June 2018 - Americas, the Pacific & the Polar Regions

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[CHICHESTER, Harry D.] (d. 1911)
[Historically Important Collection of Fifty-six Original Photographs Showing American Sealers, the Fur Seal Industry, and Native People of the Pribilof Islands].

Ca. 1908-1911. Fifty-six loose gelatin silver prints of various size, including twenty-three larger photos ca. 11,5x16,5 cm (4 ½ x 6 ½ in), the rest are from ca. 10x13,5 cm (3 ¾ x 5 ½ in) to ca. 9x9 cm (3 ½ x 3 ½ in). Ten photos signed “H.D. Chichester 09,” “H.D. Chichester 08,” “H.D. Chichester” or “H.D.” in negative. Four images with period ink or pencil captions in English on verso. A couple of images mildly faded or with minor silvering on the margins, otherwise a very good collection.
Historically significant collection of original photos taken by Dr. Harry D. Chichester who worked as the agent of the U.S. Bureau of Fisheries on the Pribilof Islands in 1910-1911. Ten photos bear his signature in negative. Twenty-one photos (including eighteen large ones) depict the fur seal industry on the Pribilof Islands, including images of family groups of fur seals, men driving them to the killing ground, clubbing and skinning them, piling bundles of furs, loading them on boats etc. Other interesting photos show the sealers in wet suits on the sea shore, tents of native people, volcanic eruption over one of the Pribilofs, a vessel of a fur seal company, portraits of a group of Alaskan gold miners (?) inside their tent (with the scale and some papers in the foreground), of an American man dressed in a fur seal coat, hat and boots (on board of a vessel), a dog sled, a wooden building with the sign “Kingsland villa” and an American flag waving above, etc. Three photos are captioned and relate to the other parts of Alaska or the Aleutians – “Port Clarence [coast of the Bering Sea just south of the Seward Peninsula] – Indian grave,” “Unalaska Reindeer,” and “Nome – native camp on Koozitreen River” [Kuzitrin River, Seward Peninsula].
Over a dozen photos taken by Harry Chichester are deposited in the C. Willard Evans photograph collection in the Historic Documents Department of San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park (see more: Click here). Although the images themselves are nor available for the online view, they are supplemented with captions and annotations which may indicate that some of the images are the same as in our collection:
1) Box 1. Item No. 002. Bogoslof Island, Alaska, 1892. Steam and/or ash is rising from the island on the left side of the photograph.
2) Box 1. Item No. 046. Two men standing on a rocky beach in Alaska, 1909. The men appear to be dressed for wet weather. The men in Item 105 are wearing similar clothing.
3) Box 1. Item No. 050. Men rowing ashore at Saint George Island, Alaska, circa 1900-1911. A steamship is in the right background, port broadside view. In the left middle distance, men are rowing ashore. In the foreground, a group of men are waiting the rowers' arrival at the landing.
4) Box 1. Item No. 051. Men unloading supplies from a rowboat at Saint George Island, Alaska, circa 1900-1911.
5) Box 2. Item No. 096. Group of fur seals being driven to the killing grounds on Saint George Island, Alaska, circa 1900-1911. Two men are in view, one of which is holding a long stick.
6) Box 2. Item No. 099. Men clubbing fur seals on Saint George Island, Alaska, circa 1900-1911. The fur seals are huddled together and the men are encircling them. Each man is holding a long stick.
7) Box 2. Item No. 110. Walrus in Alaska, circa 1900-1911. Close-up view of the head.
Harry Chichester was on the Pribilof Islands as early as in 1896, when he was mentioned as an employee of the North American Commercial Company, who took pictures for the members of the Commission of Fur Seal Investigations on St. George Island (Jordan, D.S. Observation on the Fur Seals of the Pribilof Islands: Preliminary Report by … Commissioner in charge of Fur Seal Investigations for 1896. Washington: Government Press, 1896, p. 6; Jordan, D.S. The Fur Seals and Fur Seal Islands of the North Pacific Ocean. Part 1, Washington, 1898, p. 21). In 1910, with the end of the private lease of the islands by the North American Commercial Company and transfer of their administration to the state Bureau of Fisheries, Chichester became its first official agent, stationed in St. Paul, and in addition to his duties carried out a survey of living conditions of the local population, ordered by the authorities from Washington. The survey covered housing, clothing, diet, living habits, diseases and parasites, alcohol abuse etc., but was never completed as Chichester died on May 31, 1911 in a boat accident during a leisure trip. A boat with Chichester, Dr. Walter L. Hahn (the resident naturalist) and their wives capsized in the salt water lagoon near the village of St. Paul. Chichester and Hahn managed to bring the boat and their wives on shore, but both men died the same day due to the long exposure to ice cold water (see more: Martin, F. Before the Storm: A Year in the Pribilof Islands, 1941-1942. University of Alaska Press, 1910, pp. 111-113). Chichester’s photographs of fur seals were used as illustrations to several editions of D.S Jordan’s “Matka and Kotik: a tale of the Mist Islands” (San Francisco, 1897, 1900, 1903, 1910 &c).
Overall a very historically interesting collection of original photos giving a first-hand account of the fur seal industry and everyday life on the Pribilof Islands in the early 20th century.


BROWNE, Robert Sewall (1866-1904) & BROWNE, Alice (1869-1965)
[Historically Important Very Extensive Private Klondike Gold Rush Archive of over 260 Letters and Documents with over 170 Original Letters and Legal Papers from and regarding the Yukon and Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush and Shortly After, Documenting the Life and Death of American Gold Miner Robert Sewall Browne, Including 95 Letters by Browne to his wife Mrs. Alice Gray Browne Written from Yukon and Alaska, 26 Letters from Alice Browne to her Husband in Alaska, 27 Letters Written by Browne’s Family Members or Business Partners while he was in Alaska or the West Coast, 28 Letters, Telegrams and Legal Papers Concerning his Death in Alaska in August 1904 and Arrangements for the Transportation and Burial of His Body; a Letter by his Son Written in 1951 to the “Hostess of Fairbanks” Eva McGown Regarding the Location of Robert Browne’s Grave; Additionally with over 80 Private Family Letters on Various Topics].

30 October 1898 - 26 March 1906, 10 November 1951. Ca. 177 original letters and legal documents; black ink, black and blue pencil on writing paper of various size, from ca. 17,5x11 cm (7 x 4 ¼ in) to ca. 35,5x21 cm (14 x 8 ¼ in). Over 90 letters in the original envelopes, addressed in ink and with postal stamps on recto and/or verso. In all about 380 pp. of text in Robert Browne’s letters from Alaska and the Yukon, and ca. 270 pp. of correspondence closely related to his time in Alaska and the Yukon. With a clipping from “Fairbanks weekly news” from September 3, 1904 (article describing Browne’s death), an advertising brochure about Everett (Wa), printed in 1901, and ca. 89 pieces of private family correspondence, 1884-1906. Eight letters from Robert Browne apparently incomplete, several letters with tears or minor holes not affecting the text; but overall an incredibly extensive collection of original letters from an Alaskan gold miner, written in a very legible hand and in very good condition.
Important very extensive collection of original letters and documents giving a detailed first-hand account of life and experiences of R.S. Browne, a gold miner in the Yukon and Alaska during the Klondike Gold Rush. Robert Sewall Browne (1866-1904) was a son of Rev. Sewall Browne (1833 – August 1906) and Minerva-Meader Browne (1840 – October 1905) from Tenants Harbour (later moved to East Corinth, both in Maine). In 1890 he married Alice Emeline Gray (1869-1965), a daughter of Charles Hermann Gray (1844-1931) and Eliza Howe Perley Gray (1841-1901) from Old Town, Maine; Robert and Alice’s only child Carl Gray Browne (1891-1972) was born a year later. In about 1894 Robert Browne left his family in Old Town and started a business with his brother Ralph in Norfolk (Va), but due to health problems (recurring dysentery) went to “the North” following a recommendation of his doctor. In 1897 he went to the Yukon right in the middle of the Klondike Gold Rush (1896-99), where for almost five years he worked on and eventually bought several claims around Dawson: on Indian River, Sulphur Creek, Bonanza Creek, and Henderson Creek (where he named the quartz mine “Alice” in honour of his wife), but without much success. In between his mining enterprises he worked for wages, cutting wood and transporting it by raft to Dawson City, and typing papers in a Dawson law firm “Belcourt, McDougal & Smith.”
In the autumn of 1902 Browne went to the Washington State and found a job in Everett, Wa. where Alice visited him for the second honeymoon the following spring. In 1903 he decided to try his luck in Alaska and in July went to Valdez on board U.S.S. “Bertha” with the stops in Ketchikan, Juneau, Sitka, Yakutat, Orca, & Kayak. After a few weeks in Valdez where his hopes for successful gold prospecting didn’t work out, Browne headed to the Alaskan interior via Kimball Pass, Copper Center, Tanana River crossing, Chicken Creek, and Forty Mile. For about a month he worked on the Coal Creek mine, until it closed for the winter, then in Forty Mile, and eventually went mining in Jack Wade. There he also did some book keeping for the local companies, including Steel Creek Trading Co., and Wade Creek General store. In June 1904 Browne left the Wade Creek mine and ended up in Fairbanks after a brief attempt to work as a mail currier between Ketchumstock and Tanana Crossing. Later that month Browne formed a partnership with an “old man by name of Henry Woodcock from Ripley, Maine” to cut wood for the steamer of the Northern Commercial Company which ran on the Tanana River. On the way back from the logging site, on August 25, 1904 Robert Browne drowned during a tragic accident when a boat with him and two other men capsized in the Tanana River about 25 miles above Salcha (Fairbanks North Star Borough). His body was discovered two months later and was initially buried on the bank of the Tanana River; in 1905 it was exhumed, transported to Fairbanks and buried on a local cemetery on the account of the local branch of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows. Alice’s plans to bring the body back to Old Town and bury it there didn’t come true. She lived for another sixty years and didn’t get married again. Robert and Alice’s only son Carl Gray Browne graduated from the Phillips Academy (Mass.) in 1909 and from Harvard Business School with the A.B. Degree in 1914; he later worked as a sales manager in Williamsport, Pa. The story of his father’s tragic death stayed in his mind for years, which is revealed in the letter he wrote in 1951 to the famous “hostess of Fairbanks” Mrs. Eva McGown, asking her help in locating Robert Browne’s grave.
Browne’s passionate letters to his wife give a fascinating historically important account of the life of a gold miner in the Klondike and Alaska during the Gold Rush years, talking about finding claims, building a log house and a winter cabin, unsuccessful searches for a pay streak, procedure and rules for staking a claim, gold panning, quartz mining, working conditions in winter, boilers and sluices, gold nuggets, winter temperatures, local wildlife and hunting experiences; vividly describe the places he lived - Dawson City (location, prices for food supplies, architecture, women, theatre); Seattle, Sitka, Yakutat, Valdez, Jack Wade, Fairbanks and others; humorous stories from local life, etc. The first letter (from 30 October 1898) is illustrated with a hand-drawn map of the Yukon tributaries between the Klondike and Stewart Rivers where Browne mined; the other letter (from 31 December 1902) has a pencil portrait of Alice Browne copied by Robert from a photograph. The last letter written by Browne to his wife is dated 19 August 1904, i.e. less than a week before his tragic death.
The collection is supplemented with:
1) 26 letters to Robert Browne from Alice Browne, all addressed to Alaska (Fairbanks, Jack Wade, Nome, Forty Mile), from Old Town (ME), all but two letters written in 1904 (the other two – in 1903), including eight letters written and sent after Browne’s death. All but three letters with the original envelopes.
2) 27 various letters related to Robert Browne’s time in the West Coast or Alaska, 1902-1904: letters by his family members and friends (including two unopened letters by his father Rev. Sewall Browne apparently delivered to Jack Wade after Browne’s death), letters by Alice Browne to her father when she was visiting her husband in Everett in spring-summer 1903, several official letters regarding the arrangement of Alice Browne’s trip to Everett, a letter with an offer to buy Browne’s claims in Alaska (dated September 1904), an unfinished legal document (in three copies) giving Browne the power of attorney of the applicant’s mines “in the United States, Alaska and the Dominion of Canada” (dated June 1903), and letters to Alice Browne from her new friends in Everett. Written from Saint John (NB), Stoneridge (NB, Canada), East Corinth, Seattle, Shelton (Wa), New York, Everett etc.; addressed to Everett, Jack Wade, Old Town, Boston etc.; 15 letters in the original envelopes, with two additional empty envelopes.
3) 28 various letters and legal papers, related to the discovery of Browne’s death on August 25, 1904, filing of the inheritance and insurance claims, arrangements of transportation of his body from the first grave on the bank of the Tanana River to Fairbanks and possibly to Old Town, letters of condolences etc. 16 October 1904 – 26 March 1906. Written from Everett, East Corinth, Baltimore, West Buxton, Fairbanks, Portland, Lewiston, Seattle, Dawson, and Valdez by Rev. Sewall Browne and other family members, manager of the Portland branch of the life insurance company, Browne’s partners and acquaintances from Alaska: Harold H. Reeves, Leslie H. Sawyer, Charles W. Bram, George B. Wesch, H. J. Woodcock, manager of “Fairbanks Weekly News” R.J. McChesney, Dawson barrister F.J. McDougal et al. (16 letters in the original envelopes, with one additional empty envelope).
The collection ends with a draft of a touching letter written my Browne’s son Carl Gray Browne (1891-1972) to the famous “Hostess of Alaska” Eva McGown. Dated 10 November 1951, the letter tells the story of Robert Browne’s life and death in Alaska and asks for Mrs. McGown’s help in locating his grave in Fairbanks. “My father, Robert Sewall Browne, left his small family, consisting of my mother and me, at Old Town, Maine, to regain his health and perhaps make his fortune in the Gold Rush of 1898. He endured and survived everything Alaska had to offer, including the White Horse Rapids and Chilkoot Pass, regained his health and was I believe, well on his way to independence when Fate intervened, and he lost his life in the Tanana River Aug. 25, 1904. I understand he was buried by the Masons in Fairbanks in a lead casket, no doubt with the idea in mind that his remains would be sent out.
At the time of the accident my father was working with a small crew of men getting out a contract for wood to fuel a small steamboat which ran up the Tanana River. He also owned some valuable mining claims which in those days were carried on the person. These were stolen, I believe, after he was brought to Fairbanks <..> There certainly was a foul play because my mother only learned about it indirectly when a friend in the State of Washington read about it in the paper and wrote her a letter of condolence! <…>
My father incidentally, was an expert boatman, and the indirect cause of the catastrophe was an axe – in the hands of my father, who had nearly severed his foot and probably he nearly bled to death. At any rate he was lying in the bow of the boat wrapped in a bearskin robe when the bateau evidently got out of control and everyone was dashed into the seething rapids. Of course, my father in his condition didn’t have a chance. <…>
Someday before I get too old I dream of seeing Alaska. <…> After all these years is there any possibility that I may see my father’s grave? <…> I <…> wanted you to get the story, so you might become sufficiently interested to try to locate someone who might remember Rob Browne as he was called. He was a wonderful person, who could do anything he set his heart and mind on and I can still remember him although I never saw him after I was 7. My mother went west and met him in Washington State, Spokane, I think it was, either in 1903 or 1904. He was a big, strapping, husky man, far different from the man she remembered who had lost his health in the south and been advised by his doctor to go north for his health. Well, he really did “Go North” and he really lived for a few years. He had promised my mother that he would come out the next year. I know he tried hard to induce Mother to come and live there with him; probably in Fairbanks. And I believe she should have if it hadn’t been for me. I have never stopped wishing we had both gone…”
There is also a substantial amount of various additional private letters, including 25 earlier letters from Robert Browne to his wife, sent from Norfolk (VA) & Pueblo (CO), 1894-96, all but three with the original envelopes; and 64 various letters from or to family and friends, including Alice’s parents Charles Herrmann Gray and Eliza Howe Gray, sister Hortense Eugenia (1871-1956) and her husband Rev. Colwort Kendall Pier Cogswell (1869-1954), son Carl Browne, parents-in-law Rev. Sewall Browne and Minerva-Meader Browne, and various relatives and friends from Boston, Norfolk, Tenants Harbour, East Corinth, Brooklyn, New York, Charleston, Baltimore, West Buxton, Bangor, Waterville etc., 1884-1906 (54 with the original envelopes, with four additional empty envelopes). With an advertising brochure about Everett, Wa: Everett: The Industrial “City of Smokestacks… Report of Everett Chamber of Commerce, 1901.”
Overall a rare extraordinarily extensive collection of original letters and documents relating to the Klondike and Alaskan Gold Rush.

Some excerpts from Robert Browne’s letters to his wife, 1898-1904:
Claim # 15 above discovery, Sulphur Creek, N.W.Terr., 30 October 1898: “Few people have glass windows here. They cut a hole in the wall over which they nail a piece of cotton cloth to admit light in the day & have another piece of canvas to put over that at night. Glass is worth almost its weight in gold in Dawson <…> There is one woman on this creek. She is in here with a man that I doubt is her husband, on claim 45 below. John & I called to see if we could use their stove to make some tea & fry a slice of bacon for our lunch as we came up & were surprised to find a woman there. She asked us in & let us cook. Said she liked it in here very much & expected to strike it rich this winter <…>”
Sulphur Creek, 19 April 1899: “… we all got claims on Black Hill Creek in Stewart R. District & paid $15 each to get them recorded and part of our party remained there all winter & prospected them putting down 7 or 8 holes but found no gold in paying quantities. Tho’ they did find a few coarse colours. The truth about Stewart R. Is, that you can find a little gold all along it, but it has never yet been found in paying quantities and there is not a claim that is worth the recording fee in the whole district today <…> Of the Indian R. Dist. Sulphur & Dominion Creeks alone have turned out fairly good. I hope to get a good claim in this dist. This summer. The Klondike of course you know is rich. That is where we are trying to find claims now. Besides taking up a claim of course a man can buy as many claims or interests I claims as he wants to if he has the money & that is why it is so desirable to have some money in this country to work on…”
Dawson, 28 June 1899: “… the Dawsonites keep things lively about town all night long. The saloons, theatres, dancehalls, stores etc. keep wide open all night as well as day. Dawson is really a bigger place than I realized that is, more stores, restaurants, and all kinds of places of business & at present the town is filled with men. Nearly all the men are in now from the creeks. Steamers are coming up or down the river nearly every day & hundreds are going out of the country by every boat. Everyone here is excited by the reports that they have struck another Bonanza down on the American side near St. Michael & hundreds are going down there in small boats & on the steamers <…> [Dawson] is a city of frame & log & canvas buildings, but many of the saloons & theatres have magnificent bars. There are hundreds & thousands of women here & women seem to love this country & enjoy themselves as nowhere else. I have never been in a place where women dressed more fashionably or expensively…”
Magnet Gulch, 22 March 1900: “For the past two weeks it has been very warm, hardly freezing at night & there is not proper ventilation in our mine. Our fires for thawing out the ground make so much smoke & carbon gas that it is impossible to work more that one day out of two or three, and then there is gas enough remaining in the tunnel to cause us great inconvenience. It affects the eyes more than anything else, making them inflamed so that they run all the time & are very painful.”
Magnet Hill, 6 June 1900: “Do you know, I think anyone could make a fortune bringing in a consignment of cats in here. Cats of all kinds & descriptions. They are very scarce here & I believe every woman in Dawson, to say nothing of the creeks, as well every saloon keeper & merchant, would take one at prices from 25 to 100 dollars!”
Dawson, 13 August 1900: “Lord Minto, the Governor General of Canada in coming here this week & they are making preparations to receive & entertain his Lordship. Have erected 3 triumphal arches across the principal street for him to pass under & decorating public buildings etc.”
Dawson, 27 August 1900: “In addition to the regular performance, there is a prize fight at the Savoy tonight. Frank Slavin, an ex-champion, heavy weight is up against a local aspirant. There is bad blood between them on account of an old grudge & it promises to be interesting. We tried to get in, but were too late. The crown was there ahead of us & could not get inside the portal <…> The streets of Dawson as today seemed quite like they used to in her palmier days. People are flocking into Dawson from back up & down river. There were 6 or 7 steamers in today, two from St. Michael bringing lots of people from Nome & all the upriver boats are crowned with chechakos or returning sour-doughs. I don’t see what the outsiders can be thinking of to be flocking into Dawson the way they are…”
Dawson, 16 June 1901: “I have gotten hold of a good many claims now and was thinking [?] on disposing of some of them. Things have occurred to change my plans a good deal. The fact is that there is a strong probability of all the Dominion Creek properties being very valuable. So much so that I have decided not to sell any of them & am buying instead all I can get <…> as far as my resources go. So I have only three pieces of property that I am willing to sell. I can probably get about $2000 out of them. So I doubt I will be in a position to go outside this fall. I will tell you another thing. I and a gentleman with whom I am very closely connected have made a discovery of a quartz lode of great extent which I believe is going to revolutionize mining in this country. We have had it assayed & the first assay was $ 228 per ton which is fabulous. Don’t mention this to anyone, but you can say with safety if you see fit, that I have one very valuable property here.”
Dawson, 9 December 1901: “As to the pinchers, I hardly know what you mean, as I got no pinchers out of that instrument case & only brought a pair of small & very ancient tooth forceps. However I will send them too as I haven’t many teeth left to pull & consequently no use for them.”
Claim No. 5, 60 Pup Henderson Creek, 6 January 1902: “I think that we shall be able to take out a lot of money after we get started. You will understand the dirt doesn’t pan so rich, that is, they do not get such big pans on this creek, as they do on creeks where the pay in on bed rock, but here it is distributed evenly through from 3 to 7 feet in depth & 4 ½ feet of it will probably average about 10 cts. To the pan. A pan holds a little more than a shovel full of dirt.”
Stewart River, 18 February 1902: “You will be delighted to hear that the claim is turning out splendidly better a good deal than we ever thought it would and our machinery is working perfectly. We have had a great deal of work to do to get opened up but are fairly in the swing now and taking out a lot of money everyday.”
60 Pup, Henderson, 7 April 1902: “You asked a while ago what a “pup” was. In mining terms a pup is a young creek, or a tributary of a larger one. In this case 60 Pup was erroneously called a pup, but is really the upper end of the main creek.”
Henderson Creek, 25 May 1902: “Danker and I were out prospecting today (Sunday) for quartz and pretty nearly wacked our legs off climbing over mountains and through the brush. I was sorry I didn’t take my camera. Will send you some pictures probably in the next letter I write. There is a lady lives in a cabin on the next claim, who develops quite nicely and I get her to print them for me.”
Henderson Creek, 13 July 1902: “We are all greatly encouraged now & it is only a matter of time till we will strike good [quartz] ore. We know it is there & there is every reason to think it will be rich. It is likely that another week will put us into the ore or two weeks anyway <…> I believe that we are going to have a great mine here & that we are the pioneers on quartz mining in this country.”
The Alice Mine, Henderson Creek, 27 July 1902: “If the result of the work we are now doing proves good, we have got a half interest in 7 or 8 other claims at present and that is only the beginning. We will have a town here of our own and a big mining camp and everything coming our way. 3 months ago the people around Stewart though we were fools to talk about quartz in this country and cranks to go to work to develop the ledge – but now they are changing their minds and coming around and trying to get locations and there is great excitement over our prospects here, but we are keeping it as quiet as we can and only telling them what we think best to about it, as we intend to get about all the country that is any good ourselves.”
Seattle, 2 November 1902: “Seattle is a busy bustling place and going ahead fast, but I can’t say I like it and I know you would not like it for a home. It is a terribly immoral place, the worst I ever saw anywhere and all kinds of dens of vice run wide open. <…> there is no art, literature or culture here, all is new and rustling day and night for the almighty dollar.”
Seattle, 5 July 1903: “Last night after the train bore you away, I was alone and have felt alone ever since. I put up my umbrella & walked around the city a while to see how people were celebrating. Walked up First Ave. & along Pike where most of the fireworks were. The Denny Hotel was covered with electric lights in design & looked very pretty. Pike Street looked like a regular carnival. Boys & girls, men & women carried bags of tissue paper cut up very fine & threw it at each other ad libitum.”
U.S. Mail S.S. “Bertha,” 15 July 1903: “Sitka is the most romantic picturesque place I ever visited and I might almost say the most beautiful withal. It certainly is a lovely spot and reminds one of places we have read about in romance <…> There are a great many Indians there. They were lined up in rows on either side the walk with their wares consisting of curios to sell, hundreds of them. <…> I paid 50 cents to visit the old Russian church. It is a unique structure, both outside & in. <…> There are numerous pictures such as usually seen in Cath. Chs. This is not Cath. However, but Greek Ch. A number of the pictures were very costly, the faces painted by old […?] & the clothing & rest of picture wrought in silver, one or two of Christ & of the Mother & Child were wrought in gold & silver, very beautiful. They also had robes made of cloth of woven gold etc. <…> Yesterday we ran for Yakutat, 225 miles <…> very pretty place, Indian village & mission. We had a missionary on board & put him off. Many Indians & whites too, came out in boats & canoes to see us, the Indians to offer their wares for sale. The Indians all look like Yaks [?]. Every tribe has a different pattern of canoe. The Yakutat tribe canoe was like this [rough drawing of a canoe] with a sharp cut […?] extending out in front.”
Valdez, 20 July 1903: “It is very dull around Valdez – nothing doing – no railroad building yet. They started & worked a week but quiet a week ago. Still people seem to think this will be a good country after a while. Slate creek on the Chistochina River is reported good, but only 8 or 10 claims on this creek. It is 200 odd miles in there & they say it is too late to go in there to work this season. People are coming out of the Nizina Camp every day and say it is no good. Both are summer camps. From all I can learn there is a great deal of ground in the Nizina that would pay well to hydraulic but will hardly pay to work by ordinary methods. There is a strike at a place called Dutch Flats 23 miles from Valdez where they have found a fair prospect of gold. Two parties are working there now & think they can make it pay.”
Tanana Crossing, Alaska, 19 August 1903: “Here at Tanana crossing all kinds of grub are 75 cts. Or 100 per lb. Yesterday we passed a crew of Govt. Men who are completing the pole line to Eagle. Heretofore for about 50 miles there has just been an insulated cable string along on the ground. They now have the pole line completed all except 2 or 3 miles.”
Forty Mile, 23 October 1903: “There are I should say about 60 or 75 people here in Forty Mile, three hotels, three stores, etc., besides quite a number of Indians who live in one end of the town…”
Jack Wade, 5 December 1903: “Have at last found a piece of ground that I believe is good & that I can male some money on this winter. <…> It is on No. 4 above Lover Discovery. I have 200 feet of ground on lower end of claim immediately joining the famous “Dud M’Kinnie Fraction” which produced all kinds of money. My ground comes clear up to where the owners themselves are working & my ground should be just as good as theirs. While down in this drift today & was scratching around in the dirt at the face & picked up a two-dollar nugget. The gold is very coarse…”
Wade Creek, Alaska, 20 December 1903: “I got the first pay out of my shaft yesterday. I panned out 6 pans of dirt & got 57 cts. Out of it. Today I got well down into bedrock & the pay was better. Am very much proud with the prospect. 50 cts. Per bucket (6 pans) was all I expected. Today (Sunday) I took out about 75 buckets of dirt so have got a little pay dump started…”
Wade Creek, Christmas night 1903: “It has not seemed much like Christmas here. They had a dance on the creek last night up at the Store. Jack and I went up but didn’t stay long, just long enough to see the motley gathering & watch a dance or two. There are 8 or 10 women on the creek and quite a lot of men. Today we didn’t work & got up late. Had mush & hot cakes for breakfast (our invariable menu), then went up to the store & got 30 lbs of caribou meat – the first fresh meat we have had & I roasted a piece for dinner. It was real nice & with it we had potatoes, peas, tea & bread pudding with currants in it & a bottle of “hootch” & one of blueberry wine which the storekeeper made us a present of to wash it down.”
Wade Creek, 17 January 1903: “Last night about an hour after going to bed I heard a snapping and got up & wet out to see what it was. The boiler house of our cabin owner situated about one hundred yards from our house was on fire all in a blaze. I dressed and hurried out to fight the fire, we partially tore down the house so if possible to save the boiled from great injury, but that was all we could do & the building was totally destroyed in about half an hour.”
Jack Wade, Alaska, 29 January 1904: “There is not much to write about from here, nothing ever takes place I guess on this creek. The only thing to break the monotony was a wedding a week ot two days ago on Chicken Creek. A merchant over there married a woman known on the creeks as “The Blue Goose.” They came over here on a wedding trip & the people here turned out and “chivereed” them (is that spelled right?). Strange to say another similar affair occurred the other night. Word has brought over that a man named Frank Austen of the Steel Creek Trading Co. Had married Miss Stanley who cooks in a road house on Forty Mile for her brother & had brought her over here. Everybody turned out (I among the rest) armed with tin cans for drums, cow bells & the like & chevereed them & then it turned out they were not married at all but Austen just brought the lady & another lady friend over on a visit. Now they are all after the fellow who started the report that they were married. He thought it was a joke I guess but at cost Austen a good many dollars to buy drinks for the crowd.”
Jack Wade, Alaska, 9 March 1904: “The other day the Marshall found an old man wandering around with a blanket & a pick, in the snow nearly frozen & crazy as a maniac. He thought he was on the road back to Missouri. They finally got transportation for the poor old fellow to Eagle. We also have a corpse here lying in slate in a barn, has been here ever since I have been here, not because they like a “stiff” in camp, but because they cannot seem to get anyone to dig a grave for him.”
Fairbanks, 21 June 1904: “The Tanana is a terror of a river, not dangerous if you are careful, but very wide & split up into innumerable channels, some of which are very shallow. However we got through in five days without any mishap. <…> [Tanana] is going to make a great mining camp. Am well satisfied that there are a number of good creeks here tho. Not equal to Bonanza or Eldorado in the Klondike. It is pretty generally credited here that the creeks produced about half a million last winter which was a good showing considering all things. Machinery is vary scarce, so only comparatively few claims are working yet. <…> Fairbanks is quite a place, quite a lot of people here, perhaps 500 or 1000 & a great many flocking in, but money doesn’t seem to be plentiful although I have seen some 200.000 in dust on deposit in the safe of the N.C.Co. <…> everything in shop of shoes & clothes is very scarce. I tried today to buy a pocket knife, but couldn’t find one in town. Also couldn’t find a pair of shoes (which I badly need as am wearing gum shoes), except some very heave stiff shoes which I cannot wear.”


LA ROCHE, Frank (1853-1936)
[Interesting Collection of Twenty-four Original Photographs of Alaska].

Ca. 1895. 14 grey thick card leaves. 24 gelatin silver prints from ca. 18x23,5 cm (7 x 9 ½ in) to 11x18,5 cm (4 ½ x 7 ½ in). All mounted on original thick grey card leaves, most captioned in negative. Overall a very good collection of strong, sharp and interesting images.
This interesting collection of photographs includes twenty-three by La Roche (Seattle) including images of: Juneau: from the water, from steamer, log cabin, Pres. Church; Sitka: Indian Avenue (x2), Indian merchants, driveway, Indian River Rapids, bridge on Indian River Trail; Wrangell: from steamer, evening, Wrangell Narrows; Skagway: from bridge, Broadway; Metlakahtla (BC): group of Indian children, Indian brass band; White Pass Railroad: from the mouth of the tunnel; Lynn Canal (x2); Steamer "Queen" taking on ice; Muir Glacier: Steamer "Queen" in the Ice Takou Inlet: Grenville Channel (BC); WITH one by Winter & Pond: Old Tlingit Indian. La Roche "made numerous trips to southeastern Alaska and the Yukon Territory photographing among others, scenes during the Klondike gold rush, ca. 1897-1899. These included views of his experiences traveling from Dyea, Alaska over the Chilkoot Pass into British Columbia to reach the gold fields" (University of Washington Libraries).


LINSCHOTEN, Jan Huyghen van (1563-1611)
Description de l'Amerique & des parties d'icelle, comme de la Nouvelle France, Floride, des Antilles, Iucaya, Cuba, Iamaica, &c. [Description of America & parts thereof, such as New France, Florida, West Indies, Iucaya, Cuba, Jamaica, & c.].

Amsterdam: J.E. Cloppenburch, 1619. First French Separately Published Edition. Small Folio (30,5x19 cm). [ii], 86 pp. With an attractively illustrated engraved title page. This copy published without the very rare map found in some copies. This work is also often found bound with Linschoten's Histoire de la navigation.., & Le Grand routier de mer.., Handsome period style maroon elaborately gilt tooled full sheep. A very clean near fine copy.
Important early description and navigational sea pilot of Spanish and Portuguese controlled America described from Florida to the straits of Magellan. The Caribbean Islands, Central America and the east and west coasts of South America are also described. "First edition in French of Linschoten's description of America. This important text originally appeared in part III of the first edition in Dutch published by Claesz in 1595-96. Sabin calls Linschoten's complete history an "inestimable book, a treasure of all the learning respecting the East and West Indies" (Christies).
Linschoten, a Dutch geographer and traveller, compiled his navigational sea pilot to the West and East Indies from secret "Spanish and Portuguese documents on navigation and geography [and] it served as a direct stimulus to the building of the vast English and Dutch overseas empires. As a navigational aid, it was so highly esteemed that a copy was given to each ship sailing for the Indies. Linschoten's own first-hand knowledge came from his voyages to Goa in 1583 and to the Arctic with Willem Barents in 1594 in search of a North East Passage" (Christies); Borba de Moraes A-L p. 489-90; Howgego L131-2; Sabin 41372.


BELYAVSKY, Frants Iosifovich (Mikhailovich) (d. 1859)
Poyezdka k Ledovitomu Moryu [A Voyage to the Icy Sea].

Moscow: Typ. of Lazarevs’ Institute of Foreign Languages, 1833. First edition. Octavo (21x14 cm). Xv, 259, iii [table of contents] pp. With additional copper engraved title page (decorated with two vignettes), four hand coloured folding lithographed plates (including a frontispiece; two signed and dated by the artist), and a folding copper engraved plate. Period brown half calf with marbled papered boards and faded gilt lettered title on the spine. Spine with cracks on the hinges, paper slightly age toned, otherwise a very good copy.
Very Rare Russian imprint with only four paper copies found in Worldcat. The book has never been translated into other languages, the only reprint edition was published in Tyumen in 2004.
Interesting early report on the Siberian Arctic made from an unusual point of view: its author Frants Belyavsky – a Russian doctor of Polish origin - travelled up the Irtysh and Ob Rivers from Tobolsk to Beryozov (nowadays Beryozovo) and Obdorsk (Salekhard) to survey the epidemic of syphilis among the natives and Russian settlers, and try to help its victims. The first cases of syphilis among the Samoyeds (Nenets people) and Ostyaks (Khanty people) in Beryozov were recorded in 1816-1817 (Belyavsky, p. 133-141). Since 1822 an annual visit by a doctor of the Medical Office of the Tobolsk Governorate was organized, this doctor would report on the spread of the disease and provide necessary medication to the infected people. The treatment was quite effective despite in the early years “there was not almost anyone among the Ostyaks who would not be infected”, by early 1828 out of over 21,000 people there were not more than 611 sick ones (Belyavsky, p. 139).
Belyavsky took on the annual tour as a doctor in service of the Tobolsk Medical Office in the early months of 1828. In his book he describes the voyage up the Irtysh and Ob Rivers from Tobolsk to Beryozov, giving interesting notes on the main villages of the way - Bronnikovo, Uvat, Yurovskoye, Demyanskoye, Denshchikovskoye, Samarovo, and others; separate chapters are dedicated to Beryozov – an important old post on the northern Russian fur trade route – and its historical sites; native settlements on the way to the Obdorsk fort, and the fort itself. Most of the book is dedicated to a thorough description of Ostyaks (Khanty) and Samoyeds (Nenets) – their origin, settlements, dwellings; appearance, physical and mental skills; language, manners and customs, clothes, food, occupations, way of entertainment, riches, state taxes, chiefs, system of justice, religion and shamans, and sicknesses (with a separate chapter on the syphilis epidemic). The book is supplemented with lists of mammals, birds, and plants native to northwestern Siberia “from Obdorsk to the coast of the Icy Ocean”; a copy of a letter written by Alexander von Humboldt to the head of Tobolsk Medical Office whom he got to know during his stay in the city in 1829; a Russian-Ostyak dictionary; and an explanation of over twenty local terms.
The book is illustrated with four attractive hand coloured lithographed plates showing “Ostyak prince Taishin” with a small view of the Obdorsk fort underneath (frontispiece); “Ostyaks during hunting”, “Samoyeds. Shaman. Chief Paygol” (both signed and dated 1832); and a view of a Nenets settlement showing a yurt, an idol in a tree, hunters, reindeers, a dog sled, a person playing a musical instrument, and others. Two lithographs are signed “Zheren. 1832” – by a member of the Zheren family - Russian painters and graphic artists, most likely by Ivan Ivanovich Zheren (18th century – after 1850), a watercolour artist and lithographer. There is also an engraved view of different forms of snow crystal from the shores of the “Icy Sea”. Epigraph on the title page quotes the lines from Ovid: “Da veniam scriptis, quorum non Gloria nobis Causa. Sed utilitas officiumque fuit/ Grant indulgence to my writings, for their purpose has been not my renown but my advantage, and to do homage to others” (Ovid. Epistulae ex Ponto, III, ix, 55).
Overall a very interesting rare and beautiful book on the Russian Arctic.
Belyavsky graduated from Saint Petersburg Medical-Surgical Academy in 1824 and was sent to the Tobolsk Medical Office where he served for three and a half years. Later he worked in the Catherine Hospital in Moscow, opened his own clinic where he used galvanoplasty as treatment, in the early 1830 travelled to the Solovetsky monastery.


KRUSENSTERN, Pavel Ivanovich (1809-1881)
Puteshestviya P.I. Krusensterna k Severnomu Uralu v 1874-1876 godakh dlya Issledovaniya Vodyanogo Soobshcheniya mezhdu Pritokami Pechory i Obi [Travels of P.I. Krusenstern to the Northern Urals in 1874-1876, for the Survey of Communication by Water between the Tributaries of the Pechora and Ob Rivers].

Saint Petersburg: “Slavyanskaya Pechatnya”, 1879. First and only edition. Quarto (27,5x18,5 cm). [4], 172, [1] pp. With a large folding lithographed map at rear. Original publisher’s brown printed wrappers, with very minor tears on extremities, otherwise a very good uncut copy in very original condition.
Very Rare Russian imprint with only one paper copy found in Worldcat. An account of the last travel to the Polar Ural Mountains by Pavel Ivanovich Krusenstern (Paul Theodor von Krusenstern), a noted Russian Arctic explorer, and a son of the first Russian circumnavigator Ivan Krusenstern (Adam Johann von Krusenstern, 1770-1846). Pavel Krusenstern graduated from the Imperial Lyceum in Tsarskoye Selo and took part in the circumnavigation of sloop “Senyavin” under command of Friedrich Luetke in 1826-29. During the period between 1843 and 1876 he went on nine voyages to the Polar Ural Mountains, the Pechora River region and the coast of the Barents Sea in the modern-day Komi Republic and Nenets Autonomous Okrug of Russia, which resulted in the first exact map of the region based on astronomical observations, and thorough geological and topographical survey of the area. For the account of the first expedition to the Pechora River in 1843 Krusenstern and his companion, geologist Alexander von Keyserling (1815-1891) were awarded with the Demidov prize of the Russian Academy of Sciences. In the 1860s Krusenstern was a shareholder of the “Pechora Company” formed for the logging and shipping of larch timber from the Polar Urals to the European Russia and Western Europe.
His last expedition to the Polar Ural Mountains in 1874-76 aimed to ascertain the water way between the Pechora and Ob Rivers, which would enable the delivery of various goods from Siberia to the European Russia. Krusenstern followed the Usa River and its right tributary Bolshaya Usa (Sart-Yu), up to the Izyahoy stream near the Sartpe Mountain in the Polar Urals which serves as the water divide between the basins of Pechora and Ob Rivers, and the border between Europe and Asia. He was the first European to visit the water divide, and carried out a topographical survey of the nearby Khadata-Yugan-Lor Lakes which act as a source of the Khadata River from the Ob River system (incorrectly he stated that the lakes were the source of the Longotyegan River, another tributary of the Ob). Krusenstern suggested that construction of the channel between the stream and the lakes would enable water communication between the Pechora and Ob Rivers. His account includes the detailed description of the routes of his two expeditions (1874 and 1876), and over a hundred pages with results of astronomical observations (latitudes and longitudes, levelling etc.). The map compiled by the expedition surveyor gives a detailed picture of the water divide between the Izyahoy stream and the Khadata-Yugan-Lor Lakes.


[Journal of H.M.S. Lily on her Homeward Voyage to England, from Melbourne Around Cape Horn via Rio de Janeiro just After the Eureka Rebellion in Ballarat, Victoria].

18th Jan. - 7th May 1855. Quarto ca. 25б5x22 cm (10 x 8 ½ in). 15 pp, each page numbered in pencil. Brown ink on blue laid paper. With three folding manuscript charts drawn in ink each ca. 25x74 cm (9 ¾ x 29 in), ca. 52x36 cm (18 ¾ x 14 ¼ in), and ca. 40x30,5 cm (15 ¾ x 12 in) and two black and white wash watercolours ca. 12,5x17,5 cm (4 ¾ x 6 ¾ in) and ca. 19,5x25 cm (7 ¾ x 9 ¾ in), one mounted on a leaf and both captioned in period manuscript black ink. Period style brown gilt tooled full polished calf with a maroon gilt title label “JOURNAL H.M.S. LILY JAN-MAY 1855.” Journal, maps and watercolours in very good condition.
This Journal was kept from January to May 1855 by Midshipman W. Howorth on the H.M.S. Lily, a 16-gun Racer-class brig-sloop built for the British Royal Navy in 1838. It documents geographical coordinates, daily activity, wind and weather conditions along the route, as well as detailed accounts of meteorological conditions during the passage around Cape Horn, including unusual animal sightings [“Observed two strange birds unlike any seabirds with which I am acquainted – plumage dark brown with two white marks on the wing – shaped like a hawk but with the regular seabird’s beak – about the size of a small eagle and flying like one. They were about the ship the whole day and frequently attacked the Albatross…all the other birds seemed afraid of them” p. 3] and icebergs [“I was much struck at beautifully delicate transparent blue of the ice never having seen any so close before, after looking for any lengths of time at it, it makes the eyes very sore” p. 5]. The manuscript charts show the voyage in three segments: Track of HMS Lily from Melbourne round Cape Horn, Cape Horn to Rio Janeiro, and Rio Janeiro to England. Lines trace the precise route of the ship on each day of the journey, arrows are drawn to show the wind direction, and geographical coordinates are also noted. Additionally, the watercolours show views of the H.M.S. Lily between icebergs off the Diego-Ramírez Islands (southwest of Cape Horn) and the coastal profile of the Azorean islands of Flores and Corvo. Howorth apparently joined the HMS Lily from the HMS Electra. Six weeks before the departure of HMS Lily, in late November 1854, HMS Electra was involved in the suppression of the armed gold miner Eureka Rebellion (also referred to as the Eureka Stockade) against the colonial authority of the United Kingdom at Ballarat, Victoria. HMS Electra sent officers, seamen as well as artillery pieces to Ballarat. An interesting manuscript documenting the H.M.S. Lily’s voyage from the Australian gold fields back to England around Cape Horn.
“Cape Horn island […] is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of southern Chile. Cape Horn is widely considered to be the most southerly point of South America, and marks the northern boundary of the Drake Passage; for centuries it has been regarded as a major milestone by which sailing ships carrying trade goods around the world marked their passage. Cape Horn was noted as the halfway point from England to Australia during the nineteenth century clipper route. The waters around the cape are particularly hazardous, owing to strong winds, large waves, strong currents and icebergs. These dangers have made Cape Horn notorious as a sailors' graveyard. […] From the 1700s to the early 1900s, Cape Horn was a part of the clipper routes which carried much of the world's trade. Clipper ships sailed round the Horn carrying wool, grain, and gold from Australia back to Europe.” (New World Encyclopedia)


海外異聞 [Kaigai Ibun - Ichi Mei Amerika Shinwa: A Strange Tale from Overseas, or a New Account of America].

[Tokio]: Seifuen Juō, Kaei kōin [1854]. First Edition. Complete in 5 vols. Quarto (ca. 25x17,5 cm). [26], [20], [21], [18], [15] double leaves, including a double page woodblock hand coloured map showing East Asia, North Pacific and North America, woodcut title vignette and thirty-nine hand coloured woodblock illustrations (with thirteen double page). Text and illustrations within single borders (ca. 18,3x12,4 cm), main text ten vertical lines. Original Japanese fukuro toji bindings: white paper covers finished with brown brush strokes, with paper title labels on the front covers; leaves sewn together with strings. Previous owner’s stamps on the first and last leaves of each volume; owner’s inscriptions on the inner sides of the back covers. Vol. 2 with several pencil written kanji on the upper margins. Housed in a later Japanese cloth portfolio. Text with several minor worm holes neatly repaired, otherwise a very good set.
“In August 1841 Hatsutaro, a peasant from Awa joined the crew of the Eju-maru (Eiju-maru) owned by Nakamuraya Ihei of Hyogo. The ship had a crew of thirteen, captained by Zensuke Inoue of Susami in Kishu. On a voyage from Hyogo to southern Oshu, the ship drifted in a storm for four months until the crew was rescued by a Spanish vessel and brought to San Jose del Cabo on the southern tip of Baja California. While Hatsutaro and a few of the others learnt Spanish, the remainder of the crew worked on a farm until such time as they were able to travel to Mazatlan, where they took passage to Japan. In 1844 Hatsutaro and his captain reached Canton in an American merchantman, then returned to Japan by way of Zhapu (Zhejiang province, China) aboard a Chinese junk.., The sailors were cross examined by the Awa clan lord, it being forbidden under normal circumstances for Japanese to travel abroad. A narrative of the voyage was compiled from the recollections of Hatsutaro by Bunzo Maekawa (a Confucian scholar) and Sakai Junzo, and published with forty-one woodblock illustrations in Japan in 1854” (Howgego, Encyclopedia of Exploration, 1800 to 1850, H11).
“Hatsutaro’s narrative circulated first in manuscript copies, possibly as early as 1844. His report was incorporated in 1846 into another manuscript, Amerika chikushi, by Inoue Shin’yo. The full text, but lacking Maekawa Bunzo’s preface, was first printed in 1854, issued by Seifuen Juo with the title Kaigai Ibun: America shinwa (A Strange Tale from Overseas, or a New Account of America). It was printed by woodblock in five slender volumes; the first two comprise the narrative in chronological order, and the remaining volumes for an encyclopedia on “American” geography, climate, inhabitants, living conditions, customs, artifacts, and natural life. The set is illustrated with many woodblock prints in colour” (Kaigai Ibun/ Baja California Travel Series/ Ed. By Edwin Carpenter & Glen Dawson. Vol. 20. Los Angeles, 1970, p. 18).
The book was illustrated by Morizumi Tsurana (1809-1892), “a Sumiyoshi painter who lived in Osaka. He trained under Watanabe Hiroteru (fl. Early 19th century) and later under Sumiyoshi Hirotsura (1793-1863). He specialized in the depiction of historical subjects. Sadateru is one of his go (artist names), used before he adopted the name Tsurana. He exhibited at the Naikoku Kaiga Kyoshinkai (Domestic Painting Competition) and the Naikoku Kangyo Hakurankai (Japanese Domestic Industrial Exhibition) and served on the Art Committee of the Imperial Household” (Bonhams).


BARBOSA, Januario da Cunha (1780-1864)
[Protocols and Procedures for Burials in the Churches of Rio de Janeiro] Exposição do Padre Januario da Cunha Barbosa a El-Rei D. João VI sobre as sepulturas nas Egrejas do Rio de Janeiro.

Ca. 1813-1816. Folio (ca. 33x20 cm). 4 pp., with two integral blank leaves, tied with two pink ribbons. Brown ink on laid paper watermarked “1813”, legible text in Portuguese. Paper tag ("Avulços") glued to final leaf. Laid into later ruled paper folder (typed title as given above). Paper slightly age toned, mild fold marks, otherwise a near fine document.
Unpublished manuscript on church burials in Rio de Janeiro by one of the earliest Brazilian literary critics and an important figure in the independence movement. An apparently unpublished work on the protocols and procedures for burials in churches of Rio de Janeiro, written at a time when such burials were becoming an important public health issue. Cunha Barbosa was appointed prégador for the royal chapel in Rio de Janeiro in 1808. There he became involved in deciding which tombs in the church could be opened when a member of a family or of a religious order died. Apparently Cunha Barbosa had been reprimanded for opening one tomb, and in this work he explains his decision at greater length than he had previously done. He also states the procedures for opening a tomb and notes which church officials had to authorize it. Cunha Barbosa refers to the addressee as "V.A. R." throughout, and once as "Principe." This suggests that the addressee was D. João VI during his tenure as Prince Regent (i.e., before 1816).
Two works dealing with burials as a public health matter were published by Brazilians before independence: Vicente Coelho de Seabra Silva e Telles' Memoria sobre os prejuizos causados pelas sepulturas dos cadaveres nos templos, e methodo de os prevenir (Lisbon, 1800), and José Correa Picanço's Ensaio sobre os perigos das sepulturas dentro das cidades, e nos seus contornos (Rio de Janeiro, 1812; See Guerra, Bibliografia medica brasileira 20.)
Januario da Cunha Barbosa took orders in 1803 and soon earned such a reputation as a religious orator that in 1808 he was named prégador for the royal chapel in Rio de Janeiro. One of the leading spirits in the Independence movement, he founded and edited (along with Joaquim Gonçalves Ledo) the periodical Reverbero Constitucional Fluminense from September 1821 to October 1822. At the end of 1822 his rival from the liberal party, José Bonifácio, had him deported without trial, but a year later - as Bonifácio himself was being deported - Cunha Barbosa returned to Brazil. There he was simultaneously elected deputy to the new legislature for Minas Geraes and for Rio de Janeiro. He later served as director of the Imprensa Nacional and the Biblioteca Nacional.
Cunha Barbosa published numerous sermons, some poetry, and articles on a wide range of subjects in the journals of various learned societies. His anthology Parnaso Brasileiro (Rio de Janeiro, 1829-30) is a major literary contribution. With its publication Cunha Barbosa became one of the earliest Brazilian literary critics and preserved much poetry of the colonial period which would doubtless otherwise have been lost. (See Verissimo, História da literatura brasileira [1969] p. 119.) He also co-founded, with Raymundo José da Cunha Mattos, the Instituto Historico e Geographico Brazileiro in 1838. The Instituto had much wider interests than its name suggests, and came to serve as a forum for all Brazilian writers. Work done under its auspices set the direction for much of the historical, geographical and ethnological research later done in Brazil. (See Verissimo, p. 127).
On Cunha Barbosa, see Innocêncio III, 254; VI, 127; VII, 71; X, 117. See also Sacramento Blake III, 294-300. OCLC: No printed version or other manuscript version located. No printed or manuscript version located in Porbase, Copac, or OCLC.


[ELLIOT, Sir Charles] (1801-1875)
[Original Manuscript with Interesting Period Commentaries by a White Colonist of British Guiana on the Project of the Abolition of Slavery Authored by Charles Elliot, Protector of Slaves in the Colony in 1830-33].

Demerary, 12 December 1832. Quarto (ca. 26,5x22 cm or 10 ½ x 8 ½ in). 7 pp. (written on rectos only). Brown ink on loose leaves of woven paper. Original fold marks, ink has faded in several spots, occasional period corrections in text, but still legible. Overall a very good manuscript.
Interesting extensive manuscript with the period commentaries on the project of abolition of slavery suggested by the Charles Elliot, Royal Navy Officer and official Protector of Slaves in the Colony of British Guiana in 1830-33. The manuscript is written by a white resident of Demerara (or Demerary, one of three provinces of British Guyana consolidated in one colony just a year before, in 1831) at the time of growing pressure to forbid slavery in Britain and its colonies. The manuscript is written in a form of a letter, but is not signed and doesn’t indicate the person it was addressed to. The author reveals his close connection to Charles Elliot, mentioning their numerous discussions of the potential abolition of slavery, and states his approval of Elliot’s ideas. The first part of the letter briefly explains Elliot’s abolition project in four paragraphs, namely:
“1st. That all agricultural Slaves with their issue should be attached to the Soil, and their services only transferable with it. That all others not agricultural should be bound in service to their actual Proprietors and only transferable by Inheritance & not by sale… or otherwise…
2ndly. That the power of domestic punishment should be forever abolished, & that, while a strict system is established for securing prompt, effectual & economical coercion when indispensable, it is only to be <…?> to under the authority of the Civil Magistrate. This would at once place the Bondsman on an equality as to coercion with the free-man alike with himself subject to the contest of the Magistrate for the enforcement of his Social duties and obligations.
3rdly. That a rural police should be established under the immediate supervision of intelligent Government Superintendants & of a local Magistracy whose principal duty would be the repression of idleness & more especially the making effectual provision for the rigid regulation, restriction & uniformity of task-work, - the establishment & enforcement of a moderate scale & standard of daily labor for the specific classes of laborers in the different branches of agriculture & other employment, so adapted as to secure to the Laborer – if at all industries abundant additional extra time for his own purposes. These authorities being further charged with the enforcement of the general Police by the requisite means of Correction & Punishment.
One of his grand principles is that these must a great relaxation in the quantity of necessary eligible work & that the Laborer should be allowed for his own use one day in the fortnight, i.e. 1/12 of the present labor so as not only to improve their… condition but to afford… opportunity & … to voluntary industry.
4th ly. That the communication of the Laborer should be in the shape of pecuniary wages – no Work no Pay (exclusive of the contingent power of Magisterial coercion) the Employer being at liberty to fund his people with provisions & Lodgings at assessed cases in deduction of Wages, but not Clothing or General merchandise. Of course schools to be established, but the Laborer to contribute to their support out of his earnings…”
In the second part of the letter the author describes the reaction of the white colonists and planters to the project and contemplates on its future: “Now all these he says are quite his own private opinions & views, quite unsanctioned hitherto by Government, but as he has occasion to go home on his private affairs & has got leave to do so, with even an official expression of a wish to conduct him personally as to the matters under his Superintendence here, he meditates if he gets an opening to submit them to the Government. They are known to several people here besides myself & the impression seems to be (without an implicit exception to all the details) that they are practicable & would be agreed to by the Planters, provided they were declared to be final & were accompanied by adequate very large financial facilities in the reduction of our Sugar Duties 10 % below those of any other Colony not adopting nor subjected to the same system, duties on other produce being lowered in proportion – particularly Coffee to 3 %.
Having however no Sanction from the Government, he is rather alarmed at the publicity his views have already attained here, partly through my own instrumentality, for I was desirous of finding[?] the leading people here, whose agency would be essential to the efficient execution & operation of the plan & as I have promised, that the disclosure of his statements to me, should not be made to others either at home or here, - except confidentially... Having had many discussions with him I did not hesitate to give him my deliberate frank opinion & declaration, that if the Government came forward with very extensive measures, even extreme ones, that were consistent with prudence, reason & practicable & that did not operate a violent disruption of the existing relations of society declaring them final & affording at once decision & liberal financial concessions by means of which alone they could be for a moment thought of, I for one would undertake as an Individual to enter cordially into their execution.
Due of his proposals is that in the establishment of such a system the Negroes from the Islands should be allowed to be indefinitely introduced, so he says that in the present alarming wasting state of our Population, without such a supply of Labor the Colony would at not very distant period, dwindle into nothing in its exportable Produce.
…if we are to have tranquility, security & the Chance of eventual prosperity, in this only way is it likely to be obtained. Freeing Children or any such scheme which... Ultimately disrupts all useful relations between the Employer & the employed, is nothing but undisguised ruin to all parties”.
Overall a very interesting manuscript offering an inside view on the thought process in the British colonies during the period preceding the Slavery Abolition Act of 1833. Elliot’s reports while on service in British Guiana significantly influenced the preparation of the Act. Later he served as both Plenipotentiary and Chief Superintendent of British trade in China, becoming a founder of the British colony in Hong Kong in 1841.


KYTE, Charles
[Autograph Letter Signed by Charles Kyte‚ Agent in Guiana‚ to Henry Beard in London‚ Sending the Accounts for his Cotton Estate‚ and Deploring the Behaviour of the Slaves “in Consequence of the New Law”].

New Amsterdam, Berbice [British Guiana], 17 February 1832. Folio (ca. 30x18,5 cm). 2 pp., with an integral leaf of the related accounting. Addressed, sealed and with postal stamps on verso of the first leaf (including the Deal Ship Letter marking). Fold marks‚ minor hole on the margin after opening, affecting one word, otherwise a very good manuscript.
Interesting early letter from the colony of British Guiana which had been consolidated in its current state (from the colonies of Berbice, Essequibo and Demerara) just a year before, in 1831. Written by Charles Kyte, apparently a local planter, the letter is addressed to an ex-governor of the Berbice colony Henry Beard (1821-1825 and 1826-1831) and vividly describes the local effects of the movement for the abolition of slavery: “I have been obliged to visit the West Coast since I wrote you‚ the slaves [on] Mr Blair’s Estates and at Golden Grove having shewn very strong symptoms of insubordination‚ in consequence of the New Law‚ which coming to them without the intervention of the Colonial Government, has had[?] only the most mischievous effect; as they think it sets them beyond the authority of their Masters: they give three cheers for King William whenever the Flag is hoisted & the Horn blows for Breakfast & dinner‚ and are much disposed to make the extra leisure which the Law gives them as the reason for doing nothing‚ or the next thing to it. <…> the women <...> on Mr. Blair’s Estates absolutely refused to clean more Cotton than 15th per day instead of 40 as I insist upon‚ or‚ as they frequently have done & can easily do‚ 60th! I have been very firm & determined with both Gangs...”
Kyte, most likely refers to the consolidated slave ordinance, published by the government of the British Guiana in January 1832. “It provided, as we have seen, for the still greater amelioration in the condition of the slave, reducing the period of labour to nine hours; and for children under four years of age and pregnant women to six hours; it increased the allowances; and reduced the extent of punishment to fifteen lashes” (Dalton, H.G. The History of British Guiana: in 2 vols. Vol. 1. London, 1855, p. 387).
Slavery in British Guiana was abolished with the enforcement of the famous Slavery Abolition Act of 1833.


[OGDEN, Richard Livingston] (1822-1900)
[Private Diary Describing Sailings of the Yachts Restless and Peerless in San Francisco Bay]: A concise and condensed history of the goings & comings & voyages of the Sloop Yacht "Restless" by a reliable not contraband but highly respectable gentleman, slightly tinctured with a fondness for salt water, a piscatorial weakness and the pursuit of ducks under difficulties...

[San Francisco], ca. 1860-1870s. Quarto (ca. 25x20 cm). 25 pp. of text and fifty blank leaves. Brown and blue ink on laid paper, with several newspaper clippings and an ink drawing of the yacht “Restless” mounted on the leaves. Original violet full sheep notebook with raised bands and blind stamped decorative borders on the boards. Binding rubbed on extremities, hinges cracked, foot of spine chipped, but overall a very good internally clean manuscript.
Fascinating private account of the sailings of the yachts Restless and Peerless, both belonging to San Francisco industrialist and keen yachtsman Richard Livingston Ogden. Ogden came to California in 1852 as a major of the US army and subsequently established the firm of Ogden and Hayes; he was one of the founders of the Kimball Carriage and Car Manufacturing Company in the 1860s, the first president of the reorganized San Francisco Yacht Club (1874-1878) and one of the founders of the Jekyll Island Club, Georgia, in 1886.
The manuscript starts with a detailed description of the yacht Restless: "31 feet long, 16 feet beam, 3½ deep centre board, 10 feet long 12 feet wide 5 feet high, finished a la raeveaux gilt mouldings, stained glass windows, velvet cushions forming very comfortable sleeping accommodations..." Various voyages are described, such as "The first voyages of the Restless were to Sausalito on pic-nics, fishing trips, to Angel Island on clambakes, to Alcatraz on Offish-al business, to Benicia, to Martinez, and on the 3rd of July [1863] to Sacramento in 18 hours against the tide & with calm weather to contend with beating 14 schooners & sloops... On the opening of the Ducking season she was put in shooting trim and some half dozen successful voyages with glorious results..." Later on, as years passed, "The Restless was sold on the departure of the owner for the East for $1000 to a gentleman of the Lager Bier line of business who put her into service as a Ferry Boat between 3rd St. Wharf and the Potrero..."
The second half of the journal is a record of the little schooner "Peerless," another of Ogden’s yachts, launched in 1869. “Length on water line 53, length on deck, beam 17 feet, depth 5 ½. Schooner rigged, built of <…> Eastern oak, bent timber (frames), cedar & Oregon, galvanized fastenings, cabin Oregon maple & cedar, all built in best manner.” The manuscript describes Peerless’ sailings to Belmont, Martinez and Antioch. The first free endpaper bears an amateur ink sketch of the yacht Restless resting on shore and a man shooting a duck from a log nearby.
Commodore Richard L. Ogden, was “the oldest and best known yachtsman of San Francisco Bay <…>. He was in the fifties the owner of the then famous sloop Restless, the first pleasure yacht seen on these waters. It was brought from New York on a ship's deck. In 1868 he built the large schooner-yacht Peerless, one of the handsomest yachts ever built here and one that took part in the first regular regatta ever sailed on this coast. She was sold by him to the King of Samoa and became the "Samoan Navy." When the San Francisco Yacht Club was reorganized in 1875 he was elected commodore, an office he held for several years. About that time Commodore Ogden also built the fine steam yacht Quickstep and the steam launch Hi-Yah.” (San Francisco Call, October 7, 1900, 23:4)


[Historically Interesting Autograph Letter Signed from J.E. Cleveland, an Early Preacher in Sacramento during the California Gold Rush, to his Brother J. Emory Cleveland in Masonville, New York, Describing the Growing Population in Sacramento, the Construction of a Second Church, and a Gang of “Spanish Robbers” in the Region].

Apr. 23rd 1853. Quarto bifolium (ca. 25,5x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on blue laid paper with “SUPERFINE” watermark on each page. Addressed on verso of second page. Fold marks and some minor small stains on the second page, otherwise a very good letter in a legible hand.
An historically interesting letter that describes the early settlement of Sacramento during the California Gold Rush, including Cleveland’s work as a preacher, the construction of a second church, and the activities of “Spanish robbers.” Cleveland describes the circuit he makes as a preacher in the region, visiting a place with “forty families and nearly one thousand inhabitants” and another with “twenty families and five hundred inhabitants” and explains that “there will be a large emigration this season” (as a result of the Gold Rush). He explains the recent troubles he has faced as the region is “infested with Spanish robbers of the most daring and dangerous description. Several of them have been caught and hung as all murderers ought to be. We don't stop in this country to consider whether capital punishment is proper or not. Men are frequently hung for stealing horses. The leader of this gang has not yet been caught. He is supposed to wear armour under his clothes which protects him from rifle or pistol balls." Cleveland reflects on the development of Sacramento, considering that “four years ago, this was a wilderness which white people had seldom visited.” In particular, he outlines the cost of building a “nearly finished” church which was constructed by Catholic reverend Augustine Anderson and finished in 1854. He also mentions his experience with a disease and ends his letter explaining that he has “enclosed several specimens of gold.” Overall, a very interesting letter describing the early settlement of Sacramento during the California Gold Rush.
“The great California gold rush (1848–1858) began on January 24, 1848, when James W. Marshall discovered a gold nugget in the American River while constructing a sawmill for John Sutter” (Harvard University Library). Sutter’s Mill was located in Coloma, approximately 58 km northeast of Sacramento. Sacramento was itself developed around a wharf, called the Embarcadero, that John Sutter had developed prior to his retirement in 1849. Sacramento is the oldest incorporated city in California, incorporated on February 27, 1850. After a devastating flood in 1850, Sacramento experienced a cholera epidemic and a flu epidemic (Wikipedia).


WOOD, Elijah
[Two Historically Interesting Autograph Letters from Elijah Wood, a California Gold Rush Miner, to his Wife Sally Ann Wood in Wisconsin, Describing his Travels Along the California Trail (Including Conflict with Indigenous People near the Humboldt River), and Details of Working in the Gold Fields, Including the Construction of River Dams].

Fort Laramie, May 28 1850 and California Sept. 11(?) 1850. Quarto bifolia each ca. 25x20 cm (9 ¾ x 7 ¾ in). 2 pp in each. First letter with brown ink on blue wove paper with watermark, the second with black and brown ink on beige wove paper, each addressed on verso of second page. Additionally, a brown envelope ca. 7,5x13,5 cm (3 x 5 ¼ in) addressed and stamped “SACRAMENTO 28 September.”Envelope is folded and worn but address and stamp clearly legible, fold marks and one letter slightly age toned but otherwise two very good letters.
These interesting letters from a gold miner to his wife describe his experiences on the California Trail and the hardships of labour during the California Gold Rush. He begins one letter by explaining his recent “journey through a barren howling wilderness” on the California Trail, a 4,800 km (3,000 mile) trail across the western half of the United States from Missouri River towns to California that was used by migrants travelling to the California gold fields (Wikipedia). One letter was written from Fort Laramie, WY, which was purchased by the U.S. Army in 1849 “[t]o protect the thousands of emigrants and Argonauts who were flowing up the Platte River Valley from increasingly frequent conflicts with Indians” (National Park Service). He also explains that one man in his group “was shot by an Indian while he was guarding the horses” near the head of Humboldt River, which was first explored in 1848 by John C. Frémont and became part of the California Trail in 1849” (Wikipedia). The author describes his work in the gold fields at the Middle Fork of the American river (a tributary of the Sacramento river), which, he explains, “is said to be the richest in California.” He lists the people working around him, mentions the wages and explains that “the river is dammed at every bar and preparations are being made to work the entire bed of the river.” One letter is written in September 1850, at the time when levees were first being built around the Sacramento River to address the 1850 flooding (Valley Community Newspapers). Overall, two historically interesting letters describing the experiences of a miner in the early years of the California Gold Rush.
The great California gold rush (1848–1858) began on January 24, 1848, when James W. Marshall discovered a gold nugget in the American River while constructing a sawmill for John Sutter” (Harvard University Library). Sutter’s Mill was located in Coloma, approximately 58 km northeast of Sacramento. Sacramento was itself developed around a wharf, called the Embarcadero, that John Sutter had developed prior to his retirement in 1849. Sacramento is the oldest incorporated city in California, incorporated on February 27, 1850. After a devastating flood in 1850, Sacramento experienced a cholera epidemic and a flu epidemic (Wikipedia).


[Album of Sixty-seven Gelatin Silver Photographs of a Railroad trip through California, Nevada, Utah and Colorado].

Ca. 1899. Quarto (25,5x17,5 cm). 17 grey album leaves. With 67 mounted original gelatin silver photographs, with eight larger ones ca. 12x20 cm (5x8 in) and the rest ca. 8,5x8 cm (3 ½ x 3 in). Most photographs with manuscript black ink captions. Period style brown gilt tooled half morocco with brown cloth boards. A few images mildly faded, but overall a very good album of interesting photographs.
The photographs in this album of a railroad journey from California to Colorado start with views of Monterey (Hotel del Monte (27 photos of hotel buildings and grounds), Catholic mission chapel, old custom house); San Francisco (Sassafras, seal rocks Golden Gate, Alcatraz); Exterior and Interior photos of steam engines (American Tram & Limited Express); Auburn (station, road and street scene, homes); Ogden railway depot; Salt Lake City (station, panoramas of the city in summer & winter, Mormon temple, street scene with natives, old city walls); Denver Rio Grande railroad route (11) including views of a camp, wreckage and views of the railway through the Rockies and over the Arkansas River.


[BAEGERT, Johann Jakob] (1717-1772)
Nachrichten von der Amerikanischen Halbinsel Californien: mit einem zweyfachen Anhang falscher Nachrichten. Geschrieben von einem Priester der Gesellschaft Jesu, welcher lang darinn diese letztere Jahr gelebet hat. [News from the American Peninsula California..,]

Mannheim: Churfürstl. Hof- und Academie-Buchdruckerey, 1773. Second Edition (With Corrections). Small Octavo (17,5x10,5 cm). [xvi], 358 pp. With one copper engraved folding map and two copper engraved plates on one leaf. Recent handsome period style brown gilt tooled half sheep with marbled boards and a red gilt title label. Some leaves with very mild browning, otherwise a very good copy.
"Baegert, a German Jesuit missionary and resident of Baja California for eighteen years, wrote an interesting but by no means glowing account of the natives and of the country. He served at the mission of San Luis Gonzaga. The map is most helpful in giving the location of the many Jesuit missions in Lower California. It also shows the route along the west coast of Mexico followed by Baegert in going to California in 1751, and his route out in 1768, after the expulsion of the Jesuits. The two plates, which are not found with all copies, depict California natives"(Hill 46); Barrett 129;"According to his accounts the country was absolutely unfitted for habitation; it was inhabited by wild and ferocious beasts; peopled by inhospitable and cruel savages; water was unfit for use; wood was scarce; and the soil would not sustain life" (Cowan p.27); Graff 137; Howgego B1; Howes B29; Sabin 4363 "Some corrections made [in the second edition)" (Streeter IV 2442); Wagner 157.


CHARLES, John, Chief Factor at Fort Chipewyan (d. 1849)
[Autograph Letter Signed to Alexander Christie, Chief Factor of the York Factory, Reporting of the Brigade’s Affairs Before Leaving Norway House to Fort Chipewyan for the Season].

Norway House, 1 August 1830. Quarto (ca. 25x20 cm). 3 pp. Addressed, sealed and docketed on the last blank page. Fold marks, minor hole on the last page after opening, slightly affecting the text, otherwise a very good legible letter.
An interesting letter from John Charles, a leader of the Hudson’s Bay Company’s Athabasca Brigade and Chief Factor at Fort Chipewyan (1830-1834), written on the eve of the brigade’s departure to the interior for the winter trade. The letter is addressed to Alexander Christie (1792-1872), chief factor of the York Factory, subsequently considered one of the most influential factors of the Hudson’s Bay Company.
Charles reports on the departure of the Athabasca Brigade, as well as conditions and supplies at Norway House: “We have now nearly made an end of our Business here and expect to move off at the latest in a Day or so. Our four Boats for Athabasca were away Yesterday with an Ample Supply for the Season to meet all Demands. The Goods forwarded by Messrs. Meler & Hargrave for the Men’s Equipment were most ample <…> the Men appear quite Satisfied with these Advances, which are the best they ever got.”He hopes that when “the Athabasca Brigade will henceforth return from the Plain [?], if we could have a Building of some kind erected for transacting our Business it will be of great Advantage, for at present the want of Sufficient Room even to make a temporary Shop, creates much Inconvenience, and I may add not a little Confusion. I would also be obliged to you to give Orders to have the Boats built for us at this Place, for the New Boats brought from the other Places we generally get the Worst.” Charles reports that “in order to prevent too much of some Articles and too little of others being forwarded for Men’s Equipment next Spring, I have made out a Requisition, both for Advances and Outfit, which if it can be complied with will be fully Sufficient.” He also complains of hard conditions on the Winter Road, resulting in sickness and injury among the Indian accompanying the brigade. Overall a very interesting informative letter.


WALTON, Frederic E.
[Album with 21 Signed "F.E.W." Original Watercolours Titled:] Sketches in the United States of America and Canada.

Ca. 1892. Quarto (27x24 cm). With 21 monochrome mounted watercolours ca. 12,5x24,5 cm (5 x 9 ½ in). Period dark brown gilt tooled half morocco with brown cloth sides album produced by J. L Fairbanks & Co. Boston. Some minor age-toning of mount leaves but overall a very good album.
This album contains attractive watercolours of a tour through Ontario, New York State and Vermont and includes views of: "The American Fall - July 1892;" "Horseshoe Fall;" "American Fall:" "The Thousand Islands;" "The Sentinel;" "Lotus Island;" "Lake of the Thousand Islands;" a lake scene; a river steamer; "Saranac Inn;" "Little Fish Creek;" "Bowditch Camp. Keene Valley;" "Putnam Camp;" " The Brook. Keene Valley;" "Camp. Ausable Lake;" "Ausable Lake;" "Lake Champlain;" "Lake Champlain(2);" "Adirondack Deer;" ocean view; residence on a lake.


[Album with Eighty-Six Original Photographs of Two French Navy School Ships Including Views of Onboard Activities and Stops in Guadeloupe, Martinique, Malta, Portugal, Algeria, France and Belgium Titled:] Campagne d’Été (Aout 1885) à bord du Bougainville – École Navale, Manche-Anvers Campagne d’Application à bord de la frégate d’Iphigénie (5 Octobre 1886-30 Juillet 1887) – Atlantique-Méditerranée occidentale [Summer Voyage (August 1885) Aboard the Bougainville - Naval School, Manche-Antwerp Voyage aboard the Frigate Iphigénie (5 October 1886-30 July 1887) - Atlantic - Western Mediterranean].

Ca. 1885-1887. Large Folio album ca. 35,5x27,5 cm (14 x 10 ¾ in). 86 original photographs including 80 albumen prints and 6 cyanotypes, mounted on recto and/or verso of 29 leaves ca. 34,5x24,5 cm (13 ½ x 9 ½ in). 10 large photographs from ca. 23,5x17,5 cm (9 ¼ x 6 ¾ in) to ca. 27,5x23,5 cm (10 ¾ x 9 ¼ in), one photograph ca. 5,5x9 cm (2 x 3 ½ in) and the rest ca. 13,5x9,5 cm (5 ¼ x 3 ¾ in) to ca. 12x18,5 cm (4 ½ x 7 ¼ in). All captioned in period manuscript black ink on mount and/or in negative on the photograph. Period brown half sheep with gilt bands, brown pebbled cloth boards and moiré endpapers. Album leaves slightly waved, covers with some mild wear at extremities, but overall album and photographs in very good condition.
This album contains photographs showing onboard activities, landscapes and port cities during the travels of two French Navy School ships. The majority of the album focuses on a voyage aboard the Iphigénie frigate from October 5th 1886 to July 30th 1887 around the Mediterranean sea and across the Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean. Two large photographs show a rare views of a equatorial line-crossing ceremony in November 1886 during which the crew dress up in costumes. Several photographs show landscapes of the Caribbean, including the Islands of the Saints, «La Grande Anse» and the Chameau Mountain in Guadeloupe, as well as the Madame river in Martinique. Additionally, there are two portraits of laundresses in Fort de France, Martinique. Eight photographs of Malta include a panorama of Valletta, views of the port, and streets in the Faubourg of Lisla. There are several images showing Portugal, including the Tower of Belem in Lisbon and eight views of the Pena Palace in Sintra. Photographs of Algeria include views of Alger and Mers-el-Kébir and two portraits of Moorish women. Also shown are several onboard exercises, such as firing the canon, and military exercices on land, such as landing exercises. The album also contains photographs of another Naval School ship’s voyage from Manche, France to Anvers, Belgium onboard the Bougainville in 1885. These include views of the Saint André Church and the Calvaire St Paul in Anvers as well as two destroyer stationed in the Brest port, the Terrible and the d’Estaing. Overall a historically interesting early album showing scenes of the voyages and activities of French Naval School ships in the Mediterranean, Atlantic and Caribbean.
List of Captioned Images:
Chaire de la cathédrale d’Anvers; Chaire de l’église de St André, Anvers; Anvers, Lot de la Bourse; Salle du Conseil – Palais des Grands Maîtres, Malte; Chef de Corporation par G. De Vos – Musée d’Anvers; Malte – Le Port, Polyphemus torpilleur anglais, lance torpilles sous l’eau- guille mobile; Le Christ de Léonard de Vinci, cathédrale d’Anvers; Malte – L’entrée du port; Le Christ de Rubens; Malte – Le Port; L’Intérieur de St André (Anvers); Calvaire St Paul (Anvers); L’Adoration de l’agneau de Van Dyck; Iphigénie au mouillage dans le port de Philippeville (Mai 1887); Tour de Belem – Lisbonne – Octobre 86; Faubourg de Belem (Lisbonne); Couvent des Hicronymites – Lisbonne; Château Royal de la Pena sur la Suerra Cintra (30 kil ouest de Lisbonne); Porte d’entrée du Château de la Pena; Château de la Pena; Château de la Pena porte d’entrée; Ruines du château des Maures sur un piton en face de la Pena; Autre vue de la Pena prise de la route qui y conduit; Cour intérieure de la Pena. À gauche, vue sur l’océan. A droite, porte d’entrée (diable); Château de la Pena, Porte donnant accès aux galeries qui conduisent à la porte principale (diable); La Pena; Blanchisseuse de Fort de France dans ses plus beaux atours; Maison particulière sur la savane à Fort de France; La fête du passage de la Ligne à bord de l’Iphigénie, Passage à la baille pour le baptème; Paysages des environs de Fort de France; Arbre à Pain; Rivière Madame Fort de France; La fête du passage de la Ligne à bord de l’Iphigénie Novembre 1886. Le défilé du roi tropique et sa suite; Decembre 86 à Janvier 87 Deux Vues prises des flancs du chameau; Mouillage des Saintes (terre d’en haut), le bourg à droite, le fort Napoleon à gauche, le fort de la bête rouge au premier plan, l’Iphigénie; La terre d’en haut, Le Bourg, anse du fond curé au premier plan puis petite anse puis anse du bourg; Alger, Vue générale prise des jetées; Mauresque d’Alger – Aïcha; Le Bourg des Saintes; Vue Prise des flancs du Chameau, du bourg des Saintes et d’un ravin; Terrible, cuirasse d’escadre, canon du 42 eme; L’Iphigénie au mouillage des Saintes prise des bords de l’anse du bourg, porte sable à droite, porte à vache et paté à gauche; L’ilet à Cabrits, l’Iphigénie, les aspirants aux observations; Square sur le quai d’Ajaccio 13 Mai 1887; L’ilet à Cabrits; Montagne du Chameau aux pieds le fort de la tête rouge puis le pain de sucre, au dernier plan, la terre d’en bas; Exercice du canon de débarquement aux Saintes; Blanchisseuse du Fort de France; Exercices en terrains variés, compagnie de débarquement de l’Iphigénie aux Saintes, Montagne de Chameau au milieu au dernier plan; Formation contre la cavalerie; Ruines près de Quimperlé Juillet 1887; Appartements du 1er président à Alger Mai-Juin 1887; Exercices de débarquement aux Saintes; Dakar mi-Novembre 1886; Le bourg des saintes; La Grande Anse (Saintes) Tir du fusil; L’Iphigénie aux Saintes – Port Napoléon à droite; Ajaccio place Grandal; Statue d’Abattuci Ajaccio près du rivage, sortie de la ville en allant à Bastia; La Valette, Malte, fin de Mai 1887; 4e poste Babord, l’Iphigénie; 1er poste Babord; Champion, poste de guerre de Malte-Anse des Français; Strada Crocifixo (Malte); Strada Vittoria (Malte); Grotte de Napoléon à Ajaccio; Saintes-Escrime au Sabre; Galerie dans le palais des Grands Maître, Malte; Iphigénie à Malte- Anse des Français; Iphigénie, Gaillard d’arrière; Tir du canon de l’Iphigénie; Gaillard d’Avant, l’Iphigénie; Tir du canon revolver sur la dunette; Dunette de l’Iphigénie; Le Terrible en armement dans le port de Brest; Le d’Estaing en armement dans le port de Brest; Mers-el-Kébir 10-13 Juin 1887; Mers-el-Kébir Le Port, vue prise de la route d’Aïn el Turk; Tir du canon de 10 c/m Gaillard d’avant de l’Iphigénie; Ecouvillonnez; Types Algériens, Femme Mauresque d’Oran; Dunette tribord prise de la grande hume; Gaillard d’avant de l’Iphigénie prise de la Grande Hume.


MILNE, Robert
[Two Historically Important Autograph Letters Signed by a British Merchant from the Kingdom of Haiti to his Brother, Giving a First-Hand Account of the Kingdom and full of Information about the Coffee Trade and the Major British & American Merchants Active There, His Plans in the Nearest Future to Dispatch Ship “Louisa” with the Cargo of Coffee to London (will be captured and burned in August 1813 by a Charleston Privateer “Saucy Jack”), Description of the Audience with King Henry Christophe, Royal Palace Sans Souci (Destroyed in the 1842 Earthquake), Haitian European Community, Hostile Attitude of the Local People to the Foreigners, the King’s Policy of Perusal of all Private Correspondence and Confiscation of all Newspapers, etc.].

Cape Henry, Hayti [sic!], 18 July 1813 and 4 February 1814. Folio (ca. 31x19 cm) and Quarto (ca. 25x20 cm) letters, 7 & 3 pp. respectively. Brown ink on watermarked laid & woven paper, both letters addressed and docketed on the last pages. Paper slightly age toned, original fold marks, the smaller letter with a minor hole on p. 3 after opening, with a loss of three to four words, but overall very good letters written in a legible hand.
Historically significant original source on the history of the first years of the short-lived autocratic Kingdom of Haiti (1811-1820), which was formed on the basis of the former French colony St. Domingue (western part of Hispaniola), after it had gained independency in 1804, and became the Republic of Haiti - the world’s first black republic and the only nation established as a result of a successful slave revolt. In 1806 the Republic split into two parts - southern Republic led by Alexandre Pétion, and northern State ruled by Henri Christophe (1767-1820), who proclaimed himself the king in 1811. An autocracy based on the labour of the serfs, the Kingdom of Haiti collapsed after Henry Christophe’s suicide in 1820, who was in fear of an imminent coup d’etat. Both states were unified the same year by Pétion’s successor Jean-Pierre Boyer, with the Spanish part of Hispaniola being annexed in 1820 and thus the whole island being united in one country.
The two letters written by a British merchant who traded coffee in Cape Henry of Haiti’s northern kingdom give an interesting first-hand account of the early years of this autocratic regime. Created on the wave of strong anti-French and anti-colonial sentiments, the Kingdom of Haiti attracted British and American merchants who were eager to fight for the new market in the Caribbean. The first letter is a lengthy detailed account of the latest events in the coffee business and political situation in the kingdom. As follows from the letter, Robert Milne arrived to Haiti in May 1813 on board a merchant ship “Louisa” (which he apparently partly owned), convoyed from Barbados by H.M. Brig “Opossum.” Interesting are his notes that the unreliability of the Haitian post caused him to send his letters in several copies, this particular letter being written in two copies and sent by the schooner Hotspur (called for London) and schooner Maryann via New Providence.
A large part of the letter is dedicated to the arrangements made to dispatch the “Louisa” (with a large cargo of coffee) to London. “The ship Louisa is now fairly loaded, with a cargo consisting entirely of coffee, the weight of which is gross, in lbs French 688381, net 670462 lbs, and what I now feel most anxious about, is the arrival of a ship of war to take her from hence to Jamaica to join convoy or to protect her to England direct.” Milne describes the difficulties with finding a ship-of-war to convoy “Louisa” back to London. He recounts that Admiral Stirling of HMS “Argo” sent the official letter to the British merchants of the Kingdom of Haiti, saying that “he had instructions from the Lords of the Admiralty to give convoy to the Haitian trade.” Milne’s letter to Admiral Stirling asking for a convoy for “Louisa” was left unanswered, and he stated that “should none arrive on or before the 1st August, I shall consider Admiral Stirling’s letter as being disregarded, and dispatch the Louisa direct for London either by herself or in company with the Brig Three Brothers <…>.” It is known that both ships were dispatched without a convoy, and were captured by a Charleston privateer “Saucy Jack” in August 1813; “Louisa” was burned “to prevent her falling into hands of a British man-of-war, in chase” (Coggeshall, G. History of the American Privateers and Letters-of-Marque, During Our War with England in the Years 1812, 13 & 14. New York, 1856, p. 146).
Milne also reflects on difficulties in doing business in Haiti: “I would much rather run the risk of the seas in good or bad ships as might happen and spend my life as an humble supercargo between Great Britain and this place, than permanently remain here at the head of the first establishment in Cape Henry [emphasis added]. It is not many months, since the most horrible events happened, to the richest and best of the native mulattos under this government most materially to the injury of British property; but in regard to it, the like will probably not happen again. There are few strangers who are acquainted with both sides of this island, who would not prefer living under the government of the King to that of the president. The south side of Hayti however is more populous and productive than this side, in as much as the average crops of coffee of the ones are annually for exportation 12000000 lbs French, while that of the others I only 4,000,000. Coffee forms 7/8 of the value of both <…>'.
He also describes an audience with the King Henry Christoph whom he visited with “Mess.rs Dodge & Marple” [American merchants, the owners of “Dodge, Marple & Co.,” one of the largest American trade firms in Haiti in the 1820s]: 'I had a good deal of conversation with H.M. Who understands English perfectly well, yet in speaking to an American or British subject, he always chooses to have his own government translator, whose translation he patiently waits, unless like another great ruler, something is said that irritates him, and then he breaks out in such a strain of vehement reply, both in gesture and language, that none but himself dare look up or speak.' Milne noted that the king offered him a position of his personal commissary, or manager of supplies, “but practical results in many ways guard me against having any thing to do with the immediate business of King Henry I…”
There is also an interesting note on the royal palace Sans Souci, which was acknowledged by contemporaries as the Caribbean equivalent of the Palace of Versailles, but turned into ruins during the earthquake in 1842. The palace 'is on a scale of magnitude almost equal to any nobleman's house in England, directly off the shores of the island, and the construction of that place, has cost what to a European eye, is a most astonishing achievement of labour; but the external architecture is neither very regular nor very elegant. <…> To enlarge and beautify Sans Souci, the King is daily depriving the buildings of the Cape of every thing, which previous to their conflagration, most contributed to their ornament.'
Milne also recounts on the contents of the letter written by one “Mr. Rouse of Ely Place” – apparently his competitor - “that insidious, lying fellow Rouse, who, well knowing that [his letter's] contents would literally be laid before the King of this place,” accused Milne of concealing the real purposes of his travel to the Kingdom of Haiti, engaging in shady financial schemes, and that “to gain my aims with the King of Hayti I would not stick at trifles.”
Milne also briefly characterizes the small community of “white people” from Cape Henry which “seldom exceeds fifteen or twenty [people], even including ship masters;” and notes that he has “only seen two white women in this island, one a poor old Frenchwoman who has resided here forty years' and 'a very old Englishwoman, who is in great poverty, and earns what little is required for existence by selling shells. The French woman is a clerk in the coffee house and has charge of my linen'. Milne notes on the latest news about the capture of the USS Chesapeake (1 June 1813), and then gives a grim picture of the extent of censorship in the kingdom: “The King has a newspaper containing the particulars, but we strangers cannot be indulged with a sight of it, nor even hear the details stated, although there is not a white man in the place that has not expressed an anxious wish to know every thing about the contest. <…> In regard to the political affairs of this part of Hayti, it is not prudent to communicate much from hence in writing, and in letters addressed to this place, the subject should never be mentioned, nor even alluded to in the most distant way; as all letters on arrival are opened and read by the Officers of government, and their contents laid before the King in the most minute manner. Even newspapers addressed from Europe or America by individuals to their friends, are as aright demanded by the government here, which very seldom gives them up, or even communicates their contents, but in as much degree of error, consider their interest to be in opposition to that of strangers, as we are termed'.
The second letter gives business instructions to Milne’s brother Alexander and expresses 'satisfaction and exalted pride at the grand events that have taken place at Dresden & Leipsic, as well as the affairs on the side of Spain'. In the letter his father copied on the second leaf of the bifolium (dated Cape Henry, 30 November 1813) Milne expresses his deep disappointment at the capture of the ship Louisa “which was loaded with Coffee to the extent of 320 tons <…> I feel this disappointment deeply, it affects my interest in many ways <…> Captain Silk did every thing in his power to prevent the loss of the Louisa, and in a spirited manner resisted capture, at the hazard of all the lives on board, while there remained the least chance of succeess <…> Poor fellow, I am sorry for him, he indeed numbers among the unfortunate. In six weeks hence I shall have neary 100 tons of Coffee to ship, had all gone well with the Louisa, I think she would have made a capital voyage. Whether I shall remain here beyond next summer must depend on the determination of my friends in London, if they will support me by making shipments or the oncontrary – unaided by them, beyond that time I can do no good in this place'.
Overall very historically interesting content rich letters written by an eye-witness of the first years of the Kingdom of Haiti.


[Archive of Over Fifty Documents Relating to the Final Days of the British Schooner "Lima"].

1865. About 50 documents in about 75 pages. The documents in the archive are generally in very good condition, however the auction broadsides printed on poor paper though still readable have many chips and are in poor condition.
In October 1865, the 110 ton British merchant schooner “Lima” encountered heavy weather en route from New York and put into St. Thomas in the West Indies in a damaged condition. Ultimately the cargo was removed and sold, and the ship was condemned and the hull and fittings sold at auction for $764.14.This archive documents the schooner’s final days. It includes shipping manifests of the last cargo, surveys, an instrument of protest, pertinent invoices and bills, insurance forms, correspondence regarding the incident, shipping articles, crew list, and two auction broadsides for the sale of the hulk and fittings. Overall an interesting and unusual archive documenting mid 19th century commercial shipping in the Caribbean.


[Collection of Twenty-five Original Gelatin Silver Stereoviews Showing Local People, Villages, Farms and Industry in Bolivia and Chile].

Ca. 1910s. 25 pairs of albumen stereo views, each ca. 8x15 cm (3x6 in), mounted on original grey stiff cards. Each numbered with photographer’s copyright and printed captions in English on recto. Housed in period blue cloth lined box ca. 19x9x9 cm (7 ½ x 3 ½ x 3 ½ in) with “Keystone Geography Units in Stereographs” label. Overall a very good collection with strong and sharp photographs.
This collection of 25 original gelatin silver stereoviews contains interesting photographs of local people, farms, industry and villages in Bolivia and Chile. Photographs of Bolivia include a Cattle Estancia in Chaco, a railroad, a general view and street scene of La Paz, a farmhouse and market in Cochabamba, an “Indian Village,” and views of the tin-mining center of Oruro, including one photograph showing the sifting of tin ore. Photographs of Chile include views on a Temuco Farm (with a portrait of the farmer, and photographs of the processes of plowing and “haying”), a lumberyard, Santiago, the Copper Mine in Chanaral, the Antofagasta harbor and railroad to Bolivia, Valparaiso, including the market, the port, and one general view, and one photograph of an Araucanian girl weaving. Overall, a collection of sharp interesting photographs showing people, towns and industry in Chile and Bolivia.
“In 1897 Simon Patiño purchased La Salvadora mine near the village of Uncia, east of Oruro, which eventually became the world’s most productive tin source. Patiño’s fortunes snowballed and by 1924 he had gained control of about 50% of the nation’s tin output.” (lonelyplanet)
“In 1824, Diego de Almeyda made the discovery of the large natural deposits of copper in the area near Chanaral, and was the first in the mining industry in Chile to export it. For this reason, the town was founded October 26, 1833 as Chañaral de las Ánimas ("Chañar field of the Souls"). A few of years later, Pedro Lujan discovered ore at El Salado, where a mine was built. In 1836, a shipping port promising raw material was constructed. The great boom Chañaral began in 1860 when A. Edwards & Company was inaugurated where an inn exists today.” (Wikipedia)
“The Keystone View Company was founded in 1892 by B. L. Singley in Meadville, Pennsylvania…it rapidly improved and eventually became not only the world's largest but also the best view company. In the formative days Singley took all the images; later there were dozens of staff photographers…They developed the technique of consistently producing beautifully clear, crisp prints which were a delight to view; originally they were mounted on tan curved cards and later on their trade-mark dark gray curved mounts. The company also emphasized the use of informative text on the back of the views, and popularized the concept of boxed sets which had been innovated by the Underwood Brothers.” (Yellowstone Stereoview Page).


[Collection of Fifteen Original Albumen Stereoview Photographs of Florida from the America Illustrated Tropical Series].

Ca. 1875. Fifteen yellow thick cards with a pictorial printed boarders. Fifteen albumen stereoview photographs each ca. 10x14,5 cm (4 x 4 ½ in). All mounted on original thick card, all captioned in negative. Overall a very good collection of strong, sharp and interesting images.
The rare views include: Jacksonville: St. James Hotel (x2), Windsor Hotel, Palmettos near Jacksonville (x2); St. Augustine: City & Sea Wall, Entrance to Ft. Marion, Date Palms; Alexander Mitchel's Estate; Steamboat Landing Arlington; Harriett Beecher Stowe's Winter Residence, Mandarin; Rogers Landing, Ocklawaha River; Ancient Spanish Governor's Residence; Claredon Hotel at Green Cove Springs; Love in a Cottage. From the estate of Alfred I. duPont (1864-1935), "American industrialist, financier, philanthropist and a member of the influential Du Pont family" (Wikipedia).


GIRON, Manuel Maria & URIBE, Alberto
[Collection of Sixteen Large Original Gelatin Silver Photographs of Guatemala City, Showing the Historic City Centre, including the Now Non-Existent Castillo de San Jose, First Building of El Calvario Church, and Central Penitentiary].

1891. Sixteen original gelatin silver prints, each ca. 18x23 cm (7x9 in), mounted on original card stock leaves, unbound. Each photo with an ink stamp “Uribe y Giron, Guatemala, Dic. 21, 1891” and a period pencil caption in Spanish on verso. Overall a very good collection of strong images.
Interesting collection of large views of Guatemala City, taken by the local photo studio of Manuel Maria Giron and Alberto Uribe. The photos give an excellent picture of the Guatemala City’s historic centre, then still sparsely built up, with detailed views of several buildings which were severely damaged during a series of earthquakes in 1917-18 and later demolished. Among them is Fort of Saint Jose (Fuerte de San Jose, destroyed during the earthquakes and later rebuilt, now a site of Guatemala Military Museum), shown from the distance and close, with the two “lagunas” (ponds) clearly seen in the foreground. There are also interesting pictures of the first building of the Church of Our Lady of the Remedies (El Calvario), which was originally built in 1784-87, and after being damaged in earthquakes, was demolished to extend the Guatemala City’s road network; a new church of the Cavalry was constructed a few meters away in 1926-32. Several pictures show the Central Penitentiary (demolished in 1968), including a view of the garden at its entrance. There are also several impressive panoramas of Guatemala City taken from the top of the Fort of Saint Jose or El Calvario in all directions, showing the “Mercadito,” and recently constructed railway line. Overall a very interesting collection of early photos of the capital of Guatemala.


25. [HAWAII]
DOBELL, Peter (1775-1852)
Sept années en Chine. Nouvelles observations sur cet empire, l'archipel Indo-Chinois, les Philippines et les îles Sandwich. [Seven years in China. New Observations on this Empire, the Indo-Chinese Archipelago, the Philippines and the Sandwich Islands].

Paris: Gide, 1838. First French Edition. Octavo (ca. 21,5x14 cm). x, 358 pp. With two lithographed plates of a man and woman of Manila. Translated from Russian by Prince Emmanuel Galitzin. Handsome period brown gilt tooled quarter calf with marbled boards. Plates with some very minor foxing, but overall in very original near fine condition.
This first French edition contains "Dobell's remarks (pp. 232-241) regarding his voyage to Hawaii [not included in the first English edition]. In the supplement (note 42, pp. 334-335) there is a letter of March 25, 1820, from Riho-Riho (Kamehameha II) to the Tsar of Russia [also not included in the first English edition]"(Forbes 1090); "Dobell arrived in Kamchatka by sea in 1812, in the service of the Russian government. This journal records his personal observations of the manners, customs, population, religion, and resources during his fifteen years of traveling in China and Siberia. Much of this time, approximately seven years, he operated as a trader based in China; the second half of volume two describes his experiences and residence there (which had begun in 1798). Dobell indicates that his observations concentrate on the wonderful works of nature" in order that the reader may learn "how rich and interesting a region is Siberia, heretofore only represented to the imagination in the most gloomy and unattractive colors." The two excellent frontispieces illustrate this Siberian life" (Hill 484); Dobell was "an Irish trader and adventurer, [who] had formerly been a merchant at Canton. In return for negotiating the safety of Krusenstern's ship, which in 1804 was on the point of being seized by the Chinese at Canton, Tsar Alexander rewarded Dobell with the position of Russian consul-general to the Pacific Ocean. The appointment forced him to quit Canton and forfeit his business. From his base at Manila in the Philippines, Dobell travelled widely in the Pacific, visiting the Sandwich Islands and the ports of Siberia (1812)" (Howgego 1800-1850, C39). "British counselor at Alexander's court journeys from Kamchatka to the Ural Mountains, August-November, 1812. He provides a mass of detail about Siberia, its peoples, its resources, and the road that serves as the connection between the east and west limits of the Empire" (Nerhood 155).
Peter Dobell was an intrepid adventurer and lived a truly exciting life. Born in Ireland and educated in Philadelphia, he travelled for 30 years, especially in South-East Asia and China where he went three times and lived for seven years. While in Canton Dobell met the Russian explorer Ivan Krusenstern who was on his famous circumnavigation. Dobell's was able to help the Russian expedition for which Emperor Alexander I sent him a diamond ring. This was probably one of the reasons why Dobell ultimately became a Russian citizen. Prompted by the idea of organising the regular supply of provisions to Kamchatka, in 1812 he sent two ships there from Manila on his own cost. Dobell also visited Kamchatka and then travelled to Saint Petersburg through Siberia. It was the diary of that travel which was first published in Saint Petersburg magazine "Syn Otechestva" in 1815-1816 and later in London (1830). In 1818 Alexander I approved Dobell's plan and appointed him Consul General of Russia's first mission in Manila. However the Spanish government refused to accept Dobell, but promised to support him as a private person. The adventurer returned to Kamchatka and obtained the title of the 2nd Guild merchant. He tried to start trade between Kamchatka and Manila several times but always unsuccessfully which resulted in great financial losses. His main competition was the Russian-American company which lobbied its interests in the Pacific and didn't allow foreign traders to come to the ports of the Eastern Siberia. Moreover, Dobell's property in Manila was destroyed during the riots, and he, almost ruined, returned to Saint Petersburg in 1828. In spite of everything, he didn't lose his courage and continued the life of traveller and thrill seeker (Russian Biographical Dictionary on-line); Cordier Sinica 2109.


26. [HAWAII]
STOCKWELL, Raymond A. (1904-1942)
[Album of Forty-five Original Large Gelatin Silver Aerial Photographs of Hawaii Taken by American Air force Planes].

Ca. 1925. Oblong Folio (25,5x33,5 cm). 21 grey album leaves. With 45 mounted original glossy large gelatin silver photographs ca. 17,5x23 cm (7x9 in), including two slightly smaller and one slightly large. Most photographs captioned in negative on photographs. Period maroon faux snake skin album with gilt title "photographs" embossed on front cover. Extremities with some wear, a couple of album leaves with edge wear, but overall a very good album of interesting strong photographs.
The interesting large aerial photographs in this album include: Aloha Tower, Honolulu; Downtown (harbor & business section) Honolulu (3); The Malolo entering Honolulu harbor; Honolulu harbor; Luke Field, Oahu (2); Sunset on the Waianaes; Schooner Vigigante off Oahu; Lava Lake in fire pit Kilauea volcano; Kilauea crater and fire pit; Haleakala crater, Maui; Cones in Haleakala crater; Mokuaweoweo crater; North coast of Hawaii; Royal Hawaiian Hotel, Waikiki (2); Kawaiaho Church, Honolulu; Capital Building, Former Iolani Palace Honolulu; Rodgers Airport; Mormon Temple; Captain Cooks Monuments Kealakekua Bay; Rainbow Falls; City of Refuge near Honolulu; Rice harvesting; War Memorial Natatorium; Waimea Canyon, Kauai; Nuuanu Pali Road, including other photos of group of natives with bows; U.S.A.T. Thomas in Verdi Island Passage; U.S.A.T. Somme; U.S.A.T. Chateau Thierry in Gatun Lake, C.Z. (2); U.S.A.T. Grant (2); Airborne aircraft (8), etc.
This photo album is from the estate of Raymond A. Stockwell who served in the Army Air Corps in the 86th Observation Squadron. Stockwell attained the rank of 1st Lt. But was killed along with two fellow crewmen in a crash of a twin-engine Beechcraft F-2 Plane after it crashed head-on into Pilot Rock near Ashland, Oregon killing all aboard on January 6th, 1942.


COVERLEY-PRICE, A. Victor (British, 1901-1988)
[A Grisaille Watercolour Signed "V. Coverley-Price" Titled:] Bivouac on Ixtaccihuatl (16,200 feet), Mexico.

Watercolour ca. 21,5x35 cm (8 ½ x 14 in), with typewritten title label mounted on verso. The watercolour, in period matting, is in very good condition with bright colours.
This attractive and skillfully executed watercolour by a listed artist known for his landscapes and urban scenes shows three mountaineers around a camp fire and two porters preparing to unload two pack horses to make camp, two other horses, most likely ridden by the mountaineers are tethered in the background. "Iztaccíhuatl is a 5,230 m (17,160 ft) dormant volcanic mountain in Mexico located on the border between the State of Mexico and Puebla. It is the nation's third highest, after Pico de Orizaba 5,636 m (18,491 ft) and Popocatépetl 5,426 m (17,802 ft)" (Wikipedia).


Rinex/Rynix?, J.
[Historically Interesting Autograph Letter Signed to John B. Macy by Businessman John Rinex/Rynix, Written in the Early Days of Coal Mining in St. Louis, Missouri, Mentioning a New Land Acquisition Along the Mississippi River, Coal Transportation Methods, and a Dispute with the Ferry Company over the Mississippi Riverbed].

St. Louis, Mo., 12 January 1841. Quarto bifolium (ca. 24,5x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on white wove paper on pictorial letterhead showing a panorama of St. Louis, “printed and folded at the St Louis Lith. South Main Street.” Addressed and stamped “St Louis” and “Toledo” on verso of second page. Fold marks, a small hole where opening on the second leaf affecting one word, otherwise a very good letter.
Historically interesting early letter from John Rinex/Rynix, a businessman in St Louis (likely a successor of John Reynolds, owner of a railway and coal mine opposite St Louis from 1837-38) to John B. Macy, a possible business associate or competitor (and member of the US Congress from 1853-1855). The letter describes the author’s new coal mine acquisition along the Mississippi river, across from the city of St Louis. He details the size and extent of the parcel, which includes “350 acres of coal land running 2 miles along the bluff and about ¼ mile in the hills, also a strip of excellent river bottom land” and predicts the amount of coal to be extracted: “I will however give you a calculation of the quantity(?) of coal supposed (almost without the shade of a doubt) in the veins or strata – They are 4 feet thick, 3 ½ feet and 3 feet. […] 120,000,000 cubic yards […] of coal and for this […] property I only agreed to pay 50 000 dollars.” The letter also describes the use of the existing “well built rail road” to transport the coal, which “is dumped by a slide or chute direct in the car.” Interestingly, the author describes an apparent controversy over the sale of land on the riverbed, as it will affect the Ferry Company’s operation and explains that “the ferry company now clear about 75 000 dollars per year, therefore you can readily see the fear they have of any opposition.” This letter documents important developments during the early years of coal mining along the Mississippi river in present day St Louis.
Coal development in St Louis began in the 1820s with the Russell Coal Mines in “Oak Hill” (Missouri History Museum). “In 1837, Governor John Reynolds formed a company composed of Samuel B. Chandler, George Walker, Vital Jarrot, and Daniel Pierce, to extract the coal from a property he held on the nearby bluffs. The company, known as the Illinois and St. Louis Line, proposed to freight coal from the bluffs to the market in St. Louis. The sloughs and swamplands that lay between the bluffs and the river bank, made road construction impractical, and the company decided on rail transportation… Time and again, the company verged on bankruptcy and the resources of the stockholders were gradually drained away… In the spring of 1838, the Illinois and St. Louis Line was at last completed and a four-horse team drew a car of coal from the bluffs to the river. This rudimentary railroad, if it can be termed a railroad, was the first in the Mississippi Valley.” (Illinois State Museum) “The next spring, however, the company sold out, at great sacrifice.” (ILGenWeb).
John B. Macy, to whom the letter is addressed was a U.S. Representative from Wisconsin, judge, railroad executive, and businessman who was one of the founders of Toledo, Ohio in 1833. He was also one of the proprietors of the Rock River Valley Union Railroad and was involved in real estate in the 1840s.


[De La MOTTE, Edward]
[Typewritten Manuscript Account of the Fifth Ascent of Aconcagua, by British Climber Edward de la Motte and American Mountaineer James Ramsey Ullman, Being also the First American Ascent of Aconcagua, Titled:] Horcones Valley and Aconcagua. February/March 1928.

Ca. 1928. Quarto (ca. 28,5x22 cm). 25 numbered leaves of typewritten text. Occasional period ink corrections in text. Vertical centrefold, first and last leaves with mild creases and traces of old staples removed, otherwise a very good manuscript.
Original typescript of the diary of Edward de la Motte, one of the participants of the fifth ascent of Aconcagua, the highest peak in the Americas, with his manuscript corrections in text. De la Motte’s climbing partner was a famous American mountaineer and writer James Ramsey Ullman (1907-1971), thus the expedition became the first American ascent of Aconcagua. The expedition party included two other members, named in the manuscript “Bromley” and “Mrs.” (a female). De la Motte gives a detailed description of the whole expedition from arrival to Retiro (Buenos Aires) on 25 February to the final arrival to Buenos Aires (on the way back) on 12 March 1828. The manuscript describes the mountaineers’ arrival in Mendoza, preparation and supplying of the expedition, trip to the Uspallata town and Puente del Inca, the long hike up the Horcones Valley, and all proceedings in the high camps on the mountain, including an acclimatization hike to the Buena Vista ridge and the summit day. The entries note the altitudes gained, pulse levels, experienced symptoms of mountain sickness, weight of loads carried, menus and preparations of the meals, frostbites et al. There are also several mentions of previous British expeditions to Aconcagua – by E. Fitzgerald and S. Vines (1897) and by J. Cochrane and M.F. Ryan (1925).
Some entries: “February 27th. Mrs. Togs up a la “complete mountaineer” in heavy boots and breeches, but fearing the populace slips out by a back entrance and gets nearly eaten by a yard full of dogs.” (p. 3).
“March 3rd. Base, night min. 28° 18,000 max. Pulse before starting: Ram 68, me 100. This is being written in Ryan’s tent with a snow storm outside, luckily the tent in perfectly sound, and apart from a little fine driven snow, all is snug inside. There is enough food for a week and between us we have 7 blankets, and eiderdown and a Jaeger sleeping bag. <…> Ram and I are comfortable with our feet tied in rucksacks and are able to laugh at the weather” (pp. 9-10).
“March 4th. Up at 8.30, rising consisting of putting on boots and balaclava and extricating oneself from the sleeping bag – in itself a laborious process and only to be performed with much gasping. This gasping is an altitude effect which neither of us can get over – headaches are things of the past, our appetites are tremendous, but the least exertion such as tightening a rope, leaving or entering the tent, opening a tin of sausages and even eating makes us gasp for breath” (p. 12).
“March 5th. [Summit Day]. Up 5 a.m. <…> Ram wearing his Ventana boots could only get on two pairs of socks – same as myself, so that to avoid frostbite we both tried to keep out toes moving inside our boots as far as possible. <…> Both of us were fairly near the limits of our endurance but the top was in view and at 4.30 we stepped out on the summit, very glad at being finished with the hard work of climbing. Driving snow clouds prevented the view to the South and what was worse, Ram could not find Ryan’s thermometers – the only object visible being an empty beer bottle. The top is of triangular shape with the Northern apex at the highest point. Photos were taken from the West tower which should identify the summit alright, at any rate, so far as Ryan and other climbers are concerned.
Ram got busy with a self timer – which like the meta cooker failed to work, the resulting messing about with which gave Ram four frostbitten fingers (unnoticed until considerably later). An ice axe with E.M. And A.R. Carved on the shaft was left, also a card with our names on was left in a small Yerma tin with one plasmon biscuit (sustenance for the next party that reaches the top)” (pp. 14-15).
James Ramsey Ullman was a noted American writer and mountaineer, official historian of the American Mount Everest Expedition 1963, the author of “The White Tower” (1945), “Banner in the Sky” (1954), “The Age of Mountaineering” (1954), “Tiger of the Snows” (together with Tenzing Norgay, 1955), “Americans on Everest” (1964), and others. Most of Ullman’s papers are now deposited in the Princeton University Library.
“The Andean career of Edward de la Motte apparently began in 1928 with Aconcagua, highest of all Andean peaks, and ended probably in 1946 with Sajama, highest of Bolivian mountains. With the well-known American novelist James Ramsey Ullman (author of the White Tower), he accomplished on 5 March 1928 the fifth ascent of Aconcagua” (Echevarria, E. Early British Ascents in the Andes, 1831-1946 // The Alpine Journal. 1987. Vol. 92. P. 63).


MILES, Dixon Stansbury, Lieut.-Col. (1804-1862)
[Autograph Letter Signed by Lieutenant-Colonel Dixon Miles (Commander of the U.S Army Fort Thorn in New Mexico) with the Latest News about the Ongoing Indian War with the Apaches and Various Political Matters].

Fort Thorne, N[ew] M[exico], 4 April 1857. Quarto bifolium (ca. 25x20 cm or 10 x 7 ¾ in). 4 pp. Brown ink on laid paper, docketed on the centre section of the last page. Original fold marks, several minor tears on folds, otherwise a very good letter written in legible hand.
Historically interesting content rich original letter written by the commanding officer of Fort Thorn, established just a few years earlier (in 1853), with the details of military expeditions against the Apaches and Native Americans from the Gila River, and remarks on several important figures of the American politics during the years leading to the Civil War (1861-65). Addressed to some M.A. Gordon in “Washington City” - apparently an official in the War Department, the letter starts with some sarcastic remarks about postmasters from the East who don’t know where Fort Thorne is situated which significantly delays the mail delivery: “can’t you speak to your post master about it and let him understand Forts Thorn, Tucson and Fort Fillmore are in the southern part of New Mexico and over 300 miles south of Santa Fe and 20 days behind the arrival of the Texas mail from San Antonio Texas - you will confer a lasting favor on all the expatriated bipeds of this region, if you succeed in learning them a little geographical knowledge, and be entitled to a premium from some learned society for your arduous endeavours.”
Talking about military appointments, Miles discusses a hero of the Mexican-American War and Abraham Lincoln’s military adviser General Winfield Scott (1786-1866): “I often imagine, the confessor of Genl. Scott on his death bed, will be troubled in giving permission for his many acts of prejudice and injustice. It is incredible to me, that any man pretending to honour, high chivalrous soldierly sentiments should avail himself of a high position, to injure an inferior…” He also mentions the end of term of President Franklin Pierce and criticizes his Secretary of War and future President of the Confederate States Jefferson Davis (1808-1889), who is “not esteemed, for his endeavour to ruin the army by his new organization bill and by his gross partialities and vindictive viciousness. There will be I think soon published a history of his administration that will astonish you and bring upon the resentments of a distinguished politician. I think the army is unfortunate in having him in the Senate where no doubt he will be chairman of Mil. Affairs.” Miles expresses his sympathy to “Mr. Buchanan” [James Buchanan Jr., 1791-1868, the 15th President of the United States, serving immediately prior to the Civil War], “as every Democrat should,” and concludes: “let us who have all to lose in a separation, hope for the best and unite in helping with might and main, by all honourable means, to preserve the Union”.
The last part of the letter is dedicated to the ongoing hostilities between the American frontier forts and Native Americans: “The Indians are at open war and we are busily preparing for campaign against them on a scale never before attempted. The plan is admirable and if carried out with energy ought partially to succeed - I say partially for hunting Indians in so extensive a range as they have in this mountainous country, is like seeking needles in a hay stack, you may find them, the probability is, you won’t. I have been selected to lead the southern column and Col. Loring [Colonel William Wing Loring, 1818-1886] the northern, we will have about 350 men each. The scene of our operations will be on the head waters of the Gila River and its tributaries west, into the country of the Coyetans - who it is said can bring over a 1000 warriors in the field - one of the columns with surely have one good fight - and if so you may expect to hear of many <…?> Rifles going under.Capt. Gibbs and Lt. Baker Rifles last month, each had a handsome fight with Indians (Apaches). Gibbs was badly wounded by a lance, across his belly - Baker had one killed and four wounded. Both have been complimented in Dept. orders…” Overall a very interesting content rich letter.
“Dixon Stansbury Miles was a career United States Army officer who served in the Mexican-American War and the Indian Wars. He was mortally wounded as he surrendered his Union garrison in the Battle of Harpers Ferry during the American Civil War” (Wikipedia).
Fort Thorn or Fort Thorne was a settlement and military outpost located on the west bank of the Rio Grande, northwest of present day Hatch, and west of Salem in Doña Ana County, New Mexico, United States. It was named for 1st Lt. Herman Thorn of the 2nd U.S. Infantry drowned in the Colorado River. Originally called Cantonment Garland, Fort Thorn was established December 24, 1853 by Captain Israel Richardson, with a garrison of 3rd U.S. Infantry from abandoned Fort Webster, on the right bank of the Rio Grande at Santa Barbara. The post was built of adobe and served to protect settlers and travelers against attacks by the Apaches and outlaws, before being closed in 1859. It had its own post office from 1855 to 1859. It was located near an extensive marsh, across the river, and malaria among the garrison was a serious problem there, and caused the post's closure in 1859. An agency for the Apache Indians operated nearby even after the fort was closed. One of the main units operating from Fort Thorn were detachments of the Regiment of Mounted Rifles. The site of Fort Thorn was the scene of the Skirmish near Fort Thorn, New Mexico Territory between Union Soldiers and men of the Confederate Sibley expedition on September 26, 1861. The site of most of the fort was washed away by a flooding of the Rio Grande in 1889 (Fort Thorn/ New Mexico History and Genealogy Project).


L'ISLE, Guillaume de (1675-1726)
[Copper Engraved Map of North America, Titled:] L'Amerique Septentrionale Dressee sur les Observations de Mrs. De l'Academie Royale des Sciences...

Amsterdam: J. Covens & C. Mortier, 1728. Double-page hand coloured copper engraved map ca. 47x 58,5 cm (18,5x23 in) with an elaborate engraved title cartouche in the left upper corner. Original centrefold, but overall a very good strong impression of this important map.
"This is Pierre Mortier's re-engraved version of Delisle's foundation map of North America. It is nearly identical to the Delisle map, with California returned to its peninsular position rather than as an island. Cape Mendocino is the farthest northern point in California, and the north portion of the continent is left blank. The Great Lakes are well-defined, based on Coronelli, with French forts noted. The English settlements are confined east of the Allegheny Mountains, and Spanish forts are clustered around Santa Fe. The Mississippi River valley is well developed with recent French settlements. The first mention of what would be called the Sargasso Sea is noted in the North Atlantic. The map is decorated with an aquatic-themed figural cartouche and a draped scale of miles. Latin title above the neatline, "America Septentrionalis in suas Praecipuas Partes Divisa, ad Usum Serenissimi Burgundiae Ducis" (Old World Auctions); Tooley, America #32, p.19.


32. [OREGON]
CASSIN, John (1813-1869)
Illustrations of the Birds of California, Texas, Oregon, British and Russian America.

Philadelphia: J.B. Lippincott & Co., [1853]-1856. First Edition. Quarto (28x20 cm). Viii, 298 pp. With fifty hand-colored lithographed plates by William E. Hitchcock, the first twenty after George G. White. 20th century red gilt tooled full sheep with raised bands. Spine slightly rubbed, plates generally clean, plate 10 with light wear to top margin, text very mildly age toned, overall a very good copy.
"First edition in book form, originally issued in ten parts from 1853 to 1855. The work aimed to cover the species discovered since the appearance of Audubon's Birds of America. Cassin (1813-1869) headed an engraving and lithographing firm in Philadelphia which produced illustrations for government and scientific publications. He pursued ornithology as an amateur, giving his spare time to the Philadelphia Academy of Science which was developing the largest bird specimen collection then in existence. Cassin arranged and catalogued the 26,000 specimens, and published regular reports of the results of his research. Unlike Audubon, his publications were primarily technical monographs of new species" (Sothebys); This work was "to be regarded in some measure as an addition to the works of former authors in American Ornithology, but at the same time complete in itself" (Preface). Cassin especially sought to describe birds not known to Audubon. Lada-Mocarski 144; Nissen 173; Sabin 11369; Sitwell p. 85; Wood p. 281; Zimmer p. 124.


33. [OREGON]
[Interesting Autograph Letter Written by R.B. Guyles, an Emigrant to the Oregon City Talking about His Experience in the City, Plans to go to the Walla Walla Mines, Local Climate etc.].

Oregon City, 25 June 1850. Large Octavo (ca. 25x19,5 cm). A bifolium, written on two pages and addressed on the fourth page. Dark brown ink on bluish wove paper. Original fold marks, minor holes on folds, paper with mild stains, remnants of the original seal on the last page; overall the letter is written in a legible hand and in very good condition.
Interesting letter written by R.B. Guyles, a emigrant to the Oregon Territory, originally from Ira, Cayuga County (New York) to his compatriot Daniel Pierce. Guyles sailed to the Oregon Territory on steamer “Massachusetts,” via Rio de Janeiro, landed at the Strait of Magellan, “but soon came on board again for the Indians was very barbarious;” called at Valparaiso, and the Sandwich Islands. He landed at Fort Vancouver on the 15th of May 1849. “I have worked very hard since I have come here and I think in a short time I shall be able to come back again with a good sum of money. Everything is very dear, but wages are large, most any kind of a machine can make from 1 to 20 dolls a day, and labours from 12 to 15 dolls a day, a man can make money at any thing he is a mind to go at. I think in the corse [sic!] of 2 or 3 months that I shall go to the mines in Walawalla O.T., but I want to hear a little more about it first. The mines are very unhealthy in California or else I should have gone there &c. This is a very healthy country here, the summers are cold here and the winters are mild, scarcely any snow is seen in any season of the year. Horses and cattle live on the green grass all winter, some winters there has not been any snow seen…”


[Album of Thirty-six Early Albumen Photographs of Various Cities and Towns in the Australian State of Victoria Titled in Gilt on Front Cover:] Photographic Views of Victoria.

Ca. 1880. Quarto (ca. 27x22,5 cm). Thirty-six stiff card leaves. With thirty-six mounted albumen photographs each ca. 16x22 cm (6 ½ x 8 ½ in). All captioned in pencil on mounts. With a presentation inscription on front free fly leaf: "A Souvenir of Victoria to Mrs. Rose from A. & S. Th . Melbourne, 4th of January 1882”. Period black decoratively gilt tooled full sheep album. Rebacked in style. A few photographs mildly faded but overall a very good collection of interesting early photographs.
The Victorian Gold Rush of the 1850s and 60s led to a significant economic and population expansion in Victoria and the rivalry with New South Wales resulted in the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1880 which was the first official World's Fair in the Southern Hemisphere. This interesting collection of early photographs of the towns and cities in post gold rush Victoria documents the development of the state at that time and includes images of: the Melbourne International Exhibition; Interior Opening Day; West Melbourne from Exhibition Dome; Independent Church Collins St.; Sailor's Home Spencer St.; Bourke St. East; Melbourne Town Hall; Bourke St. West; Scot's Church Collins St.; New Eastern Market; Museum; St. Kilda's Road; Government House; Kew Lunatic Asylum from Studley Park; Punt - Simpson Road; Melbourne from South Yarra; Melbourne from the Domain; Mountain Tree Ferns Dandenung State Forest; Coranderrk Aboriginal Station; Lower Falls on Creek Scene; Moorabool River Railway Viaduct; Clunes; Ferns; Geelong Railway Station; Scene on the Yarra; Stawell Mining Township; Aqueduct over River Plenty; Ballarat Mines; Castlemaine; Geelong West; Echuca Punt; Castlemain State Quarries; Falls Lower Campaspe; Hesket; Bush Sawmills (near Stawell); River Scene (with presumably the photographer by the river bank).


[BÍRÓ, Lajos] (1856-1931)
Biró Lajos Német-új-Guineai (Berlihafeni [Vol. 1]- Astrolabe-öböl [Vol. 2]) néprajzi gyűjtéseinek leíro jegyzéke/ [Both:] A Maguar Nemzeti Múzeum Néprajzi Gyűjteményei I, III. = Beschreibender Catalog der ethnographischen Sammlung Ludwig Biró's aus Deutsch-Neu-Guinea (Berlinhafen – Astrolabe-Bai); / Ethnographische Sammlungen des Ung. Nationalmuseums [Vols.] I, III. [Descriptive Catalogue of Lajos Bíró’s Ethnographic Collection from New Guinea (Berlinhafen – Astrolabe Bay)]/ Ehtnographical Collections of the Hungarian National Museum.

Budapest: Hornyánszky Viktor Császári és Királyi Udvari Könyvnyomdája, 1899-1901. First edition. Small Folio (ca. 31x23,5 cm). Two vols. bound together. x, 100, [1 - errata]; [4], 199 pp. Text in parallel Hungarian and German. With 23 and 22 plates, and numerous illustrations in text. Period green half cloth with marbled papered boards and gilt lettered title on the spine. Paper slightly age toned, otherwise a very good copy.
Complete in two volumes detailed catalogue of the extensive collection of various ethnographic objects brought from German New Guinea by outstanding Hungarian entomologist Lajos Biró and donated to the Hungarian National Museum. The catalogue includes over 1300 objects taken from the northeast coast of modern-day Papua New Guinea - areas around Berlinhafen (now Aitape, Sandaun Provice) and Astrolabe Bay (Madang Province), including weapon (slingshots, spearheads), feather decorations, jewellery, household items (dishes, fish hooks, woven bags), wood and bamboo carvings, ritual objects, musical instruments, a model of a native sailing vessel et al. The main text is supplemented with prefaces by Dr. Janko Janus, and Dr. Willibald Semayer (Custos-Adjunct of the Hungarian National Museum).
Lajos Biro, “a little known” but respected Hungarian ornithologist, entomologist, collector and photographer, travelled widely in German New Guinea in 1896-1902. His frank commentary and annotated photographs of New Guineans and Europeans in the early phase of colonial contact mark him as an unusual and perceptive observer. His reputation rests not on ethnography nor on two popular works and numerous articles in Hungarian, but on the several thousand ethnological objects and 200,000 natural history specimens in European museums he sent back from New Guinea. More that 200 species and genera have been named after him. Biro’s voluminous notes, published articles on natural history and photographs have recently recaptured scholars’ attention” (The Pacific Islands: An Encyclopedia. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 2000, p. 163).


ROSE, George (1861-1942)
[Collection of Thirty-Six Original Albumen Stereoviews Showing New Zealand Landscapes, Titled:] Souvenir of the New Zealand International Exhibition / Gems of New Zealand Scenery / The Kapai Series.

1906. 36 pairs of albumen stereo views, each ca. 8,5x15 cm (3 3/8 x 5 7/8 in), mounted on original brown stiff cards. Each numbered, with photographer’s copyright and English caption in negative under each photograph, with “Copyright” blind stamp on each view, some with printed descriptions on verso. Housed in original publisher's black papered box ca. 6,5x18,5x10 cm (2 ½ x 7 ¼ x 4 in) with printed title and studio label on lid. Box with some wear at extremities, but overall a very good collection with strong and sharp photographs.
This collection of 36 albumen stereoviews shows excellent views of iconic New Zealand landscapes, many showing travelers and mountaineers, that were compiled for the New Zealand International Exhibition. Three interesting photographs show a horse carriage travelling along the side of the cliffs near Buller’s Gorge, “illustrating the difficulties of road construction in this district.” “After the Scenery Preservation Act 1903 was passed, the upper and lower Buller gorges were two of the first areas to be designated scenic reserves. The Buller River is regarded as one of the outstanding wild rivers in New Zealand, and since 2001 has been protected by a water conservation order that bans changes to its natural quality, and to the level and flow of the river and many of its tributaries” (Te Ara). Four views were taken along the Milford Overland Track, which was used by the native Māori people for gathering and transporting valuable greenstone, became a tourist route in the late 19th century, and was purchased by the government in 1901 (Wikipedia), including McKinnon’s Pass (discovered in 1888), Lake Te Anu and the Clinton river. There are six views of Milford Sound and five views of mountaineering and glaciers in Mt Cook district (first ascent in 1894). Also interesting is a photograph of “Sophia’s Whare, Wairoa, destroyed in Tarawera eruption of 1886, with a local guide in front.” Additionally, there are two views of the Lennox falls and Rees valley, two views of the Pipiriki cascades, and two views of Queenstown next to Lake Wakatipu. Other photographs show geysers and coastal views. Overall, an excellent collection of strong interesting views of New Zealand.
“The New Zealand International Exhibition (the biggest in the country to that time) opened 1 November 1906 in Hagley Park, Christchurch, New Zealand. Nearly two million people visited the exhibition during the next few months. A branch railway line was built across North Hagley Park to service the exhibition. The attractions included New Zealand’s first professional symphony orchestra(conducted by Alfred Hill), and the first Dominion pipe band contest which was won by the Dunedin Highland Pipe Band. The exhibition closed on 15 April 1907 and the remaining buildings had been removed by the end of August 1907.” (Wikipedia)
“As a teenager, George Rose worked in his father's shoe store in a Melbourne suburb while he studied photography. In 1880 at the age of 19, he founded the Rose Stereograph Company. During his career, he is said to have taken about 9,000 stereographs in at least 38 countries as well as Australia. Besides the main office in Melbourne, Rose Great War stereoviews listed offices in Sydney, New South Wales; Wellington, New Zealand; and London” (Great War in 3D).


SPITZ, Charles Georges (1857-1894); HOARE, Susan; MIOT, Paul-Emile (1827-1900)
[Album of Fifty Early Original Photographs of Tahiti, Including Portraits of Queen Pomare IV, King Pomare V and His Wife, Queen of Bora Bora, French Naval Officers, Views of the French Naval Transport Ship Scorff, Matavai Bay, Titled:] Souvenirs l’Ocean Pacifique.

Ca. 1880-1887. Folio (ca. 32,5x25 cm). Sixty album leaves (ten blank). Fifty albumen prints (one in two copies) of various size, from 7x4,5 cm (2 ¾ x 1 ¾ in) to ca. 20x25,5 cm (8x10 in), the majority are ca. 11x16,5 cm (4 ¼ x 6 ½ in) or slightly larger. Photographs are mounted on rectos of the album leaves (with one mounted on verso, one loosely inserted); the majority with period manuscript pencil or ink captions in French on the mounts. Nine photos additionally mounted on card (including five images on the cabinet cards of Papeete photo studios of Georges Spitz and Mrs. S. Hoare). Period maroon cloth album with colour stamped decorative ornament on the boards and spine; paper label with a faded ink title on the front cover, spine and back cover with some mild fading, but overall a very good album and strong interesting photographs.
Interesting collection of early views of Tahiti taken by prominent local photographers just a few years after the annexation of the island by France in 1880. The photos were apparently collected by a French naval officer during his service in 1886-1887 on the transport ship “Scorff” of the French Pacific Naval Division under command of Raymond Paul Adolphe Marie de Royer de Saint Julien (1849-1900). The album opens with a portrait of Queen Pomare IV taken by an important photographer of Tahiti Admiral Paul-Emile Miot in ca. 1870; a part of the outstanding series of photos of Oceania taken by Miot during his service as the chief of staff of the French Naval Pacific Division on board the frigate “Astrée” in 1868-71. The other images in the album belong to the Papeete studios of Charles Spitz and Susan Hoare: five photos are mounted on the distinctive studio cards with printed names of the photographers, and eight more were identified on the basis of Jean-Yves Tréhin’s “Tahiti, l'Éden à l'épreuve de la photographie” (Gallimard, 2003, see pp. 68, 72, 84, 85, 89, 94, 100, and others); the other images most likely were taken by the same studios, judging on the similar style and choice of objects.
The photographs include several portraits of the rulers of the Society Islands, including those of Queen Pomare IV, King Pomare V and his wife Queen Marau, the king surrounded by his tohitus (chiefs), and the Queen of Bora Bora; the members of the influential Salmon family (the founder of the clan Alexander Salmon (1820-1866), a merchant from Britain, became the first Jew to reside in Tahiti); interesting studio group portraits of Tahitians in traditional costumes; a well-known portrait of a Marquesan warrior, families of the “Tahitians from the interior,” and others. There are also interesting street views of Papeete and several photos of the interior of Tahiti (most likely taken by George Spitz during his travels across the island): Matavai Bay, Fautaua River and Falls, Le Diadème Peak, Taravao; and a distant view of the Moorea Island. Ten “naval” photos include a portrait of Rear-Admiral Marcq de Saint-Hilaire, the commander of the Pacific Division at the time, group portrait of “Scorff’s” officers (in two copies), views of the “Scorff,” “Décret,” “Duquesne” and other ships of the Pacific Division on the Tahitian roadstead, festivities on the 14th of July in the Papeete harbor, a large view of a military review, and others. There is also an interesting photo of the distribution of prizes at the first Papeete Catholic school for boys in 1886, featuring Delphino Moracchini (governor of French Polynesia in 1885-1886).
A list of photos:
Reine Pomaré IV (by Paul-Émile Miot, ca. 1870). - Reine Maraü (by Charles Spitz). - Roi Pomaré V (by S. Hoare, ca. 1885). – Le Roi entouré de les Tohitus (chefs). – Femme Tahitiens (by S. Hoare, ca. 1880). – Groupe Tahitien (2). - Femme de Papeete. – La famille Salmon (by S. Hoare, ca. 1885). - Princesse Vetua, reine de Bora Bora (by S. Hoare, ca. 1885). - Contre-amiral Marcq de Saint-Hilaire. – Guerrier des îles Marquises (by Charles Spitz). – Distribution des Prix à l’Ecole des Frères á Papeete en 1886. – Bâtiments de la Division navale du Pacifique en rade de Papeete. - Le 14 juillet 87 en rade de Papeete. – Le quai de Papeete, le 14 juillet 87. – Une rue à Papeete. – La rue de l’est à Papeete. - La rue de l’est. – Les allées de la Fautaua (3). – Vue du Diadème. – Cascade de la Fautaua (2). – Allée de la Fautaua. - Le Diadème. – Vue du Diadème. – Baie de Matavaï. - Végétation tahitienne (by Charles Spitz). - Le mayore, fruit de l'arbre à pain. – [A view of Duquesne and Scorff in Papeete harbour] (mounted on the studio card of G. Spitz). - Un ruisseau dans la Fautaua. - Paysage à Tahiti. - Vue prise à Taravao (2). – L'île Moorea prise de Tahiti, distance 12 milles. - Tahitiens de l'intérieur. - Un Canaque à la pêche sur les récifs. - Baie de Cook à Moorea, le Scorff au mouillage. – [Portrait of two Tahitian women] (mounted on a studio card of S. Hoare). – [Group portrait of three Tahitian women] (mounted on a studio card of G. Spitz). - [Portrait of a Tahitian woman] (mounted on a studio card of S. Hoare). – [View of the Scorff]. - Etat-major du Scorff(2, by G. Spitz, one image mounted on his studio card). – [View of the Scorff] (2). – [Naval review in Papeete on the 14th of July, 1886]. – [A portrait of the Queen of Bora Bora and her sister] (by S. Hoare, ca. 1880). – [Papeete harbour].
Bibiliography: Charles Georges Spitz. Photographies de Tahiti 1880-1890. Ministère de la culture de Polynésie Française, Tahiti, 2002; Tréhin, Jean-Yves, Tahiti, L'Eden à l'épreuve de la photographie. Gallimard – Musée de Tahiti et des Îles, 2003; Tréhin, Jean-Yves. Gauguin, Tahiti et la photographi. Gallimard / Musée des Iles, 2003.
About Hoare studio:
"As "official" photographers for the protectorate, the Hoares endeavour to depict people in power, both in groups and independently; the royal family and its entourage as well as other notables." (Histoire de l'Assemblée de la Polynésie Française online). "Many Tahitian women are photographed, wearing for the most part a long cotton dress or "mission dress," and a hat made of leaves or sometimes simply flowers in their hair. This approach reflects, for the first time, the local population's interest in the photographic process and illustrates a turn in the history of photography in Polynesia [...]. Few traces of smiles appear on the numerous photographs taken before a background of painted canvas [...]. The people are serious, even grave. The importance of the instant, which captures their social status, arouses a slight apprehension which is rapidly disguised [...] The process becomes a more or less conscious method of integration and enables the more well-to-do Tahitians to claim a form of recognition" (Tréhin, J.-Y. Tahiti, L'Eden à l'épreuve de la photographie…, p. 79, in translation).
About Charles Spitz:
"The views of Tahitian and island landscapes demonstrate, through the use of light, framing, and angle, a great professionalism and developed aesthetic. Despite the imperatives of a studio geared towards commercial production, many of Spitz works are some of the most successful photographs taken in Polynesia at the end of the 19th century." (Tréhin, p. 109, in translation)."Spitz finds his inspiration when he places his lens at the heart of nature and confronts himself to the authenticity of the place. His work can therefore join that of painters, writers, travellers, artists, who are dazzled by omnipresent nature, the power of colours and contrasts, and the shock of sensorial impressions." (Tréhin, p. 117, in translation)."The work of Spitz illustrates a chronology of colonial life in Tahiti and on the islands between 1880 and 1893. The photographic "truth" is often discovered a posteriori, a photograph tends to gain its significance only once it is placed in its historical context." (Tréhin, p. 106, in translation).


CORONELLI, Vincenzo Maria (1650-1718)
[Copper Engraved map of the Pacific Ocean, Titled:] Mare del Sud, detto altrimenti Mare Pacifico [The South Sea, Otherwise Called the Pacific Sea].

Venice, ca. 1691. Double-page uncoloured copper engraved map ca. 45x60,5 cm (17 ¾ x 23 ¾ in) with an elaborate engraved title cartouche in the right upper corner. Original centrefold with very mild browning at fold, paper slightly age toned, but overall a very good strong impression of this map.
Beautiful map of the Pacific Ocean from Vincenzo Coronelli’s “Atlante Veneto” (Venice, 1691-96; second edition – 1695-97), showing California as an Island, the west coast of New Zealand, part of the north coast of Australia and the south coast of Tasmania. The map “of the Pacific Ocean depicts the route of Jacob Le Maire and Willem Cornelisz Schouten through the Pacific in 1615-17. This was one of the more crucial voyages as it proved by sailing around Cape Horn that Tierra del Fuego was an island and not part of the southern continent. Legends refer to voyages of the Dutch to Terra de Iesso in 1643, Australia in 1642, and unlike the Planisfero Coronelli dates the discovery of Nuova Zelanda to 1654. In a further legend just south of the equator Coronelli states that the Spanish crossed the central Pacific from New Mexico to the Philippines in sixty days. In North America only the west coast is featured in any detail, this is drawn from Coronelli’s earlier globe gores of 1688, themselves derived from the glorious 490-centimetre manuscript globe constructed for Louis XIV in 1683. California is illustrated in the Foxe form and bears slightly less nomenclature than Coronelli’s two sheet America Settentrionale, 1688. One further notable difference is that this map is intended to represent the sea and as such no terrestrial detail is given beyond a basic outline of political borders. A beautiful shell motif title cartouche adorns the map. A second edition of the Atlante Veneto appeared in 1695-97. Only one state is known although a plate crack did develop in the lower right margin above Tierra del Fuego” (Burden 680).
“This splendid map of the Pacific Ocean shows most of the coastlines of the Americas and the partially-known islands off the eastern coast of Asia. California is presented as a large island in the Foxe form. Isola del Giapone (Japan) is shown only 50 degrees from the California coast with the imaginary island of Terra de Iesso depicted as a large landmass between Asia and North America. A portion of the coastline of New Zealand is shown with the discoveries of Able Tasman, and hinting that it may be part of the great southern continent. A little of Tasmania appears as Terra d'Antonio Diemens and a partial coastline of Australia is shown blending into New Guinea. <…> The map is adorned with a cartouche featuring aquatic putti surrounding a large shell filled with pearls and coral. The map is dedicated to Cavalier Giulio Giustinian with the arms of the Holy Roman Empire” (Old World Auctions).
Tooley, California 58; Wagner 436; Tooley, Australia 350 ; McLaughlin & Mayo 104.


[Album with Thirty-five Original Platinum Photographs Showing the Construction of the Panama Canal 1888-1913, Including Three Maps of the Panama Canal, an Information Card Containing Construction and Historical Details, and a Printed Copy of a Jan. 1st 1915 Letter from Alice Moore M. Tomas to her son and Mapmaker C.P. Gray Describing her Experience Onboard During the First Crossing of the Canal].

1888-1915. Oblong Folio ca. 27,5x36,5 cm (10 ¾ x 14 ½ in) with 35 platinum photographs, including one panorama ca. 8,5x28 cm (3 ¼ x 11 in) and the rest are each ca. 18,5x24 cm (7 ¼ x 9 ½ in), mounted one per page on recto and/or verso of eighteen white stiff card leaves. All are numbered, dated and/or captioned by the studio in negative or in period manuscript pencil on a slip of paper included ca. 12x20 cm (4 ¾ x 8 in). Also included are two copies of a pressed cardboard raised relief map titled “Gray’s Aero View of the Panama Canal” ca. 11,5x34 cm (4 ½ x 13 ½ in), an envelope ca. 14x35 cm (5 ½ x 13 ¾ in) containing a blue printed letter with “Hamburg American Line” letterhead ca. 41,5x19 cm (16 x 7 ½ in) pasted onto a folding information card ca. 28,5x36 cm (11 ¼ x 14 ¼ in) with canal facts and drawing of canal profile, and a folding map titled: “General Map of the Panama Canal / Published by WM. M. Baxter, JR.” ca. 31,5x86 cm (12 ½ x 34 in). Period dark green gilt tooled full straight grained morocco titled “PANAMA / 1913.” with decorative endpapers, gilt tooled title embellishments on inside covers, three “Republica de Panama” stamps pasted on front endpaper and small “W. Johnson and Sons, Makers, London” label pasted on back inside cover. Some minor rubbing of extremities, but overall a very good album with strong clear photographs.
This album contains 35 original platinum photographs showing the different stages of construction and operation of the Panama Canal in 1888-1913, including the operation of the Gatun Locks, Blowing up of the Gamboa Dyke, the Culebra Cut, Gold Hill, Pedro Miguel Locks, Miraflores Spillway Dam, Miraflores Locks, and Balboa Terminals. The album also contains a printed copy letter from Alice Moore M. Tomas to her son, C.P. Gray, the mapmaker who designed the raised relief maps included with the album. She describes the experience of a Hamburg-American steamship passenger during the first crossing of the Canal in 1915: “All the passengers were up and on deck with the coming of the sweet, refreshing tropical dawn, eager to behold the pageantry of this great celebration. […] We are now passing through the five-hundred-foot channel to Gatun Locks. Here, we catch a glimpse of the gigantic steel and concrete docks – but our whole attention is centered on our entrance to Lock No. 1 through which we are towed by tremendous Electric Mules, having hauling power of 25,000 pounds an engine. […] Great hausers from these mammoth Electric Mules, or locomotives, grapple our vessel and haul till its nose touches the gate of Lock No. 2 […] Thus in exactly seventy-two minutes we have been put through the thee locks of Gatun […] and are proceeding, by our own power, through the buoyed channel in Gatun Lake […] so rapidly are new objects presenting themselves that my pen falters in the attempt to describe them.” Additionally, an information card “Compliments of the Hamburg-American Line” is included and highlights historical events leading to the construction of the canal, facts about its construction and a drawing of the canal’s profile.
Captions of the photographs:
A French Scheme for excavating; View from water at Gatun showing Lock & Dam; View looking south showing upper locks and Gatun Lake; West wing wall Gatun; Operation of Gatun Locks; Looking south from lighthouse on west wall, showing water in west chamber of upper lock; Looking north from north gates, shower lower guard gates in foreground; First boat through. Tugboat “Gatun” entering lower lock, west chamber; Dredging fleet entering lower lock, west chamber; Dredging fleet in lower lock, west chambers; Dredging fleet leaving west chamber of upper lock; Blowing up Gamboa dyke, view looking north; view from west bank showing water rushing through opening immediately after blast; A view of Calebra Cut looking towards empire in 1888; Gold Hill looking south in 1890; Culebra Cut from top of Contractor’s hill; View looking south from West Bank near Cunette; Looking North from West Bank at Cunette; Break in East Bank at La Pita taking in Obispo Diversion Channel; Looking North from La Pita; Looking north from East bank half way between Culebra and Empire; Looking north from west bank south of Contractor’s hill; Culebra Cut, Empire; Looking south from west bank near Cunette; Looking North from West Bank; Culebra Cut Land slide with dredged at work; The Great Calubra Cut looking north; Pedro Miguel Locks operating gates to admit first boats to locks; Dredging fleet entering east chamber of lock; General view of lower locks, Miraflores; Spilling Miraflores under construction; Miraflores spillway dam, showing upstream side of dam; First boat through; Leaving west chamber of upper locks and entering Miraflores lake; Balboa terminals.
"In 1907 Roosevelt appointed George Washington Goethals as Chief Engineer of the Panama Canal. The building of the canal was completed in 1914, two years ahead of the target date of June 1, 1916. The canal was formally opened on August 15, 1914 with the passage of the cargo and passenger ship SS Ancon" (Wikipedia).


[A “Black Ship Scroll” Showing the Negotiations in Yokohama during the Second Visit of Commodore Matthew Perry’s Naval Expedition to Japan in February-March 1854, Titled:] Kurofune raikou emaki.

Landing scene dated: Kaei 7 [i.e. 1854], but possibly a slightly later Meiji period copy. Hand painted scroll ca. 338x26,2 cm (133,07 x 10,3 in). Ink and watercolour on rice paper, remounted. Occasional minor worm holes, several creases, but overall a beautiful scroll in very good condition.
Rare beautiful hand painted “Black Ship Scroll” giving the pictorial record of the negotiation of the first American-Japanese Treaty of Kanagawa which was signed in Yokohama on March 31, 1854. The treaty was the result of Commodore Matthew Perry’s two naval expeditionary missions to Japan (July 1853 and February-March 1854), and effectively ended 220-years of Japan’s isolation from the western world. Perry first arrived to the Edo Bay in July 1853 and then returned in February 1854. He was allowed to land at Kanagawa, the site of modern-day Yokohama on March 8, 1854, where a special “Treaty House” was erected on shore. The negotiations lasted for almost a month, accompanied with the presentation of the gifts from the American President to the Japanese Emperor and vice versa, contests by sumo wrestlers, drills of American marines, banquets and many other activities between the Americans and the Japanese. After the Treaty was signed Perry and his ships cruised in the Edo Bay and departed for Simoda on April 11-18, 1854.
The scroll consists of four sections opening with full-length portraits of ten members of the American delegation, including Commodore Perry himself, marines in their respective uniforms and the Chinese translator Luo Sen; the captions next to each figure read: Amerika Koku Jokan no Shin Zo (“True image of an American Superior Officer”); Do Heishi Gashira no Zo (“Image of American Chief Soldier”); Do Shiki Yaku (“American Commanding Officer”); Do Heishi (“American Soldier”); Seijin Gakukan (“Chinese Scholar Officer”); Amerika tai Gungaku Kan (“American Military Music Officer”); Migi Onaji (“Same as the one to the right”); Do Taiho Shi (“American Cannon Soldier”); Do Gekan Kokui (“American Black man- Lower Officer”); Do Suihu (“American Sailor”).
The second scene is titled “Kaei 7 Kinoe Tora Toshi Ni Gatsu To Ka Oite Yokohama Kan Amerika Koku Kyowa Seiji no Shisetsu Osetsu Joriku no Zu” (“A View of Reception of the Envoy of American Republican Government Landing at Yokohama in 1854”). The watercolour shows the Americans disembarking at Kanagawa on March 8, 1854 for the first day of negotiations with nine “black ships” in the background. Seven boats with American flags are landing at the shore, American marines are lined up in front of the specially constructed “Treaty House”, as Perry and his retinue with an American flag walk to meet the Japanese commissioners. He is preceded with a group of Japanese officials leading him to the negotiation buildings.
The third section titled “Oite Yokohama Taihei Shintai Henka no Zu” (“Picture of troops’ manoeuvres in Yokohama”) shows the American marines during drills performed for the Japanese on March 24. The final scene shows a group of sumo wrestlers tossing bales of rice (entertainment arranged by the Japanese on March 24, 1854, when the presents from the Emperor were handed to the Americans), and the miniature railway in action, which had been presented by the Americans to the Japanese Emperor on March 13. The captions to the scenes read: “Gotoukei Kakushina no Uchi Komedawara 200 Hyo Rikishi Unso no Zu” (“Picture of sumo wrestlers carrying 200 straw bags with rice which are one of our gifts”) and “Kenko Karin Sharyo Shi Zu” (“Picture of the trial of the engine train which was presented”).
Most of the Perry scrolls date from after 1858 and many of them are crude and derivative copies. Ours is an artistically well executed - if slightly naive - copy that is however clearly based on contemporary eye-witness accounts.
“Universal concern bred a variety of means by which news of the Americans was spread throughout the land. One popular and attractive device was the painted pictorial with text done in scroll format. Many were produced, often in duplicate, and they circulated widely. The paintings are not high art; on the contrary, they are work of the artisan and not of the legitimate artist. The usage “Black Ship Scrolls” was coined subsequently and is a reference to the colour of Commodore Perry’s ships. Not many Black Ships Scrolls have survived” (The Black Ships Scrolls [pdf], p. [2]/ Perry in Japan: a Visual History/ Brown University Library Center for Digital Scholarship; click to view online).
The best comments to the images on the scroll are the personal notes of Matthew C. Perry taken during his visit to Yokohama (see more in: The Japan Expedition 1852-1854: The Personal Journal of Commodore Matthew C. Perry/ Ed. By R. Pineau. Washington: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1968).
Landing in Yokohama (8 March 1854): “At 11:30 on the day appointed, the escort - consisting of about 500 officers, seamen, and marines fully armed - embarked in twenty-seven barges in command of Commander Buchanan, and, forming a line abreast, pulled in good order towards the shore. The escort having landed and drawn up, I followed in my barge under an appropriate salute. Upon landing I was received by the escort and a party of Japanese officials and conducted to the hall prepared for the conference. At this moment salutes were fired from the howitzers mounted in the launches, of twenty guns in honour of the Emperor, and seventeen for the Japanese commissioners” (p. 165).
Drills (24 March 1854): “During this exhibition the bands of the squadron played some of their best airs. When they terminated, Captain Tansill, commanding the guard of Marines, at the request of the commissioners, put his men through several evolutions” (p. 192).
Miniature train presented by the Americans: “For the first few days after our arrival at Yokohama, Mr. Gay, the chief engineer of the Mississippi with the requisite number of mechanics, was employed in unpacking and putting in working order the locomotive engine <...> Meanwhile, the implements of husbandry had been put together and exhibited, the track laid down, and the beautiful little engine with its tiny car set in motion. It could be seen from the ship flying round its circular path exciting the utmost wonder in the minds of the Japanese. Although this perfect piece of machinery was with its car finished in the most tasteful manner, it was much smaller than I had expected it would have been, the car being incapable of admitting with any comfort even a child of six years. The Japanese therefore who rode upon it were seated upon the roof, whilst the engineer placed himself upon the tender.” (pp. 176-177).
Entertainment by the Japanese Sumo wrestlers: “The whole troop of naked giants commenced transporting, for our edification and amusement, the bales of rice... To the shore in readiness for shipping. These bales weighed each 135 pounds, and each man with two exceptions carried two on his right shoulder...” (p. 191).


41. [PERU - PUNA]
COVERLEY-PRICE, A. Victor (British, 1901-1988)
[A Grisaille Watercolour Signed "V. Coverley-Price" Titled:] Camp At 12,000 feet on the edge of the Puna in the Andes of Central Peru.

Ca. 1925. Watercolour ca. 21,5x35 cm (8 ½ x 14 in), with typewritten title label mounted on verso. The watercolour, in period matting, is in very good condition with bright colours.
This attractive and skillfully executed watercolour by a listed artist known for his landscapes and urban scenes shows three mountaineers in camp with two tents and three horses in the background. "The Puna grasslands.., are found in the central Andes Mountains.., above the tree line at 3200–3500 m elevation, and below the permanent snow line above 4500-5000 m elevation" (Wikipedia).


[ESTALA, Pedro] [1757-1810]
Beyträge zur genauern Kenntniss der Spanischen Besitzungen in Amerika aus dem Spanischen übersetzt und mit einigen Anmerkungen begleitet von Christian August Fischer [Notes on the Spanish Possessions in America Translated from the Spanish and Accompanied by notes by C. A. Fischer].

Dresden: Heinrich Gerlach, 1802. First Edition. Duodecimo (ca. 16,5x10,5 cm). xvi, 276, [3] pp. Handsome period brown gilt tooled half sheep, with yellow paste paper boards and a brown gilt label. Title page with a faint library marking, extremities very mildly rubbed, but overall a very good copy.
The present work which is focused on trade includes chapters on Havana with notes on the slave trade, Mexico including its trade with Spain, Buenos Ayres including a description of the Pampas, Tucuman with notes on the customs of the colonists, Peru with a detailed description of its Pacific ports, Montana Real with a description of the Maranon River and its exploration etc, etc. Fischer also translated Don Felix de Azara Voyages to South America into German. Sabin 24418 (Fischer); Palau 83424.


[Album of Sixty-Five Early Original Albumen Photographs of City Views and Scenic Sights from an Early Tourist's Travels through the United States and Canada Including Stops in Quebec, New York, Pennsylvania, Illinois, Colorado, Utah, California, etc, Including one of Titusville Showing the Oil Wells Developed During the First US Oil Rush].

Sept 16 1872 – Jan 18 1873. Oblong Folio ca. 26x35 cm (10 x 13 ¾ in). Sixty-five original albumen photographs, including 19 larger ones each ca. 9,5x17 cm (3 ¾ x 6 ¾ in) to ca. 16,5x22,5 cm (6 ½ x 8 ¾ in), the rest are each ca. 9x9,5 cm (3 ½ x 3 ¾ in) and smaller, mounted recto on 28 beige card stock album leaves. All but two photos captioned in period manuscript brown ink on mounts. Additionally, with twenty-three flower and plant samples found during the travels mounted on the album leaves, all but one captioned in period manuscript brown ink. Period style brown half morocco with gilt stamped spine titled “AMERICA ALBUM” with brown cloth boards. Overall a very good album with strong photographs.
This album contains interesting early photographs of American cities and tourist sights and the surrounding natural features from an early tourist’s travels through the United States with a few stops in Canada. The album includes several impressive large photographs including a photo of the oil wells and workers in Titusville, Pennsylvania (the first site of the US oil rush, 1859-1870s), a view of Salt Lake City with snow-covered mountains in the background, and a view of Lake George, NY which shows the SS Minnehaha. There are photos of San Francisco, 5th Street in St Louis, Denver and Chicago. Other sights of interest include the Niagara Suspension Bridge (opened for traffic in 1855), a hydraulic mining operation in Utah and the St Charles Hotel, New Orleans (the second building was completed in 1861). Additionally, there are photographs of natural features such as mountains and rocks in California (Yosemite Valley, Cathedral Rocks…) and Colorado (Sentinel Rock, Chimney Rock…). A very good album with strong photographs that visually document the early cities of North America.
Captions: Boston: Harbour; State House; Public Garden; Chapel Harvard; Washington Elm; Glen House: Base of Mt Washington; Tuckerman’s Ravine: Glen Notch; Falls of Montmorency; Lake George; Kays’ Conservatory Montreal; Trenton Falls; Niagara Suspension Bridge; Terrapin Tower and Horseshoe Fall; Oil Wells Titusville; Chicago; Wagner’s Drawing Room Car; Pullman’s Sleeping car; Devil’s Slide; Palisades; Snow shed Mt Aspen; Secret Town Bridge; View of Cape Horn; Kesler’s Peak, Meek’s Camp Utah; Hydraulic Mining; Salt Lake City; Clark’s Ranch; House built on a section of a tree; Yosemite Valley; Cathedral Rocks; Washington Mountain; Bridal Veil Fall; El Capitan; Half Dome; San Francisco; Denver, Colorado; Sentinel Rock; Chimney Rock; Grey’s Peak, St John’s; Quaker Rocks; St Louis 5th St; The Capitol, St Louis; Independence Hall; Interior of J.H. Philadelphia; Richmond, Washington; New Orleans St Charles Hotel; Bonaventure Cemetery.


[Album of 174 Original Gelatin Silver Photographs of the Voyage of German Naval Officer Fritz Standke to the Iguazu Falls and Asuncion on a Streamer via the Rio de la Plata, Uruguay, Parana, Paraguay Rivers with Stops in Uruguay, Argentina and Paraguay].

1918. Oblong Folio (24,5x33 cm). 30 brown album leaves. With 174 original gelatin silver photographs ca. 17,5x23,5 cm (7 x 9 ½ in) and smaller, the smallest ones ca. 4,5x6,5 cm (2 x 2 ½ in) Images mounted on recto and verso of album leaves most captioned in German in manuscript white ink and some with printed paper labels on mounts. Additionally included are two manuscript maps in white ink and mount mounted printed text describing details of the journey. Original blue patterned full cloth album. Overall a very good album of interesting strong photographs.
The interesting photographs in this very extensively annotated album include views of Argentina (Buenos Aires (Darsena Norte), Isla Martin Garcia with interior and exterior photos of barracks, Colon, Concordia, Posadas including a series of photographs documenting the harvest of Yerba Mate, San Ignacio including ruins of the old mission, riding through the Amazon Jungle; Uruguay (Paysandu, Salto); A series of over 70 photos of the Iguazu falls with hotel and surroundings; Paraguay (Asuncion (panorama and port); San Bernardino). Included in the photographs are two-part panoramas of Darsena Norte, Garganta del Diablo, Asuncion, San Bernadino, Iguazu Falls.


[Historically Important Autograph Letter Signed from J. Leavers, an Early Settler of Port Ludlow, Washington, to Author Joseph Holt Ingraham in Rockland, Maine, Describing Conflicts Between Native Indians and Settlers (Including the Death of Lieutenant Slaughter), a “Gold Excitement” in the Region (One of the First Discoveries of Gold in Washington), and the Early Operation of the Sawyer Lumber Mill].

9 December 1855. Quarto bifolium (ca. 25x19,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink written in a legible hand on blue wove paper. Fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
A historically important letter that describes important conflicts between different Native American tribes and European settlers in Puget Sound, one of the first discoveries of gold in Washington state, and an early lumber mill in the region. Leavers explains that they are “in the midst of an Indian War […]. Some houses were burned, men women and children were horribly murdered” and “all the Indians through the immigrant route are said to be banding together.” He describes the advancement of troops from Oregon, and the cooperation of Indigenous people in his immediate vicinity who “have been ordered into the settlement to give up their arms and canoes.” He also reports the killing of Lieutenant Slaughter, “commander of the station at Steilacoom” which he learned about that very morning. These events took place during the Puget Sound War, “an armed conflict between the US military and the Nisqually, Muckleshoot, Puyallup, and Klickitat Native American tribes between 1855 and 1856. <…> The conflict began after Nisqually Chief Leschi, who was protesting the Medicine Creek Treaty that forced Indigenous peoples of the region onto reservations, was arrested. After leading as war chief during the conflict, Chief Leschi was eventually convicted and executed in 1858” (Wikipedia). Leavers also describes the discovery of a gold deposit several months ago “in the N.E. Part of the territory,” and explains the difficulty of developing a mine considering the transportation barriers of hostility of Indigenous tribes. Additionally, he describes the buildings in Port Ludlow, including Thorndike’s house and the operation of “Sayward’s Mill.” John R. Thorndike and W. P. Sayward sailed to Puget Sound in 1852 and found the environs of Port Ludlow promising for lumber; they developed its first lumber mill which led to the growth of a settlement (Wikipedia). “It didn't take long for the California Gold Rush to expose the need for a steady, good supply of lumber. Starting in the 1850s, the area around the Puget Sound served this need. For a hundred years, no other industry came close to matching logging in its importance to Washington.” (American History USA).


LOBECK, Tobias (Active 1750-70) & LOTTER, Tobias Conrad (1717-1777)

Atlas geographicus portatilis, XXIX. mappis orbis habitabilis regna exhibens. Kurzgefasste Geographie ... Nebst compendieusen Land-Charten, welche einen kleinen Sack-Atlas ausmachen. [Portable Geographic Atlas..,].
Augsburg: T. Lobeck, ca. 1758. Expanded Edition. 72 pp. Oblong Duodecimo (ca. 11,5x15 cm). With an engraved frontispiece, and engraved title-page, and forty-one engraved hand-coloured maps. Handsome original brown elaborately gilt tooled full sheep. Extremities mildly rubbed, gilt darkened, but overall a very good copy with a very clean maps and text.
Lotter was Matthäus Seutter's son in law and worked with Seutter in his workshop and became his most talented employee and then in 1756 succeeded Seutter with Seutter oldest son. Lotter produced Seutter's Atlas Minor and then from 1758 his own Atlas Minor, the present atlas being a further reduced version. This expanded edition of the Atlas geographicus portatilis with fourteen newly added mostly German regional maps all engraved by Lobeck himself. The atlas was sold both with and without Lobeck’s undated geographical notes. The destruction of Lima in 1746 is mentioned as having taken place last year but this edition is from around 1758 or slightly later. Phillips 631f; Tooley's Mapmakers K-P, p.145 & 158.


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