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June 2016 - Exploration, Travels & Voyages - Archives, Journals, Letters & Manuscripts.
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1. [AFRICA - ALGIERS]
BAUDIN, Lieutenant de Vaisseau, Commander of the Warship “Vulcain”
[Official Certificate Given to Michel Lastrén, 2nd maitre cannonier, who served on the Warship “Vulcain” in 1829-1830, and in particular during the French Invasion of Algiers; the Certificate is Signed “Baudin”].
Toulon, 1 December 1830. Folio (ca. 29x18 cm). 1 p. Black ink on watermarked laid paper. A very good letter.
The certificate was given to one Michel Lastrén, “2nd maitre cannonier,” who “served under my command in 1829-30 and acted with the greatest zeal, the function of his grade. <…> Apart from the indispensable knowledge of his profession, he set an example of obedience, submission, zeal, courage and devotion”. The commander recalls of an incident on the 18th of July 1829, when a sailor fell off board the “Vulcain”, and “Lastrén was the first one to rush to his rescue. <…> [he] launched a small boat, grabbed the hurt man who was about to sink, and brought him on board. <…> The expeditions to Algeria and Tripoli de Barbarie have not allowed our mariners to show their courage and the devotion. Lastrén would have been the first one to show it. I’ve mentioned that officer in my report of advancement as extraordinary, and I give him this certificate as a proof of my esteem wishing that it will be useful one day” (in translation).
The “Vulcain” under command of lieutenant Baudin was a part of the reserve squadron of the French naval forces during the Invasion of Algiers (14 June – 7 July 1830).
“The Invasion of Algiers in 1830 was a large-scale military operation by which the Kingdom of France, ruled by Charles X, invaded and conquered the Ottoman Regency of Algiers. The invasion of Algiers began on 5 July 1830 with a naval bombardment by a fleet under Admiral Duperré, and a landing by troops under Louis Auguste Victor de Ghaisne, comte de Bourmont. The French quickly defeated the troops of Hussein Dey, the Ottoman ruler, but native resistance was widespread. This resulted in a protracted military campaign, lasting more than 45 years, to root out popular opposition to the colonisation. The so-called "pacification" was marked by resistance of figures such as Ahmed Bey, Abd El-Kader and Lalla Fatma N'Soumer. The invasion marked the end of several centuries of Ottoman rule in Algeria and the beginning of French Algeria. In 1848, the territories conquered around Algiers were organized into three départements, defining the territories of modern Algeria” (Wikipedia).
2. [AFRICA - ALGIERS]
BLANCKLEY, Henry Stanyford (1752-1820)
[Original Certificate on the Printed Form of the British Chancery Office in Algiers, Appointing Lewis Tonna as Blanckley’s Secretary].
Algiers, 9 October 1806. Oblong Folio (ca. 25x39 cm). Official printed form of the British Chancery Office in Algiers, with woodcut arms at head; finished in manuscript in secretarial hand and signed by Blanckley in the right lower corner. Brown ink on laid paper. With official red wax seal on the left margin. Overall a very good document.
“We, H. S. Blanckley Esquire, His Britannic Majesty’s agent and consul general in this City and Kingdom, certify that We do constitute and appoint Lewis Tonna Esqr. Our Secretary and do hereby Order that he is to be obeyed and acknowledged as such by all and every Person whom this may concern”.
Issued at the British Chancery Office at Algiers in 1806 and signed off by the then consul general Henry Stanyford Blanckley, this document appointed Lewis Tonna as his secretary. Blanckley, an army Mayor, had taken part in the siege of Gibraltar in 1782 before a nineteen year stint as consul in the Balearic Islands. He was the British Consul General in Algiers in 1806-1812 and went on to play a role in shaping British policy towards the Barbary Coast. Lewis Hippolytus Joseph Tonna (d. 1828) later became British vice-consul in Algiers and at Bona, vice-consul for Spain and consul for the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in Liverpool. He married Blanckley’s daughter Maria, and their son Lewis Tonna (1812-1857) was a polyglot, fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, and evangelical protestant campaigner.
3. [AFRICA - ASHANTEE (GHANA)]
JONES, Thomas Morgan (d. 1817)
[Extensive Important Autograph Letter Signed "Thos. Morgan Jones" and Addressed to Reverend Matthew Wilks (1746-1829) (one of the founders of the London Missionary Society) Describing in Detail Jones' Outbound Voyage to The Gold Coast, his First Impressions of Cape Coast Castle and his Experiences of his First Seven Weeks There, Including a Detailed Account of the Preparations of Bowdich's Mission to Ashantee of Which Jones was Initially Meant to be a Participant].
Cape Coast Castle (Ghana), 8 March 1817. Folio (ca. 33x20,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on beige laid paper. Addressed, sealed and postmarked on the last page. Fold marks, minor hole on the last page after opening, slightly affecting the text, a couple of repaired tears at folds, some soiling on last page, otherwise a very good legible letter.
A historically important letter which Jones starts by saying that the "voyage hither was very favorable.., [and that he] arrived here [Cape Coast Castle] on the 16th of Jany. . He goes on to describe the landscape, "the feature of the country all along the Gold Coast is nearly the same as it is here, namely small hills covered with bush or evergreen shrubs to their very summits which gives an appearance of perpetual verdure to the country that is very pleasing." He continues by saying that "a man from the interior is called a Bushman.., [and] there are so many novelties & such myriads of birds of every description, many of whose plumage is beautiful or curious in the extreme, that a man cannot walk out without deriving amusement. I should have now sent you some birds but when shot their plumage is generally spoiled as the natives do not bring them in for sale until the rainy season & after which period I hope to send you some that may be thought worthy a place in your museum if I can be sufficiently successful in my attempt to preserve them.., I think the bush may contain a great many that are not known." He also mentions large predators, "the only carnivorous animal that is constantly here is the patacos (hyena).., [a] large leopard has not been seen here for two years that was taken by the present king of the town in a trap after many fruitless attempts to do so. This animal put the whole town in consternation."
However, the most important part of the letter relates to the preparation of Bowdich's Mission: "we brought out very superb presents for the King of Ashantee & a deportation of officers with a guard is to take them up (this embassy is described in Thomas Edward Bowdich, (1791-1824), The Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee, London 1819)." Jones seems to have been meant to go on this mission but the new governor John Hope Smith (d. 1831) "wished to retain [him] at the castle.., [as the] limit the number to be sent to three officers [but still] it having been represented to him by Mr. Bowdich that I was qualified to take counter observations on the route was the reason of his so doing but as the expense of each individual will be very great on account of the great distance will be very great & as the instructions from the Committee are on a very economical plan no more will go than are absolutely necessary, namely [Frederick] James esq., Mr. Bowdich to take Lat. Long. Of various places on the route & whom I was to adjust. Mr. Tedlie as surgeon & botanist & a resident probably the first has resided many years in this country & has great knowledge of the manners, language & customs." Jones also covers many other topics in this extensive letter including further description of the countryside and its fauna, local customs and alcohol consumption, the local mission and its recently constructed school and Jones' financial and living situation etc, etc.
4. [AFRICA - BOER WAR]
CAPEL, Pvte W.B.
[Second Boer War Journal kept in the Field, Inscribed: "Written by Pvte W.B. Capel/ Vol. Special Service in South Africa".
South Africa, 1900. Duodecimo (13x10 cm). Ca. 20 pages. Home-made notebook cut down from a larger provisioning ledger, each page of which is printed with a list of commodities to be ordered, some 20 pages, written in indelible pencil on perforated pages, some leaves loose, first page smudged, otherwise in a good legible condition. Covers with part of the original volume's morocco label pasted on back cover, covers worn and front cover with chip of lower corner but overall in good condition.
Autograph journal kept in the field, inscribed on the inside cover: "Written by Pvte W.B. Capel/ Vol Special Service in South Africa/ If anything should happen to me will you kindly send this book to Mrs E.J. Capel/ my father and mother/ Gladstone Villa/ Wallingford/ Berks/ England/ Vol Co Royal Berks Regiment", beginning with his voyage out to the Cape in March 1900 and ending that July.
This vivid journal records Private Capel's experiences on his voyage to South Africa, where he disembarked at East London 9 April, and his company's march to join their regiment, the Berkshires, who they joined at Bloemfontein on 20 May, Capel keen to see active service ("...I feel as though I should like to smash into them to day Monday 16 [July] We marched off this morning at 7 o'clock with 2 days rations biscuits and beef whistling and singing. We marched to the kopjes where the Boers had been but we were disappointed they were gone bolted as usual..."). The last entry, dated Saturday 21 July 1900, breaks off abruptly: "we started from Camp about 7 am and had got fairly on the road when at 7x30 we heard guns fire and then the enemy started firing with big guns it was a row for about an hour ours against theres then the pom-poms started with their peculiar pop-pop there were also several sniping shots we lay under an hill just by one of our big guns. It was funny to hear the shells whistling through the air and then several seconds after you could hear the thud and a bang which shook the hills all round I am writing this while the shells are banging all round."
5. [AFRICA - EGYPT (NILE VOYAGE)]
MONK, Charles James (1824-1900)
[Collection of Five Autograph Letters Signed From Charles Monk to his Mother and Sister, Written during his Travels up and down the Nile, With Interesting Notes on the Temples and Sites Visited, Latest Events in Egypt, His Dragoman and the Boat Crew, Hunting Trips, Other European and American Travellers on the Nile et al.]
Kenneh, Thebes, Cairo, on board French mail packet “Lycurgue,” 1848-1849. Five Autograph Letters Signed, all Quarto (from ca. 26,5x21,5 cm to ca. 24,5x20 cm). Brown ink on white or blueish paper. In total 19 pp. Of text. Each letter addressed and with postal and quarantine stamps on the 4th page, four letters numbered from 50 to 53 in the upper left corners of the first leaves. Fold marks, paper mildly age toned, four letters with minor holes on the margins of the second leaves after opening, affecting several letters or words, one letter with minor tears on fold, affecting several letters, but overall a very good collection.
Important collection of original letters written by British politician Charles James Monk during his travel to Asia Minor and Egypt in 1848-1849 shortly after his graduation from Cambridge. The letters describe Monk’s travels along the Nile and give a valuable private commentary to his printed account “The Golden Horn and Sketches is Asia Minor, Egypt, Syria, and the Hauraan” (London, 1851, 2 vols.). Monk arrived in Alexandria in the beginning of October 1848 and proceeded to Cairo from where he sailed up the Nile turning back at the second cataract near Wadi Halfa in the end of November. Two letters were written during the trip in Upper Egypt – in Thebes and Kenneh. Monk talks about sites visited, his Dragoman and the crew of his boat, travel companion and other European and American travel groups in Egypt, excessive heat and flies, his numerous hunting trips when he shot among others several plovers, pigeons, a “splendid solan goose,” and a crocodile; cheap prices for local eggs and bread; mentions the death of the Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt (1789-1848); the election of Louis Napoleon the President of the French Republic and shares his plans for the further travel to Sinai, Palestine and Syria. The last letter written at the end of the travel contains a critique on Alphonse de Lamartine’s book “Voyage en Orient” (1835).
Later in life Monk became a director of the Suez Canal Company (1884).
Some excerpts from the letters:
1) The Thebaid, Upper Egypt, Kenneh 9 November 1848.
“The waters are now rapidly subsiding, but the breadth of this extraordinary river & the body of water which is spread upon the lands for miles on either side is quite wonderful, when we consider that it is unassisted by any tributary streams. The flies are so annoying that I scarcely have patience to endure them <…> We have fortunately left mosquitoes behind us a little above Cairo <…> our Reis & crew continue to give us satisfaction, but they always have that […?] word “Baksheesh” <…> in their mouths. I have been perfectly well ever since I have been in the Nile, as also has my companion Mr. May. This is the most delightful mode of travelling you can imagine. I am afraid I begin to take a selfish pleasure in it <…> Note that the Nile is falling, the peasants are busy at work with the shadoof raising water for the irrigation of their lands…”
2) Thebes. Upper Egypt. 17 December 1848 & Kenneh 21 December 1848.
“After leaving Kenneh we reached Thebes in two days, spent Sunday on the Western bank, where are the temples of El Koorhen, the Memnonium containing the fallen granite statue of Remeses the Great (1350 B.C.), the largest statue in the world, & that of Medeenet Aboo, & the two Colossal statues in the Plain, one of which is called the vocal Memnon from the circumstance of a sound having come from its mouth every morning at sunrise. From Thebes to Esouan, the first cataract we were about a week. The falls here are not more than 6 or 7 feet & we passed with the united efforts of about 200 men, who hauled the boat up with an enormous rope; & the same afternoon we came to the small island of Philae, on which are two temples of singular interest. <…> Our furthest point was Wadi Halfeh, the second grand cataract beyond which no boat can pass, lying between 21° & 22° N. Latitude. <…> The Governor at Wady Halfeh was a kind & agreeable Turk & came on board & dined with us & paid us several visits. He would have assisted us in going up to Dongola, but of course that was not on the question, & in fact I did not feel any desire so to do in camels by the river’s bank. <…> The death of Ibrahim Pasha, which you […?] from my last letter was daily expected, has fortunately not caused the slightest disturbance in Upper Egypt <…> Our Dragoman we were obliged to put on shore at Edfoo above Thebes, for he proved to be a perfect scoundrel.”
3) Hotel d’Orient, Cairo. 5 January 1849.
“We have enjoyed our Nile tour excessively & since leaving Kenneh we have seen some monuments of extreme interest including the grottoes of Beni Hassan, which illustrate the manners & avocations of ancient Egyptians even better than the royal tombs of Thebes. The Pyramids we have visited & examined throughout their details with great care, & we have certainly returned from our tour impressed with a high idea of the wonderful excellence which the Egyptians had attained in the arts & sciences in the early ages of the world. <…> At Beni Hassan I shot another crocodile. It is the most Northerly point at which they are ever found, & not very often there. Mt. May likewise killed a very small one in Nubia measuring 4 ft 3 inch.”
4) Oriental Hotel, Cairo. 18 January 1849.
“I little expected to see in Africa the prettiest gardens that I have ever met with; yet such if the case. The gardens of Mohammad Ali at Shubra are perfectly beautiful. They are filled with orange trees. <…> Ibrahim Pasha’s gardens in the Island of Rhoda are very pretty, but they were unfortunately 4 feet underwater last August owing to the excessive rise of the Nile. The Cairine bazaars, Mosques, Baths, & all other public buildings are so far inferior & even mean in comparison with those at Stamboul, that it would not be worth while giving any detailed account of them…”
5) On board the French mail packet “Lycurgue,” 100 leagues off Malta. 24 April 1849.
“I now feel my painful duty - don’t be alarmed – to denounce M. De la Martin as a gross impostor & unworthy of credit. His book is [full?] of misrepresentations from beginning to end & was the cause of much disappointment to me especially in respect to Beirut. Like many towns on the coast Beirut is very pretty from the Sea, but its environs can lay no claim to the extraordinary beauty with which La Martin has clothed them. The Lebanon both alone & below Beirut has much lovely scenery & I spent two or three most delightful days among the mountains, for we made up a very pleasant party (5 of us) & visited <…> Deir el Kammor [Deir al-Qamar], the Capital of the Druzes, where the banished Emir Beschir [Bashir Shihab II] used to live.”
6. [AFRICA - ETHIOPIA]
ROCHET D'HÉRICOURT, Charles-Xavier (1801-1854)
[Autograph Letter Signed ‘Rochet d’Héricourt’ to a Magazine Editor].
Paris, 18 February 1846. On a folded Octavo leaf (ca. 19,5x12 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on wove paper. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
Autograph letter by renowned French explorer of the East Africa, the leader of two expeditions to Ethiopia in 1839-40 and 1842-43, which resulted in his books, “Voyage sur la côte orientale de la Mer rouge dans le pays d'Adel et le royaume de Choa” (Paris, 1841) and “Second voyage sur les deux rives de la mer Rouge, dans le pays des Adels et le Royaume de Choa” (Paris, 1846). In a letter to a magazine editor, Rochet d'Héricourt denies a proposal to publish his biography with the detailed description of his travels: “The relation of my travel has been published in the ‘Revue Novelle’ and I don’t have anything to add; regarding my biography the only event of my life which could be included are my travel adventures, and I don’t have anything to add to what I’ve published” [translated from French]. However he will send the editor a copy of the report to the French Academy of Sciences which will be printed soon, and is ready to give “verbal explanations” (“explications verbales“) which could be useful for the correspondent.
Interesting letter revealing the process of publication of the results of Rochet d'Héricourt’s second travel to Abyssinia (1842-43). He mentions the official account of the expedition (Arthus-Bertrand, 1846) and the extensive report prepared for to the French Academy of Sciences (see: La Revue Novelle. Tome 9. 2-me année. Paris, 1846, p. 147-165) which were both published that year.
7. [AFRICA - GOREE ISLAND]
[Period Manuscript Copy of]: An Address from the [Principal] Inhabitants of Goree to Lieut. Colonel Chisholm.
Goree Island, 26 May 1816. Folio (ca. 32x20,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Legible handwriting in secretarial hand. Mild fold marks, otherwise a near fine document.
Farewell gratitude letter to Lieutenant-Colonel James Chrisholm (ca. 1765 - 1821) of the Royal African Corps who has been the Commandant of Goree for seven years. British garrison was quartered in Goree during the last British occupation of the island of 1800-1817 (French reoccupied the colony on 25 January 1817). The letter is signed by twelve citizens of Goree, mostly French (Reni Dupuy, Pierre Lapolicett, Cader Francio, Martin Terranjou, Armond Laport, James Bradley, Ja. Lanim, Nicolas Jonga, Jn. Baudin, Pierre Louis, Fs. Defontnoy, Pierre Jurpin, Mayor).
“It is with sincere regret we the undersigned being the principal inhabitants of Goree, learn that you are about leaving this island, we cannot in Justice to our feeling allow you to depart without offering our most grateful thanks for your fatherly care and constant attention to forward our welfare”. The letter praises “the great improvements you have made in this Island”, “the state of defence you put the garrison in when surrounded by the Enemy’s Ships of War”, “the impartiality and moderation of your decisions in the Administration of Justice” and notes that “the high state of discipline you have maintained over the Troops under your Command not only secured to us our Property, but kept the most perfect harmony between the Soldiers and all Classes of Inhabitants.”
“The Friends of the African Institution are greatly indebted to you for your in remitted Exertions in carrying their humane and liberal views into execution. As a token of our regard and gratitude we beg you to accept of few Gold Rings and wear them in remembrance of us”.
James Chisholm was a British army officer who served in the Guzerat and Upper Bengal provinces of India (since 1796). In 1807 he took part in the British attack on Buenos Aires. “In 1808 he was promoted to a majority in the Royal African Corps, with which he served on the coast of Africa, and, during a part of that time, as Commandant of Goree. While thus employed, he uniformly and determinedly opposed the abominable and inhuman traffic in slaves, many of whom he rescued from their oppressors, and restored to their families and to freedom. On his departure from the Island in 1816, the inhabitants of Goree, French as well as English, voted him a gold medal, and an affectionate address, as a flattering testimony of the sense they entertained of his services, and as a mark of gratitude for the zeal with which he watched over the safety and interests of the Settlement. The Reports of the Royal African Institution contain abundant proofs of his cordial exertions in favour of the unhappy natives of Africa…” (Obituary/ Gentleman’s Magazine. February 1822. P. 182).
8. [AFRICA - NIGER RIVER]
[KAY, Albert Elms, Lieutenant, RN]
[Original Manuscript Account of the 1867 Voyage up the Niger River by H.M.S. Investigator, with a Detailed Description of a Battle with the Natives after the Ship had been Grounded on a Sand Bank in the Niger Delta for Eleven Days, Negotiations with the Local Chief, Liberation of the Hostage, Casualties on Board et al.].
HMS Investigator, R[iver] Niger, ca. 1867. Folio manuscript journal (ca. 33,5x21 cm). Brown ink on bluish wove paper on five bifoliums for a total of 20 pages written on 18 1/2 rectos and versos. Each bifolium numbered in the upper left corner of the first page. Fold marks, paper age toned, minor chips to margins, not affecting text, last page with a repaired tear not affecting text. Overall a very good manuscript written in a legible hand.
Historically significant original manuscript report of the voyage of HMS “Investigator” under command of Lieutenant A.E. Kay up the Niger River from its delta (the mouth of the Nun River) to Lokoja (central Nigeria). This was one of the yearly voyages of HMS “Investigator” undertaken in 1862-1869 for diplomatic and commercial purposes, as well as to carry cargo and coal to British missions and factories up the Niger. The purpose of this particular voyage was to bring up to Lokoja, Captain J. Lyons McLeod - new British Council for the districts bordering on the Niger and Tchadda Rivers (appointed in 1866), and to “cultivate friendly relations with the tribes living on the banks of the river, and to open communication for the purposes of trade” (Correspondence with the British Commissioners at Sierra Leone, Havana, the Cape of Good Hope, Loanda and New York, and Reports from British Vice-Admirals and from British Naval Officers Relating to the Slave Trade, From January 1 to December 31, 1867// Accounts and Papers of the House of Commons, London, 1868, p. 55). McLeod was to go as far as Rabba to visit King Masaba of the Bida Emirate.
The manuscript, although unsigned is most likely the original draft written by Lieutenant Kay and gives a detailed description of the events on board HMS “Investigator” from 27 July to 14 August 1867. This is a shorter version of Kay’s report published as the enclosure # 1 to the correspondence 22 from Consul McLeod to Lord Stanley, dated Lokoja, 1 September 1867 (Correspondence with British Ministers and Agents in Foreign Countries, and with Foreign Ministers in England, relating to the slave trade. From January 1 to December 31, 1867// Accounts and Papers of the House of Commons,' 1868, pp. 18-24 or 682-688). The texts in this manuscript and the printed reports are very similar, the narration in the manuscript one is more concise and finishes with the ship’s arrival to Onitsha (southeastern Nigeria) whereas the printed report continues till 22 August. The manuscript is most likely the first draft of the report later edited and enlarged by Kay before being sent to the British Foreign Office.
Kay reports about the “Investigator’s” arrival to the mouth of the Nun River from Lagos, purchase of coal from the West Africa Company’s factory at Akassa, and voyage up the river. There is a detailed and dramatic description of the crew's struggle after the ship had been grounded on the sand bank near Imblamah village on July 31 and was floated only on August 10, “the eleven days she was aground in the delta of the Niger, and exposed to six different attacks by the Imblamah pirates, during each of which they endeavoured to obtain possession of HMS “Investigator” (Correspondence with British Ministers and Agents in Foreign Countries…, p. 18)”. The report details the attempts to take the ship of the sand bank, shooting and fights with the natives, casualties on board, negotiations with the local chief, liberation of the hostage from the “Investigator’s” crew, and others. Overall a very interesting eye-witness account of the early commercial navigation in the Niger delta.
“In August 1867 Mr. McLeod started up the Niger in H.M.S. Investigator. The Investigator was a wooden paddle-wheel steamer, 121 feet long, and drawing 4 feet 5 inches. Her armament was three 12-pounder Howitzers, and she carried a crew of 40. The ship grounded at Jublana, and for six days the natives attacked the man-of-war with heavy rifle-fire. The Consul, as an ex-naval officer, with McCarthy, an African carpenter, fought the forward gun. The ship was in great danger. The natives surrounded it with their canoes and threatened to board, and it only escaped after jettisoning most of its stores and so lightening the ship that it was able to float over the shoals and get up to Lokoja” (Geary, W. Nigeria under British rule. 1927, p. 168).
Some excerpts from the manuscript include:
July 31st. "... Passed the hostile villages Aloberi, Kiamah, & Opotolo which fired just after passing, 6 guns - 10. Passed the hostile villages of Imblamah, a canoe pulling off with wood. 11:45 grounded suddenly on a sand bank, marked in the chart as I thought an island, stopped, backed astern full speed, sinking ship hard aground... Two canoes came alongside, one with a goat... The other canoe containing about 15 men making demands for drink, not receiving which, not being permitted to come alongside, they departed... I deemed it advisable to lighten her forward, having 15 tons of coal... Landed coal, about 4 tons... On shore… and left the Krooman to look out the coal, I was returning to the ship on Pinnace, when suddenly a heavy fire of musketry was opened on us, and the ship, the krooman guarding coal attacked, driven into the water, natives swimming after him, severely wounding him on head with some sharp weapon...
The fire still continuing & most of my kroomen having jumped overboard, I hailed the ship to open fire... I having only one man left with me... The krooman who had been attacked floating down the River - Sent Sub-Lieutenant [Mallory] to pick him up, a heavy fire being opened on the boat... I used ten rounds of ammunition to each white man & armed the kroomen with cutlasses, pikes, knives & every available weapon in the ship.
August 1st. Casualties - 1. Kroomen on shore badly wounded... But as they [natives] saw the paddles in motion they kept up heavy fire", my kroomen being very frightened, I was obliged to draw my sword on some who would not work under fire... When the natives saw no men on deck they ceased firing. Water rising a little, commenced lightening the ship, & heaving overboard everything heavy... Unfortunately they pitched two more bread pancheons overboard than I intended...
2 August. "... 9.10. Departed this life from wounds Mr Grants - Engineer Steward... 2.20 PM. Committed to the deep the remains of Mr. Grants deceased... Having been up since the ship grounded, over exertion & anxiety produced a feverish attack...the men also beginning to feel the effects of want of rest... "
3 August. "... The ship still aground... Coal getting short, drew fires & blew out boiler, intending to try and dig the sand clear of paddle wheels. Employed heaving overboard private gear, got Bickford's fuze ready for blowing the ship up... I see no possible chance of getting the ship off, as I find less water every day... The natives being reinforced every day... "
"... At about 2 PM heard natives on shore hailing & shewing a white flag, I returned it by shewing a handkerchief, when a Boast with four men came alongside, by means of an interpreter the following intercourse took place. - It appears by their statement that ...when the krooman was left to look after the coal, he strayed as he states 'to go to the rear' but the natives on shore say he went into their plantation...
... They saw either the body of the deceased man or us burying him, and being afraid of the consequences... The hostile villages had sent them a message that if they hurt any white men next year large steamers would come up & take their country - They said they wished for us peace, but in my own belief they were short of ammunition... Frightened of what they had already done... They also said that another steamer had passed up the river a short time back, near this place, & that for a dash, they had dug her out... They would do the same for me, they then wanted me to give a present for their chief, which I did & also a bottle of Brandy, they promised to return..."
4th August. "... Captain beginning to get very weak, also men gradually getting weaker after four days hard work, & exposure I deemed it advisable to give them a little rest. A canoe came alongside with fowls to barter and a present... Mr. Mallory also presented the chief with a new coat... They then left promising to bring 20 men & dig us out, natives coming freely round the ship, the greater part of them being females. 1 PM. Natives came off & commenced digging ship out... I deemed it advisable to send them away for the night & to have an interview with the chief on shore...
...I then informed him that I came to see King Masaba, that I would not hurt him, or any of his people... If he would dig the ship out... To come onboard & see what he would like, for having thrown overboard nearly everything, I was placed in a very strange position... "
5th August. "... Lighted fire, got up steam, kroomen having dug trench deeper... Ship still hard aground... I fear my only chance of getting ship off will be to wait until the River flows, or with the assistance of the steamer 'Thomas Bazley' returning...
... Canoe going to and for with messages from chief concerning what I would give him to get me off & he wanted rum... I would not give a single thing more until the ship was afloat... Received a message requesting to know if I would send one man, as hostage for the 20 he would send, and a guarantee for the present... I immediately send the man, (one krooman John Brown who volunteered), not fearing treachery... Canoe left with cowries (5 bags) and John Brown Krooman (Benin Boy)... Suddenly a heavy crop fire with large guns & musquets was opened on us from the bush... I returned do. With both Howitzer loaded... & rifles... When the shell from the Howitzer burnt among them I heard screams as though some of them had been killed, or wounded, them firing also... Eventually ceasing about 3.30 PM...
I find it almost impossible, my crew being mostly composed of Kroomen, & they having been under fire before, to heave the ship off. I fear very much that John Brown krooman is killed, but being a Benin Boy they may sell him..."
7th August. "... Only 1/2 ton of coal left... Water still falling... 12.12 foremost Howitzer dismounted by recoil... Heavy firing still going on down the river... A canoe was observed pulling for the ship, holding up an umbrella, I shewed a white flag... The man informed me had come from his father, at a place near Onitsha, having heard that a man was aground in the river, & also to enquire the reason of the natives firing on us, that he was going on shore immediately to hold a palaver... I asked him if it were possible to get back my Benin Boy... He said that with the aid of a bottle of rum he might be able to restore the Benin Boy, & sent his canoe with the rum, for that purpose, himself remaining on board... The canoe in a short time returned, bringing back the rum, not having seen anyone... I then gave them food, observed four musquets & several swords in the Boat. About 4:30 they left the ship, being called by the natives on shore & did not return."
9th August. "... This being the 10th day we have been on shore, water having left us... The same who informed us he had come from his father at Onitsha... He had held palaver... Tried to bring off the man they had made prisoner... Is I would give him a tail-coat he would bring off my man... As the man was taken prisoner as an hostage, not in a fight, I would not..."
10th August. "... Kroomen over side digging away sand... Ship slightly started, draught of water about from 6ft to 10ft, forward 3 feet 8 inches... Weather threatening & at noon commenced to rain. 1.45 sent kroomen to dig away sand, heaving in on cables... 2. ship floated, opening on starboard cable... Got up steam, clearing pinnace & stowing chain ... Sent pinnace for the coals that were landed before reaching shore, a fire was opened on her & ship... Returned do. With rifles, but ship swinging stern on the guns would not bear, most of the kroomen jumped overboard from boat but pinnace got alongside, mostly by the aid of the gunner's mate... Went in gig & brought off canoe, natives deserting her as I approached..."
11th August. "... Proceeded towards hostile villages with white flag at fore. 11.20 anchored off ditto & informed them that if they did not deliver up my man, I would open fire in them. White flag responded to by villages on shore... 2 PM. Natives took man over to the opposite shore, abreast the ship, in an unarmed boat, send boat to communicate with do. But boat having waited over half an hour, & kroomen not coming towards the gig & finding they would not give up the man, & not being the least alarmed about his safety, weighed & steamed up river, it being my intention to recover him by force, on my return down the river..."
12th August. "... 6.15 Weighed, proceeded slowly up the river, soundings very irregular, numerous sand spits not shown in chart... 10. Touched ground, backed astern, sent gig to sound a canoe... 10.40 Allowed a canoe with pilot Jack flying, pilot came alongside, hoisted his canoe up... He knew very little about river... 12.50 Stopped & anchored off Ebo. 1.20 Chief from Ohaghi[?] visited the ship, gave him a dash... Informed him that I had come to visit chiefs & also that I wanted wood, which I would pay for, he sent the canoe for ditto. 3. The chief of Ebo & his wife came on board, presented him with gifts which seemed to please him very much... The next day both chiefs still remaining on board, their great desire being to get rum, I gave them as much as I thought proper. 5. Chief of Odaghi's canoe came off with a little wood, promising more in the morning & wishing to be paid for what he already brought off. I gave him 1 bag of cowries =25/. The chief of Ebo presented me with a Bullock providing I came on shore, the first thing in the morning, to shoot it.
14th August. "... Anchored off Osamari... 9.30 Chief came off, presented him with Government Present... 2 PM. Passing Oki village... 4.10 anchored at Onitsha, laid out warps to steamer Thomas Bazley to keep ship from swinging into the eddy... At Mission House the Bishop kindly offered his services to go with us. Presented chief with his present... Heard from Mr. Jervis, that the steamer Thomas Bazley had been on shore... For 9 days, but natives were friendly, she also grounded on the same spit that I had been on shore on, but being a powerful steamer, backed off, they also informed me that the river being so low, the charts could not be relied on..,"
9. [AFRICA - NIGER RIVER]
LUGARD, Frederick John Dealtry, Baron (1858-1945)
[Two Autograph Letters Signed "F.J.D. Lugard" to "Thomas" and "Fagan" (of Natural History Museum) Dated 1 Sept. 1895 and 15 Feb. 1896 Respectively].
[South Africa], 1895-6. Octavo. 3 pages each. Octavo letters each ca. 18x11 cm (7 x 4 ½ in). Black ink on laid paper. The letters are written in a legible hand and are in near fine condition.
The two interesting letters are full of content and in the 1895 letter Lugard discusses what "Thomas" has in his collections (especially the horns and skin of a hartebeest) and asks for a spare Kobus Kob skin. He has immature Kobus Kob horns if he wants them from" South of Lokoja on Niger bank." Perhaps he is discussing the results of his expedition to Borgu.
In the 1896 letter Lugard describes in detail the sort of man he wishes to employ looking after stores and doing "miscellaneous work", a taxidermist or collector. Presumably he is preparing for the expedition to Lake Ngami (1896-7).
"West Africa, 1894-1895:
Despite any disenchantment over his experience of two companies and his longed for but dwindling hope of returning to east Africa in senior government service, Lugard now embarked, however hesitatingly, on another roving company expedition. An offer of service came from Sir George Goldie, who had obtained a charter for his Royal Niger Company and in 1894 was busily concluding treaties with local chiefs so as to strengthen the company's capacity to repel the encroachments of the French in the Niger region. Aware that they were preparing an expedition to Borgu, Goldie wanted Lugard to proceed to Nikki, its chief town, and to forestall the French and Germans by securing a treaty from the ruler. In a rapid and remarkable march through unexplored country, Lugard won the so-called ‘steeplechase to Nikki’, to the dismay of the French, who had no doubt about the motives of one whom they stigmatized as ‘the conqueror of Uganda’.
Southern Africa, 1896-1897:
A brief interlude in southern Africa followed. Lugard left the Niger in April 1895, still hoping that the government would ask for his services in Africa. Agonizingly, his appointment as CB brought nothing more with it, so he accepted an offer from yet another African company, the new British West Charterland Company, and set off to explore a mineral commission near Lake Ngami in Bechuanaland. Here the main problem was not fighting but transport. The journey involved 700 miles across the Kalahari Desert, and a rinderpest epidemic had emptied the country of trek cattle. Nevertheless, the journey was accomplished by September 1896. In the following August, Lugard received an urgent and surprise message from the new colonial secretary, Joseph Chamberlain, inviting him to take up work in west Africa. It was an imperial appointment at last. What Lugard called his ‘destiny to Africa’ entered its third phase: after central and east Africa, henceforth it was to be west Africa. It turned out to be the longest connection of them all" (Oxford DNB).
10. [AFRICA - NIGER RIVER]
PARRY, William Edward, Sir (1790-1855)
[Autograph Letter Signed “W. Parry” to “My dear Buxton” regarding the Ale Supply for the Niger Expedition 1841-42; With: Lithographed Portrait of William Parry].
Admiralty, 8 December 4. Small Octavo (ca. 17,5x10,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Written on verso of the official note from the Controller of Victualling Department of the Royal Navy, dated “Admiralty, Somerset House, 6 December 1841”. Paper aged toned, mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter. Portrait: lithograph on paper, ca. 1830-s, ca. 9,5x7,5 cm; lithographed titled and printer’s address on the lower margin.
An interesting item of the Niger Expedition 1841-1842, this letter from the famous Arctic explorer Sir Edward Parry, was written when he was a high ranking Admiralty official. The letter is addressed to Charles Buxton (1823-1871), English brewer, philanthropist, and Member of Parliament, the letter concerns the ale supplies for the participating steamers. It was Charles’ father, Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton (1786–1845), a noted British politician and abolitionist, who was the initiator of the expedition.
Parry forwards Buxton the official answer from the Royal Navy “Controller of Victualling” which says that “the Ale required for the Niger Expedition has been ordered from the Parties who supplied it on the last occasion, namely Mr.s Hodgson & Abbott, Captain Trotter having written favorably respecting the former supplies made by the same parties” [Henry Dundas Trotter (1802-1859) – the commander of the Niger Expedition]. Parry further notes “I have great hopes of receiving better accounts from the Niger, when we next hear <…> I hope to write to your father today”.
“The Niger expedition of 1841 was a largely unsuccessful journey in 1841 and 1842 of three British iron steam vessels to Lokoja, at the confluence of the Niger River and Benue River, in what is now Nigeria. It was mounted by British missionary and activist groups, with the backing of the British government. The crews of the boats suffered a high mortality from disease” (Wikipedia).
“In mid-August 1841 the expedition entered one of the mouths of the Niger. Early in October the last of its ships was limping back, its commander prostrated by fever, the cabins crammed with sick and dying, the geologist working the engines with the aid of a textbook. Those seven weeks cost forty-one European lives” (Dictionary of African Christian Biography on-line).
11. [AFRICA - SENEGAL]
GRANDJEAN, J. S., Adjutant-General
[Signed Manuscript Regarding French Possessions in Africa]: Note Sur Les Possessions Francaises En Afrique.
Paris, 19 Pluviôse, 3rd Year of the Republic . Folio (ca. 31,5x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Manuscript in fine condition and housed in a custom made red gilt tooled quarter morocco portfolio.
Manuscript signed by the Adjutant-General J.S. Grandjean is a summary of the main points of the report submitted by him in 1766, on his return from Gorée, to minister Choiseul. The report discusses the gold mines at Galam (Senegal), gum arabic that should be shared with the Dutch, and special water resistant wood found on the Island of Boulam.
"The island of Gorée was one of the first places in Africa to be settled by Europeans.., After the French gained control in 1677, the island remained continuously French until 1960.., Gorée was principally a trading post, administratively attached to Saint-Louis, capital of the Colony of Senegal. Apart from slaves, beeswax, hides and grain were also traded..., Étienne-François, comte de Stainville, duc de Choiseul (1719-1785) was a French military officer, diplomat and statesman. Between 1758 and 1761, and 1766 and 1770, he was Foreign Minister of France and had a strong influence on France's global strategy throughout the period. He is closely associated with France's defeat in the Seven Years War and subsequent efforts to rebuild French prestige" (Wikipedia).
12. [AFRICA - SLAVE TRADE]
[HALL, Charles, Commander of H.M. Brig Rolla]
[Period Copy of Hall’s Letter to the Editor of the United Service Gazette, Regarding the West African Slave Trade, Titled:] The Present Slave Trade; Stating only a Tithe of Its Horrors. By an Eye-Witness.
Ca. 1840. Folio (ca. 33x20 cm). Brown ink on Stacey Wise laid paper watermarked “1840”. 4 pp. Unsigned, but written in a very legible hand. Fold marks, paper slightly age toned, but overall a very good manuscript.
The exact (apart from several words or grammatical forms) period copy of Commander Hall’s letter which was first published in the United Service Gazette (January 1843) and later in Rev. S.A. Walker’s “Missions in Western Africa among the Soosos, Bulloms, etc…” (London-Dublin, 1845, pp. 76-77). Hall commanded HMS Rolla at Cape of Good Hope and West coast of Africa in 1838-1842. He didn’t succeed in capturing many slave ships, but assisted in liberating slaves from several barracoons on shore at the Gallinas River (Sierra Leone), as well as destroying eleven large slave barracoons belonging to the white piratical slave dealers (see more: The Friend of Africa, London, October 1842, p. 156). The letter vividly describes the mechanism of West African Slave trade, huge profits made by traders, mode of transportation on slave ships, horrible conditions of slaves, et al.
“The cruel, unfeeling and heartless Slave Traders, or their agents, reside at the most convenient places at or near the Slaving Towns, or villages on the W. Coast of Africa, and have generally large, expensive establishments in the shape of barracoons for from 500 to 1000 men slaves to live in; others for women and boys, with comfortable Dwelling Houses and every luxury for themselves. They have also Factories, or Storehouses containing quantities of Slave goods, the only inland barter for Slaves. <…> The slaving piratical vessels which run across the Atlantic for Cargoes of Slaves sail very fast and are generally armed with large Guns, for the express purpose of killing and wounding the Seamen and sinking the Boat belonging to the British Cruisers showing at the time no flag of any nation. On their making to the Slave Coast where they are bound to, they immediately, night or day, communicate with the shore, by means of light canoes <…>, when they immediately make sail off the land, and at the appointed time stand I close to the beach <…> They have certain information where the [British] cruisers are on the coast, their sailing qualities to a nicety, having scouts along the coast and communication kept up by signals, fires, smokes and small kroo canoes which pull along shore very fast, giving timely notice of the approach of a Man of War.
The inducements to the Slave dealers are very great, if at all successful they realize a profit of 180 to 200 per cent and upwards. <…> The present System pursued in endeavouring to put down the Slave Trade by Cruisers is attended with great risk, anxiety and loss of life, with heavy expenses to the Country - it is also attended with unspeakable horrors and unutterable sufferings to the poor unfortunate Slaves who are doomed for exportation. They are frequently for months (from a man of war blockading the Slaving place) kept in a state of mere starving existence in the Barracoons on shore; from the heavy expense of feeding them, many are starved to death, chained together by the neck, in gangs from 12 to 20, or shackled by the legs in pairs. On an opportunity offering, they are shipped off in an exhausted, inanimate state, and packed in a Slaver’s hold nearly in bulk, when their miseries or sufferings increase, as they are deprived of fresh air, and almost deprived of Water, which they did not feel the want of in the Barracoons…
The articles made expressly for the Slave Trade are of the worst possible manufacture – the rum is horrible and drives the natives mad, the muskets burst to pieces in their hands, and the tobacco is made of the worst ingredients possible. The most worthless articles are exported, for which the natives are charged a very exorbitant price. Every possible imposition is practised on the poor, much benighted African; and debased in intellect to the lowest grade by the white piratical slave dealers, the scourge and curse of Africa, and to the utter disgrace of any thing in the shape of a human Being.”
13. [AFRICA - TIMBUKTU]
RITCHIE, Joseph (ca. 1788-1819)
[Interesting Autograph Letter to John Whishaw, Secretary of the African Institution, Written at the Beginning of Ritchie's Ill-Fated Expedition to Africa, to Introduce Sidi Hassuna D'Ghies, who was a son of the Prime Minister of the Pasha of Tripoli, and Later Would Become the Pasha’s Foreign Minister, and Additionally he was Later also Connected to the Fate of Alexander Laing].
Marseilles, 28 August 1818. Quarto (ca. 25,5x19,5 cm). 1 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Mild fold marks and light chipping of the top margin, ink slightly faded, but overall a very good legible letter.
Rare historically important letter by Joseph Ritchie, an English surgeon and African explorer, written during his ill-fated expedition to Northern Africa in 1818-1819, which tried to ascertain the course of the Niger and the location of the fabled Timbuktu. Ritchie and George Lyon followed the route of Frederick Hornemann’s expedition of 1797, crossing the Sahara via Murzuq. “The expedition was underfunded, lacked support and because of the ideas of Barrow departed from Tripoli and thus had to cross the Sahara as part of their journey. A year later, due to much officialdom they had only got as far as Murzuk, the capital of Fezzan, where they both fell ill. Ritchie never recovered and died there” (Wikipedia).
The letter, written in Marseille shortly before Ritchie's departure for Malta was addressed to John Whisham (1764-1840), the secretary of the African Institution and the biographer of Mungo Park. Ritchie introduced to him 'Sidi Hassuna D'Ghies, a Tripolitan who has passed some time in this Town - & son of the present Minister of the Pacha. I am anxious in some measure to repay the Services which he has rendered me during a tedious detention here (waiting for a passage to Malta) by giving me much useful information respecting Africa; the interest which has been so kindly taken in the Attempt I am about to make, emboldens me to hope that his liberality & goodness will be well-appreciated in England'.
Hassuna D’Ghies was appointed the foreign minister of the Pasha of Tripoli in 1825. He “came from a wealthy merchant family with commercial interests in Ghadamis, Fazzan, and various European countries. Having spent seven years in London and Paris on business and diplomatic missions, he was familiar with European ways. [British consul in Tripoli] Warrington, who had most to lose from Hassuna D’Ghies insistence on conducting business with the consuls in a way which prevented their intervention in local affairs, used the death near Timbuktu in 1826 of the English explorer Major Laing as an occasion to force the pasha to dismiss his foreign minister. <…> Warrington claimed, without any substantial evidence, that Laing’s assassination had been plotted by the Pasha and D’Ghies, that the latter had given Laing’s papers to the French consul in return for a forty per cent reduction of a debt which he owed him and that Caillie had never set foot in Timbuktu and the diary he had published under his name was compiled from Laing’s papers.” As a result in 1829 D’Ghies was announced by the pasha responsible for Laing’s death and replaced as foreign minister by his brother Muhammed (Abun-Nasr, Jamil M. A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period. Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 202).
Ritchie was involved into scientific and literary circles of London. He foretold the exceptional literary future of John Keats, and “possibly from some association of ‘Endymion’ with the Mountains of the Moon, promised to carry a copy of the poem with him to Africa and fling it into the midst of the Sahara” (Oxford DNB).
14. [AFRICA - WHITE MAN'S GRAVE]
[Original Manuscript Titled:] List of Death Among the Late African Company Officers in the Settlements on the Gold Coast from the 1st of January 1812, to 1st of January 1822 Being a Period of Ten Years.
Gold Coast, 1822. 4 pages. Folio manuscript ca. 34x21 cm (13x8 in). Brown ink on laid paper. Manuscript with tears but no loss of text housed in a blue cloth custom made portfolio with a red gilt morocco cover label. In very good condition.
This report by the Assistant Surgeon in the African Company of Merchants concerns the mortality rate among the Company's officers during a period of ten years (1812-1822) and includes a list of fifty people (indicating their names). The "Remarks" section explains the statistics: "The African Company Establishment when fully appointed consisted of forty-five commissioned and non commissioned European officers but during the period of time stated above, there was not more than thirty-five residing in the Settlements on a yearly average & the deaths among them being five annually on an average." Arthy also counts the number of the native workers of the Company: "170 non commissioned officers and private soldiers, and 334 artificers, labourers and labouresses", and states that the mortality amongst them "except on occasional visitations of the Small Pox, was generally at the rate of one percent per annum, and very rarely exceeded two percent".
Arthy concludes that "there is much reason to believe that the Climate of the Gold Coast would be found considerably less destructive of the health and lives of Europeans than that of any other intertropical country round the world. In reality to decide this question, it does not seem necessary to enquire further that Sierra Leone, Charlestown, the Havannah, Surinam and Batavia, wherein the mortality among Europeans annually so excessive and lamentable and so generally known as might serve to remove all Doubts of the superior salubrity of the Climate of the Gold Coast to that of all other tropical countries".
"The African Company of Merchants was a Chartered Company in the Gold Coast area of modern Ghana, in the coastal area where the Fante people lived. It was founded in 1752 and replaced the Royal African Company which was dissolved in that year. In 1817 the Company had signed a treaty of friendship that recognized Asante claims to sovereignty over large areas of the coast, including areas claimed by the Fante. The Company was abolished in 1821, as the slave trade had not been suppressed in these privately held areas. Authority over the area was given to Governor Charles MacCarthy, the governor of Sierra Leone, who was subsequently killed in the First Anglo-Asante War" (Wikipedia).
LIVINGSTONE, David (1813-1873)
[Autograph Letter Signed "David Livingstone" Dated at Mr. Stearns', Malabar Hill, Nov. 2nd 1865 and Addressed on the Verso “To H. Chowfussy." “I expect a telegram from James Young... On a subject of considerable importance to me, but as it would appear from your careful investigation that no telegram has come from England for me, the only other source I can imagine must have been from the Governor and as I have written to him to-day he will see that I have not received any - I think that no further search need be made but with hearty thanks I remain sincerely yours..,” [With] A Carte de Visite Albumen Photograph of Livingstone Standing by a Table ca. 1865 (8.5 x 5.5 cm).
Nov. 2nd 1865. Octavo letter (ca. 18x11,5 cm) in four pages on a bifolium. Carte de Visite Albumen Photograph mounted on period stiff card with pencil caption "Livingstone" under photograph. Brown ink written in a legible hand on laid beige paper. Fold marks and with residue of mounting paste, but overall the letter and the photograph are in very good condition.
In November 1864, Livingstone had decided that he "would try to ‘settle’ the watersheds of central Africa, though he insisted that he remained primarily a missionary. He planned to return to the Rovuma, pass to the north of Lake Nyasa, look for the Nile headwaters, and then make for Ujiji, on Lake Tanganyika; but he still hoped to find a site for a trading mission. The expedition was to be small-scale, without a steamboat, and without other Europeans. The RGS put up £500, as did the British government; and £1000 came from James Young, a friend from Livingstone's student days in Glasgow, who had made a fortune from distilling paraffin"(Oxford DNB); James Young's (1811-1883) £1000 contribution is perhaps what explains the importance of the mentioned telegram to Livingstone. This letter dates from Livingstone's time in Bombay where he organized and recruited for this expedition. "In Bombay, Livingstone recruited several sepoys, and twelve Africans from mission schools.., [and] the governor, Sir Bartle Frere.., gave the party passage in a government ship to Zanzibar [in January 1866]"(Oxford DNB). This was to be Livingstone's last expedition where after a long period without contact to the outside world, Stanley found him at Ujiji in 1871 and greeted him there with the famous salutation, "Dr Livingstone, I presume?" William French Stearns (1835-74) was the son of the distinguished President of Amherst College, Massachusetts. He was engaged in the business of Stearns, Hobart & Co. Of Bombay from 1857 to 1868. Livingstone had met Stearns in 1865 on a steamer to Bombay and had become firm friends. Stearns letters from Livingstone were published by Boston University's African Studies Centre in 1968.
ROHLFS, Friedrich Gerhard (1831-1896)
[Autograph Letter in German Signed "Gerhard Rohlfs" Dated at New York 29 Nov. 1875 and Addressed to most Likely his American Agent Regarding two Lectures Rohlfs is Planning in the United States; With: A Carte de Visite Sized Albumen Photograph of Rohlfs ca. 1875 (9 x 5.5 cm) Signed in Black ink on Bottom of the Original Paper Mount].
Letter, Octavo (ca. 20.5x12.5 cm). 2 pp. Purple ink on grayish lined wove paper mounted into a larger sheet of paper. Photograph also mounted in a larger sheet of paper. Fold marks, but both items overall in very good condition.
This interesting letter from Rohlfs' 1875 visit to the United States, mentions various topics of interest for his proposed lectures there, including his travels in Morocco, where he crossed the Atlas Mountains and visited the Oases of Draa, Tafilet and Tuat and his travels from the Mediterranean via Lake Chad to the Gulf of Guinea. In 1865-1867, Rohlfs was the first European to travel from Tripoli across the Sahara via Lake Chad and then along the Niger River to its mouth on the Gulf of Guinea. Rohlfs trip to the United States followed shortly after his return from his latest expedition in Egypt where together with Georg August Schweinfurth he "Ascend[ed] the Nile from Alexandria to Asyut to carry out an exploration of the Western Desert. This well-planned enterprise was intended to provide detailed information on the Sahara, its inhabitants, geography and botany, and was backed by a team of eminent scientists" (Howgego, Continental Exploration 1850-1940, R28).
17. [ALASKA - BOUNDARY DISPUTE]
LYTTELTON, Alfred (1857-1913)
[Autograph Letter Signed “A. Lyttelton” to “My Dear Sir” Regarding the Alaska Boundary Dispute].
21 January 1904. Small Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm). 3 pp.Brown ink on watermarked paper with blind stamped “Colonial Office” letterhead; marked “Confidential” in ink in the upper left corner. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
A confidential private letter by Alfred Lyttleton, British Colonial Secretary in 1903-05, regarding the communications with Canadian officials about the Alaska Boundary Dispute. The letter was most likely addressed to Richard Everard Webster, first Viscount Alverstone (1842-1915), Chief Justice of Great Britain, one of three commissioners on the Alaska boundary dispute – as president of the commission he voted against the Canadian claim.
“I shd be very glad to see your reply to Sir W. Laurier. It is interesting to find that in a memo of [Joseph Hodges] Choate in 1902 Laurier is described as in a most timorous and conciliatory attitude <…> They did not report me at the Canada [?] in full, but I cd not refrain from saying something about you, & the Canadians received it very well, though it was not violently abusive of you.”
18. [ALASKA - NOME GOLD RUSH]
SHERZER, Edwin B.
[Autograph Letter Signed "Edwin" from Sherzer to his Fiancé Clara Miller in St. Louis MO. Dated Nov. 1, 1900. Sherzer].
Nome, Alaska, Nov. 1, 1900. With 6 1/2 large octavo pages of text on rectos in dark brown ink on beige thin wove paper (20 - 25 lines per page), with the last sheet having half the verso filled in pencil. Letter accompanied by addressed & stamped envelope, postmarked Nome , AK, Nov. 2 1900. Paper with some very mild age toning but overall letter and envelope in very good original condition.
Missouri natives Sherzer and his brother were two of Nome's first postal workers and also operated a dog sledding business in Nome. In this interesting content rich letter from the first year of the Gold Rush in Nome, Sherzer describes his everyday life in Nome to his Fiancé and also in detail his dog sledding business: "We have had lots of snow and everything is on runners and everybody riding. There was a fine trail made on the river in front of our cabin and we called it the race course. The dogs would simply fly over it and we were sitting back on the sled had great fun.., you see women all wrapped up in furs seated in a basket sled with a team of 5 or 6 dogs running along with them. I have found it fine sport, but brother says just wait till you get out on the trail and it is work, then you won’t enjoy it so much.., We have both been working in the Post Office but that only lasted until Nov. 1. However, we would not have stayed anyway as we have our assessment work to do before January and we can also make more money with our dog team. Four or five persons have tried to buy the dogs from us already and one fellow wanted to hire them but we wouldn’t let any of them go as we have a fine team and have not been keeping them all summer for nothing."
19. [AMERICAS - GIOVANNI DA VERRAZZANO]
GIOVIO, ‚Giulio‚ Bishop of Nocera (ca. 1510-ca. 1563)
[Official Letter Signed by Giovio to “Molto Magnifico Signor” Solomeo Solomei in Florence‚ Introducing his Nephew Passing through Florence on his way to Rome].
Como, 19 March 1560. Folio (ca. 31x21 cm). 1 pp. With the integral blank leaf. Brown ink on laid paper, text in Italian in secretarial hand, signed by Giovio, addressed and docketed on verso of the second blank leaf. Fold marks, second leaf with the lower blank corner clipped and minor staining from the removed seal, but overall a very good letter.
Letter by Giulio Giovio‚ the bishop of Nocera, Campania (1552-1560), writer and nephew of noted prelate, historian and physician Paolo Giovio (1483-1552). Giulio Giovio inherited the title of the bishop of Nocera from his uncle (Paolo Giovio held the seat in 1528-1552). Among poetical works of Giulio Giovio is an extensive poem, a part of which is dedicated to Giovanni da Verrazzano who travelled to North America in 1524, thus becoming “the first European since the Norse expeditions to North America around AD 1000 to explore the Atlantic coast of North America between the Carolinas and Newfoundland, including New York Bay and Narragansett Bay.” A contemporary of the events, Giulio Giovio collected news about the voyage directly from the testimony of Verrazzano’s brother, Jerome. The eleven octaves of Giovio’s poem related to Giovanni da Verrazzano were published by A. Bacchiani under title “I fratelli da Verrazzano e l'eccidio di una spedizione italo-francese in America (1528)” (Boll. Della Società geografica italiana, s. 4, II (1925), pp. 395-399). The later years of Giulio's life he spent at his uncle’s villa, called Museo because of a large collection of painting and antiquities, including one of the first collection of artefacts from the New World, where he sorted the unpublished works of his uncle.
20. [ARCTIC - GREENLAND]
CHARCOT, Jean-Baptiste (1867-1936)
[Autograph Letter Signed ‘J. Charcot’ to ‘Un Monsieur’ About Latter’s Son’s Desire to Join the ‘Pourquoi-Pas?’ Crew. Neuilly-s-Seine, 5 May 1933. Quarto ca. 27 x 21 cm (10 ½ x 8 ¼ in). One page. Laid paper, folded twice, the text is written in ink in a legible hand, with the address printed on top. Very minor tear on fold, otherwise in very good condition.
[With: An Original Press Photograph Oblong Octavo ca. 13x18 cm (5x7 in) Dated 24 June 1934 Showing "Polar Explorer Honoured O.P.S.: Dr. Charcot, the famous French polar explorer, receiving a medal from Marshal Franchet d'Esperey at the Geographical Society today. On right is Mme Charcot, the servant's wife, on left Mme Waldeck-Rousseau, sister of Dr.Charcot."] Photograph annotated in Spanish and with several stamps and pasted on notes in English and Spanish. A very good photograph.
These two items are related to the last expedition of the famous French Antarctic Explorer Jean-Baptist Charcot. Conducting an ethnographic survey of Greenland and Iceland in partnership with the French explorer Paul-Émile Victor, the crew of the ‘Pourquoi-Pas?' also mapped the region. The expedition ended with tragedy, when on 16 September 1936 the ship was caught in a violent cyclonic storm and was lost on the reefs off the coast of Iceland. Twenty-three of the crew were lost in the wreck and 17 survivors died before rescue came, leaving only one survivor, Eugène Gonidec, master steersman. Jean-Baptiste Charcot was one of the dead, aged 69 (Wikipedia).
The letter is from Charcot to an unidentified recipient whose son wished to join the crew of the expedition ship 'Pourquoi pas?.' Charcot would have liked to respond positively, but: "Le 'Pourquoi pas?' est armé par la Marine Nationale et son équipage ne peut être formé que par des marins d'Etat en activité. Si votre fils s'était trouvé sous les drapeaux au moment de la désignation de l'équipage j'aurais pu tenter une démarche au Ministère mais dans les conditions actuelles il n'y a malheureusement rien à faire." [The 'Pourquoi pas?' is outfitted by the Marine Nationale and its crew can only be formed from currently working Marine's servicemen. If your son was doing his national service at the time the crew was chosen, I could have tried and queried the Ministère. However, owing to these circumstances, there is nothing much that I can do]. Charcot also mentioned Doctor Louis Gain (1883-1963), the naturalist of the French Antarctic Expedition 1908-10, who directed the request to him. Regarding the date of the letter it’s likely related to Charcot’s last expedition departed for Greenland in 1934. In that case the letter is not only an interesting historical witness of the last Charcot’s expedition, but also a document which might have saved the life of a young French mariner.
The accompanying press photograph was taken shortly before Charcot left on this, his last expedition.
21. [ARCTIC - HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY]
CHARLES, John, Chief Factor at Fort Chipewyan (d. 1849)
[Autograph Letter Signed to Alexander Christie, Chief Factor of the York Factory, Reporting of the Brigade’s Affairs Before Leaving Norway House to Fort Chipewyan for the Season].
Norway House, 1 August 1830. Quarto (ca. 25x20 cm). 3 pp. Addressed, sealed and docketed on the last blank page. Fold marks, minor hole on the last page after opening, slightly affecting the text, otherwise a very good legible letter.
An interesting letter from John Charles, a leader of the Hudson’s Bay Company’s Athabasca Brigade and Chief Factor at Fort Chipewyan (1830-1834), written on the eve of the brigade’s departure to the interior for the winter trade. The letter is addressed to Alexander Christie (1792-1872), chief factor of the York Factory, subsequently considered one of the most influential factors of the Hudson’s Bay Company.
Charles reports on the departure of the Athabasca Brigade, as well as conditions and supplies at Norway House: “We have now nearly made an end of our Business here and expect to move off at the latest in a Day or so. Our four Boats for Athabasca were away Yesterday with an Ample Supply for the Season to meet all Demands. The Goods forwarded by Messrs. Meler & Hargrave for the Men’s Equipment were most ample <…> the Men appear quite Satisfied with these Advances, which are the best they ever got.”He hopes that when “the Athabasca Brigade will henceforth return from the Plain [?], if we could have a Building of some kind erected for transacting our Business it will be of great Advantage, for at present the want of Sufficient Room even to make a temporary Shop, creates much Inconvenience, and I may add not a little Confusion. I would also be obliged to you to give Orders to have the Boats built for us at this Place, for the New Boats brought from the other Places we generally get the Worst.” Charles reports that “in order to prevent too much of some Articles and too little of others being forwarded for Men’s Equipment next Spring, I have made out a Requisition, both for Advances and Outfit, which if it can be complied with will be fully Sufficient.” He also complains of hard conditions on the Winter Road, resulting in sickness and injury among the Indian accompanying the brigade. Overall a very interesting informative letter.
22. [ARCTIC - NORTHWEST PASSAGE]
[Collection of Four Related Autograph Letters Signed by John Franklin, Frederick William Beechey, John Richardson and John D. Hunter, Apparently Addressed to Nicholas Garry, Deputy Governor of the Hudson’s Bay Company).
Four ALS, all dated by days of the week but without a year, but 1824. Three Small Octavos (ca. 18x11,5 cm), and one small note ca. 9,5x11 cm. Each 1 page, brown ink on wove paper. One with a pencil written list of names on verso. All with old identical guards on verso, indicating that the letters were mounted together in an album. Very good letters.
An interesting collection of original letters by noted Arctic explorers, apparently all related to meetings to make preparations for the 1824-25 voyages to find the Northwest Passage. Three letters were written by the members of two corresponding expeditions to the region: John Franklin and John Richardson, who explored the shores of the Arctic Ocean west and east of the Coppermine River in 1825-1827, and Frederick William Beechey, who explored the Bering Strait from the west in 1825-1828, in an attempt to meet Franklin’s expedition. In his letter Franklin also mentions George Francis Lyon who was to sail on HMS Griper to the Repulse Bay in June 1824. The author of the fourth letter, John D. Hunter, also mentioned in Franklin’s letter as a participant of one of the meetings, was apparently an organiser or a member of one of those expeditions. Dated by days of the week, the letters refer to several meetings in March 1824. John Richardson’s letter was written at “55 Devonshire Street,” which was John Franklin’s London address.
Beechey’s and Hunter’s letters are addressed to “Mr. Garry,” most likely Nicholas Garry (ca. 1782-1856), deputy governor of the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1822-1835. Fort Garry (now Winnipeg) was founded and named after him in 1822. Several places in the Northwest Passage were named after him during the expedition season of 1825-27. John Franklin gave his name to the Garry Island in the delta of the Mackenzie River “for all his active kindness and indefatigable attention to the comfort of myself and my companions” (Franklin, J. Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea, 1825, 1826, and 1827. London, 1828, p. 36). William Parry named Cape Garry in the Somerset Island, Prince Regent Inlet “after by worthy friend Nicholas Garry, Esq., one of the most active members of the Hudson’s Bay Company, and a gentleman most warmly interested in everything connected with northern discovery” (Parry, W. Journal of a Third Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific; Performed in the Years 1824-25 in His Majesty's Ships Hecla and Fury. London, 1826, p. 140).
In his letter to Mr. Garry, John D. Hunter also mentions “Mr. Halkett”, who was most likely, John Halkett (1768-1852), director of the HBC and a member of its London Committee.
The texts of the letters:
Franklin: “My dear Sir, I shall have great pleasure in joining your party on Thursday the 25th but you must let me off early as I am engaged to an Evening party. I was just going to write to you when your note came, to say Mrs. Franklin and I will be glad to have the pleasure of your company at dinner on Tuesday 30th March at six. I hope Mr. Hunter will be with us also. I will send your letter to Capt. Lyon and I shall probably take the opportunity of seeing Parry tomorrow. Ever sincerely & faithfully yours, John Franklin. Tuesday Eveng.”
Richardson: “Dear Sir, I shall with much pleasure dine with you on Wednesday next at 7. I am dear Sir yours sincerely, John Richardson. Saturday, 55 Devonshire Street.”
Beechey: “Captain Beechey presents his compliments to Mr. Garry and will have the pleasure of accepting his polite invitation for the 6th inst. Harley Street, March 21st.”
Hunter: “I sincerely thank you my dear Mr. Garry for the book you were kind enough to send me, but my engagements will I fear render it out of my power to read it through. I will dine with you on Tuesday if I return from Brighton in time. I shall start at 11 this morning, & contemplate to return on Monday evening, I am much pleased to hear that among other friends Mr. Halkett will be one. Believe me very sincerely yours &c. John D. Hunter. Saturday morning.”
23. [ARCTIC - SPITSBERGEN]
CONWAY, Sir William Martin (1856-1937)
[Autograph Letter Signed “M. Conway” to Mr. Colles (Most Likely Literary Agent William Morris Colles (1865-1926) Regarding two Books Conway has ready "First Italian Renaissance" and one far advanced, "History of Spitsbergen"].
London, 13 Dec. 1901. Quarto (ca. 23x18 cm). 1 pp. Gray ink on wove paper with printed address letterhead " The Red House, Hornton Street, W." With ink stamp received 14 DEC 01 on top on page. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter written in a legible hand.
An interesting letter from Conway to his literary agent highlighting both his mountaineering and art endeavours. Conway notes that he needs the typescript of the first (Italian Renaissance) back for "my February lectures.., [and that] my History of Spitsbergen.., advances apace."
"In 1896 Conway surveyed in Spitsbergen, an island in the Arctic circle about which he wrote several books. According to Arnold Lunn, Conway's experiments with skis while crossing Spitsbergen made him one of the pioneers of British skiing"(Oxford DNB). Conway's History of Spitsbergen titled: "No Man's Land, a History of Spitsbergen from its discovery in 1596 to the beginning of the Scientific Exploration of the Country" was published by the Cambridge University Press in 1906.
24. [ARGENTINA - BUENOS AIRES]
HODGSON, James (from Hodgson, Robinson & Co.)
[An Extensive Autograph Letter Signed, from James Hodgson‚ Merchant at Buenos Aires‚ to Messrs. Fielden Brothers, Owners of the Cotton-Spinning Firm in Manchester, Regarding the Insurance of the Latest Shipment‚ with Comments on the Textiles Suitable for Export to South America].
Buenos Aires, 22 February 1821. Quarto (ca. 25x20 cm). 3 pp. Addressed, sealed and docketed on the fourth blank page, with two postal stamps, including a stamp of “Portsmouth Ship Letter” ibidem. Fold marks, minor hole on the third page after opening, slightly affecting the text, but overall a very good legible letter.
An interesting and extensive business letter from James Hodgson, the owner of one of the main British trade houses in South America in the first half of the 19th century. Addressing his partners in Manchester, Fielden Brothers’ textile firm, Hodgson describes at length the latest sales of their goods, and settlement with the insurance company (“Lloyd’s Company of Underwriter”) in a case pertaining to damaged cargo. He also expresses slight critique of the Fielden Brother’s production and suggests some improvements: “By the way I should observe that the width of your Prints is somewhat complained of, & I am sorry to say, I fear with some justice, they being only 23 ½ inches. In your next shipment you may put in a Couple of Cases of handsome furniture patterns. I wish also to give you a few very useful instructions, for your future guidance. Your Magda pollams [?], Irish Shirtings & Platillas may be of double pieces or length, say 48, 48x56 yds. Each <…> Where the packets of patterns are very large, they should be divided into several parcels to avoid any tedious notice of the Customs House <…> In case you should ever have to recommend my Establishment to any new Correspondent, I beg you will not mention my terms of Commission to yourselves… Above all, for my just guidance I beg of you to Invoice your goods at their exact price & do me the justice to believe that I only consult your best Interest when I make this request…”
In a copy of his previous letter from 7th of February 1821 written after the main text Hodgson gives and interesting note on the preferable textiles for the South American market: “The red ground prints are getting out of vogue, and it will not be advisable for you to repeat them. Your next shipment of this article should be <…> red, green, yellow, pale lilac and <…> handsome darkish grounds – all with very bright lively tints. The newest patterns are generally the most favorite. I cannot obtain any tasteful patterns.”
A very interesting and informative letter.
“Hodgson, Robinson & Company (formerly Green & Hodgson) was a major British import/export house trading with South America during the first half of the nineteenth century. The developing markets of South America provided good opportunities for British textile manufacturers and merchants to export their wares, while wool, hides, tallow and dried beef were traded in the opposite direction. James Hodgson went into partnership with Joseph Green of Liverpool in 1818, trading between Britain and Argentina. The partnership was dissolved in 1829 and in the following year Hodgson formed a partnership with John Robinson, his former accountant; both partners were based in Buenos Aires. The partnership lasted until 1844, whereupon James Hodgson returned to Liverpool, although he continued to trade on his own account, and still owned a ranch in the Cordoba province of Argentina” (See: e-catalogue of the John Rylands Library of the University of Manchester).
“The partnership of Fielden Brothers was formed in 1816, based at Waterside Mill in Todmorden, West Yorkshire, and it became one of the most important and profitable textile firms in the country. John Fielden, a practising Unitarian, was elected MP for Oldham in 1832 with William Cobbett. He was known for his radical politics, taking an active part in the movement to limit the hours of factory labour and attempting to get a minimum wage agreement for handloom weavers” (See: e-catalogue of the John Rylands Library of the University of Manchester).
25. [ASIA - ANGLO-NEPALESE WAR]
GARDNER, Edward (1784-1861) [Resident in Kathmandu 1816-29]
[Autograph Letter Signed to a Superior (Most likely Governor-General of Bengal, Francis, Earl of Moira (later 1st Marquis of Hastings) Reporting the Latest Intelligence Including Troop Strengths and Movements of the Gurkhas (Nepali Troops) in the Anglo-Nepalese War (1814-16)].
Hawalbagh, 18th Dec. 1815. Quarto (ca. 25x20 cm). 6 pp. Brown ink on beige wove paper Original fold marks, otherwise in very good condition.
An historically important letter written by Gardner from Hawalbagh during the ratification period of the Treaty of Segauli. The letter starts with information about Nepali troop strength in Kumaon which "does not appear to be above four or five hundred men at present" Other Nepalese troops "are said to have gone to the East towards Nepal." Generally of the Nepalese troops "there does not seem to be any of that bustle among them that one would expect on the eve of an invasion notwithstanding the warlike preparations on our side - it certainly has not the appearance of war on the part of the Gurkhas." Also mentioned is a letter Gardner received from Colonel Gardiner from the Gurakhpur frontier where Gardiner says "nobody knows anything about the Gurkhas in that quarter. That they are neither seen nor heard of or appear from what he can learn, to be making any preparations for defence, however in not seeing them he says is no proof that they are unprepared for us."
Gardner "played a crucial role in bringing Nepal into treaty relations with the British in India"(Watson, Lost Botanist of Nepal). For his services Gardner was rewarded by being made Resident (Honoray Consul) to the court of the Rajah in Kathmandu in 1816, where he remained as Resident for the next 14 years; "With his deep understanding and strong liking of the people of Nepal, he was the perfect person for the job and against the odds he largely succeeded"(Watson). Gardner was also a passionate plant collector but his "prolific collections and his pioneering contribution to Himalayan botany are largely unknown to modern botanists" (Watson).
26. [ASIA - BUKHARA]
HEDIN, Sven (1865-1952)
[Autograph Note Signed “Sven Hedin” to Johan Abraham Björklund, Chief Editor of the “Nya Dagligt Allehanda” Newspaper].
Friday, 10 [April 1891]. 12mo (ca. 16,5x12,5 cm). 1 p. Black ink on a folded card Swedish postal letter form, addressed and with a postal stamp (Stockholm, 18.4.91) on verso. Text in Swedish. Original centrefold, otherwise a very good note.
A short note signed by a noted explorer of Central Asia Sven Hedin regarding his article about the meeting with the Emir of Bukhara which was apparently published in the “Nya Dagligt Allehanda” newspaper (Stockholm) on 25 March 1891.
Hedin visited Bukhara during his second trip to Persia and Central Asia in October 1890 – March 1891. During the first part of the trip he worked an interpreter for the Swedish-Norwegian mission to Nāser al-Dīn, shah of Iran (1890), and later on “he traveled on the Silk Road via cities Mashhad, Ashgabat, Bukhara, Samarkand, Tashkent and Kashgar to the western outskirts of the Taklamakan Desert. On the trip home, he visited the grave of the Russian Asian scholar, Nikolai Przhevalsky in Karakol on the shore of Lake Issyk Kul. On 29 March 1891, he was back in Stockholm. He published the books King Oscar's Legation to the Shah of Persia in 1890 and Through Chorasan and Turkestan about this journey” (Wikipedia).
27. [ASIA - BURMA (MANDALAY)]
COLQUHOUN, Archibald Ross (1848-1914)
[Autograph Letter Signed "Archie Colquh[oun]" to Mrs MacGregor and Discussing Work on his Book "Across Chrysê: Being the Narrative of a Journey of Exploration through the South China Border Lands, from Canton to Mandalay" (London, 1883)].
Edinburgh: 11, St. Bernard Court, 19 November 1882. Octavo ca. 18x11,5 cm (7 x 4 ½ in). Two pages; black ink on laid paper, written in a legible hand. The text of the letter is clear, despite parts of three words on verso having been trimmed away in detaching the leaf from the second leaf of what was previously a bifolium. These include the last three letters of Colquhoun's signature. Letter with folds but overall in a very good condition.
In his letter Archibald Ross Colquhoun, an explorer, colonial administrator and author, talks about his work on a prospective book, dedicated to his travels in China and Burma in 1881-1882: the "narrative is to be 2 vols: and to be entitled “ACROSS CHRYSÊ” being the narrative of an exploration through the South China Borderlands from Canton to Mandalay." In a short footnote he describes the derivation of "Chrysê" and afterwards asks Mrs MacGregor to "tell all yr. Friends to make certain of securing tickets for a certain lecture by a certain distinguished Ind<o> China traveller!" Seeing Mr MacGregor "amongst the audience at the c/commerce [i.e. Chamber of Commerce] on Wedy." brought back to him "days wh. Seem very far off now <..,> and indeed hardly part of my own life!" Colquhoun's book was published shortly afterwards under the same title by Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington (London, 1883).
Colquhoun "joined the Indian Public Works Department in 1871 as an assistant surveyor. In 1879 he was secretary and second in command of a government mission to Siam and the Shan States, and in 1881-2 he travelled from Canton (Guangzhou) to Bhamo to find the best railway route between China and Burma. Widely regarded as an explorer of the first rank, his Indian administrative obligations prevented him from accepting an offer from Henry Morton Stanley to act as second in command of his Congo expedition <..,> He was in reality an accomplished writer of more than fourteen scholarly books and numerous articles on colonial administration, comparative ethnography, railway and canal construction, land settlement, trade prospects, and geopolitics and defence in the European colonial empires, Russia, China, east Asia, and the Americas. He was a regular contributor on these subjects to British, North American, and German journals and newspapers. He was one of the most widely respected travel authors of his time and he built up a series of influential friendships, counting sometime American presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Taft, and the Canadian imperialist Sir George Parkin, among his friends" (Oxford DNB).
28. [ASIA - CENTRAL]
VAMBERY, Arminius (1832-1913)
[Autograph Letter Signed; [With] Autograph Note Signed "A. Vambéry" to Martin Wood, sometime Editor of "The Times of India" and the author of several books on India. With one original envelope addressed by Vambéry. [Embossed heading] Athenaeum Club, Pall Mall, [London], 10 and 11 July 1892 respectively.]
London, 10 July 1892. Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm). 3 pp. Total four pages with one envelope with stamp. Black ink on laid paper. The letter, note and envelope are all in near fine condition.
This letter is an answer to a letter sent by Wood, in which Vambery says "In political questions of high importance, as the Central Asiatic is, diversity of opinions is very natural, and I am not the least astonished of [sic] the quite opposite view you exhibit in your letters." He would like to show his respect for his views with a personal meeting, and asks him to suggest a time and place. [11July, one page] He confirms their appointment to meet the following day at the Athenaeum. Note: Vambery, a friend of Bram Stoker's, is said to have been the model for Van Helsing, the vampire hunter in "Dracula."
In 1861 Vambery, "disguised as a Sunnite dervish, and under the name of Reshit Efendi, he set out from Constantinople. His route lay from Trebizond on the Black Sea to Tehran in Persia, where he joined a band of pilgrims returning from Mecca, spending several months with them traveling across Central Iran (Tabriz, Zanjan, and Kazvin). He then went to Shiraz, through Ispahan, and in June, 1863, he reached Khiva (Central Asia). Throughout this time, he succeeded in maintaining his disguise as "Reshit Efendi," so that upon his arrival at Khiva he managed to keep up appearances during interviews with the local khan. Together with his band of travelers, he then crossed Bokhara and arrived at Samarkand. Initially, he aroused the suspicions of the local ruler, who kept him in an audience for a full half-hour. Vámbéry managed to maintain his pretences, and left the audience laden with gifts. Upon leaving Samarkand, Vámbéry began making his way back to Constantinople, traveling by way of Herat. There he took leave of the band of dervishes and joined a caravan to Tehran, and from there, via Trebizond and Erzerum, to Constantinople, arriving there in March 1864.
This was the first journey of its kind undertaken by a Western European; and since it was necessary to avoid suspicion, Vámbéry could not take even fragmentary notes, except by stealth. He returned to Europe in 1864. That following June, he paid a visit to London, where he was treated as a celebrity because of his daring adventures and knowledge of languages. That same year, he published his Travels in Central Asia, based on the few, furtive notes he was able to make while traveling with the dervishes. Returning to Hungary, Vámbéry was appointed professor of Oriental languages at the University of Budapest in 1865, retiring in 1905" (Wikipedia).
29. [ASIA - CHINA (SECOND OPIUM WAR)]
WYNNIATT, Commander Robert James (1830-1860) R.N.
[An Autograph Content Rich Letter Signed Robert Wynniatt Addressed to his Sister Lot, from on Board H.M.S. “Nimrod”, Shanghai, Dated Sunday July 15th , Talking about Recent Events in the Second Opium War (1856-1860)].
H.M.S. “Nimrod”, Shanghai, July 15th . A bifolium (ca. 25x20 cm), written on 3 pages and addressed on the fourth page, Cirencester cancel dated Sp. 20 1860. Dark brown ink on bluish wove paper, original fold marks, some mild toning of address page but overall written in a legible hand and in very good condition.
This letter, written from H.M.S. Nimrod at Shanghai, discusses the war in China: "Operations have not yet commenced in the North so that until then it is impossible to say how long it will take before peace is restored but however I do not yet despair of being able to leave China before the end of the year. I fancy Lord Elgin is just as anxious to get matters over as anybody else that has spent any time in China.., The Rebels have been making great progress near here lately and the bloodshed & murder has been according to all accounts something frightful."
In 1857 Wynniatt became Lieutenant-Commander of HMS Plover, an Albacore-class wooden screw gunboat launched in 1855, serving in the Far East. In 1859, during the Second Opium War (1856-1860), he was given acting command of HMS Nimrod (a six-gunner). Nimrod took part in at the Second Battle of Taku Forts (1859), an unsuccessful attack on heavily defended forts at the mouth of the Pei-ho river (in which Wynniatt's former posting HMS Plover was sunk). Wynniatt was mentioned in Rear-Admiral James Hope's dispatches. At the end of the war Nimrod sailed for England, first taking the news of the successful negotiations at the end of the War to Australia. However Wynniatt died on route and was buried at Galle, Sri Lanka. He was only 30 years old, apparently weakened by his earlier adventures in the Arctic.
As a young lieutenant in 1850 he was mate during Robert McClure's expedition in search of Franklin and the Northwest Passage. When their ship became ice-locked, Samuel Gurney Cresswell and Wynniatt "accompanied a sledging party led by Richard Roche, a mate on the resolute, back to the North Star at Beechey Island. [They] and a few invalids from the investigator found their way back to England the same year in the supply ship Phoenix under Edward Augustus Inglefield, effectively becoming the first Europeans to travel through the Northwest Passage"(Howgego 1850-1940, Polar Regions B15). Wynniatt won an Arctic Medal for his service. Poulsom & Myres p. 342. However during the expedition he was badly affected by scurvy; both he and Cresswell suffered ill-health for the rest of their careers and died at a young age.
30. [ASIA - EAST INDIA COMPANY]
RICKETTS, G.P. Esq.
[Letter and Account Book of G.P. Ricketts Esq., Collector for the East India Company Including an Historically Important Eyewitness (Possibly Previously Unknown) Account of the Massacre of British Troops at Senkadagala in the First Kandyan War in 1803].
Bihar, India, 1803-1815. Folio (33x21 cm). 207 pp. Brown ink on laid paper written in a generally legible hand. Period brown blind stamped reverse full calf. Rebacked in style with raised bands, extremities mildly worn but overall in very good condition.
Ricketts was a collector for the East India Company in the state of Bihar in northern India. The series of letters begins in 1803, with Ricketts’ application to the Governor General to be relieved of his duties as Collector and be made a Judge instead. This application is refused. He then pleads poor health and asks for a vacation in Colombo, which is granted in 1803.
It is during his time in Colombo that on 11th of July 1803, he witnesses and includes a seven page deposition by "Mahomed Gane a free Malay and late a servant to Ensign Robert Barry of the Malay Corps in Ceylon," Who gives an eyewitness account of the hostilities at Kandy and the massacre of British Troops at Senkadagala in the First Kandyan War in 1803. Gane starts his deposition by describing the initial storming of the English held palace in Kandy by the Kandyan forces under the command of the Malayan Prince "Sanguylo:" At "2 o'clock on the morning of Friday, the 24th of June the Candians began to fire upon the palace were the British troops were quartered, about 5 o'clock the Malay's on the service of the King of Candia headed by Sanguylo their chief attempted to force the palace, Sanguylo entered and was seized by Lieut. Blackiney of the 19th Regt. and struggling with him they both fell on the ground when Sanguylo with his [weapon] stabbed Lieut. Blackiney near the eye of which he died instantly, and while Sanguylo was still on the ground Lieut. & adjutant Pendestuth [stabbed his] bayonet thro' his body and a soldier gave him also a stab, of which Sanguylo died on the spot. That the second in command of the Candian Malays who followed Sanguylo in the attack was shot without the door of the palace - These deaths frightened the Candian Malays and they retreated." Gane goes on to describe in detail the events of how the English garrison at Candy eventually surrendered "a white flag was hoisted on which the firing ceased on both sides" and how a safe conduct was negotiated but how the English officers and soldiers were instead massacred and Gane reports on the murder of the English officers that he "saw the mangled bodies of some of them," and of the soldiers who "at the same time the officers were murdered, the Candians fell upon them & killed them also, & some of the Bengal Luscars & Pioneers were also killed along with them." Another detailed account of these events can be found in James Cordiner's (1775-1836), a Description of Ceylon, London 1807.
The rest of the letterbook includes 200 pages of correspondence from Ricketts to several dozen individuals including Governors-General of India Marquis Wellesley, Lord Minto and other important East India Company officials between 1803 and 1815. The topics covered are interesting accounts of trade with neighbouring states including Nepal and others regard the finances and business affairs of the Company. Overall an extensive historically interesting collection of official East India Company correspondence which gives valuable insight into the company affairs during this time. The book concludes with a short index at the end arranged by date and account name.
31. [ASIA - INDIA]
CANNING, Earl (Governor General 1856-1858, First Viceroy 1858-1862)
[The Historically Significant Canning Sunnad of 1862 Concerning the Bhopal Succession.]
1862. A Folio (ca. 60 x 24.5cm) single large sheet of parchment headed by the large inked seal of the Supreme Government of British India, written in fine palace script. Bound by stab stitching into a half cloth with patterned papered boards folder together with some dozen related pages of letters and documents in Persian script. One of these has some gold leaf additions and is additionally signed by the Political Agent A R E Hutchinson. A covering document is a true copy of a circular from Major R I Meade, Agent to the Governor General at Indore, to Major Hutchinson which accompanied the Sunnad as it was sent from the Viceroy. Some of the other documents are counter signed by Major Hutchinson.
The document sets out the British policy to secure the succession of Princely Houses ruling in the various states: “in failure of natural heirs any succession to the Government of your State which may be legitimate according to Mahomedan Law will be upheld. Be assured that nothing shall disturb this agreement here made to you so long as your House remains loyal to the Crown, and faithful to the conditions of the treaties, grants and agreements which record its obligations to the British Government.” The Sunnad is signed “Canning” at the foot.
In the light of future problems over disputed succession this document proved to be highly important and equally contentious, especially in the 1920’s when Nawab Sultan Begum named her only surviving son Hamidullah as her successor in conflict with accepted laws of primogeniture. The reference to remaining faithful, as Bhopal always had been, is particularly important in this early post Mutiny period when the Crown had just taken over all the East India Company’s powers. This document is one example of the close British attention to matters of succession in Indian states. In Bhopal the British wished to maintain the succession within the Orakzai tribe which had been so loyal to the Company and the Crown. Marriage and succession were to loom large in the relations between the Viceroy and the rulers of Bhopal during the rest of the century.The "Bhopal State was an independent state of 18th century India, a princely salute state in a subsidiary alliance with British India from 1818 to 1947, and an independent state from 1947 to 1949. Islamnagar served as the State's first capital, which was later shifted to the city of Bhopal. The state was founded by Dost Mohammad Khan, an Afghan soldier in the Mughal army who became a mercenary after the Emperor Aurangzeb's death and annexed several territories to his feudal territory" (Wikipedia).
32. [ASIA - INDIA]
NORTHBROOK, Thomas George Baring, 1st Earl of (1826-1904) (Viceroy of India 1872-1876).
[Formal Autographed Letter Signed "Northbrook" and Dated Fort William the 13th of January 1873, Written in Fine Palace Script and Addressed to Nawab Shah Jehan Begum, Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, Bhopal, thanking the Begum for her letter to his Agent in Central India regarding her pleasure in the ceremonials attached to her investiture as GCSI (Knight Grand Commander Star of India). He promises to forward her "expressions of attachment and loyalty" to the Secretary of State for India for delivery to Her Majesty with her "Petition and accompanying address"].
Fort William (Kolkata), 13 January 1873. Folio (ca. 32.5x21 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on beige wove paper on two sides of a plain bifolium. The letter has needle holes in the gutter margin where it has been stab sewn and stitched into a simple folder. The sewing is now lacking but the folder survives together with a Persian translation, certified true and countersigned C U Aitchison, Secretary to the Govt of India Foreign Dept. With a further ten Persian letters [unresearched], some with inked seals and signatures of Political Officers, one – like the Persian document above – decorated with gold leaf.
"Gladstone appointed [Northbrook] Viceroy of India 1872-1876. His major accomplishments came as an energetic reformer who was dedicated to upgrading the quality of government in the British Raj. He began large scale famine relief, reduced taxes, and overcame bureaucratic obstacles in an effort to reduce both starvation and widespread social unrest"(Wikipedia); "Shahjahan succeeded her mother as Begum of Bhopal upon the death of the latter in 1868. Having been groomed for leadership of the state, Shahjahan improved the tax revenue system and increased state intake, raised the salaries of her soldiers, modernised the military's arms, built a dam and an artificial lake, improved the efficiency of the police force and undertook the first census after the state suffered two plagues (the population had dropped to 744,000)" (Wikipedia).
33. [ASIA - INDIAN MUTINY]
ROBERTS, Frederick Sleigh, 1st Earl Roberts, Field Marshal (1832-1914)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Roberts” to “Dear Colonel Rose” Reminiscing on his Experiences during the Second Battle of Cawnpore, at the Time of the Indian Mutiny].
5 August 1913. Small Octavo bifolium (ca. 18x11,5 cm). 2 pp. Black ink on writing paper with a printed letterhead of the “Empire Hotel, Buxton.” With the original envelope with a period ink note (in different hand) “Letter from Lord Roberts.” The letter with fold marks, a tear along the bottom part of the bifolium’s centrefold, otherwise a very good letter.
In his letter British Field Marshal Lord Roberts, “one of the most successful commanders of the 19th century” (Wikipedia), tries to clarify some details of the Second Battle of Cawnpore (19 November – 6 December 1857) in which he took part as a staff officer of Sir Collin Campbell, Commander-in-Chief of India. Addressing to “dear colonel Rose”, Roberts writes: “Will you kindly tell me whether I am correct at the battle of Cawnpore on the 6th December 1857. In my “Forty-one years in India” I stated that the Brigade which I saw advancing against the mutineers’ Battery, was composed of the 42nd, 93rd, and 53rd, and I don’t think I made a mistake, but not very long ago I read in some book that the Brigade was formed of the 79th, 93rd, and 53rd. Being away from home I cannot refer to my notes, so I trouble you with these few lines.” The book he refers to in the letter was published in London in 1897 by Richard Bentley.
“Field Marshal Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, VC, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, KStJ, VD, PC was a British soldier who was one of the most successful commanders of the 19th century. He served in the Indian rebellion, the Expedition to Abyssinia and the Second Anglo-Afghan War before leading British Forces to success in the Second Boer War. He also became the last Commander-in-Chief of the Forces before the post was abolished in 1904” (Wikipedia).
“The Second Battle of Cawnpore (19 November – 6 December 1857) was a battle of Indian rebellion of 1857. It was decisive as it thwarted the rebels' last chance to regain the initiative and recapture the cities of Kanpur (Cawnpore) and Lucknow” (Wikipedia).
34. [ASIA - ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY]
OUSELEY, Gore, Sir (1770-1844)
[Autograph Letter Signed, Regarding Ouseley Activities in the Royal Asiatic Society and Mentioning George FitzClarence and the First Edition of "The Travels of Ibn Batuta."].
Woolmers, Hertford, 22 October 1829. Octavo (ca. 20,5x16 cm). 1 pp. Brown ink on wove paper. Mild folds, light toning, remains of guards, but overall a very good letter.
An interesting letter from Sir Gore Ouseley, British diplomat and orientalist, noted for preparing the Treaty of Gulistan (1814) between Russia and Persia while serving as ambassador in Persia in 1810-1815. The letter relates to the Royal Asiatic Society which was founded in 1823 with the close participation of Ouseley:
"He was one of those responsible for the founding of the Royal Asiatic Society in London in 1823 and was associated with the formation of the oriental translation committee, of which he was elected chairman. He became president of the Society for the Publication of Oriental Texts, formed in 1842" (Oxford DNB).
In the letter Ouseley thanks his addressee for "information about Col. FitzClarence" - obviously, meaning George Augustus Frederick FitzClarence (1794-1842), a military officer who served in India and also became an orientalist and a founder of the Royal Asiatic Society. Noteworthy is the fact, that FitzClarence "was a member of the society's committee preparing plans for publishing translations of oriental works, and was subsequently deputy chairman and vice-president of the Oriental Translation Fund" (Oxford DNB). It explains Ouseley writing that "in the course of a day or two I shall have a letter ready for the Ambassador at Constantinople to accompany the Copy of Ibn Batuta for the Sultan." He obviously meant "The travels of Ibn Batuta" - a history of travels of a famous Medieval Muslim explorer Ibn Battuta (1304-1368 or 1369) which has just been published by John Murray "for the Oriental Translation Committee" where Ouseley and FitzClarence were both members .
At the end of the letter Ouseley gives his opinion on the circulation of the reports, probably of the Society: "I think 40 or 50 might be selected to have them sent to, but certainly not more! And I [?] find that the number I have mentioned is much greater that those who would take the trouble of reading them." A nice letter revealing details of the history of the Royal Asiatic Society.
35. [ASIA - RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR]
[Collection of Three Mimeographed and Typewritten Reports Regarding the Reconnaissance and Communication Services of the 1st and 2nd Russian Manchurian Armies during the Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905: Reconnaissance Report “Strength and Organisation of the Japanese Army” (1905); Report of the Communication Services of the 2nd Manchurian Army (1906); and Original Manuscript of the Lecture about “Foot Reconnaissance” (ca. 1910s)].
[1905, 1906, ca. 1910s]. Three documents, all Folio, housed in the original archival folder of the pre-revolutionary 4th Finnish Rifle Regiment. Folder slightly faded and worn and documents with minor tears on extremities, but overall a very good collection. 1) Mimeographed report “Strength and Organisation of the Japanese Army”. 22 August 1905.  pp.; 2) Typewritten Report “Communication Services”.  pp. Dated in pencil on the first page “25/7 1906”; occasional pencil marks in text. Pencil inscription in Russian on the last blank page: “For handing over to Count Kamensky from Riga”; 3) Manuscript lecture “Reconnaissance on Foot”. [2 – typewritten table of contents], 35, [2 - blank] pp.
Interesting collection of military archival documents uncovering the work of reconnaissance and communication of the 1st and 2nd Manchurian Armies during the Russo-Japanese War (27 January/9 February 1904 – 23 August/5 September 1905). Both armies were formed in October 1904; 1st Manchurian Army under command of General Linevich took part in the Battles of Shasho and Mukden; 2nd Manchurian Army under command of General Grippenberg took part in the Battles of Port Arthur, Shasho, Sandepu and Mukden.
First document is a mimeographed copy of the report by colonel Rozanov of the reconnaissance department of the Staff of the 2nd Manchurian army. Dated 9 January 1905 O.S., the report relates to the second phase of the war, after the fall of Port Arthur on 20 December 1904/2 January 1905, when the frontline transferred to the area around Mukden. The report titled "Strength and Organisation of the Japanese Army” was specially prepared for the planned advance of the Russian army which resulted in the battle of Sandepu (12-16/25-29 January 1905). The report thoroughly analyses the positions, number and equipment of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Japanese armies (under command of generals Kuroki, Oku, Nogi and Nozu); and gives several probable scenarios of their actions during the advance. Our copy was prepared on 22 August 1905 O.S. (a day before the end of the war) and was verified by “Shtab-rotmistr [Staff Captain of Cavalry] F. Krusenstern [?]”.
The second document is a “Report of the Communication Service of the Administration of the Quarter-Master of the 2nd Manchurian Army” (25 July 1906), covering the period “from the formation of the 2nd army to 20 September 1905” (with the main attention paid to the activity after 10 January 1905). The report is finishes with the “Main conclusions about the organisation and use of particular types of communication”, emphasizing the importance of telegraph and telephone lines, wireless telegraph, and recommends the establishment of the special Communications Cavalry Regiment, and improvement of work of orderly officers (ordinartsy). “It is necessary, that not only senior officers and the General Staff, but all troops, regular officers and lower ranks (especially in cavalry) realise all futility of their best intentions to defeat the enemy, if there is no communication, in the mean of the complete mutual awareness of the battle order throughout the whole front”.
The third document is an original manuscript text of the lecture about the “Reconnaissance on foot”, apparently prepared in the 1910s for the staff and reconnaissance officers. The manuscript with several inserts and corrections occupies 35 pages and is supplemented with a typewritten table of contents. The author was obviously a veteran of the Russo-Japanese war, and the lecture gives examples of work of the reconnaissance service of the 1st Manchurian Army. The lecture explains the goals and significance of military reconnaissance and gives a detailed characteristic of the reconnaissance on foot, divided into R. With the close approach to the enemy, R. From different dislocations, and R. During the battle. Separate paragraphs analyse foot reconnaissance of the Russian and Japanese armies during the war.
36. [ASIA - SRI LANKA]
CLEATHER, William H., Captain‚ 1st Ceylon Regiment (1783-1820)
[Two Extensive Autograph Letters Signed “W.H. Cleather” to his Sister Mary Littlehales, Describing his Early Service in the Military Regiment in British Ceylon, with notes on His Travel to Ceylon on Board HMS Thalia, Colombo Garrison and Officers, Local Society, Day Schedule et al].
HMS Thalia, “18 leagues to the North of St. Jago”, 20 October 1805 and Colombo Fort, 21 June (completed 2 September) 1806. Both Octavos (ca. 23x18 cm and 25x20 cm). Each 3 ½ pp. Both addressed and sealed on the last pages. Brown ink on watermarked laid and white paper. Fold marks, both letters with minor holes on the 4th pages after opening, affecting several words; second letter with tears and minor holes on folds, but overall very good letters.
Two extensive letters giving an interesting firsthand account of the early British rule in Sri Lanka (the British occupied former Dutch possessions on the island only ten years earlier, in 1795). The first letter describes Cleather’s voyage to Ceylon from England on board HMS Thalia, with the notes on the heat of the gun room‚ the frigate’s captain Walker, Santiago Island (Cape Verde) where they got fresh supplies and water, social life on board the ship et al. “I sleep every night in the most tantalizing situation you can possibly imagine, Rayner having strung my cot in the after gun room in the midst of <…> chests of dollars to the amount of 40.000 £ which they are taking out for the Company, there is 400.000 £ standing more below.”
The second letter completed almost a year later gives an inside look into the life of British military and civil society on Ceylon, shortly after the end of the First Kandyan War (1803-1805). Cleather praises the Colombo garrison’s chaplain Reverend W.H. Heywood in whose house he started writing the letter, notes that he has dined with the “Chief Secy. Mr. Arbuthnot (the 2nd personage in the Island),” and mentions “innumerable” balls and suppers to which “I am constantly invited.” His regiment “is stationed about ten miles from the Fort <…> I have a small house but very comfortable near the parade & not far from a pretty little Cot.[tage] of Heywoods where he generally resides – for this I pay two guineas a month (nothing here).” Cleather mentions that the Regiment which consists of sepoys trains a lot because it is expected to be reviewed shortly; notes on his relation with his colleague officers – Lieut.-Col. T.W. Kerr who “has an unfortunate disposition to talk scandal,” Fort Adjutant Mr. Stewart, officers’ wives and daughters and others. “I do not much …[?] the heat and have never had a day’s illness since I landed in the Island. I had no duty for two or three months at first being laid up with hurts in my legs. This is common enough & is thought nothing of, it is long since over…”
Captain W.H. Cleather of the first Ceylon Regiment, was educated at Exeter College, Oxford, and arrived in Ceylon in 1805. Through his sister Mary Littlehales (to whom the letters are addressed) he was a brother-in-law of Vice-Admiral Bendall Robert Littlehales (1765-1847), a participant of the Napoleonic Wars, and Captain Edward Littlehales (1805-1888), a commander of HMS Dolphin on the coast of West Africa during the suppression of the slave trade in the 1840s. During his career in the British Ceylon, he served in different Ceylon Regiments, was the Fort adjutant at Galle, Jaffna, and Colombo. He took part in military actions during the Uva Rebellion (1817-1818) and for many years served as Deputy Judge Advocate in Ceylon.
37. [AUSTRALIA - QUEENSLAND]
MACLEAY, Alexander (1767-1848)
[Period Manuscript Copy of the Government Order Issued by McLeay as the Colonial Secretary in Sydney, Regarding the Assassination of Captain Patrick Logan in October, 1830].
[Sydney]: Colonial Secretary’s Office, ca. 1834. The original dated “17 November 1830.” Folio (ca. 32,5x20,5 cm). 3 pp. Brown ink on laid paper watermarked “W&C 1834.” Written in legible secretarial hand and docketed on the 4th blank page. Fold marks, a couple of minor tears on folds, paper slightly browned, but overall a very good document.
A period manuscript copy of the Government Order. No. 22, issued on November 17, 1830 by the Colonial Secretary's Office in Sydney. The order refers to the murder of Captain Patrick Logan, the Commander of the Moreton Bay penal colony, notorious for his harshness to convicts and Aboriginal people alike to the point of cruelty. He managed the penal colony from 1826 until his death, having explored and mapped vast territories in South East Queensland. Logan was the first European explorer to visit the upper reaches of the Brisbane and Bremer Rivers, Mount Barney; he named a number of geographical locations in the area. He was killed, apparently by Aboriginal Australians during a survey trip in October 1830.
The text of our manuscript almost completely coincides with the official order published in the “Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser” on Thursday, 18 November, 1830 (vol. 28, Issue 1294, p. 2). The minor differences include difference in verb tense in the sentence “It will [“would” in the newspaper publication] be painful to dwell on the particulars of this distressing event,” the absence of the phrase “and eight months” in the sentence “He had held for a Period of four Years [and eight months] the Command at Moreton Bay” in the newspaper publication; and the correction of the word “Risque” with “Risk” ibidem.
“His Excellency the Governor publishes, with Feelings of deep Concern, the following Copy of a Letter from Captain Clunie, 17th Regiment, conveying Intelligence of the melancholy Fate of Captain Logan, 57th, late Commandant at Moreton Bay, who was murdered by the Natives, when completing a Survey which he had commenced last Year. <…>
He had held for a Period of four Years [and eight months] the Command at Moreton Bay - a Situation, from the Character of the Settlement, of the most troublesome and arduous Description. He did not, however, confine himself to the immediate Duties of his Command; but had on several Occasions, at great personal Risque, explored the Country to a Considerable extent; and on one of these discovered a River, which, in Compliment to his Services, was named the "Logan" as will be seen by the Government Order of the 16th July, 1827, No. 27.
The Circumstances of Captain Logan's death, prove that the Ardour of his Character was not to be restrained by personal Considerations. His Life was devoted to the Public Service. Professionally he possessed those Qualities which distinguish the best Officers; and in the Conduct of an extensive Public Establishment, his Services were highly important to the Colony. The Governor, though he deeply regrets the Occasion, is gratified in expressing his Sentiments of Captain Logan's Character and Services. He is assured that every feeling Mind will sympathise with the afflicted Widow, who, with her infant Family has, by an Act of savage Barbarity, sustained a Loss which cannot be repaired. As a Tribute to the Memory of this meritorious Officer, His Excellency requests that the Gentlemen of the Civil Service will join the Military in attending the Funeral, of which due Notice will be given. By His Excellency's Command. Signed Alexander M'Leay”.
38. [BRAZIL - AMAZON]
HERNDON, William Lewis (1813-1857)
[Autograph Manuscript Letter Book of U.S. Naval Lieutenant William Lewis Herndon, Containing Copies of Thirty-Two Documents Written on Board USS Iris during the Mexican-American War, and a Copy of a Letter to Lardner Gibbon during the US Expedition to the Valley of the Amazon].
[U.S.S. Iris at various locations (Vera Cruz, Pensacola, Laguna); and Tarma (Peru), 1847-1851].  pp. Folio (ca. 33x20 cm). Black ink on lined paper; text clean and legible. Original quarter sheep note book with marbled boards; contemporary bookplate on the front pastedown. Housed in a custom made cloth clamshell box with an olive gilt title label on the spine. Hinges cracked, spine partially perished, corners worn, but overall a very good letter book.
Original letter book of noted American naval officer, Amazon explorer and naval hero William Lewis Herndon; it contains the original draft of Herndon’s instructions to the expedition member Lt. Lardner Gibbon regarding his further exploration of the Amazon following their separation at Tarma, Peru on July 1, 1851. The text of the manuscript differs slightly from the one published in volume I of Herndon and Gibbon's “Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon” (Washington, 1854, pp. 33-34), and has some manuscript corrections, which makes it an important historical source.
Herndon assigned Gibbon a different route of discovery so that "while I gave my own personal attention to the countries drained by the upper Marañon, Mr. Gibbon might explore some, and gather all the information he could respecting others, of the Bolivian tributaries of the Amazon." This letter provides Gibbon with guidance as to the route he is to follow and the importance of minimizing risk to himself to ensure that the results of their exploration might be preserved. “Lt. Herndon pushed into the upper Amazon. Lt. Gibbon traveled south through Bolivia and then into the selvas of Brazil. The two groups met in Serpa, Brazil, and then continued down the Amazon River to Para” (Hill 803).
The letter book also contains thirty two letters and documents written on board USS Iris which was under Herndon’s command during the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). The correspondence is primarily on various day to day issues including the engineering problems and administrative issues. However, also included is a five-page letter dated aboard the Iris at Laguna in March of 1848 to an unidentified recipient, but probably Matthew C. Perry, Commanding the Home Squadron off Mexico during the Mexican-American War. The letter reports the results of Herndon's meetings at Sisal with Military Commandant Don Alonzo Azuar regarding Indian involvement in the conflict, and with the senior Spanish Naval Officer present, Don Francisco Garcia di Salas, commander of the brig Nervian, regarding the landing of guns and munitions.
In 1857, as a captain of the ill-fated U.S. Mail Steamer Central America, Herndon showed the utmost heroism while saving lives of the passengers during the hurricane of Cape Hatteras, having evacuated all women and children. 426 passengers and crew, including Herndon perished with the ship, thus making the wreckage the largest loss of life in a commercial ship disaster in United States history. Herndon's heroism prompted the construction of the Herndon Monument at the U. S. Naval Academy in 1860.
Overall this Letter book represents an important primary source on the history of the US expedition to the Amazon (1851-1852) and the Mexican-American War (1846-1848).
39. [BRAZIL - RIO DE JANEIRO]
BARBOSA, Januario da Cunha (1780-1864)
[Protocols and Procedures for Burials in the Churches of Rio de Janeiro] Exposição do Padre Januario da Cunha Barbosa a El-Rei D. João VI sobre as sepulturas nas Egrejas do Rio de Janeiro.
Ca. 1813-1816. Folio (ca. 33x20 cm). 4 pp., with two integral blank leaves, tied with two pink ribbons. Brown ink on laid paper watermarked “1813”, legible text in Portuguese. Paper tag ("Avulços") glued to final leaf. Laid into later ruled paper folder (typed title as given above). Paper slightly age toned, mild fold marks, otherwise a near fine document.
Unpublished manuscript on church burials in Rio de Janeiro by one of the earliest Brazilian literary critics and an important figure in the independence movement.
An apparently unpublished work on the protocols and procedures for burials in churches of Rio de Janeiro, written at a time when such burials were becoming an important public health issue. Cunha Barbosa was appointed prégador for the royal chapel in Rio de Janeiro in 1808. There he became involved in deciding which tombs in the church could be opened when a member of a family or of a religious order died. Apparently Cunha Barbosa had been reprimanded for opening one tomb, and in this work he explains his decision at greater length than he had previously done. He also states the procedures for opening a tomb and notes which church officials had to authorize it. Cunha Barbosa refers to the addressee as "V.A. R." throughout, and once as "Principe." This suggests that the addressee was D. João VI during his tenure as Prince Regent (i.e., before 1816).
Two works dealing with burials as a public health matter were published by Brazilians before independence: Vicente Coelho de Seabra Silva e Telles' Memoria sobre os prejuizos causados pelas sepulturas dos cadaveres nos templos, e methodo de os prevenir (Lisbon, 1800), and José Correa Picanço's Ensaio sobre os perigos das sepulturas dentro das cidades, e nos seus contornos (Rio de Janeiro, 1812; See Guerra, Bibliografia medica brasileira 20.)
Januario da Cunha Barbosa took orders in 1803 and soon earned such a reputation as a religious orator that in 1808 he was named prégador for the royal chapel in Rio de Janeiro. One of the leading spirits in the Independence movement, he founded and edited (along with Joaquim Gonçalves Ledo) the periodical Reverbero Constitucional Fluminense from September 1821 to October 1822. At the end of 1822 his rival from the liberal party, José Bonifácio, had him deported without trial, but a year later - as Bonifácio himself was being deported - Cunha Barbosa returned to Brazil. There he was simultaneously elected deputy to the new legislature for Minas Geraes and for Rio de Janeiro. He later served as director of the Imprensa Nacional and the Biblioteca Nacional.
Cunha Barbosa published numerous sermons, some poetry, and articles on a wide range of subjects in the journals of various learned societies. His anthology Parnaso Brasileiro (Rio de Janeiro, 1829-30) is a major literary contribution. With its publication Cunha Barbosa became one of the earliest Brazilian literary critics and preserved much poetry of the colonial period which would doubtless otherwise have been lost. (See Verissimo, História da literatura brasileira  p. 119.) He also co-founded, with Raymundo José da Cunha Mattos, the Instituto Historico e Geographico Brazileiro in 1838. The Instituto had much wider interests than its name suggests, and came to serve as a forum for all Brazilian writers. Work done under its auspices set the direction for much of the historical, geographical and ethnological research later done in Brazil. (See Verissimo, p. 127).
On Cunha Barbosa, see Innocêncio III, 254; VI, 127; VII, 71; X, 117. See also Sacramento Blake III, 294-300. OCLC: No printed version or other manuscript version located. No printed or manuscript version located in Porbase, Copac, or OCLC.
40. [BRITISH COLUMBIA - FRASER RIVER GOLD RUSH]
TEN EYCK, Samuel
[Important Autograph Letter Signed from Samuel Ten Eyck to O.B. Throop, giving a Description of Guaymas, Mexico, his Impressions of Mexicans, and Briefly Relating his Experiences During the Fraser River Gold Rush].
Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico, April 27 1859. On a folded double quarto leaf.  pp. Brown ink on bluish paper. Blind stamp of a papermaker (Rolland Freres, Bordeaux) in the upper left corner. Housed in a later custom made blue quarter morocco clam shell box with gilt lettered spine. Old fold marks, otherwise a near fine letter.
In this letter Samuel Ten Eyck writes to his friend, Origin B. Throop, back home in Schoharie, New York, offering a description of the Mexican port city of Guaymas, Sonora, giving his assessment of Mexican attitudes toward Americans, and describing his experiences in the Fraser River Gold Rush.
Samuel Ten Eyck came from a prominent family in New York's Schoharie County. He left Schoharie in the early 1850s, went to California in search of gold, took part in the Fraser River Gold Rush in British Columbia of 1858-1859, and then arrived in Guaymas, Mexico in the spring of 1859. He apparently went to Sonora in anticipation of that state and the surrounding Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sinaloa being annexed to the United States. The Gadsen Purchase Treaty, ratified in 1854, brought a part of northern Sonora into the United States, and there appears to have been some agitation for the United States to take more territory in the region. Such a thing did not occur, and it is unknown for how long Ten Eyck stayed in Guaymas waiting for it to happen, or where his travels took him next.
The letter begins by Ten Eyck asking Throop to make discreet inquiries to some of his friends as to why they have not corresponded with him. "I suppose you will be astonished to learn I am in this God-forsaken country. I must confess, I am astonished to find myself here, but here I am and what is still more pleasant, have a mighty fine prospect of, as it is termed in California, making my pile. I have been here but a month. On my arrival I found the country all excitement, and a revolution going on in the three states, 'Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa,' they being, I think, the tail end of creation, but they are full of silver mines and in saying that I say all that can be said in their favour. The Mexicans are the most hostile people in the world and think no more of killing an American than of taking a drink and as this is the scene of Walker's exploits and also where the unfortunate H.A. Crabb & followers were massacred, I am obliged to keep a pretty sharp look out. The women, however, are very kind & affectionate, and in case of difficulty invariably give you a warning and find a place of concealment for you. At least I have found it so on two occasions. <..,>
Guaymas, the seaport of Sonora & an old city, contains perhaps eight thousand inhabitants and being an earthquake country the houses are but one story high and mostly built of adoby [sic], which is the building material of mostly all houses in Mexico and on entering one is reminded more of a large brickyard than of a large city. <..,> I would not have come here but that the three states above named will without doubt be annexed to the U.S. - if so your humble servant is all right. I have had five years experience in California and any chance that may offer here I am on hand, in fact the pioneer."
Ten Eyck also briefly describes his experiences in British Columbia during the recent Fraser River Gold Rush: "It is as hot as blazes [in Guaymas]. I feel it more perhaps than others just having come from a northern country, as the year past I have been at Vancouver's Island & British Columbia. You of course heard of the Fraser River excitement. I was almost the first of the many thousands that rushed to that cold country. It did not prove as profitable as was anticipated, still it paid me very well, as I was able after nine months hard work to leave with a five hundred more than I took with me."
In the end Ten Eyck gives his assessment of the qualities of the women he has encountered in Guaymas, "beautiful, full of life and spirit", "very positive to us Americans" etc. A very interesting important letter, with provocative views on Mexico and a bit of information on one American's experiences in the Fraser River Gold Rush.
O.B. Throop was the owner of the only drug store in the county which still exists today as the Schoharie pharmacy, and a Secretary of the Board of Directors of the Albany and Schoharie plank road (1862).
41. [BRITISH GUIANA - SLAVERY]
[Autograph Letter Signed by Charles Kyte‚ Agent in Guiana‚ to Henry Beard in London‚ Sending the Accounts for his Cotton Estate‚ and Deploring the Behaviour of the Slaves “in Consequence of the New Law”].
New Amsterdam, Berbice [British Guiana], 17 February 1832. Folio (ca. 30x18,5 cm). 2 pp., with an integral leaf of the related accounting. Addressed, sealed and with postal stamps on verso of the first leaf (including the Deal Ship Letter marking). Fold marks‚ minor hole on the margin after opening, affecting one word, otherwise a very good manuscript.
Interesting early letter from the colony of British Guiana which had been consolidated in its current state (from the colonies of Berbice, Essequibo and Demerara) just a year before, in 1831. Written by Charles Kyte, apparently a local planter, the letter is addressed to an ex-governor of the Berbice colony Henry Beard (1821-1825 and 1826-1831) and vividly describes the local effects of the movement for the abolition of slavery: “I have been obliged to visit the West Coast since I wrote you‚ the slaves [on] Mr Blair’s Estates and at Golden Grove having shewn very strong symptoms of insubordination‚ in consequence of the New Law‚ which coming to them without the intervention of the Colonial Government, has had[?] only the most mischievous effect; as they think it sets them beyond the authority of their Masters: they give three cheers for King William whenever the Flag is hoisted & the Horn blows for Breakfast & dinner‚ and are much disposed to make the extra leisure which the Law gives them as the reason for doing nothing‚ or the next thing to it. <…> the women <...> on Mr. Blair’s Estates absolutely refused to clean more Cotton than 15th per day instead of 40 as I insist upon‚ or‚ as they frequently have done & can easily do‚ 60th! I have been very firm & determined with both Gangs...”
Kyte, most likely refers to the consolidated slave ordinance, published by the government of the British Guiana in January 1832. “It provided, as we have seen, for the still greater amelioration in the condition of the slave, reducing the period of labour to nine hours; and for children under four years of age and pregnant women to six hours; it increased the allowances; and reduced the extent of punishment to fifteen lashes” (Dalton, H.G. The History of British Guiana: in 2 vols. Vol. 1. London, 1855, p. 387).
Slavery in British Guiana was abolished with the enforcement of the famous Slavery Abolition Act of 1833.
42. [CANADA - CRIMEAN WAR]
MEREDITH, Edmund Allen (1817-1898)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Meredith” to James McFesters, the Mayor of Bowmanville, Regarding Russian Guns Captured During the Crimean War and Transferred to Canada].
Toronto: Secretary’s Office, 19 May 1859. Folio (ca. 33x20,5 cm). 2 pp., with an integral blank leaf. Brown ink on F.A. Gordon blue laid paper watermarked “1858,” docketed on verso of the second leaf. Fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
An official letter with an interesting subject, written by Edmund Allen Meredith, the Assistant Provincial Secretary of Upper Canada (1847-67), Under-Secretary of State for the Dominion of Canada (1867-73), First Deputy Minister of the Department of the Interior (1873-78).
Addressing James McFesters, the Mayor of Bowmanville (Ontario), Meredith writes: “I have the honour to receive and lay before His Excellency the Governor General your letter of the 17th Instant, enquiring whether any of the Guns captured by the British during the Russian War and forwarded to Canada will be allowed to the Town of Bowmanville. His Excellency desires me to state that until the Members of the Executive Council who are now absent from Toronto, reassemble, His Excellency cannot decide upon the distribution of these Guns. The claim of the Town of Bowmanville will then be considered.”
Thousands of Russian guns and mortars were captured with the fall of Sevastopol on 9 September 1855 marking the end of the Crimean War. The guns were presented to different cities in Britain (Bath, Bradford, Glasgow, Dublin, Edinburgh et al), and were also shipped to Canada, Australia and New Zealand.
43. [CANADA - HALIFAX]
RYDER, Sir Alfred Phillips (1820-1888)
[Period Copy of Two Official Documents “Reporting circumstances attending Her Majesty’s Ship Hero touching the ground,” Submitted to Vice Admiral Alexander Milne, Commander-in-Chief].
HMS Hero, Halifax, 14 October 1862. Folio (ca. 32x21,5 cm). 10 pp. On six leaves, glued together. Brown ink on blue wove paper. Fold marks, minor tears on extremities, outer leaves soiled at edges, but overall a very good manuscript.
Detailed official report of the curcumstances of HMS Hero touching the ground while entering the Chebucto Bay (Halifax harbour) on a foggy day of 14 October 1862. The ship’s captain, Alfred Ryder gave a detailed report to his commander, Vice Admiral Alexander Milne (1806-1896) about the difficult weather and the ship’s course chosen for the passage into the Chebucto Bay. The account gives a good description of the navigational hazards found on the approach to the bay: “Your orders were that I should be with your Flag today. I was desirous of being punctual. For a steamer to remain outside a harbor in Nova Scotia, because the weather is foggy, would, as all navigators on these waters are well aware, result in their remaining at sea for days, and sometimes weeks, after the day ordered for their return, and as there are no good land marks, the runs by Patent log, confirmed by Sounding, must be vainly depended on, even in the occasional clearing of the fog. <…> The extent of the injury appears to be very slight. There are two slight weeps, discovered by careful search in the Fore magazine, and one further forward, but whether arising from the accident, or not we are not certain <…> In conclusion I beg to state that I have commanded four of H.M. Ships in the West Indies, the Baltic, the Mediterranean and Black Sea, and necessarily for many years, and that this is the first occasion on which any one of these has touched the shore…”
The report is supplemented with the “Statement in compliance with Printed Instructions, part 3, p. 160 regarding the circumstances attending H.M.S. Hero striking the ground off the Harbour of Halifax, Nova Scotia, at 3.5. p.m., Tuesday, the 14 Oct. 1862;” the original statement is signed by Ryder and the ship’s master J. Sullivan.
“Admiral of the Fleet Sir Alfred Phillips Ryder KCB joined the Royal Navy in 1833. He was the captain of the HMS Dauntless in 1853-1857, of HMS Hero since 1862; Comptroller of the Coastguard in 1863-1866, Second in Command of the Channel Squadron, Naval attaché in Paris; Commander-in-Chief of the China Station in 1874, Commander-in-Chief, in Portsmouth in 1879. He was decorated with the award of Knight, Order of the Medjidie and gained the rank of Admiral of the Fleet” (Wikipedia).
44. [CANADA - MONTREAL]
CHARLAND, Louis (1772-1813); CHABOILLER, Louis (1766-1813); RICHARDSON, John (1755?-1831).
[Manuscript Signed Document in French of Charland’s Request for Payment of his Salary at the District of Montreal and Signed by Him, and two Justices of Peace, Chaboiller and Richardson].
[Montreal, at the weekly session of the District de Montreal], 10-11 June 1800. Folio (ca. 32,5x20 cm). 1 p., with an integral blank leaf. Brown ink on watermarked Hayes & Wise laid paper, docketed on verso of the second leaf. Fold marks, paper age toned, otherwise a very good letter.
Charland was an architect and cartographer and in 1799 became the first road surveyor of Montreal. This document records Charland’s request for and payment of his salary of 50 pounds until June 10th, 1800. The document is also signed by local justices of peace who later became prominent politicians of Lower Canada i.e., Louis Chaboiller (notary, member of the Lower Canadian House of Assembly in 1803-08) and John Richardson (merchant, member of the Legislative Assembly, Executive Councillor of Lower Canada).
45. [CANADA - MONTREAL]
RYLAND, Herman Witsius (1760-1838)
[Autograph Letter Signed “H.W. Ryland” to John Reid, Esq., Clerk of the Peace, Montreal].
Quebec, 13 July 1807. Folio (ca. 32x20,5 cm). 1 p., with an integral blank leaf. Brown ink on G. Pike laid paper watermarked “1805.” Fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
“The President having been informed that several Deserters from the Frigate now in this Harbour are endeavoring to make their way by land to the United States, his Honor desires you will apprize the Magistrates of Montreal of this Circumstance in order that every legal Means may be taken for apprehending such Seamen should they happen to be met with.”
Ryland came to Canada in 1793 as secretary to Governor-General Carleton, Lord Dorchester, and was civil secretary and clerk of the executive council of Lower Canada. Also he was adviser for several years to Sir James Henry Craig, Governor-in-Chief of Canada (1807-1811).
46. [CANADA - NOVA SCOTIA]
TAILER, Gillam, Assistant Commissary at Passamaquoddy, New Brunswick
[Official Report Signed “Gillam Tailer” to Major General John Campbell, “Commanding His Majesty’s Troops in the Province of Nova Scotia,” Regarding Lack of Provisions for the Loyalist Troops and Residents in Passamaquoddy].
N.p., n.d. Ca. after May 1784. Folio (ca. 32x20 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on C. Taylor watermarked laid paper. Numbered in ink in different hand in the upper left corner. Fold marks, tears on extremities and along the folds, paper aged, worn, and with some soiling, but overall a very good letter written in legible hand.
Interesting report about the early years of St. Andrews, New Brunswick, compiled shortly after the end of the American Revolutionary War. The Assistant Commissary at Passamaquoddy Gillam Tailer informs Major John Campbell (ca. 1727-1974) of the lack of provisions and extreme distress experienced by the disbanded corps in the settlement, and implores Campbell to provide adequate food and relief to the people: “many of the settlers there are reduced to the most Extreme Distress having neither Provision or Clothing, and some of them have no other sustenance than Water, and have not strength to help themselves; <…> those Settleres have never Received any Meat, for the Sixty Days Extra allowance which was Graciously intended, and that 2600 weight of the Flour which was sent from St. John’s intended to be delivered to your memorialist, was issued at Bever [sic!] Harbour before it got to his hand, by which means the Settlers at St. Andrews and that District fell short that quantity of the Flour for the Sixty days. Your memorialist humbly prays you would take the Very Deplorable Case of these unhappy people into your Consideration and order such Relief as may be in your Power to Grant.”
47. [CAPE HORN]
[Manuscript Ship's Journal Titled:] Journal of the Barque Barbara of Bristol, Kept by John Pope, 2nd Officer, April 13 to September 10, 1869, and December 18,1869 to September 10, 1870. Captain Watts Commanding.
Folio (32x20 cm). Unpaginated ca. 100 pages of manuscript entries. Manuscript brown ink on blue lined wove paper. Written in a legible hand. Period green half cloth with marbled boards. Covers worn with corners slightly chipped and hinges cracked, some leaves loose but still a good journal.
Interesting logs of a voyage from the Andaman Islands around the Horn to Bristol in 1869 and then a second voyage from Bristol to the Gulf of Guinea, where the ship traded along the coasts of Ghana and Nigeria. Although the surf boats are constantly busy trading on shore, the only named cargo is puncheons of “oil”. “Passengers” are taken aboard, who hire the ship for short trips up and down the coast. The logs are detailed with latitude, longitude, weather and wind conditions given and also action packed with accounts of daily happenings and include a tumultuous rounding of the Horn in July 1869. On the second voyage, morale quickly breaks down in the monotony of the African coasting trade. The Captain accuses Pope of sleeping while on watch and calls him a cur, then needs his help when a semi-mutiny erupts. Later, a knife fight permanently disables one of the crew members.
48. [CARIBBEAN - FRENCH TRADE]
[Manuscript Journal in English Titled:] An Arrêt for Establishing a Council of Commerce, Paris, [29th June] 1700.
Ca. 1700. Quarto (24.5x19.5cm). [ii], 11, 196 pp. Manuscript journal written in a neat and easily legible cursive script in brown ink on laid paper, with the ownership inscription "Sam Browns - 1735." Handsome period dark brown elaborately gilt tooled panelled full calf with gilt title label. Rebacked in period style, some very minor foxing but overall in very good condition.
This English translation of the 1700 Paris Arrêt of the King's Council of State for Establishing a Council of Commerce, contains petitions and reports presented by the deputies of the Council of Trade in France to the Royal Council. This manuscript almost certainly pre-dates the printed bilingual version in French and English which was published in Paris in 1701. The main articles contained include: "A memorial concerning the Guinea Company, the commerce of the French colonies in America, the present state of the islands, which the French possess there, & the means of preserving & extending their trade in those parts; with remarks upon the restraining some branches of commerce to certain ports & upon exclusive companies, as also on farms certain commodities, particularly the farms of tobacco and sugar" (this article describes the French colonies in the West Indies including French Guiana, Grenada, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Saint-Kitts, Saint Croix, Dominican Republic, Dominica, Saint-Barthélemy and Saint Martin with details on their size, number of colonists, slaves, conditions of the soil and main settlements and crops also being given). Another article describes French commerce with the Levant and why Marseilles "alone has the privilege of trading thither."
Other articles describe how French trade can be restored with Spain and the Northern Countries. While one other important issue discussed is the "scarcity of gold & silver bullion, & the exportation of coin out of the kingdom." France's King Louis XIV of France wanted to restore, improve and expand trade after the Nine Years' War had been concluded with the Treaty of Ryswick and so this Arret represents a comprehensive study of the state of French trade and how these goals could be accomplished.
49. [CARIBBEAN - SHIPWRECK]
[Two Detailed Manuscript Testimonials of a Voyage of the Merchant brig Jane to the West Indies in 1780, and the Circumstances of Her Shipwreck during the Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane, Notarially Certified in Montego Bay and London; With a Period Copy of Jane’s Portledge Bill for 1781].
Montego Bay (Jamaica) - London, 1780-1781. Three Folio Manuscripts (ca. 44x28 cm, ca. 40x26 cm and ca. 36,5x22 cm) folded to Octavos. 3, 1 and 3 pp each. Each brown ink on watermarked laid paper, each docketed on the last blank page. Two signed by deponents and notaries, one with two tax stamps and a notarial seal. Fold marks, but overall very good and legible documents.
Interesting collection of three original manuscripts revealing the story of the voyage of British merchant brig Jane to the West Indies in 1780 and her experience of the Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane on 3 October 1780, during which she was considerably damaged and a large part of her cargo was lost. The documents include an affidavit, compiled in Montego Bay (Jamaica) on 10 January 1781 and signed by Jane’s Commander James Jones, first mate William Barrey and boatswain Sever Brown. The affidavit was witnessed before Samuel Mottershed, Esq., a Justice for the parish of Saint James; and certified by Ralph Montague, Notary Public in Montego Bay (St. James parish, Cornwall County, Jamaica). The other document is a notarially certified “Declaration of a protest”, compiled after Jane’s return to Britain. The document is signed by James Jones and William Barrey and certified by a London notary on 31 August 1781. The last document is a period copy of Jane’s portledge bill, for the period from 30 January to September 1781, listing twenty-six crew members (including captain), their station, length of service, and amount of wages due and paid.
The affidavit and declaration of protest give a detailed account of Jane’s voyage to the Caribbean and the circumstances of her damage during the notorious Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane which struck Montego Bay where Jane had been moored, on 3 October 1780. Jane arrived to Kingston from London on 1 August 1780, under the escort of HMS Thunderer and other men-of-war; later that month she sailed for the Black River where she received a cargo of logwood, mahogany and pimento. In Montego Bay she was additionally loaded with sugar and rum. Whilst there Jane experienced a severe storm, and in spite of the attempt to find asylum in the mouth of the Great River, the brig drag both anchors and was driven to a reef where she was struck against the rocks many times. The ship was a wreck and couldn’t be taken off the reef for another three weeks. The cargo, anchors and guns were reloaded in order to lighten the ship, and when the time came to reload, it turned out that a large part of the cargo had been “washed about the beach owing to sundry gales of wind <…> and many pieces buried in the sand.” In spite of the “utmost endeavours” some part of cargo were never recovered.
Jane returned to Montego Bay on 27 January 1781 and on 17 March left the West Indies for London, in a convoy of ninety merchantmen, protected by HMS Edmont Graffton, Trident Bristol and Endymion. The long, five-month return trip was perilous, with her taking “a great deal of water <…> so as to keep the pump almost constantly going.” The next day after arrival the captain filed the present declaration of protest at the office of a London notary which solemnly stated: “I do protest against the Seas and bad weather, and particularly against the Violent Hurricane which the said Ship met with in Jamaica when taking on board her said Cargo as above mentioned for all Loss and Damage happened to the said Brig and Cargo;” he declared “that when the said Brig begun to take in her said Cargo at Jamaica aforesaid She was tight Staunch and Strong <…> and provided with all things needful for such a Brig and Voyage. That as well During the time the said Brig was on Shore in Jamaica as aforesaid, as at all other times, he this appearer and the Rest of the said Brig’s Company Exorted [sic!] themselves to the utmost of their Power and used their utmost Endeavours to preserve the said Brig and Cargo from Damage, so that what Loss and Damage hath happened to the said Brig and Cargo was intirely [sic!] occasioned by the means aforesaid and not through any insufficiency in the said Brig neglect of him appearer or any of his mariners.”
50. [CARIBBEAN TRADE]
[Archive of Over Fifty Documents Relating to the Final Days of the British Schooner "Lima"].
1865. About 50 documents in about 75 pages. The documents in the archive are generally in very good condition, however the auction broadsides printed on poor paper though still readable have many chips and are in poor condition.
In October 1865, the 110 ton British merchant schooner “Lima” encountered heavy weather en route from New York and put into St. Thomas in the West Indies in a damaged condition. Ultimately the cargo was removed and sold, and the ship was condemned and the hull and fittings sold at auction for $764.14.This archive documents the schooner’s final days. It includes shipping manifests of the last cargo, surveys, an instrument of protest, pertinent invoices and bills, insurance forms, correspondence regarding the incident, shipping articles, crew list, and two auction broadsides for the sale of the hulk and fittings. Overall an interesting and unusual archive documenting mid 19th century commercial shipping in the Caribbean.
51. [CENTRAL AMERICA - ISTHMUS OF DARIEN]
[An Official Despatch Signed “John Bidwell” to Mr. Walter Cope, Esq., British Consul in Guayaquil regarding the Project of “Direct Communication between Great Britain and the Western Coast of South America” via Panama].
London, Foreign Office, 15 February 1836. Folio (ca. 31x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on blueish watermarked laid paper. Secretarial ink numbers on top of the recto. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
An official despatch from the senior clerk of the Foreign Office John Bidwell to the British Consul in Guayaquil Walter Cope regarding the establishment of a new line of communication between the Great Britain and the Pacific coast of South America via Panama, instead of the long route around Cape Horn. This project was vividly discussed by the British merchants and residents of Lima, Callao and Valparaiso in 1836; and eventually a project of William Wheelwright won, with a proposal of a steamship line between Valparaiso and the Isthmus of Darien, and a mule and canoe transportation further to Chagres on the Atlantic coast. Wheelwright’s Pacific Steam Navigation Company was founded in 1838, becoming the first commercial steamship line in the Pacific.
In the despatch Bidwell refers to a copy of the letter sent by Viscount Palmerston to the British Consul at Panama on "the subject of opening through that Point, a direct communication between Great Britain and the Western Coast of South America", asking Cope for a report on the "general expediency and practicability of the arrangement and upon the several points enumerated in the enclosure, so far as the same are applicable to the place of your residence, and the district within your jurisdiction". Cope was also required to communicate with “Mr. Consul Turner, with whom will rest in a great measure the carrying this plain into operation”.
A detailed description the project of the steamship communication along the Pacific Coast of South America, together with texts of the original supplementary documents was published in P.C. Scarlett’s “South America and the Pacific, Comprising a Journey across the Pampas and the Andes <…> to which are annexed Plans and Statements for establishing Steam Navigation on the Pacific” (London, 1838, 2 vols.).
52. [CHILI - WARS OF INDEPENDENCE]
[Historically Significant and Important Period Manuscript Report of the Naval and Military Actions in Chile and Peru]: Estado que en el dia de la fecha tiene el Vireinato de Lima; Provincias del de Buenos Ayres recuperadas y concervadas por el Ejercito del alto Peru; y finalmente en el que ce halla el Reyno de Chile [The State at this date of the Viceroyalty of Lima, the Provinces of Buenos Aires, taken back by the Army of Alto Peru; and finally the State of the Kingdom of Chile].
Lima, 1 November 1818. Small folio (ca. 31x21 cm). 6 pp. Brown ink on laid paper with watermarks ‘A’ and ‘PLA’. Text in Spanish in legible hand writing. Later marbled paper wrappers. Manuscript in very good condition.
Historically significant and important period report of the final stage of the Chilean (1810-1826) and Peruvian (1811-1824) Wars of Independence, compiled by Spanish colonial authorities. Our copy apparently belonged to Joaquín de la Pezuela, 1st Marquis of Viluma (1761–1830) who was a viceroy of Peru during the War of Independence: there is a handwritten remark “Es copia Pezuela” in the end of the text.
The document is divided into three parts (“Vireinato de Lima”, “Egéreito del Perú”, and “Reyno de Chile”) and starts with the report of advance of the Royalist forces (3400 men under command of General Mariano de Osorio) from Callao to Talcahuano in order to regain Chile. Then follow the descriptions of Battle of Cancha Rayada (18 March 1818), Battle of Maipú (5 April 1818), San Martín’s famous Crossing of the Andes (January-February 1817) et al. A large part of the text is dedicated to the actions of the Royalists’ army in Alto Peru under command of José de la Serna e Hinojosa (1770-1832). The author reports on the numbers of armed forces in different provinces of the Vireinato de Lima and gives a picture of the wartime Peru from north to south.
Very important is the extensive material on the naval war near the coast of Chile and Peru, and the actions of the First Chilean Navy Squadron which was formed in 1817-1818 and eventually “terminated Spanish colonial rule on the south-west coast of South America” (Wikipedia). The report lists 12 vessels of the Royalists’ naval forces (Las fuerzas de mar): frigates Esmeralda, Cleopatra, Presidenta and Venganza, brigantines Pezuela and Potrillo, corvet Sebastiano et al. There are notes on the condition and amount of guns of each vessel. A separate list is dedicated to the enemy vessels and also details their artillery: Lautaro and Cumberland (bought from the British East India Company); corvette Coquimbo (bought from the US), four brigantines, and seven corsairs (Anglo-American and French).
The document reports on the blockade of Valparaiso in March-April 1818, and naval actions, e.g. The attack on Spanish corvette Resolution near Callao by the corsair force consisting of the British, American, Portuguese and Irish sailors (19 October). The text is concluding with the news that the naval reinforcement for the Royalists has departed from Spain: frigate Especulation left Cadiz on the 21st of May with 6 officials and 200 men from the Regiment of Cantabria, a part of a larger force which will embark in Callao and will go immediately to reinforce the army of Alto Peru. Frigate Maria Isabel will increase the maritime forces destined to blockade Valparaiso. The author has no doubt that “Our maritime force should succeed in destroying the rebels and will give us advantage in the reconquista de Chile”.
53. [FRENCH GUIANA]
JOMARD, Edme François (1777-1862)
[Autograph Letter Signed 'Jomard' to Louis Leon Jacob, French Minister of the Navy and the Colonies, Regarding the Recently Published Report of Francois Leprieur’s Voyage in the Interior of French Guiana].
Paris, 23 October 1834. Folio (ca. 32x21 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on watermarked wove paper with letterhead of the “Société de Géographie, Commission Centrale”. Legible text in French. Centrefold mark, otherwise a very good letter.
In his letter to the current minister of French navy and colonies, Admiral Louis Leon Jacob (1768-1854), the author, French cartographer and archaeologist Edme Francois Jomard informs about the recent publication of the French Geographical Society: Francois Leprieur’s report of his voyage in the interior of French Guiana in the early 1830s. Jomard notes that the report has been approved on the session of the Geographical Society on the 17th of October , and in conformity with the Admiral's wishes, Jomard is sending him a copy of it. The publication he is talking about is most likely an offprint of Leprieur’s article “Voyage dans la Guyane centrale” (Bulletin de la Société de Géographie de Paris, 2e série, I, 1834, p. 201-229).
“François Mathias René Leprieur (1799-1870) was a French pharmacist and naturalist. While being stationed in Senegambia in 1824-1829 he extensively travelled in the region; the results of his observations were published as "Florae Senegambiae tentamen" (1830-1833) by Perrottet, Guillemin and Richard. In 1830-1849 he was based in Cayenne, Guyane, where he attained the post of pharmacist first-class. He travelled along the Oyapock River to its source and collected a large amount of natural history specimens. From 1850 to 1858, he was assigned to the island of Martinique. Plants with the specific epithet of leprieurii are named in his honor, an example being Zanthoxylum leprieurii” (Wikipedia).
CUSHING, Joseph Jr. (1806-1879)
[Interesting Content Rich Autograph Letter Signed to His Wife with a Description of Temples and Other Antiquities of Athens, Including the Acropolis, the Prison where Socrates was Sentenced to Death, the “Bema” or Pulpit “where Demosthenes and other orators went to address the people," Hill of Areopagus, Temple of Hephaestus, Choragic Monument of Lysicrates, Temple of Jupiter Olympus, Tower of the Winds, and Others].
Athens, 6 December 1851. Quarto (ca. 27x21 cm). 7 pp. On two bifoliums. Brown ink on bluish wove paper, addressed and with postal stamps on the last page of the second bifolium. Fold marks, last page of the second bifolium slightly soiled and with minor holes from ink neatly repaired, but overall a very good letter written in a legible hand.
An extensive interesting letter from a major Baltimore publisher and bookseller Joseph Cushing Jr. to his wife written during his travel to the Mediterranean and describing in great detail his stay in Athens, excursions to numerous ancient Greek temples and ruins, and day trips to the surrounding mountains. Cushing arrived to Greece from Constantinople, landing first at Syros Island, then proceeded to the port of Pieraus and thence to Athens. Due to several delays he had to cancel his original plan to visit Palestine afterwards, “not however without a struggle which my life will ever present of placing my foot on the holy soil where were transacted the opening series of our cherished religion. <…> Deciding against this trip (which 3 or 4 of our party will however make) we pass hence by Smyrna to Alexandria and to Cairo to see and perhaps ascend the enduring pyramids.”
Well acquainted with the history and architecture of ancient Greece, Cushing visited a number of famous landmarks of ancient Athens, starting with the Acropolis. “I was much more interested in these ruins than I supposed possible and found them more striking in appearance and preservation. Much of this is due to the labours of the Antiquarian Society, who by removing the old Turkish and Venetian fortifications have revealed much that was supposed to have been entirely lost…” Cushing talks about the restored temple of Athena Nike, the Propylaea, the Erechteum and “the magnificent Parthenon, the beau ideal of architecture, the proportions of which make you feel the justness of the opinion”.
He also visited “the prison where Socrates is said to have drunk the fatal hemlock” which consisted “of three chambers hollowed out of the solid limestone rock (of which all these hills are composed) in the side of a hill which faces the Areopagus where he was tried”; the “Bema” or pulpit “where Demosthenes and other orators went to address the people,” the hill of Areopagus and “as we imagined on the spot whence Paul addressed the Athenians <…> The hill itself has yet the levelled places upon it where probably stood the public altars. Much of the rock has fallen down over the portion where was the cave of the furies.”
The Temple of Theseus (Hephaestus) Cushing found “in the best state of preservation of any of the structures and at the same [it] is the oldest”, about the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates he noted that “though original [it was] all built up between the columns, by removing one of the sides. Lord Byron made a study of it.” “The most extensive temple here appears to have been that of Jupiter Olympus standing on the plain to the south east of the Acropolis and near the river Ilissus of which there yet remain 16 columns of the most beautiful Corinthian architecture. <…> This building was commenced more than 500 years before Christ which fact alone will afford you some idea of the <…> perfect character of these edifices which so long have withstood the corrosion of time and at length perished from the violence of a succeeding rage of men.” He also visited the “Stoa” or Porch of Hadrian “where once the Stoics taught”; the Tower of the Winds, the Gate of the Agora or Market Place, “the Stadium where so warmly contended the aspirants for the wreath of Victory in the Grecian games,” and “the Academic Groves and the very garden where Plato taught his disciples”.
The trips to the Athens vicinity included journeys to the port of Eleusis, and to the Mount Pentelicus, the latter was routed “over the beautiful plains of Attica for 10 miles and then up the mountain some 3 miles to its summit of 3500 feet elevation. From this lofty point, with advantage of brilliantly clear day, was enjoyed the view of nearly all of Attica with its famed mountains and also those of the Morea, <…> the plain of Marathon, so famous in the history of Greece with its beautiful bay, the island of Euboea or Negroponte <…> and the beautiful Aegean Sea to the south. <…> With all this jaunting of 25 miles a day on horseback, to me rather an unusual mode of locomotion, my health and muscles hold out remarkably well.”
Joseph Cushing Jr. Was “one of the best known Baltimore publishers and booksellers, and for many years partner in the firm of Cushings & Bailey <…> In 1829 [he] and his brother John became members of the firm with their father, under the firm-name of Cushing & Sons. In 1836 the brothers took entire charge of the business, the style of the firm being Cushing & Brother. In 1850 Mr. Joseph Cushing Jr., Mr. John Cushing and Mr. Lewis E. Bailey established the present house of Cushings & Bailey. <…> Mr. Cushing was an indefatigable worker, giving up his time and energies both to his business and to the community, in which he was held in great respect. He was a director of the same savings bank that his father was president of, and was also a director of the Merchants’ Bank of that city, and was a manager of the Peabody Institute, was well as of the Maryland Bible Society and Baltimore Dispensary…” (Obituary// The Publishers’ Weekly. No. 392-393. July 26, 1879).
55. [MEXICAN WAR]
MCCALL, Mary Dickinson
[Autograph Letter Signed Mary Dickinson McCall to her renowned brother George McCall in the 4th Infantry care of the quartermaster in New Orleans, Recounting his Recent Heroism.]
Philadelphia, 15 June . Quarto (ca. 27 x 21cm). Five Pages. Brown ink on light blue very thin wove paper. Address panel with Philadelphia postmark on verso of last leaf. With fold marks and minor wear but overall a very good letter in a legible hand.
George Archibald McCall (1802-1868) was a career Army officer who had just distinguished himself in the Battle of Palo Alto, the first major battle of the Mexican War. Here his sister reports that he was now "decidedly the most distinguished man in the Army, and more talked about in Washington than anyone else." A freshman representative from Mississippi named Jefferson Davis stated on the floor of Congress that McCall's "cool courage did so much to set a noble example before his men... a more gallant spirit never entered the field." McCall went on to serve as a Union general in the Civil War.
56. [MEXICAN WAR]
WILLIAMS, T. Aide de Camp (1815-1862)
[General Order # 54 Signed by “J. Williams, A.D. Camp,” Informing of the American Success in the Battle of Buena Vista during the Mexican-American War].
Headquarters, Army of U.S., Vergara, before Vera Cruz, 15 March 1847. Octavo (ca. 24x20,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on wove paper. Written in secretarial hand and signed by T. Williams, docketed on verso. Mild fold marks, old mount residue on verso, otherwise a very good letter.
“The General-in Chief of the Army has received authentic information of a great and glorious victory, obtained by the aims of our country, under the successful Major General Taylor, at Buenavista, near Saltillo, on the 22 and 23 ultimo. The general results were 4,000 of the enemy killed and wounded, against our loss of 700 gallant men. General Santa Ana, on sustaining that overwhelming defeat, is known to have retreated upon San Luis de Potosi, and probably will not stop short of the Capital. The General-in-Chief imparts this glorious news to the army, that all, with him, may participate in the joy that is now spreading itself throughout the breadth of our Land.”
“The Battle of Buena Vista (February 23, 1847), also known as the Battle of Angostura, saw the United States Army use artillery to repulse the much larger Mexican Army in the Mexican–American War. Buena Vista, a village in the state of Coahuila, is seven miles (12 km) south of Saltillo, in northern Mexico. The battle was the last major battle in Northern Mexico. It was Taylor's greatest victory of the war, and his legendary command to Cap. Bragg helped him win election as President of the United States in 1848. Santa Anna was later forced to defend Mexico City against an army under Winfield Scott” (Wikipedia). Thomas Williams was a lieutenant upon signing this note, but later became a Brigadier General in the Union army.
57. [MOUNTAINEERING - ACONCAGUA]
[De La MOTTE, Edward]
[Typewritten Manuscript Account of the Fifth Ascent of Aconcagua, by British Climber Edward de la Motte and American Mountaineer James Ramsey Ullman, Being also the First American Ascent of Aconcagua, Titled:] Horcones Valley and Aconcagua. February/March 1928.
Ca. 1928. Quarto (ca. 28,5x22 cm). 25 numbered leaves of typewritten text. Occasional period ink corrections in text. Vertical centrefold, first and last leaves with mild creases and traces of old staples removed, otherwise a very good manuscript.
Original typescript of the diary of Edward de la Motte, one of the participants of the fifth ascent of Aconcagua, the highest peak in the Americas, with his manuscript corrections in text. De la Motte’s climbing partner was a famous American mountaineer and writer James Ramsey Ullman (1907-1971), thus the expedition became the first American ascent of Aconcagua. The expedition party included two other members, named in the manuscript “Bromley” and “Mrs.” (a female). De la Motte gives a detailed description of the whole expedition from arrival to Retiro (Buenos Aires) on 25 February to the final arrival to Buenos Aires (on the way back) on 12 March 1828. The manuscript describes the mountaineers’ arrival in Mendoza, preparation and supplying of the expedition, trip to the Uspallata town and Puente del Inca, the long hike up the Horcones Valley, and all proceedings in the high camps on the mountain, including an acclimatization hike to the Buena Vista ridge and the summit day. The entries note the altitudes gained, pulse levels, experienced symptoms of mountain sickness, weight of loads carried, menus and preparations of the meals, frostbites et al. There are also several mentions of previous British expeditions to Aconcagua – by E. Fitzgerald and S. Vines (1897) and by J. Cochrane and M.F. Ryan (1925).
Some entries: “February 27th. Mrs. Togs up a la “complete mountaineer” in heavy boots and breeches, but fearing the populace slips out by a back entrance and gets nearly eaten by a yard full of dogs.” (p. 3).
“March 3rd. Base, night min. 28° 18,000 max. Pulse before starting: Ram 68, me 100. This is being written in Ryan’s tent with a snow storm outside, luckily the tent in perfectly sound, and apart from a little fine driven snow, all is snug inside. There is enough food for a week and between us we have 7 blankets, and eiderdown and a Jaeger sleeping bag. <…> Ram and I are comfortable with our feet tied in rucksacks and are able to laugh at the weather” (pp. 9-10).
“March 4th. Up at 8.30, rising consisting of putting on boots and balaclava and extricating oneself from the sleeping bag – in itself a laborious process and only to be performed with much gasping. This gasping is an altitude effect which neither of us can get over – headaches are things of the past, our appetites are tremendous, but the least exertion such as tightening a rope, leaving or entering the tent, opening a tin of sausages and even eating makes us gasp for breath” (p. 12).
“March 5th. [Summit Day]. Up 5 a.m. <…> Ram wearing his Ventana boots could only get on two pairs of socks – same as myself, so that to avoid frostbite we both tried to keep out toes moving inside our boots as far as possible. <…> Both of us were fairly near the limits of our endurance but the top was in view and at 4.30 we stepped out on the summit, very glad at being finished with the hard work of climbing. Driving snow clouds prevented the view to the South and what was worse, Ram could not find Ryan’s thermometers – the only object visible being an empty beer bottle. The top is of triangular shape with the Northern apex at the highest point. Photos were taken from the West tower which should identify the summit alright, at any rate, so far as Ryan and other climbers are concerned.
Ram got busy with a self timer – which like the meta cooker failed to work, the resulting messing about with which gave Ram four frostbitten fingers (unnoticed until considerably later). An ice axe with E.M. And A.R. Carved on the shaft was left, also a card with our names on was left in a small Yerma tin with one plasmon biscuit (sustenance for the next party that reaches the top)” (pp. 14-15).
James Ramsey Ullman was a noted American writer and mountaineer, official historian of the American Mount Everest Expedition 1963, the author of “The White Tower” (1945), “Banner in the Sky” (1954), “The Age of Mountaineering” (1954), “Tiger of the Snows” (together with Tenzing Norgay, 1955), “Americans on Everest” (1964), and others. Most of Ullman’s papers are now deposited in the Princeton University Library.
“The Andean career of Edward de la Motte apparently began in 1928 with Aconcagua, highest of all Andean peaks, and ended probably in 1946 with Sajama, highest of Bolivian mountains. With the well-known American novelist James Ramsey Ullman (author of the White Tower), he accomplished on 5 March 1928 the fifth ascent of Aconcagua” (Echevarria, E. Early British Ascents in the Andes, 1831-1946 // The Alpine Journal. 1987. Vol. 92. P. 63).
58. [MOUNTAINEERING - KANCHENJUNGA]
EVANS, Charles (1918-1995)
[Two Typewritten Letters Signed by Charles Evans, the Leader of the 1955 British Kanchenjunga Expedition, on Official "Kanchenjunga Expedition 1955" Letterhead, and Addressed to the Manager of the Swiss Watchmaking Company Baume & Mercier, with a Carbon Copy of the Answer].
1955. Three letters, 28, 29 & 31 December 1955. Two Quartos (ca. 25,5x20 cm) and one letter with the blank lower margin cut off, ca. 17,5x20 cm. Each 1 p. Two letters on printed blue letterheads of the Kanchenjunga Expedition, signed by Charles Evans; the letter by Baume unsigned. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good collection.
An interesting collection of three letters about the supply of the 1995 British Kanchenjunga expedition with chronometers. Charles Evans, the expedition leader, writes to L.C. Baume, the head of the London branch of Baume & Mercier watchmaking company, saying that he had received Baume’s offer to supply the expedition with watches. Evans declines the offer with regret since he had already agreed to take wrist watches from Rolex and “to regard them as our exclusive suppliers.” Nevertheless he would like to have “alarm of travelling clocks, which that company does not supply” and which “do not come under this agreement.” In his reply written the next day L.C. Baume says that “apart from electrical timing systems and industrial clocks, I can only supply ordinary wrist and pocket watches, sundry stop watches and navigational instruments. I do not manufacture either alarm or travelling clocks but if you have any difficulty in obtaining some of these, I could no doubt get some for you.” He also wishes Happy New Year and a success expedition to Evans and all other members.
“Charles Evans was John Hunt's deputy leader on the 1953 British Mount Everest Expedition which made the first ascent of Everest in 1953. With Tom Bourdillon, he made the first ascent of the South Summit, coming within three hundred feet of the main summit of Everest on 26 May 1953, but was forced to turn back. Everest was summited by their teammates Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay three days later, on 29 May 1953. Evans was the leader of the expedition which first climbed Kangchenjunga, the world's third highest peak, in 1955. He served as the Principal of the University College of North Wales (now called Bangor University), from 1958 to 1984. He was President of the Alpine Club from 1967 to 1970” (Wikipedia).
59. [NAPOLEONIC WARS]
[SMITH, Admiral Sir William Sidney] (1764-1840)
[Collection of Five Original Documents Related to the Career of Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith, Including a Naval Pass Signed by Smith as Minister Plenipotentiary at the Ottoman Porte and Commander of the British Naval Squadron in the Levant; Autograph Letter Signed by Smith to French General Duc de Maillé Regarding a Frenchman Relieved from Slavery in Algeria, and Three Other Original Notes and Letters Written by Smith or Addressed to Him; With: a Large Stipple Engraved Portrait of Smith printed on the same leaf with a Copper Engraved Scene of the Siege of Acre].
[Mediterranean] & Paris, ca. 1799, 1818, 1835-1838. Five documents of different size from Octavo (ca. 21,5x14 cm) to Folio (ca. 34,5x22,5 cm). In total 6 pp. of text. All documents in French. Brown ink on woven and laid paper, one note on decorative printed letterhead. Fold marks, paper slightly soiled and age toned, but overall a very good collection.
The portrait: London: Anthony Cardon, 1804. Stipple engraving by A. Cardon after the portrait by Rober Ker Porter. Printed on the same leaf with the "Siege of Acre" scene, engraved by James Mitan. Size of both images together: ca. 40x21 cm (15 ¾ x 8 ¼ in). Paper slightly soiled around edges, with minor creases on the right margin, otherwise a very good engraving.
Interesting collection of original manuscripts and a printed document authored by or addressed to Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith, famous British naval commander of the Napoleonic Wars. The earliest document dating ca. 1799 relates to the peak of Smith’s naval career – his service in the Mediterranean and successful defence of the fortress of Acre against the troops of Napoleon (20 March – 21 May 1799). The Siege of Acre was one of Napoleon’s few defeats and became the turning point in the French invasion of Egypt and Syria. The document is a naval pass, printed in French and signed by Smith who is titled as a Minister Plenipotentiary at the Ottoman Porte and a Commander of the British Naval Squadron in the Levant. The pass is unfilled, it bears an official Ottoman stamp, and a red wax seal under paper embossed with the British stamp; according to the note on the bottom margin it was issued by the order of Smith’s secretary John Keith. Noteworthy is the fact that Smith’s title given to him in 1799 and endowing him with both political and naval authority caused a conflict with his direct superiors Lord St. Vincent and Admiral Nelson.
Another interesting document is Smith’s recommendation letter written in 1818 and addressed to French General Charles-François-Armand, duc de Maillé (1770-1837). The letter discusses one Dumont, a French mariner who was released from slavery after being held captive in Algeria for many years. Smith asks for a possibility of a pension for Dumont, sharing his impression of the mariner: “His story is so simple and so detailed, his character even if simple, is so candid and truthful in all that I could check of him, that I have no doubt that he had been a castaway as he says on the coast of Africa onboard the Corvette Le Lievre, then a boy of 14 years of age, and a servant to the aide-de-camp of Mr. Duc de Maille…” The letter illustrates Smith’s active involvement in the anti-slavery and anti-piracy movement against the Barbary pirates of the southern Mediterranean in the 1810s.
Among the other documents related to the time of Smith’s residence in Paris later in life, is a manuscript note from Smith requesting for an audience with the Minister of Foreign Affairs regarding an urgent and important matter; a note to one “Mr. Sasa” who “has been invited by Admiral Sir Sidney Smith to review some lifesaving machines of his own inventions <…> He has also been granted permission to bring along with him some acquaintances of his who might take an interest in those devices” (dated 1838 and signed “W.S.S.”), as well as a letter to Smith, from his friend, apparently a free-mason who was unable to attend a gathering in the lodge owing to professional duties. Overall an interesting collection from the archive of a renowned hero of the Napoleonic Wars.
"Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith was the British admiral of whom Napoleon Bonaparte said, "That man made me miss my destiny" (Wikipedia).
60. [NEW ENGLAND]
[A Deed Regarding his Share of the Prize after the Capture of Louisbourg during King George’s War].
[York, York County, New England (Maine)], 3 May 1746. Large Octavo (ca. 25x15,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Sealed and signed by two witnesses, additionally registered in 1747 and 1749. Fold marks with splits on folds repaired with archival tape, paper slightly age toned, but overall a very good legible document.
Interesting early piece from the early days of the Province of Massachusetts Bay, a crown colony in North America. This deed was compiled in the town of York (now in the state of Maine) on behalf of one Samuel Ingraham, a soldier who took part in William Pepperrell’s Siege of Louisbourg (11 May – 28 June 1745) during the King George’s War (or the War of the Austrian Succession, 1744-1748). Louisbourg was the capital of the French province of Île-Royale (present-day Cape Breton Island, Nova Scotia).
“Known all Men by these presents that I Samuel Ingraham of York in the County of York in New England, Sailor and one of the Soldiers under Sr. William Pepperrell in Capt. John Harmon’s Company in the late expedition to Cape Briton in Consideration of Five Pounds lawful money of the Province of the Massachts. Bay to me paid by Thomas Curtis of York aforesd. Yeoman. The Receipt whereof thereby <…> Do grant bargain assign transfer & set over unto the sd. Thomas his Heir & assigns all my Right Title Share part portion proportion Dividend Claim Property Interest & Demand Whatsoever which I have ought or can pretend in have or claim & which already hath or may at any Time or Times hereafter become due owing payable belonging <…> & coming unto me the sd. Samuel for or by reason & means of me being a Soldier in the Expedition aforesaid whether the same be in Houses, Goods, Wares, Merchandizes or any other effects & Things whatsoever whether the same be by achievement or by Gift, Grant & Bounty from his Majesty the King…”
The Siege of Louisbourg took place in 1745 when a New England colonial force aided by a British fleet captured Louisbourg, the capital of the French province of Île-Royale (present-day Cape Breton Island) during the War of the Austrian Succession, known as King George's War in the British colonies. <…> Louisbourg was an important bargaining chip in the peace negotiations to end the war, since it represented a major British success. Factions within the British government were opposed to returning it to the French as part of any peace agreement, but these were eventually overruled, and Louisbourg was returned, over the objections of the victorious Indians, to French control after the 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle” (Wikipedia).
“The Province of Massachusetts Bay was a crown colony in North America and one of the thirteen original states of the United States. It was chartered on October 7, 1691, by William and Mary, the joint monarchs of the kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland. The charter took effect on May 14, 1692, and included the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the Plymouth Colony, the Province of Maine, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. The modern Commonwealth of Massachusetts is the direct successor; Maine is a separate U.S. State, and Nova Scotia and New Brunswick are Canadian provinces (the last two were only part of the colony until 1697)” (Wikipedia).
61. [OREGON TERRITORY- EARLY PIONEERS]
COE, Nathaniel (1788-1868) and Mary (1801-1893)
[Two Autograph Letters Signed from a Noted Oregon Pioneer and His Wife with Interesting Notes on Oregon Indian Wars, Coe’s Fruit Farm, Mary’s Occupation as the Only Doctor or “Doctress” in the Area et al.].
Hood River, Wasco County, Oregon, 29 May 1859. Large Octavo (ca. 26x19,5 cm). 4 pp. Letter from Mary Coe: Hood Place, May 1859, 6 pp., 12mo (ca. 20x13 cm). Both brown ink on white paper. Mild fold marks, minor tear on the lower fold of the first page of Nathaniel’s letter, but overall very good legible letters.
Interesting Autograph Letters Signed from a noted Oregon pioneer Nathaniel Coe and his wife Mary, written from their farm on the bank of the Columbia River on the site of the future town of Hood River (Hood River post office was established at the site of the present city in 1858, and the city itself was incorporated in 1895). Addressed to Nathaniel’s sister Sophia H. Coe in Ohio, the letters contain some interesting notes on the pioneer life in Oregon, and on the relations with native tribes during the Indian Wars in the middle 1850s.
“You, I suppose, wish to know how we are satisfied with Oregon. I can say I think it was best for us to come. Our prospects to competency, as to worldly property, is better here, than it would have been in the country, we left. I also greatly prefer this climate. But we miss very much the friends we left. In our location we have been exposed to real danger for nearly a year during the Indian war. But that is past through the kind protecting care of God, we were not mobsted. We do not apprehend any further danger of that kind. The Indians are friendly and dare not be otherwise. A settlement reside about us. These have most of them been friendly all along. Three or four joined the hostile Indians in their attack on the cascades. But they are not stationary here all the year, but rove about. Their staple article of food is salmon. In a few weeks they will all be gone to the salmon fisheries along the Columbia River. After that they go to the mountains to gather berries. Sometimes they are away at different localities digging roots. And they dig many roots about here. Our oldest son, Lawrence, is located at Dallas City. He is part owner of the steamboat “Col. Wright” running on the Columbia River above the <…?> to Walla Walla.”
Coe proceeds talking about his farm with the abundance of currants, gooseberries, cultivated strawberries, apples, quinces, cherries, plums, apricots and peaches. “We sold last year about 20 Bushels of peaches from 10 to 16 ½ dollars a Bushel. Butter at the Dalles, I think, has never been less than fifty cents a pound, from that up to a Dollar. Eggs about the same. Good cows are worth in this vicinity about sixty or sixty five dollars. Bees are introduced into Oregon and are sold at $125 to 150 a hive…”
A letter from Mary Coe mostly speaks about family matters, but also contains some interesting information about her occupation: “My time is very much occupied. I have the care of my family – usually six or seven, sometimes more, but I am the only female and I am the only Doctor in the neighbourhood or Doctress, if you please. I use Homeopathy which you know can be given without injury to the patient, even if you do not get the right kind at first, the doses are so small. Do you use this kind of medicine? – if not I advise you should…”
“The [Hood River] area was inhabited by Native Americans when the Lewis and Clark expedition passed through on October 29, 1805. Here they found a camp site called "Waucoma," or "place of big trees." The camp was located near what became known as the Dog River and its confluence with the Columbia River. Later, Mrs. Nathaniel (Mary) Coe, a well-known pioneer resident of the valley, objected to the name Dog River and succeeded in changing the name to Hood River. The name Hood River appears on a map as early as 1856. Originally a part of Wasco County, Hood River County gained its political separation on June 23, 1908, and its boundaries have remained unchanged to the present time.
Nathaniel and Mary Coe were the original owners of a 319 acre government land grant bordered on the east by (what is now) Front Street, on the north by the Columbia River, on the west by Thirteenth Street, and on the south by May Street. In 1854 the Nathaniel Coe family filed a land claim on acreage now part of the City of Hood River. They were soon followed by the William Jenkins family and the Benson family. Coe was one of the first to plant fruit trees in the Hood River Valley. Apple orchards flourished in this rich valley from 1890 to 1920, and Hood River became famous for its apples. In 1919 many apple trees were struck by a killing freeze. Farmers replaced the apple trees with pear trees, and now Hood River county leads the world in Anjou Pear production” (History of Hood River/ The City of Hood River online).
62. [OREGON TERRITORY]
[Interesting Autograph Letter Written by R.B. Guyles, an Emigrant to the Oregon City Talking about His Experience in the City, Plans to go to the Walla Walla Mines, Local Climate etc.].
Oregon City, 25 June 1850. Large Octavo (ca. 25x19,5 cm). A bifolium, written on two pages and addressed on the fourth page. Dark brown ink on bluish wove paper. Original fold marks, minor holes on folds, paper with mild stains, remnants of the original seal on the last page; overall the letter is written in a legible hand and in very good condition.
Interesting letter written by R.B. Guyles, a emigrant to the Oregon Territory, originally from Ira, Cayuga County (New York) to his compatriot Daniel Pierce. Guyles sailed to the Oregon Territory on steamer “Massachusetts,” via Rio de Janeiro, landed at the Strait of Magellan, “but soon came on board again for the Indians was very barbarious;” called at Valparaiso, and the Sandwich Islands. He landed at Fort Vancouver on the 15th of May 1849. “I have worked very hard since I have come here and I think in a short time I shall be able to come back again with a good sum of money. Everything is very dear, but wages are large, most any kind of a machine can make from 1 to 20 dolls a day, and labours from 12 to 15 dolls a day, a man can make money at any thing he is a mind to go at. I think in the corse [sic!] of 2 or 3 months that I shall go to the mines in Walawalla O.T., but I want to hear a little more about it first. The mines are very unhealthy in California or else I should have gone there &c. This is a very healthy country here, the summers are cold here and the winters are mild, scarcely any snow is seen in any season of the year. Horses and cattle live on the green grass all winter, some winters there has not been any snow seen…”
FOSTER (SKEFFINGTON), Thomas Henry, 2nd Viscount Ferrard, 2nd Baron of Oriel (1772-1843).
[Autograph Letter Signed “Ths. Foster” to his mother Margaretta Amelia Foster, Baroness Oriel, with Observations on Lisbon and the Portuguese].
Lisbon, 22 February ca. 1791. Octavo (ca. 22x17 cm). 3 ½ pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Addressed, with postal stamps and remnants of the original seal on the fourth page. Fold marks, tears and holes on the last page after opening, touching a few letters of text but not affecting sense; the tears repaired. Overall a very good legible letter.
An informative letter full of interesting observations, by a member of one of the aristocratic Irish families, who travelled to Portugal either during a Grand Tour or for health reasons (the letter contains notes on his improving, but not yet good condition). Foster starts the letter expressing his impatience to know “how Anna [his younger sister, Anne Dorothea, ca. 1774-1865] has succeeded in her Castle Minuet & only wait for some Authority to congratulate her on her first Appearance as a Lady of Ton…”
The letter contains his observations on the Portuguese weather, people, religious customs and celebrations, etc.: “Snow in Lisbon is so uncommon that a Phisician [sic!] told me, that his Driver on seeing it this time two years got off his Mule to cross himself, the thaw was so sudden then & accompanied with such Warmth that for Many Hours the People of Lisbon concluded that some Part of the Town was on Fire, & very diligently searched for this concealed Flame <…> Oranges or grapes are to be had fresh through the whole year, & there is no Plant that will not flourish in this Climate some one time of the Year, from the Produce of Brazil, to the Coldest Shrub of Iceland <…> Rheumatic Patients are the only growth that dwindles here & some good Englishmen who have been used to a periodical fit of the gout complain that the climate will not fix their disorder to the time they wish. <…>
The Portuguese in general are like the figures you see in Italian Prints, the monks look either dropsical or agueish, you would smile to see a greasy Franciscan friar with only one coarse garment, no stockings & loose broques, carrying an umbrella, when the rules of his order forbid hi, the use of any hat... This is a fair evasion compared with other they practise <…> Where so bad a Police is kept up & so few Atrocious crimes happen, either the Nature of the People must be good, or fear of their Confessors must restrain them. Any man who is detected with a stabbing knife is instantly imprisoned. But the interest of a Nobleman will open any Prison, & the absurd lenity of the Queen will pardon any Offence.
<…> The Patriarch has more than once given me his Blessings as I have passed his Carriage, he represents the Pope in the same Degree that a Vice Roy does his King. The Inquisition is perfectly quiet & scarcely considered as a religious office <…> My Books are by a Friend’s Means released from the Board of Censure, they are very liberal to Strangers in this respect, indeed I know nothing in Portugal which may not be attained by Interest, to put a Man into Prison, or to take him out to marry your Niece <…> All the Nobility are Pensioners to the Crown, & their principal Study that of supplanting each other of the Royal Favour...”
“Thomas Henry Skeffington, 2nd Viscount Ferrard was an Irish peer and politician. He entered the Irish House of Commons for Dunleer in 1793, representing it until the Act of Union in 1801. Ferrard sat as Member of Parliament in the British House of Commons for Drogheda (1807-1812) and for County Louth (1821-1824). In 1811 he was appointed High Sheriff of Louth and in 1818, appointed High Sheriff of Antrim. He succeeded his mother as second Viscount Ferrard in 1821. However, as this was an Irish peerage it did not entitle him to a seat in the House of Lords. In 1828 he succeeded his father in the barony of Oriel, which was in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, and was able to take a seat in the upper chamber of Parliament” (Wikipedia).
64. [RUSSIA - 1812 CAMPAIGN]
[Anonymous Period French Manuscript Account of Napoleon’s Invasion of Russia in 1812 Titled:] Campaigne de Russie. Toujour victorieux depuis 19 ans, Napoleon revait la conquete du monde, et les limites de la terre semblaiens trop rapprochee, pour fixer le terme de ses exploits!...
Ca. 1820-1825. Folio (ca. 32,5x22 cm). 73,  pp. stitched with a string. Brown ink on watermarked lined paper, text in French. Housed in a later laid paper cover with the manuscript title: “Campagne de Russie. Manuscrit anonyme,” inside a recent red quarter morocco folder with gilt lettered title on the spine and a marbled paper slipcase. Paper slightly age toned, with minor soiling and wear on the first and the last pages, but overall a very good manuscript.
Historically important period manuscript of Napoleon’s Invasion of Russia, or Russian Campaign of 1812. The narration begins on May 9, 1812 which marks the departure of the emperor to Königsberg, and ends on February 8, 1813 with the entrance of the Russians in Warsaw. Day by day the account details the main events of the campaign (crossing of the Niemen, capture of Smolensk on August 18, the Battle of Borodino on September 7, taking Moscow, etc.) and life in the French army during the advance towards Moscow. The author describes marches, battles, bivouacs, fire scenes and looting, hunger, heat, and lack of organization. There are also numerous notes that paint a portrait of Napoleon: "Napoleon was 43 years old and enjoyed robust health, he was little, fat, with high shoulders, short neck, big head, Greek profile and ponderous gait; his face was broad and pale, he had straight black hair, tawny gray eyes and thick eyebrows, his teeth were beautiful; his penetrating gaze, his motionless features, he was naturally taciturn, although only two passions painted on his face: anger, which made him momentarily lose reason, and the joy he expressed the contrary, by a very gracious smile; [...] At the beginning of a fight, the first cannon shots were giving to Napoleon an unbridled joy; then he remained impassive: generals, soldiers, fell dead before his eyes, nothing disturbed him." The narrator criticizes the emperor’s harsh judgment he wore on his defeated army, as he himself was "covered with furs, locked in a good car, always sleeping in a good bed and drinking Bordeaux wine with all his meals…"
The entry from the 7th of September described the Battle of Borodino "the bloodiest we have seen since the invention of gunpowder," which resulted in 70 000 killed on both sides, including 40 generals. Then came the invasion of Moscow "against all the rules of art,” where the governor general Fedor Rostopchin allegedly inspired the inhabitants to start the fire the following night. There is a note about frenzied looting during the fire, led by soldiers who had "braved death in the hope of owning Moscow’s wealth and abundance." On the 20th of September the army included 90,000 men and 20,000 wounded or sick, the supplies became scarce because "everything had burned or ravaged." Napoleon turned "from the offensive to the defensive and remained inactive in Moscow for 34 days in the midst of the ashes and disorder", and was forced to order the retreat which began on October 23, after he had decided to burn the Kremlin out of a “senseless revenge.”
Thus begins a detailed account of the retreat, with forced marches, starvation, cold, injuries and diseases, harassment by Russian troops, dropping of the wounded and weapons. The imperial army disintegrates, orders and rumors contradict, completing the disaster. Several pages are devoted to the crossing of the Berezina River, construction of bridges, Russian attacks and the tragic crossing on November 29. "There ended the destiny of this great army, which had made Europe tremble." On December 5 Napoleon left the army for Paris, leaving the command to Murat, who in turn passed it to Prince Eugene on January 16, 1813. The army, which after crossing the Berezina numbered only 8800 fighters, was still halved near Wilno on December 10, facing the army of Tsar Alexander, consisting of 100,000 men.
The manuscript ends with the overview of various bulletins of the campaign, the list of major French commanders, and a table showing the number of different divisions of Napoleon’s army: 647,158 men composed the imperial army in the beginning of the campaign (including Prussian and Austrian troops), and only 10,396 remained upon the retreat from Moscow. As indicated in the note at the end of the manuscript, it is according to the papers found in a carriage of Napoleon "we have feebly sketched the picture where the glory of French arms and misfortunes is so astonishing that posterity will be confused one day with the fabulous stories that have come down to us."
65. [RUSSIA - ODESSA]
[Official Passport Given to Prussian Photographer Friedrich Karl August Kühnemann for Travels to Russia, with the Translation into Russian and a Dozen Notes by Various Consular and Border Officers on Verso].
Berlin: Königl. Preuss. Ministere des Innern, 10 February 1857. Elephant Folio broadside (ca. 45x33 cm), with the additional leaf for border officers’ entries attached to the bottom (ca. 20,5x33 cm). 1 p. Official woodcut passport form filled in brown ink. With over a dozen officials’ entries and stamps on verso. Fold marks, paper age toned, worn on extremities, but overall a very good document.
Interesting example of a 19th century European travel passport. It was given to a “portrait maker and photographer” Friedrich Karl August Kühnemann, a native and resident of Berlin, for his work in Russia and was valid for one year. There is an interesting description of Kühnemann’s appearance: “26 years old, of medium height, hair and eyebrows fair, eyes brown, nose and mouth ordinary, chin and face oblong”. The notes left by consular or border officials range from 29 January/10 February to 25 October/3 November 1857. According to them, Kühnemann travelled via Austria and Breslau, crossed the Russian border at Brody, and proceeded to Husiatin, Kamenets-Podolsky and Odessa.
66. [RUSSIA - VENICE EMBASSY 1656]
[REMARKABLE PRIMARY SOURCE ON 17TH CENTURY RUSSIAN - WESTERN EUROPEAN RELATIONS:]. Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi de’Sig.i Ambasc. Moscoviti, che ora si trovano in Livorno per passare all’Ambasciata di Venezia [Autograph Letter by an Anonymous Author from Livorno Witnessing the Muscovite Embassy to Venice (1656-1657) and Containing Vivid Observations and Remarks About Russians].
Livorno, ca. 1656. Quarto, ca. 27x19,5 cm (10 ½ x 7 ¾ in). Four pages; brown ink on cream laid paper with fleur-de-lis watermark, written in a legible hand. Paper aged and slightly faded, with fold marks, but the text is still bright and easy distinguishable. Beautiful period style crimson elaborately gilt tooled custom made full morocco clamshell box with cloth chemise. The letter in very good condition.
Remarkable and Very Important Primary Source for Russian-Western European relations in the 17th century. This is a very important anonymous letter: "Curiosissimi Costumi de’Sig.i Ambasciatori Moscoviti, che ora si trovano in Livorno per passare all’Ambasciata di Venezia." According to the historians who worked with two other known copies of the letter (see below: Attribution of "Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi") it was written by a first-hand witness of the embassy, somehow involved with it, most likely between the 19th and 23rd of December, 1656. The written dialect of the letter’s language indicates that the author was a common person from Livorno, possibly of Sicilian origin.
The letter vividly describes the Muscovite diplomatic delegation, staying in Livorno on its way to Venice in the winter of 1656. It was an official embassy to the Doge of Venice from the Russian Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich (1629-1676) sent in 1656-57 and headed by the Pereyaslavl governor Ivan Ivanovich Chemodanov (before 1618 - after 1657) and Deacon A. Postnikov. The goal of the embassy was to strengthen political and commercial relations with Venice, to negotiate the joint struggle against the Turks, to give Venetians the permission to trade in Archangelsk, and to borrow money from the Doge. A small "side task" was to: "to sell a hundred poods (1600kgs) of rhubarb and some sable furs for a thousand roubles." Overall the embassy didn’t achieve its goals as it didn’t manage to get the money from the Doge and to successfully sell the stale rhubarb and the sable furs (some of which were damaged during the voyage to Italy and some were sold to feed the embassy itself). The embassy left Venice in March 1657 and went back to Russia through Switzerland, Germany and Holland.
In spite of a lack of diplomatic skills, Chemodanov’s embassy left its trace in history. Its members became the first Russians to travel to Italy by sea, around northern Europe. They left Archangelsk on the 12th of September, 1656; passed the "Northern Nose" (North Cape), the "land of the Danish king," "Icelant, or Icy island (Iceland)," "the lands of Hamburg and Bremen," Scotland, Holland, "possessions of the English King," French and Spanish lands - "all those countries we passed from the left," and arrived in Livorno on the 24th of November the same year. During the voyage they suffered from storms in the Atlantic, when most of the state goods were damaged.
The embassy’s appearance in Italy was met with great interest and curiosity; the official relations from both the Russian and Italian sides noted crowds of people accompanying the Muscovites wherever they went. Our letter "Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi" reveals what impression the Russian diplomats made on the Italians, e.g. "they are dressed in cloth of cotton wool as they are afraid of cold, which is very common in their country"; "they beat their servants with their own hands, and so brutally that four of five of them was on the verge of death, and one ran away and is still not found"; "they have sable skins for 100 thousand skudi and also a big amount of rhubarb, caviar and salted fish, and it stinks so much, that people get sick, and where they were for one hour it stinks afterwards for twelve hours."
The Muscovites often seemed barbaric to the inhabitants of Livorno, as they all slept together, "and the Ambassador with them too, as he was afraid to fall off the bed"; they liked wine, but "put it all in one barrel, not distinguishing whether it is white or red or any sort of wine"; when the Governor took them around the city in a carriage, local people were astonished to see that the Muscovites didn’t open the doors, but climbed over them. There are also descriptions of their table manners which indicate that the Muscovites didn’t know how to use forks, also descriptions of how balls and festivities amused them, how "all small houses seemed to them as Gran Palazzos." Amusing also is the note that the Muscovites liked "Belle Donne" a lot, and spent many sable furs on them. A separate story describes how the chief Ambassador got attracted to the wife of a local doctor and tried to get her attention.
The letter concludes with a note of the embassy’s coming departure to Florence, where they will be met as Royal ambassadors, and "comedia redecolosa" and that a big feast will be given in their honour, as "they like it more than anything else."
Attribution of "Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi":
There are two other known copies of "Curiosissimi Costumi," the older one is found in the Vatican Library (Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana) as a part of "Codex Vaticanus Latinus" № 8891. It was first published in printed form in 1890 as a part of "Spicilegio Vaticano di Documenti Inediti e Rari, Estratti Dagli Archivi e Dalla Biblioteca della Sede Apostolica (Roma 1890, p. 381-383). The editor of the book, Monsignor I. Carini attributed that the Vatican letter was written in the middle of the 17th century by a first-hand witness of the Muscovite Embassy. Based on the written dialect of the letter’s language, Carini attributed the author as one of Livorno’s common people, a Sicilian by origin.
The second of the two other known copies of "Curiosissimi Costumi" is deposited in Russia, in the archive of the Saint Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The text of the letter is included in the Italian manuscript collection titled "Storie Diverse." Soviet historians also published a printed version of their copy of the letter and thoroughly analysed it (see special articles by S. Anninskii, 1934, and I. Sharkova, 1972); The Saint Petersburg copy was attributed to be written slightly later than the Vatican copy, at the end of the 17th or in the very beginning of the 18th century.
A thorough analysis of the texts of our letter and the Vatican and Saint Petersburg copies reveal several minor differences between all three, but also show a strong resemblance between our "Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi" and the Vatican copy. They are very similar in regards to the completeness and spelling of the text, whereas the Saint Petersburg copy often has some words replaced or removed, and also has spelling patterns different from the Vatican and our copies. This allows us the to state, that our copy was written at the same time with the Vatican copy or close to it. It’s remarkable, on the other hand, that the text of our copy is more extensive, than the Vatican one: there are additional lines in several places supplementing the contents of the Vatican copy. It could mean either that our copy is earlier - making it the earliest known copy of "Curiosissimi Costumi," or that the author of our copy knew more about the events described in the letter, and decided to enrich it with more details.
[Ambasceria Russa in Italia] / [Ed. By I. Carini] // Spicilegio Vaticano di Documenti Inediti e Rari, Estratti Dagli Archivi e Dalla Biblioteca della Sede Apostolica. – Roma 1890. – P. 376-383.
[Anninskii] Аннинский, С.А. Пребывание в Ливорно Царского посольства в 1656 г. (Впечатления иностранца) // ИРЛИ. Сборник статей, посвященных академику А.С. Орлову. – 1934. – С. 201-207.
[Kazakova] Казакова, Н.А. Статейные списки русских послов в Италию как памятники литературы путешествий (середина XVII века) // Труды Отдела древнерусской литературы. — Л.: Наука. Ленингр. Отд-ние, 1988. – T. XLI. – С. 268-288.
[Liubopytneishie nravy…] Любопытнейшие нравы господ послов московских, которые находятся теперь в Ливорно, проездом в Венецию / Публ. И перевод К. Шварсалон // Русская старина, 1894. – Т. 81. - № 1. – С. 197-203.
[Sharkova] Шаркова, И.С. Посольство И.И. Чемоданова и отклики на него в Италии // Проблемы истории международных отношений. – Л., 1972. – С. 207-223.
FOURCADE, Pascal Thomas (1769-1813)
[Autograph Letter Signed to Jean-Denis Barbie du Bocage (1760-1825 - French Cartographer and Geographer) about a Geometrical Map of the Plain of Bournabat Along with a View of Mount Sipylos].
Smyrna [Turkey], 27 Thermidor, year 11 (14 August 1802). Quarto (ca. 24x19,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on laid paper, addressed and with postal stamps on verso. Fold marks, minor hole on the lower margin after opening, apparently not affecting the text. Paper age toned, but overall a very good letter written in legible hand.
In this historically interesting letter Fourcade tells Barbie du Bocage that he could find out little about the artefact that Barbie du Bocage had entrusted him with. Additionally he wishes he could have found out something that would be agreeable to former French Royal ambassador to the Ottoman Empire and scholar of ancient Greece, Choiseul-Gouffier, who's work Voyage Pittoresque en Grèce, Forcade obviously used as a guide for his own researches. Fourcade adds that he will take Barbie du Bocage's advice about the plain of Bournabat and Mount Sipylos. Furthermore, he states that he has been toiling away in Smyrna and has generally been very busy, but that he gives his word to Barbie du Bocage, who at the time was preparing a map of Morea, that Fourcade will soon prepare the geometrical map of the plain of Bournabat along with a view of Mount Sipylos from the agreed vantage point, but that he is waiting for temperatures to fall and for two days free time to complete the survey.
In Smyrna, Foucade was the guest of French Consul General Choderlos de Laclos, brother of the Napoleonic General and famed author of Liaisons Dangereuse. Previously, Fourcade had been imprisoned by the Turks for a year when Napoleon invaded Egypt and now he was about to become French Consul at Sinop on the Black Sea coast in the region of ancient Pompeiopolis and Pontus, which was full of unexplored ruins from the time of the Trojan Wars. Fourcade spent seven years at Sinop, where he would explore and survey the ancient sites, but his researches would remain unpublished after his premature death in 1813 (whilst Consul at Salonica) and it was not until later that he received credit as a pioneering explorer of Asia Minor.
68. [URUGUAY - MONTEVIDEO]
MCGIFFIN, Philo Norton (1860-1897)
[Interesting Content Rich Autograph Letter Signed by Philo N. McGiffin, Famous Graduate of the United States Naval Academy and Later in Life Naval Advisor of the Modernized Chinese Navy, and a Participant of the Battle of Yalu River; the Letter is Addressed to His Mother and Contains a Detailed Description of a Training Voyage from Funchal to Montevideo during McGiffin’s Time in the US Naval Academy].
USS Hartford at Sea from Funchal to Montevideo, 10 September – 19 October 1882. Octavo (ca. 22x13 cm or slightly smaller). Eight bifoliums, densely written on all pages, two with the engraved portraits of Admiral David Farragut and his famous device “Damn the torpedoes, go ahead” in the upper left corners (USS Hartford was his flagship during the American Civil War). Dark brown, blue and pink ink on wove and laid paper, original fold marks. With the original envelope (ca. 8x14 cm), addressed with postal stamps, and ink stamps of U.S. Flagship Hartford and the Chilean and U.S. Post offices. First and third bifoliums with minor holes on folds from the ink, the envelope with minor holes after opening, otherwise a legible letter in very good condition.
An interesting letter from a young Philo McGiffin, then a midshipman of the US Naval Academy, written during the 1882-1884 training voyage from Boston to San Francisco on board the USS Hartford, well known for its service as the flagship of Admiral David Farragut during the American Civil War and in 1882 serving as the flagship of the US Navy’s North Atlantic Squadron. The letter is addressed to his mother Mrs. Col. Norton McGiffin and contains interesting details of the voyage, descriptions of Funchal and Montevideo, informs on the next leg of the voyage (to Valparaiso via the Strait of Magellan) and reflects on McGiffin’s future after his graduation.
“I want you to write and tell me what you think of my leaving the service. In case I cannot get a position on a civil engineers corps, R.R. Or other; or cannot get anything above some clerkship I shall go to sea again as 2nd mate in the merchant service, but I am pretty confident of getting something of that nature.” [McGiffin will not find a commission in the US and in 1885 will go on service to the newly modernized Imperial Chinese Navy, will become a professor at the Chinese Naval College in Tianjin, and will command the Chinese battleship Chen Yuen during the Battle of Yalu River in 1894].
While in Funchal McGiffin and his friends went horse riding to the Little Corral along the precipitous cliffs where stones fell and they “could not hear them it was so far down,” visited Santa Clara convent where “the nuns can see a great distance in the Atlantic, but they never see a man,” came down the mountain in a sled and stayed in “a Dago hotel” where they were “nearly eaten up by fleas.” He describes his souvenir purchases, “some pretty girls here,” high quality of the laundry service, local bands that are “a great deal better than the great majority of US bands,” an incident when local police tried to arrest a sailor from USS Hartford, and others.
McGiffin’s lively description of life on board USS Hartford talks about marine exercise with sails and guns (i.e. “we rigged a target and practised firing at it while steaming”), his service on the Quarter deck station, the ammunition of officers and sailors, records winds and squalls, comets, stars, planets, and meteors sighted, various marine wildlife (whales, dolphins, porpoises, marine birds), ships met (British merchant ship “Godiva” from Plymouth to Calcutta, a fleet of Portuguese men of war and others), and mentions various proceedings on board (death of a quartermaster, birthday celebrations, crossing of the Equator and its celebrations, an accident when a gun was put on a man’s foot “and cut his toes off as clean as if it had been done with an axe, the weight of the gun 17,000 lbs,” and others). McGiffin also writes about US politics and elections, and his talk with the Naval Committee of the Congress regarding future commission.
Upon arrival to Montevideo McGiffin went to the Hotel Oriental: “talk about your civilization North – we took baths in rooms fitted up like parlors, the tubs were chiseled out a large single block of marble and the whole hotel is finished in marble – richly carved <…> The city has 150,000 inhabitants and is much better built than a corresponding U.S. Town, the houses are nearly all stone or marble and streets are well laid out. There is an immense Cathedral here. I am going Sunday to hear the singing. The streets are very busy and like in a northern city. There are a number of theatres, but yesterday nothing was opened but Roulette establishments. On Sunday week is the first bull fight of the season, it is to be a grande affair and I will take it in. <…> From here we coast along the land down to the Straits of Magellan and then go thro’, anchoring every night and making a stay at Sandy Point – a convict settlement half way through. We will then go on tho’ and up to Valparaiso, where I think we will take the Admiral on board. <…> There are immense slaughter houses and yards here and thousands of head of cattle are killed and sent to England in refrigerators. The cattle are driven down from the pampas in very large droves – are weeks getting down from the upper part…”
Overall a very interesting lively letter with the detailed description of a training voyage on board the famous American naval ship.
“Philo Norton McGiffin was a late 19th-century American naval officer later serving in Chinese service as a naval advisor during the First Sino-Japanese War. Although primarily skilled as an instructor and administrator, he proved a talented tactician during the Battle of the Yalu as well as the first American to command a modern battleship in wartime.
Arriving in China soon after and seeking employment, McGiffin was able to earn a commission as a lieutenant in the newly modernizing Imperial Chinese Navy under Li Hung-chang in early 1885. In the midst on the Sino-French War, McGiffin was said to have captured a French gunboat in June before the end of the war that same year. A professor at the Chinese Naval College in Tientsin (Tianjin) for the next nine years, McGiffin was also said to have served as naval constructor supervising the construction of four ironclad warships in Great Britain before the outbreak of the First Sino-Japanese War in August 1894.
Assigned to Admiral Ting Ju ch'ang's Peiyang or Northern Fleet (which would be partially organized and trained by McGiffin), McGiffin would serve as an executive officer aboard the Chinese battleship Chen Yuen during the Battle of Yalu River (1894). Severely wounded during the battle however. McGiffin returned to the United States. Suffering from mental instability due to his wounds, McGiffin was eventually committed to the Post Graduate Hospital in New York City where, after tricking hospital orderlies into giving him a revolver from his trunk, he committed suicide on February 11, 1897 <…> At the United States Naval Academy, Philo McGiffin is a folk hero akin to Pecos Bill or Paul Bunyan. <…> In 1947, the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission installed a historical marker outside the Washington County Courthouse, noting the McGiffin's historic importance.” (Wikipedia).
69. [US CIVIL WAR]
ROBERTSON, George R. (ca. 1829-1862)
[Archive of Four Autograph Letters Signed "George D. Robertson, John Cosgrove" Lincoln Cavalry Letters to Matthew Cosgrove, all on Colour Patriotic Letter Sheets Discussing Life in the 1st New York Cavalry].
Various Places, Jan.-Mar. 1862. Octavo (20x12,5 cm). Total 14 pages. Brown ink on beige colour patriotic letter sheets, including one Magnus "For the Union" sheet depicting the Massachusetts. Some mild damp staining but overall a very good archive.
This archive describes life in the 1st New York Cavalry, the "Lincoln Cavalry" formed in New York City by Carl Schurz. All of the letters are written in the first-person singular, but bear the same unusual closing in one hand: "Your friend and brother, George D. Robertson, John Cosgrove." The letters make frequent reference to "Jack," and one bears a postscript from G.D.R. Apparently, Robertson wrote these often humorous letters at the behest of John Cosgrove, an Irish immigrant who was presumably illiterate. The last of these letters offers a perhaps exaggerated account of an action near Manassas: "Drove in the Reble pickets, 14 of our boys charged on about 150 rebles, routed them & took 13 prisoners. . . . We scared them so bad that they did not stop running till they were 20 miles beyond Manassas" (16 March 1862). John Cosgrove (born circa 1836) and George D. Robertson (circa 1829-1862) both served in the 1st New York Cavalry, Company A, with Private Cosgrove surviving his three-year enlistment. Robertson reached the rank of sergeant before being fatally wounded; he died in a hospital in Chambersburg, PA in October 1862. "The First Battle of Bull Run, also known as First Manassas (the name used by Confederate forces), was fought on July 21, 1861, in Prince William County, Virginia, near the city of Manassas, not far from Washington. The Union forces were slow in positioning themselves, allowing Confederate reinforcements to arrive by rail. Each side had about 18,000 poorly trained and poorly led troops in their first battle. It was a Confederate victory followed by an embarrassing retreat of the Union forces. It was the first major land battle of the American Civil War" (Wikipedia).
70. [WASHINGTON TERRITORY - PACIFIC RAILROAD SURVEY]
MOWRY, Sylvester (1830-1871)
[Historically Significant Autograph Letter Signed “Sylvester Mowry” to his Father with the Details of the Survey Expedition for the Northern Route of the Pacific Railroad across the Cascade Mountains in July-November 1853].
Fort Vancouver, W[ashigton] T[erritory], 29 November 1853. Quarto (ca. 25,5x19,5 cm). 8 pp. On two bifoliums, brown ink on bluish laid paper watermarked “Moinier’s 1851”. Fold marks, paper slightly age toned, but overall a very good letter.
Extensive historically significant autograph letter written by Lieut. Sylvester Mowry, a member of the Northern Pacific Survey expedition up the valley of the Columbia River and its tributaries across the Cascade Mountains. As Mowry noted in the letter, the purpose of the expedition was “to establish the fact of a perfect practicable pass for a railroad both through the Rockies and Cascade Mountains by the Northern Route. In addition we have fully developed the geographical character of the country <…>, besides its geology, natural history, climate and ethnography.”
The letter gives a thorough account of the expedition from its departure from Fort Vancouver on the 27th of July 1853 and until its return four months later on the 18th of November, talking about crossing the Cascade mountains at the 46th latitude, survey of the basin of the Yakima River where they found a French Catholic mission, Mowry’s trip to Fort Dalles, trip to Fort Okanogan (Washington St.) and up the Okanagan River to British territory and further to the Great Okanagan Lake where “we drank the health of the Queen of England in a bottle of old whiskey in her own territory, New Caledonia;” meeting in Fort Colville with Governor Isaac Stevens, the head of the Northern Pacific Survey; and returning down the Columbia River via Fort Walla Walla and Fort Dalles. Mowry mentions other expedition members, e.g. Lieut. Duncan (3rd Artillery, astronomer, topographer and draughtsman), and Lieut. Hodges (4th Artillery, quartermaster and commissary), describes the newly surveyed territory (mentioning volcanic activity and discovery of gold in the Cascade Mountains) and shares his opinion on the perspectives for the railway construction or other use of the land. Overall a very interesting informative important letter.
Some excerpts from the letter:
“We were absent from here [Fort Vancouver] just four months and in that time we travelled on horseback and mule back between 1200 and 2000 miles. <…> We left Vancouver July 18th and after much difficulty <…> got into the woods and away from all settlements about July 27th. We kept for about two weeks on this, the west side of the Cascade mountains passing over a succession of small but fine fertile prairies, most of them covered with a heavy growth of fern. Between these prairies we found a heavy growth of pine and fir timber with dense underbush[?] of cotton wood, berry bushes &c. We cut our trail or we proceeded slow[?] making only six or eight miles a day. Our party was very large – about 200 animals, 80 men, many instruments and much personal baggage, including books. We crossed the Cascade Mountains in Latitude about 46° at a point about 2500 feet above the level of the sea. We found on the mountains late in August the most delicious strawberries, ice and hail storms.
We passed down to the valleys of the branches of the Yakima River - one of the main western branches of the Columbia River. Here we found on a small stream a Catholic mission with two French priests. The expedition went into camp, Lieut. Hodges went into Steilacoom on Puget Sound for provisions, Lieut. Duncan went on an exploring expedition up toward the sources of the Yakima River and I remained on duty in camp on command of the expedition until Sept. 1st. Lieut. Hodges had such bad fortune, that his animals on arriving at Steilacoom were exhausted or broken down, so that he could not bring out sufficient provisions for the whole party. For this reason the count of about 20 men, several of the packers, about 50 animals and all the space baggage was sent[?] into Fort Dalles on the Columbia River under my command. I marched 200 miles with the broked down animals <…?> and returned in nine days – the quickest <…?> made in the trip.
We were in camp on the main Yakima River and its branches one month during which we explored all the country within 100 miles in every direction, discovering two passes, one south and one north of Mount Rainier. From this point we struck over to the Columbia River and followed it up to Fort Okanogan – a station of the Hudson’s Bay Co. From there we went back lightly and explored a pass up the valley of the Barnes River, but did not found it practical except for a pack trail.
Going back to Okanogan we followed up the Okanagan River to British territory. The party camped on the boundary about 49° north latitude. The officers and gentlemen of the expedition chartered some Indian horses, price all day a shirt or <…?> of cotton cloth. I had the race horse of the tribe and we rode a perfect stipple chase over the <…?> country ever seen. We went up to the Great Okanagan Lake, no. Latitude 49°15’. This lake is almost 100 miles[?] long by six or seven wide. We drank the health of the Queen of England in a bottle of old whiskey in her own territory, New Caledonia.
Following down the Okanagan River to the Colville Trail, we struck over to Fort Colville on the Columbia River, no. Latitude 48°46’ where we arrived Oct. 9th meeting Gov. [Isaac] Stevens who came in ahead of his party accompanied by Stanley the artist and Osgood. <…>
We left Colville Oct. 22d. On a horseback near the Spokane River and waited for Lieut. Duncan who was in command of the main party of Gov. Stevens which had come over the Rocky Mountains. I should have said that the expedition crossed the Columbia at Fort Colville and that we returned on the east side. Up to Oct. 19th we were on the west side of the Columbia River.
A delay of a few days brought the Stevens party and we continued on down the Columbia. We struck the banks of the Columbia at Fort Wallah-Wallah, also a Hudson’s Bay Co. Station. From there we came down to Fort Dalles where we took boats and came down the Columbia to Fort Vancouver where we are now. Our course up to the line 49° was generally north, with variations to the east and west, nearly south on our return at <…> Wallah Wallah when we turned toward to the west.
The country west of the mountains is passable – the prairies are very fertile, water and timber good and plenty. After crossing the mountains the soil became gradually sandy and apparently useless[?], producing nothing but large bushes with occasional <…?> grass. Along the streams we found timber, but neither large nor in great quantities.
In the vicinity of the mountains much volcanic actions was visible. Fields of lava & volcanic ashes into which a horse or mules would sink to the fetlock. <…>. The Cascade Mountains seen clear to the Columbia and the whole territory is in my humble opinion worthless. We found gold in small quantities everywhere in the streams showing that large deposits exist in some place and will eventually attract attention. As a mining state its resources will be developed, but not otherwise, at least while so much better area to remain unoccupied.
The rivers are not navigable for anything larger that a canoe. They are rapid beautiful torrents – nothing more. The Okanagan River a few miles above its mouth is a succession of lakes connected by large marshes filled with high reeds. High up in the valley the lakes occupy its entire width, the trail remains along the sides of the mountains. We lost in the Columbia River in crossing over a dangerous place about one foot wide two of our best mules which fell over the precipice some hundred of feet. <…> A small valley east of the Columbia about 30 miles long is well settled by French Canadians and half breeds, discharged employees of the Hudson's Bay Co. <…> Gov. Stevens has fixed the office of the Expedition at Olympia on Puget Sound, the probable capital of the territory.
I bore special orders to establish my office here at Fort Vancouver to make a profile of our route from the barometrical observations, maps of the same <...> First I am to make a series of observations at Astoria to ascertain the level of the sea as a basis of my profile work. All this will take me several months, probably three at least. Gov. Stevens has <..?> the whole <..?> library at my disposal and I intend my report to be the fullest one made in an expedition like our.”
“Sylvester Mowry was an American best known as a pioneer and the founder of Mowry, Arizona. He also served as an officer in the United States Army and was arrested as a traitor during the American Civil War” (Wikipedia).
“The Pacific Railroad Surveys (1853-1855) consisted of a series of explorations of the American West to find possible routes for a transcontinental railroad across North America. The expeditions included surveyors, scientists, and artists and resulted in an immense body of data covering at least 400,000 square miles (1,000,000 km2) on the American West. "These volumes... Constitute probably the most important single contemporary source of knowledge on Western geography and history and their value is greatly enhanced by the inclusion of many beautiful plates in color of scenery, native inhabitants, fauna and flora of the Western country." Published by the United States War Department from 1855 to 1860, the surveys contained significant material on natural history, including many illustrations of reptiles, amphibians, birds, and mammals. In addition to describing the route, these surveys also reported on the geology, zoology, botany, paleontology of the land as well as provided ethnographic descriptions of the Native peoples encountered during the surveys” (Wikipedia).