,5x19,5 cm (4 x 7 ½ in).
From an album of "Sketches made on a trip Round the World." By Edward Morrison de Courcy Short, who attended Charterhouse School, Surrey (1870-6). He passed the Ceylon Civil Service exam in 1878, and in 1905 became Chairman of the Municipal Council and Mayor of Colombo, retiring in 1910.
List of Carthusians, 1800-1879, by W.D. Parrish.

 

98. SINCLAIR, Alfred Wadham (1866-1938)
[An Attractive Large Watercolour of Mount Aspiring with four People and two Horses in the Foreground, Titled on Verso]: Mount Aspiring, New Zealand by A. Sinclair.

Ca. 1890. Watercolour ca. 33x48 cm (13x19 in). Recently matted, edges with expert repair with three minor short repaired tears visible in image, otherwise a very good watercolour.
Sinclair is a listed Australian artist. "Mount Aspiring / Tititea is New Zealand's highest mountain outside the Aoraki/Mount Cook region. Set within Otago's Mount Aspiring National Park, it has a height of 3,033 metres (9,950 feet). Māori named it Tititea, which translates as Glistening Peak. Named in December 1857 by the Chief Surveyor for the Otago Province, John Turnbull Thomson. It is also often called 'the Matterhorn of the South,' for its pyramidal peak when seen from the Dart River. The first ascent was on 23 November 1909 by Major Bernard Head and guides Jack Clarke and Alec Graham. Head's party climbed to the summit ridge by the west face from the Bonar Glacier, a route not repeated until 1965" (Wikipedia).

 

99. TEMPLER, Charles Bertram, Major (1860-1931)
[Album of 52 Watercolours of Ladakh, South Africa, Switzerland, France, Portugal, England and Italy].

1886-1928. Oblong Folio (28x37 cm). 24 leaves. With 49 watercolours mounted on recto and verso of the album leaves, including 40 larger ones, ca. 18x25 cm (7x10 in), and nine smaller ones, ca. 12,5x18 cm (5x7 in). With three loosely inserted watercolours (two larger and one smaller, see sizes above). All watercolours captioned in ink on lower margins of the album leaves, all but one are signed "CBT" and dated from 1886 to 1925 in the lower left or right corner of the drawings. Manuscript title of the album on the first free endpaper "C.B. Templer. Octr. 1928. Exmouth. With sketches dating from 1886." Supplemented with a group of newspaper clippings mounted in the rear, and several loosely inserted items: a large cabinet portrait photo ca. 20x15,5 cm (7 ¾ x 6 in), captioned "Charles Lohann" [?] in the right lower corner, newspaper clippings and manuscript notes. Period black gilt tooled half morocco with green pebble-grain cloth boards A very good album.
This is an album with watercolours by Major C.B. Templer of the Indian Army, 19th Regiment of Bengal Lancers (Fane’s Horse). He served in India in 1880-1893 and took part in the second Mirazai Expedition of 1891, ten years after having been promoted to Lieutenant. According to the newspaper clipping "Some reminiscences of Indian Sport" in the rear of the album, while serving in the 19th Lancers he participated in the horse races and was the first winner of Indian Grand National Trophy, being nicknamed "Tosser Templer" on account of the number of times he was put into his hat. Templer objected to the article revealing the real story of him getting the nickname (see his manuscript notes on the clipping). After his service time, he lived in Execliff (Exmouth) and actively travelled around Europe and also visited South Africa. The last page of the album includes his photograph with his wife, taken in 1929, two years before his death.
The album starts with eleven accomplished watercolours of Ladakh produced in 1886, during Templer's time in the Indian Army - a view of "Leh, capital of Ladakh." "Tartar Camp," "Snows from Narkhanda, near Simla." portraits of a Buddhist Lama with the prayer wheel, a Ladakh shepherd "Biparu" and a woman coolie, as well as sketches of local animals supplemented with curious commentaries: "Ladakh Transport!! Yak, goat & sheep," "Spiti Pony. Very hard, never shod!! Feet as hard as iron!!," "Fighting Cock!," "Watch dog - Guards the sheep, goats &c., protected by iron collars against Leopards, wolves &c." An undated drawing, but obviously directly related to the same period, shows the grave of Templer’s charger Loreley somewhere in the Ladakh hills, inscribed "She was with me for 18 years, was my Charger and won me eleven races!! She was perfection in every way!!."
Another interesting group of watercolours is dated 1923 when Templer visited South Africa. Nine drawings show Cape Town’s Sea Point area with views of Lion’s Head Mountain, Camps Bay and Twelve Apostles mountain range. There is also a view of George city west to the Cape Town with the historic Montagu Pass and a view of a pine plantation in the George City's vicinity. A humorous sketch shows a rickshaw in Johannesburg with commentary "A Conveyance much used by the Dutch in Jo'burrg, something after the style of the Indian Jin-Rickoshaw! The men with them wear fantastic costumes!!!."
A large group of watercolours from 1912 is dedicated to the Swiss and French Alps (St. Croix, Chamonix) and includes nice views of Mont Blanc, Aig Verte, Aig Dru, Grand Charmoz, Aig du Blatcere, Aig du Plan, autumn colours of Argentière village near Chamonix and others. There are also watercolours from the trip to French Riviera (Menton and Cannes, 1921), the Estoril resort in Portugal (1924); several views of Exmouth (1916, 1924), Lake Geneva (1914, 1925), and Lake Maggiore in Italy (1926) et al.

 

100. TROTTER, A[lexander] M[ason] (Scotland 1891-1946)
[Watercolour, Apparently Used as an Illustration in 'The Graphic', Titled On Verso]: Death of Livingstone.

London, 1917. Matted watercolour on Whatman board ca. 27x38 cm (11x15 in). With an old fold (cracked at margins) on lower margin not affecting the main image, otherwise a very striking watercolour in very good condition.
This striking watercolour is a latter reworking of the famous scene of the death of David Livingstone. "David Livingstone died in that area in Chief Chitambo's village at Ilala southeast of Lake Bangweulu in present-day Zambia on 1 May 1873 from malaria and internal bleeding caused by dysentery. He took his final breaths while kneeling in prayer at his bedside. (His journal indicates that the date of his death would have been 1 May, but his attendants noted the date as 4 May, which they carved on a tree and later reported; this is the date on his grave.) Britain wanted the body to give it a proper ceremony, but the tribe would not give his body to them. Finally they relented, but cut the heart out and put a note on the body that said, "You can have his body, but his heart belongs in Africa!". Livingstone's heart was buried under a Mvula tree near the spot where he died, now the site of the Livingstone Memorial. His body together with his journal was carried over a thousand miles by his loyal attendants Chuma and Susi to the coast to Bagamoyo, and was returned to Britain for burial. After lying in repose at No.1 Savile Row "then the headquarters of the Royal Geographical Society, now the home of bespoke tailors Gieves & Hawkes" his remains were interred at Westminster Abbey" (Wikipedia).

 

101. WHITE, Richard Dunning, RN (1819-1899)
[Original Watercolour Showing a Panoramic View of Freetown Harbour, Sierra Leone].

1851. Watercolour and pencil on paper, ca. 27x63 cm (10 ½ x 25 in). Unsigned, captioned in ink on verso "Sierra Leone, West C. Of Africa. 1851 by B.D. White Commander H.M.S. 'Cygnet'." Recently mounted and matted. A very minor repair on the left side of the watercolour, otherwise a very good watercolour.
A fine original watercolour by the Commander of the HMS Cygnet, Richard Dunning White showing a panoramic view of Freetown, the capital of British West Africa in 1808-1874, famous for its beautiful harbour which is recognized as one of the largest natural deep harbours in the world.
Freetown "also served as the base for the Royal Navy's West Africa Squadron which was charged with halting the slave trade" (Wikipedia). HMS Cygnet (8-gun brig-sloop, launched in 1840) was also involved in suppressing the slave trade, and in 1850-53 under command of R.D. White served on the coast of West Africa. In 1851 the ship was in Sierra Leone (Index of 19th Century Naval Vessels// www.pbenyon.plus.com) where its Commander obviously created this view of Freetown.
Richard Dunning White, the youngest son of Admiral Thomas White, entered Navy in 1826 and for ten years served on the west coast of Africa (1843-53). At the time of the creation of the watercolour he was the Commander (since 1847). He retired in 1874 as Rear-Admiral and in 1881 became a Companion of the Bath. Another watercolour by R.D. White ("The Bombardment of St. Jean D'Acre," 1840) is now in the collection of the Victoria and Albert Museum.

 
 

102. WILES, Bernard Harper (1883-1966)
[Watercolour Portrait of a Sitting North-African Woman in Native Dress].

1911. Watercolour and ink on paper. Ca. 35x26 cm (13 ½ x 10 in). Signed and dated in the right lower corner. Recently matted, near fine watercolour.
Bernard Harper Wiles was the youngest son of sculptor Henry Wiles and perhaps most gifted. His artist brothers included W.G. Wiles and Frank Wiles. During the First World War, Bernard was an official war artist and seven of his works are held by the Imperial War Museum in London. After the war Bernard travelled throughout the Middle and Far East, painting as he went. The 1914 Bernard Wiles painting "The Water Carrier at a Town Gate" is typical of his works during this period (see the website about his brother W.G. Wiles, a South African artist).

 






 
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