June 2015 - Part 1 - Exploration, Travels & Voyages - Archives, Journals,
Letters & Manuscripts


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1. [ACONCAGUA]
[De La MOTTE, Edward]
[Typewritten Manuscript Account of the Fifth Ascent of Aconcagua, by British Climber Edward de la Motte and American Mountaineer James Ramsey Ullman, Being also the First American Ascent of Aconcagua, Titled:] Horcones Valley and Aconcagua. February/March 1928.

Ca. 1928. Quarto (ca. 28,5x22 cm). 25 numbered leaves of typewritten text. Occasional period ink corrections in text. Vertical centrefold, first and last leaves with mild creases and traces of old staples removed, otherwise a very good manuscript.
Original typescript of the diary of Edward de la Motte, one of the participants of the fifth ascent of Aconcagua, the highest peak in the Americas, with his manuscript corrections in text. De la Motte’s climbing partner was a famous American mountaineer and writer James Ramsey Ullman (1907-1971), thus the expedition became the first American ascent of Aconcagua. The expedition party included two other members, named in the manuscript “Bromley” and “Mrs.” (a female). De la Motte gives a detailed description of the whole expedition from arrival to Retiro (Buenos Aires) on 25 February to the final arrival to Buenos Aires (on the way back) on 12 March 1828. The manuscript describes the mountaineers’ arrival in Mendoza, preparation and supplying of the expedition, trip to the Uspallata town and Puente del Inca, the long hike up the Horcones Valley, and all proceedings in the high camps on the mountain, including an acclimatization hike to the Buena Vista ridge and the summit day. The entries note the altitudes gained, pulse levels, experienced symptoms of mountain sickness, weight of loads carried, menus and preparations of the meals, frostbites et al. There are also several mentions of previous British expeditions to Aconcagua – by E. Fitzgerald and S. Vines (1897) and by J. Cochrane and M.F. Ryan (1925).
Some entries: “February 27th. Mrs. Togs up a la “complete mountaineer” in heavy boots and breeches, but fearing the populace slips out by a back entrance and gets nearly eaten by a yard full of dogs.” (p. 3).
“March 3rd. Base, night min. 28° 18,000 max. Pulse before starting: Ram 68, me 100. This is being written in Ryan’s tent with a snow storm outside, luckily the tent in perfectly sound, and apart from a little fine driven snow, all is snug inside. There is enough food for a week and between us we have 7 blankets, and eiderdown and a Jaeger sleeping bag. <…> Ram and I are comfortable with our feet tied in rucksacks and are able to laugh at the weather” (pp. 9-10).
“March 4th. Up at 8.30, rising consisting of putting on boots and balaclava and extricating oneself from the sleeping bag – in itself a laborious process and only to be performed with much gasping. This gasping is an altitude effect which neither of us can get over – headaches are things of the past, our appetites are tremendous, but the least exertion such as tightening a rope, leaving or entering the tent, opening a tin of sausages and even eating makes us gasp for breath” (p. 12).
“March 5th. [Summit Day]. Up 5 a.m. <…> Ram wearing his Ventana boots could only get on two pairs of socks – same as myself, so that to avoid frostbite we both tried to keep out toes moving inside our boots as far as possible. <…> Both of us were fairly near the limits of our endurance but the top was in view and at 4.30 we stepped out on the summit, very glad at being finished with the hard work of climbing. Driving snow clouds prevented the view to the South and what was worse, Ram could not find Ryan’s thermometers – the only object visible being an empty beer bottle. The top is of triangular shape with the Northern apex at the highest point. Photos were taken from the West tower which should identify the summit alright, at any rate, so far as Ryan and other climbers are concerned.
Ram got busy with a self timer – which like the meta cooker failed to work, the resulting messing about with which gave Ram four frostbitten fingers (unnoticed until considerably later). An ice axe with E.M. And A.R. Carved on the shaft was left, also a card with our names on was left in a small Yerma tin with one plasmon biscuit (sustenance for the next party that reaches the top)” (pp. 14-15).
James Ramsey Ullman was a noted American writer and mountaineer, official historian of the American Mount Everest Expedition 1963, the author of “The White Tower” (1945), “Banner in the Sky” (1954), “The Age of Mountaineering” (1954), “Tiger of the Snows” (together with Tenzing Norgay, 1955), “Americans on Everest” (1964), and others. Most of Ullman’s papers are now deposited in the Princeton University Library.
“The Andean career of Edward de la Motte apparently began in 1928 with Aconcagua, highest of all Andean peaks, and ended probably in 1946 with Sajama, highest of Bolivian mountains. With the well-known American novelist James Ramsey Ullman (author of the White Tower), he accomplished on 5 March 1928 the fifth ascent of Aconcagua” (Echevarria, E. Early British Ascents in the Andes, 1831-1946 // The Alpine Journal. 1987. Vol. 92. P. 63).

 

2. [ALFRED WALLACE - GEOLOGICAL TIME]
[CLARKE, Charles Baron] (1832-1906)
[Manuscript Draft Letter to the Editor of the “Nature” Journal Responding to the Article of Alfred Wallace on the Matter of Geological Time].

Rungbee, Sikkim, 25 August 1870. Folio (ca. 33,5x21 cm). 2 pp., apparently unfinished. Brown ink on pale blue laid paper. Fold marks, ink stains on folds, minor chipping on the top and bottom margins, paper slightly soiled, overall a good manuscript.
Unsigned extensive manuscript draft letter by a prominent British botanist Charles Baron Clarke polemizing with the article “The Measurement of Geological Time” by Alfred Wallace published in the “Nature” journal in 1870 (17 Feb., pp. 399-401; 3 March, pp. 452-455). The letter discusses views of Charles Darwin, Thomas Huxley, Charles Lyell, Sir William Thompson, and others, as well as a prospective of future development of this question.
“Two articles of Mr. Wallace followed by some correspondence printed in your journal have introduced into “Nature” discussions concerning Geological Time. <…> Prof. Huxley estimates that the whole […] series containing traces of animal life might have been deposited in the one hundred million years allowed by Sir W. Thompson, at an average rate of 1/83 of an inch per annum. But Prof. Huxley is probably the last man to give up the Darwinian Theory, and the vital point of the Darwinian Theory is the proportion which the gaps in the geological time bear to the recorded periods. W. Hopkins shewed that we must be prepared to allow the record to be as imperfect as Mr. Darwin imagined in order that the Darwinian Theory could hold water and his dangerous attack on Darwinism was directed to demonstrate that the record was probably not so extremely imperfect. If we want a million years for the record of the stratified rock, a Darwinian will want ten thousand million years to fill up the gaps. <…>
I think (in opposition to some of your correspondents) that because we can only get imperfect views of geological time that is no reason why we should not do our utmost to diminish that imperfection continually. And especially I think the attempts of Sir Charles Lyell to find[?] and inferior limit to the number of years […] which the observed geological changes can possibly have occurred according to the laws of nature now seen in operation, a very valuable and instructive subject for reflection…”
Charles Baron Clarke was an eminent colonial botanist, traveller and plant-hunter, a major contributor to the collections of the Royal Botanic Gardens Kew and to the “Flora of British India” (Ed. By J.D. Hooker, London, 1875-97, 7 vols.). For over twenty years Clarke served as the Inspector of Schools in Bengal (1866-87), in 1869-1871 he acted as Superintendent of the Calcutta Botanic Garden. During his service in India he widely travelled across the region collecting plant species and visiting Darjeeling, Nilgiri Mountains, Chittagong, Punjab Himalaya, British Bhutan, Nepal, Kashmir, the Karakoram Mountains and others. Clarke was president of the Linnean Society in 1894-96, a fellow of the Royal Society since 1882. He worked at Royal Botanic Gardens Kew from 1887 until his death in 1906.

 

3. [AMAZON]
HERNDON, William Lewis (1813-1857)
[Autograph Manuscript Letter Book of U.S. Naval Lieutenant William Lewis Herndon, Containing Copies of Thirty-Two Documents Written on Board USS Iris during the Mexican-American War, and a Copy of a Letter to Lardner Gibbon during the US Expedition to the Valley of the Amazon].

[U.S.S. Iris at various locations (Vera Cruz, Pensacola, Laguna); and Tarma (Peru), 1847-1851]. [44] pp. Folio (ca. 33x20 cm). Black ink on lined paper; text clean and legible. Original quarter sheep note book with marbled boards; contemporary bookplate on the front pastedown. Housed in a custom made cloth clamshell box with an olive gilt title label on the spine. Hinges cracked, spine partially perished, corners worn, but overall a very good letter book.
Original letter book of noted American naval officer, Amazon explorer and naval hero William Lewis Herndon; it contains the original draft of Herndon’s instructions to the expedition member Lt. Lardner Gibbon regarding his further exploration of the Amazon following their separation at Tarma, Peru on July 1, 1851. The text of the manuscript differs slightly from the one published in volume I of Herndon and Gibbon's “Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon” (Washington, 1854, pp. 33-34), and has some manuscript corrections, which makes it an important historical source.
Herndon assigned Gibbon a different route of discovery so that "while I gave my own personal attention to the countries drained by the upper Marañon, Mr. Gibbon might explore some, and gather all the information he could respecting others, of the Bolivian tributaries of the Amazon." This letter provides Gibbon with guidance as to the route he is to follow and the importance of minimizing risk to himself to ensure that the results of their exploration might be preserved. “Lt. Herndon pushed into the upper Amazon. Lt. Gibbon traveled south through Bolivia and then into the selvas of Brazil. The two groups met in Serpa, Brazil, and then continued down the Amazon River to Para” (Hill 803).
The letter book also contains thirty two letters and documents written on board USS Iris which was under Herndon’s command during the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). The correspondence is primarily on various day to day issues including the engineering problems and administrative issues. However, also included is a five-page letter dated aboard the Iris at Laguna in March of 1848 to an unidentified recipient, but probably Matthew C. Perry, Commanding the Home Squadron off Mexico during the Mexican-American War. The letter reports the results of Herndon's meetings at Sisal with Military Commandant Don Alonzo Azuar regarding Indian involvement in the conflict, and with the senior Spanish Naval Officer present, Don Francisco Garcia di Salas, commander of the brig Nervian, regarding the landing of guns and munitions.
In 1857, as a captain of the ill-fated U.S. Mail Steamer Central America, Herndon showed the utmost heroism while saving lives of the passengers during the hurricane of Cape Hatteras, having evacuated all women and children. 426 passengers and crew, including Herndon perished with the ship, thus making the wreckage the largest loss of life in a commercial ship disaster in United States history. Herndon's heroism prompted the construction of the Herndon Monument at the U. S. Naval Academy in 1860.
Overall this Letter book represents an important primary source on the history of the US expedition to the Amazon (1851-1852) and the Mexican-American War (1846-1848).

 

4. [AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR]
[PATERSON, Admiral Charles William] (1756-1841)
[Collection of Five Autograph Letters Signed, Related to the Early Naval Career of Admiral Charles William Paterson during the American Revolutionary War; With a Commission Warrant Appointing Paterson a First Lieutenant of HMS Ardent; and Letters Signed by RN Captains Sir George Collier and Sir James Wallace and a Naval Official Sir Harry Parker].

London, Whitehall, 1774, 1775, 1779. Five autograph letters of Octavo size (ca. 23,5x18,5 cm), in total 11 pp. Of text. All brown ink on watermarked laid paper, addressed, sealed and docketed on the 4th pages. With a commission warrant on vellum, ca. 28,5x32 cm; printed form filled in brown ink and signed by five Admiralty officials; red wax seal under paper in top left-hand corner, embossed with the Admiralty anchor; two blue stamps in left-hand margin and a small paper stamp on reverse. Documents with fold marks and creases, paper slightly age toned, with occasional marginal tears, four letters with minor losses on the margins after opening (one slightly affecting the text), but overall a very good collection.
Interesting collection of original letters written by British naval officers regarding the future of Charles William Paterson, then a young midshipman, and addressed to his uncle and guardian Rev. Charles William Tonyn (1728-1805) of Radnage, Bucks. The letters discuss Paterson’s appointment to HMS Rose under command of Sir James Wallis and later as a First Lieutenant to HMS Ardent under command of Captain Phillip Boteler, his prospectives in the navy and advise on the best course of actions. The collection is supplemented with a warrant dated 18 June 1779, signed by John Buller, Henry Penton and Robert Man as Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, and by 'Php Stephens' as First Secretary, appointing 'Lieut. Charles Willm. Patterson [sic]' as 'First Lieutenant of His Majesty's Ship the Ardent'.
Both HMS Rose and HMS Ardent took active part in the American Revolutionary War: HMS Rose suppressed smuggling in Rhode Island (1774, which actually stimulated the formation of the Continental Navy, future US Navy) and took part in the British Invasion of the State of New York (1776). HMS Ardent was a part of Admiral Howe’s squadron off New York and engaged in an action with the French fleet off Rhode Island (1778); in 1779, during Paterson’s service it was captured by the French in the English Channel and was recaptured by the British only in 1782.
Some excerpts from the letters:
ALS by Captain (future Vice-Admiral) Sir George Collier (1738-1795). 17 March 1774. 'I hope my young Friend is happy in his new Ship, & that the Rose is in every Respect as agreeable to Him as the Flora. – I’m sure his inoffensive Disposition & good Temper ought to entitle Him to every Attention & Regard from whoever he is with: I am very little acquainted with Capt. Wallis, but we now & then meet; I shall not fail when I see Him to recommend Charles in the strongest manner to his Protection'.
ALS by Captain (future Admiral) Sir James Wallace (1731-1803). 28 March 1774. 'I am happy in having it in my power to oblige you, or your Nephew the Rose is under the same orders she was last year (for Newfoundland). People that are cheque'd of their provision for being absent is of no consequence. I am always chequ'd myself when absent'. In 1778 Wallace's ship HMS Experiment, pursued by the French, was the first two-decker ever to attempt the dangerous passage of Hell Gate (the East River connecting Long Island Sound and New York harbour).
Three ALS by Sir Harry Parker (1735-1812), 6th Baronet of Melford Hall.
23 April 1774. On receiving Tonyn's letter he spoke to Commodore Shuldham 'to cause Charles to be received on board the Panther in case the Rose should be gone to Sea which he with great goodness complyed with. Will you allow me to say that I hope this will be the last time the young Man is indulged in such an absence, for it is not only my Opinion, that he might be much more advantageously employed on board his Ship, and I might add that to be absent for so long a time from his Duty, is not only uncommon but contrary to the Rules of Service. <…> I have the welfare of the young man (tho' he has never called upon me) much at heart'.
12 March 1775. Paterson '…ought by no means at his time of Life to be idling in a Guard ship, now is the hour for him to make himself thoroughly master of his Profession, and if he fails now, he will never be able to recover the left time. The Rose will be soon in England, and he may then procure the Certificate he is in want of, and get passed, after which I could recommend it to you to send him abroad. If he could get onboard a Flag Ship with a prospect of being made a Lieutenant, it would doubtless be the most eligible, but if he has this prospect, a Frigate will shew him a more active scene and at the same time be less expensive. This step from a Midshipman to a Lieutenant has always been considered as the most difficult to obtain…'
1 July 1779. 'I have been sending to Mr. Humes this week past to desire that Charles might come to Town immediately - He is appointed 1st Lieutenant of the Ardent & should come without any delay to take up his Commission as the Ship is much wanted to proceed on service.'
Charles William Paterson was a British naval officer, an active participant of the American Revolutionary and French Revolutionary Wars. He “served on the home and Newfoundland stations as able seaman and midshipman in the Flora, Rose, Ardent, and Ramillies, before passing his lieutenant's examination on 4 October 1775. In 1776 Paterson was in Howe's flagship, the Eagle, in North America, and on 3 February 1777 Howe promoted him lieutenant of the fire ship Strombolo. In Howe's engagement with d'Estaing on 11 August 1778 Paterson commanded the galley Philadelphia. In June 1779 he joined the Ardent (64 guns), which, on 17 August, was captured off Plymouth by the combined Franco-Spanish fleet. In April 1780 he was appointed to the Alcide (74 guns), which joined Lord Rodney in the West Indies in May; Paterson went to New York with him during the summer, returned to the West Indies in November, and in the following January was present at the capture of St Eustatius and the other Dutch islands.
In February 1781 Paterson joined the Sandwich, Rodney's flagship; he went home with the admiral in the Gibraltar, and returned to the West Indies with him in the Formidable. He was appointed acting captain of the armed ship St Eustatius in February 1782 and on 8 April was promoted to command the fire ship Blast, in which he returned to England on the conclusion of the peace. In 1793 Paterson was appointed to the store ship Gorgon, in which he served under Hood at Toulon, and on 20 January 1794 he was made captain of the Ariadne (20 guns). On the surrender of Corsica he was moved into the frigate Melpomène, before returning to England in 1795. In 1797 he was inspecting captain of the quota men in Kirkcudbright and Wigtownshire, and in 1798 superintended the fitting of the Admiral de Vries, until she was turned over to the transport board. He commanded the Montagu in the channel in 1800, and from 1801 to 1802 he commanded the San Fiorenzo.
Paterson had charge of the French prisoners of war in Portchester Castle in 1810, and from 1811 to 1812 he commanded the guard ship Puissant at Spithead. He was promoted rear-admiral on 12 August 1812, vice-admiral on 12 August 1819, and admiral of the white on 10 January 1837" (Oxford DNB).

 

5. [AMUR RIVER]
SCOTLAND, Archibald
[Autograph Letter Signed “A. Scotland” to an Associate of the Mogul Steamship Company, Reporting on his Voyage up the Amur River with a Cargo of Coal, and Containing Interesting Information on the Russian Steamship Navigation on the Amur River and the Far East].

S.S. Ghazee, Japan Sea, 19 August 1893. Octavo (ca. 25x20 cm). 9 numbered leaves filled in on rectos. Brown ink on watermarked paper with the printed letterheads of the “Gellatley, Hankey, Sewell & Co., Antwerp” in the upper left corners, all crossed by the author of the letter. Mild fold marks, the first and the last leaves age toned, but overall a very good extensive letter.
Interesting extensive letter related to the early Russian-British trade and steam navigation on the Amur River. The letter was written by Archibald Scotland, the captain of the S.S. Ghazee (1883) of the Mogul Steamship Company Ltd. (Gellatly, Hankey & Co, London & Antwerp) during its commercial voyage to Nikolayevsk-on-Amur with a cargo of coal and 350 Chinese workers. Reporting on the Ghazee’s navigation up the river from the port of De-Kastri (the Strait of Tartary), Scotland gives a detailed account of the ship’s proceedings, difficulties of movement in shallow waters, operations of unloading cargo and people et al. Very interesting is his characteristics of his Russian business partners – the “Amur Trade & Steamship Company” founded a year earlier by local merchants M. G. Shevelev, A.M. Serebriakov and N.P. Makeev.
“Ghazee” was supposed to unload its cargo of coal in De-Kastri because shallow waters of the Amur Liman didn’t allow it to approach Nikolaevsk-on-Amur. However, due to the lack of lighters, the ship had to move up the river under constant risk of being stuck in the mud. The navigation was successful “to the surprise of all Nikolaevsk as the merchants declared in the local papers that the ship could not be handled in the sharp bends and narrow channels.” Scotland moved the Ghazee even further, up the narrow Palbo Creek and succeeded again “to the astonishment of all this District.” He gives a detailed description of the complicated operation of turning the ship down the river in order to navigate back, “you can judge their [the locals] consternation and surprise when they saw the Ghazee swung head down the river and on our arrival to Nikolaevsk they seem all staggered.”
Scotland leaves some important comments of the recently founded Amur River Trade & Steamship Company (1893): "There is only one company here the Amoor River Company [Amur River Steamship Partnership, founded in 1871], and they hold the monopoly of all the lighters and steamers in the place and naturally it is to their interest to see this New Amoor River Company a failure and they would not land the cargo for them so it drove this company to select Palbo for the Ghazee as she could get alongside the bank and discharge her cargo on shore. The old River Company were very much against me going to Palbo and put all the obstacles in the way they possibly could <...> they seemed rather spiteful as they would not bring a letter or telegram down for me to be posted. The merchants seemed rather pleased seeing the New Company making a show as they have to pay high freights for conveying their goods into the interior. This new company is under bond to commence running in May next which I hope they will be successful…"
"The Company is Mr. Sheveloff of Vladivostok and Mr. Mackeef is the Director <…>. It seems to me that Mr. Sheveloff wants another steamer as he only has the old Edendale running between Vladivostok and Nikolaevsk and another steamer called the Strelok which only carries about 350 tons on 13 feet, so I think that little Provincial of yours would be just the thing for him <…> I see there is several small steamers from Hamburg out here with cargo but it is only Russians can carry coasting cargo".
Mikhail Grigorievich Shevelev (1847-1903) was the founder of the first private Russian sea steamship company on the Far East, notable merchant, tea trader, sinologist and patron of arts. Born in Kyakhta, he graduated from the city school of Chinese founded by famous Russian sinologist Iakinf (Bichurin) and participated in the Russian Orthodox Church Mission in Bejing; he took active part in Russian-Chinese tea trade, in 1879 founded first private Russian sea steamship company on the Far East “Shevelev & Co.” which navigated between Nikolaevsk-on Amur-Vladivostok-Shanghai-Hankou. In 1893-1899 Shevelev and other Vladivostok merchants founded the “Amur River Trade & Steamship Company” which successfully operated three steamers. Shevelev was the first to start prospecting oil deposits on Sakhalin, became one of the founders of the Society of History of the Amur Region and the first honorary patron of the Eastern Institute in Vladivostok; organized first art exhibition in Vladivostok (1886).

 

6. [ARCTIC]
PARRY, Sir William Edward (1790-1855)
[A Collection of Two Autograph Letters Signed "W. Parry"; With Two Engraved Portraits of William Parry]: Sir Captn. W.E. Parry, R.N.

Letters: 1) Mattishall, 17 April 1835. Quarto (ca. 23x18 cm). 3 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper, docketed on the 4th page. 2) Greenwich Hospital, 1 May 1854. 12mo (ca. 17,5x11,5 cm). Brown ink on laid paper, docketed in a different hand in the end of the letter. Both letters with fold marks, second letter slightly stained on the last blank page, otherwise a very good pair. Portraits: stipple engraved book plates, ca. 14x12 cm (from the European Magazine, London, 1821) and ca. 7,5x6 cm (by J. Limbird). Very good portraits.
These two original letters written by a renowned Arctic explorer William Parry relate to the time of his government service in the 1830s and 1850s - as an Assistant Poor-Law Commissioner in the County of Norfolk (1835-1836) and a governor of the Greenwich Hospital (1854 until his death). In the first letter addressed to some “R. Kerrinson, Esq.” Parry asks for the “Norwich Papers”, as well as “a Copy of a small publication I have seen, containing the Parliamentary Returns of the Population &c. Of the county, divided into Kindreds and Parishes.” He is also looking forward to hear about “what you have done in compliance with the Order for Relief in kind”. In the end Parry adds: “Will you ask the Governor to allow a Couple of the Copies of the Printed Notice to Overseas & to be pasted up in the Workhouse”. The second letter was written by Parry in the rank of a governor of the Greenwich hospital to some Rev. Reginald Smith (as seen from the docket). The letter regards the donation made by the correspondent in favour of “Sailors”, which needed to be forwarded to the Military Association.
The letters are supplemented with two stipple engraved portraits of William Parry, both based on the famous Parry portrait by Samuel Drummond (National Portrait Gallery).

 

7. [ARCTIC FUR TRADE]
CHARLES, John, Chief Factor at Fort Chipewyan (d. 1849)
[Autograph Letter Signed to Alexander Christie, Chief Factor of the York Factory, Reporting of the Brigade’s Affairs Before Leaving Norway House to Fort Chipewyan for the Season].

Norway House, 1 August 1830. Quarto (ca. 25x20 cm). 3 pp. Addressed, sealed and docketed on the last blank page. Fold marks, minor hole on the last page after opening, slightly affecting the text, otherwise a very good legible letter.
An interesting letter from John Charles, a leader of the Hudson’s Bay Company’s Athabasca Brigade and Chief Factor at Fort Chipewyan (1830-1834), written on the eve of the brigade’s departure to the interior for the winter trade. The letter is addressed to Alexander Christie (1792-1872), chief factor of the York Factory, subsequently considered one of the most influential factors of the Hudson’s Bay Company.
Charles reports on the departure of the Athabasca Brigade, as well as conditions and supplies at Norway House: “We have now nearly made an end of our Business here and expect to move off at the latest in a Day or so. Our four Boats for Athabasca were away Yesterday with an Ample Supply for the Season to meet all Demands. The Goods forwarded by Messrs. Meler & Hargrave for the Men’s Equipment were most ample <…> the Men appear quite Satisfied with these Advances, which are the best they ever got.”He hopes that when “the Athabasca Brigade will henceforth return from the Plain [?], if we could have a Building of some kind erected for transacting our Business it will be of great Advantage, for at present the want of Sufficient Room even to make a temporary Shop, creates much Inconvenience, and I may add not a little Confusion. I would also be obliged to you to give Orders to have the Boats built for us at this Place, for the New Boats brought from the other Places we generally get the Worst.” Charles reports that “in order to prevent too much of some Articles and too little of others being forwarded for Men’s Equipment next Spring, I have made out a Requisition, both for Advances and Outfit, which if it can be complied with will be fully Sufficient.” He also complains of hard conditions on the Winter Road, resulting in sickness and injury among the Indian accompanying the brigade. Overall a very interesting informative letter.

 

8. [BEGUM OF BHOPAL]
EARL CANNING (Governor General of India 1856-1858, First Viceroy 1858-1862)
[The Historically Significant Canning Sunnad of 1862 Concerning the Bhopal Succession].

A single large sheet of parchment headed by the large inked seal of the Supreme Government of British India, written in fine palace script, setting out the British policy to secure the succession of Princely Houses ruling in the various states. It promises that, “in failure of natural heirs any succession to the Government of your State which may be legitimate according to Mahomedan Law will be upheld. Be assured that nothing shall disturb this agreement here made to you so long as your House remains loyal to the Crown, and faithful to the conditions of the treaties, grants and agreements which record its obligations to the British Government.” The Sunnad is signed “Canning” at the foot. Bound by stab stitching into a half cloth with patterned papered boards folder together with some dozen related pages of letters and documents in Persian script. One of these has some gold leaf additions and is additionally signed by the Political Agent A R E Hutchinson. A covering document is a true copy of a circular from Major R I Meade, Agent to the Governor General at Indore, to Major Hutchinson which accompanied the Sunnad as it was sent from the Viceroy. Some of the other documents are counter signed by Major Hutchinson.
In the light of future problems over disputed succession this document proved to be highly important and equally contentious, especially in the 1920’s when Nawab Sultan Begum named her only surviving son Hamidullah as her successor in conflict with accepted laws of primogeniture. The reference to remaining faithful, as Bhopal always had been, is particularly important in this early post Mutiny period when the Crown had just taken over all the East India Company’s powers. This document is one example of the close British attention to matters of succession in Indian states. In Bhopal the British wished to maintain the succession within the Orakzai tribe which had been so loyal to the Company and the Crown. Marriage and succession were to loom large in the relations between the Viceroy and the rulers of Bhopal during the rest of the century.
The "Bhopal State was an independent state of 18th century India, a princely salute state in a subsidiary alliance with British India from 1818 to 1947, and an independent state from 1947 to 1949. Islamnagar served as the State's first capital, which was later shifted to the city of Bhopal. The state was founded by Dost Mohammad Khan, an Afghan soldier in the Mughal army who became a mercenary after the Emperor Aurangzeb's death and annexed several territories to his feudal territory" (Wikipedia).

 

9. [BOER WAR - ROUGH RIDERS]
ZOUCHE, Baron, Robert Nathaniel Cecil George Curzon, Lieutenant (1851-1915)
[Diary kept During the Second Boer War, by Lieutenant Lord Zouche of the 'Rough Riders', serving under Captain H.W.M. Bonham's 78th Company (for whom Zouche has very little time, and dubs 'Napoleon')].

South Africa, in the field, 1899-1901. Octavo, 2 vols. More than 250 pages. With a loose photograph of a military parade Two black oilcloth bound notebooks, hinges cracked and one with stain of upper margin of last quarter of the note book. But overall in very good condition and written in a legible hand.
The 20th Battalion of the Imperial Yeomanry, who took their name 'Rough Riders' from the US cavalry regiment in which Theodore Roosevelt famously served, was formed in early 1900, after the succession of defeats suffered by the British army under Redvers Buller early in the war. Lord Zouche, joined when he was nearly fifty years old, receiving a lieutenant's commission; his diary beginning on 18 October 1900 (rather confusingly he provides no information as to years, noting that Tuesday 1 January marks the start of the 20th century; by which he means 1901: a note on the fly-leaf in another hand stating that the diary runs from 1899 to 1901 being in this respect incorrect). Early entries of the diary are made in pencil, some inked-over, while most of the remainder are written in ink.
The author describes skirmishes with the Boers and when 'sweeping' Boer farm houses: "...Speaking roughly there seems to be an average of about one man per farm who is or has been fighting where there are no grown up sons – where there are such sons then say 2 or 3 to each farm. The great majority of those whom I have hitherto visited have returned from the war. The following are the questions we ask... Then, Warn against moving off their farms to visit each other even next door neighbours the only moves allowed being to market towns... Warn against riding in any case, only carts allowed & same with Kaffir servants... All this of course to prevent as far as possible any assemblies..." The author was the son of Robert Curzon, fourteenth Baron Zouche of Harringworth (1810–1873) and a famous traveller and collector of manuscripts.

 

10. [BOER WAR]
CAPEL, W.B., Private
[Second Boer War Journal kept in the Field, Inscribed]: Written by Pvte W.B. Capel/ Vol. Special Service in South Africa.

South Africa, 1900. Duodecimo (13x10 cm). Ca. 20 pages. Home-made notebook cut down from a larger provisioning ledger, each page of which is printed with a list of commodities to be ordered, some 20 pages, written in indelible pencil on perforated pages, some leaves loose, first page smudged, otherwise in a good legible condition. Covers with part of the original volume's morocco label pasted on back cover, covers worn and front cover with chip of lower corner but overall in good condition.
Autograph journal kept in the field, inscribed on the inside cover: "Written by Pvte W.B. Capel/ Vol Special Service in South Africa/ If anything should happen to me will you kindly send this book to Mrs E.J. Capel/ my father and mother/ Gladstone Villa/ Wallingford/ Berks/ England/ Vol Co Royal Berks Regiment", beginning with his voyage out to the Cape in March 1900 and ending that July.
This vivid journal records Private Capel's experiences on his voyage to South Africa, where he disembarked at East London 9 April, and his company's march to join their regiment, the Berkshires, who they joined at Bloemfontein on 20 May, Capel keen to see active service ("...I feel as though I should like to smash into them to day Monday 16 [July] We marched off this morning at 7 o'clock with 2 days rations biscuits and beef whistling and singing. We marched to the kopjes where the Boers had been but we were disappointed they were gone bolted as usual..."). The last entry, dated Saturday 21 July 1900, breaks off abruptly: "we started from Camp about 7 am and had got fairly on the road when at 7x30 we heard guns fire and then the enemy started firing with big guns it was a row for about an hour ours against theres then the pom-poms started with their peculiar pop-pop there were also several sniping shots we lay under an hill just by one of our big guns. It was funny to hear the shells whistling through the air and then several seconds after you could hear the thud and a bang which shook the hills all round I am writing this while the shells are banging all round."

 

11. [BOLIVIA, 18TH CENTURY]
[Official Certified Transcript of Documents Relating to the Franciscan Mission of Iti and the Guaricaya Indians in Southern Bolivia].

[La Plata (Bolivia), 1784-1789]. Folio (ca. 31x21,5 cm). 31 pp., stitched with a string. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper, text in Spanish. Housed in a recent navy blue half morocco box with gilt lettered title on the spine. Manuscript with minor soiling and wear, old folds and creasing. Faint damp stain on final few leaves, causing very minor loss to five or six leaves, primarily in the margin, with only a few words affected. Overall a very good manuscript.
Official collection of documents relating to missions in the Viceroyalty of La Plata in present-day Bolivia, specifically the Reduccion of Iti. Written on certified paper dated 1780-1781, with official certification stamps dated 1784-1785 and 1790-1791, the documents are in a neat secretarial hand. Included is a list of the accounts and explanations of expenses for the Reduccion of Iti, detailing items and their costs, as well as correspondence concerning their staffing and running. The Guaricaya Indians, the tribal group of the immediate area are also mentioned in the document. A significant record of an Indian mission in the foothills of the Andes, at a time for which little documentation exists.
The Iti mission, founded by the Jesuits, is one of a group of missions which survived as such into the 19th century; those immediately to the north are now designated a World Heritage site. After the expulsion of the Jesuits from Spanish America in 1767, most of their missions were taken over by Franciscans or secularized. The missions at Iti, Fayarenda, and Azero, all discussed in the manuscript, were among those which became Franciscan. All were in the same region of southern Bolivia, just north of the Argentine provinces of Salta and Jujuy, in what is today the Chuquisaca Department. Under Spanish rule this area had been administered by the Viceroyalty of La Plata, which controlled what are now the lowlands of Bolivia, while the highlands to the west were governed by the Viceroyalty of Peru. Iti sits along the ancient Incan road, now Route 9 in Bolivia and northern Argentina.
Provenance: Maggs, Bibliotheca Americana 3239, issued in 1924.

 

12. [BORNEO PIRACY]
KEPPEL, Henry, Sir, Admiral (1809-1904)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Henry Keppel” to Captain of HMS “Thetis” Sir Henry John Codrington on Naval Matters].

'Club. Friday. 6.' [November 1846]. 12mo (ca. 17,5x11,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on paper with a blind stamped monogram on the first page. Text clear and complete. Period ink note on the top of the front page “Recd. 7 Nov. 1846, out same night.” Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
A private letter written to a fellow naval officer in a friendly manner by Sir Henry Keppel, British naval officer noted for his service at the Royal Navy East Indies and China Station during the First and Second Opium Wars and Sir James Brooke's campaign for the suppression of Borneo piracy (early 1840s). The letter was written in London, in between Keppel’s commissions for the East Indies – his next appointment as the captain of HMS Maeander will happen in a year (November 1847); Keppel will continue fighting Borneo piracy in cooperation with Sir James Brooke.
In the letter addressed to Sir Henry John Codrington (1808-1877), then just appointed the captain of HMS “Thetis” of the British Mediterranean fleet Keppel hopes that Codrington will not think him 'a cool fellow interfering with your Officers' and suggests that 'poor Edward Rice' should leave England 'before the cold weather sets in. I have got Admiral Dundas to appoint him to the ‘Ceylon’ with permission to join her overland'. Keppel jokes that Codrington is 'so full, having monopolized all the Mates, Mids and youngsters in the Service that the Adl. [Dundas] will not let you have young Harding who is to go out in the Mutine. <…> I believe I have no chance of a ship just yet. I made a great fight for the Cambrian, she is however to hoist Broad Pendant in India to relieve Blackwood & Fox. How do you get on & how do you like the Thetis? I hope you will come to Spithead before leaving England'.
Sir Henry Keppel entered the Royal Navy in 1822. “As commanding officer of the corvette HMS Dido on the East Indies and China Station he was deployed in operations during the First Opium War and in operations against Borneo pirates. He later served as commander of the naval brigade besieging Sevastopol during the Crimean War. After becoming second-in-command of the East Indies and China Station, he commanded the British squadron in the action with Chinese pirates at the Battle of Fatshan Creek when he sank around 100 enemy war-junks. He subsequently took part in the capture of Canton during the Second Opium War.” (Wikipedia).
“Keppel had a long association with Singapore, having visited the island on several occasions up to 1903. Whilst based at Singapore in the 1840s, he discovered the deep water anchorage that came to be called by his name. He surveyed the new harbour of Singapore, which was formed based on his plans. <…> For a while, the harbour was simply known as New Harbour but it was renamed Keppel Harbour by the Acting Governor, Sir Alexander Swettenham, on 19 April 1900 when Admiral Keppel visited Singapore at the age of 92” (Wikipedia).

 

13. [BOUGAINVILLE, Louis-Antoine, Comte de] (1729-1811)
[Manuscript Note Stating that Louis-Antoine de Bougainville is Selling his House with Garden in Grisy-Suisnes to Count Charles Louis David Le Peletier d’Aunay].
Paris, 7 July 1809. 12mo (15,5x10,5 cm). Brown ink on paper. A very good note.

Manuscript note regarding the sale of Louis-Antoine de Bougainville’s mansion in Grisy-Suisnes (Seine-et-Marne department in the Île-de-France region, north-central France), now known as “Jardins de Bougainville.” The mansion built in ca. 1650 by Nicolas Sainctot, the king’s butler and introducer of ambassadors to the court, in the 18th century was owned my Madame des Œillets, a mistress of Louis XIV. The estate was purchased by Bougainville in 1799 as a countryside residence, both the house and the garden were significantly reconstructed with the help of an architect and landscape designer François Joseph Bélanger. The garden became famous for its roses and exotic plants, thanks to the talents of a gardener Christophe Cochet. Bougainville sold his house in 1809 to count Charles Louis David Le Peletier d’Aunay (1750-1831), Maréchal de camp (1789), count of the Empire (1810), member of the electoral college of the Nièvre department.
Louis-Antoine, Comte de Bougainville was a French admiral and explorer. A contemporary of James Cook, Bougainville took part in the French and Indian War and the unsuccessful French attempt to defend Canada from Britain. He gained fame for his expeditions to settle the Falkland Islands (1760s) and his voyage to the Pacific Ocean. Bougainville was the leader of the first French circumnavigation (1766-1769) during which he discovered Tahiti (not knowing that it had been visited by S. Wallis on HMS Dolphin a year before).

 

14. [BRITISH RAJ IN INDIA]
[Interesting Collection of Eleven Autograph Letters Signed with Postal Cancels from British Colonial Administrators to Bissonauth Law and Co., One of Calcutta's Principal Native Sundry Suppliers Located at 10 New China Bazaar, Calcutta, Dated Between the 13th of October 1858 to the 20th November 1864].

India, 1858-1864. Eleven Half Anna stamp embossed De La Rue & Co. London stationary envelopes with interior bifolium octavo letters that fold down to duodecimo envelopes. Most of these have both receiver and/or transit cancels for Indian states and towns. Brown ink on laid paper. Letters generally in very good condition.
An interesting early collection of letters documenting the day to day lives of higher British colonial officials in India just after the Indian Rebellion of 1857-8. The content of the letters usually contain orders for a variety of articles from brandy and beer to mustard, Worcester sauce to a drawing room table. The authors involved are mainly judicial officials who have important positions within British Raj at the time.
Letters include ones by: John G. French, Me, Civil Assist. Surgeon; H.L. Oliphant, who in 1863 was the magistrate and collector at Jessore, and who became an important judge; J.B. Worgan, high ranking member Bengal civil service, who held many positions including judge; H.R. Drew, who became and Adjutant General, etc.
An example of content of one of the letters:
Envelope/Letter India postage ½ Anna embossed stamp on postal stationary envelope.
Receiver and/or transit cancel: G.P.O. Calcutta Oct 5, 1862
“To Messrs Besnath [or Bisnath] and Co, 10 New Chinese Bazar, Calcutta Sept.
20th 1862, Nowgong, Assam.
Sirs, I received yours acknowledging the receipt of my order for sundries of[?] which I shall send you a draft as soon as I know the amount. I received the article. I want a nice Drawing Room table, value about Rs 50 and also a dining table value about Rs 40 or 100 for the two, and I want you to get them for me in Calcutta—as good as you can for the money and send them per next steamer - to me - to the care of Lieut. Sconce Dy Commissioner in Gowhally—as there is every likelihood of my being appointed civil surgeon of that station, next month. I will not be able to pay you ready[?] cash for them, but will before 2 or 3 months—or by instalments—to that time.
Yours, _ _ _ _, John G. French, Me, Civil Assist. Surgeon. “

 

15. [BUKHARA - MEETING WITH THE EMIR]
HEDIN, Sven (1865-1952)
[Autograph Note Signed “Sven Hedin” to Johan Abraham Björklund, Chief Editor of the “Nya Dagligt Allehanda” Newspaper].

Friday, 10 [April 1891]. 12mo (ca. 16,5x12,5 cm). 1 p. Black ink on a folded card Swedish postal letter form, addressed and with a postal stamp (Stockholm, 18.4.91) on verso. Text in Swedish. Original centrefold, otherwise a very good note.
A short note signed by a noted explorer of Central Asia Sven Hedin regarding his article about the meeting with the Emir of Bukhara which was apparently published in the “Nya Dagligt Allehanda” newspaper (Stockholm) on 25 March 1891.
Hedin visited Bukhara during his second trip to Persia and Central Asia in October 1890 – March 1891. During the first part of the trip he worked an interpreter for the Swedish-Norwegian mission to Nāser al-Dīn, shah of Iran (1890), and later on “he traveled on the Silk Road via cities Mashhad, Ashgabat, Bukhara, Samarkand, Tashkent and Kashgar to the western outskirts of the Taklamakan Desert. On the trip home, he visited the grave of the Russian Asian scholar, Nikolai Przhevalsky in Karakol on the shore of Lake Issyk Kul. On 29 March 1891, he was back in Stockholm. He published the books King Oscar's Legation to the Shah of Persia in 1890 and Through Chorasan and Turkestan about this journey” (Wikipedia).

 

16. [CANADA - GOVERNOR-GENERAL]
BLACKWOOD, Frederick Hamilton Temple, 1st Marquess of Dufferin and Ava (1826-1902).

[Autograph Letter Signed “Dufferin” to an Eton Teacher of his Son, “Lord Clandeboye,” Discussing the Boy’s “Arithmetical Failures” and Confessing that “to this day <…> I have been unable to master the multiplication table, but I am particularly fond of mathematics…”].
1 October 1877. Small Octavo bifolium (ca. 20x12,5 cm). 4 pp. Black ink on watermarked laid paper with a printed letterhead of the “Government House, Ottawa.” Left upper corner of both leaves of the bifolium cut out, only slightly affecting the upper lines, but the text is completely understandable. Mild fold marks, but overall a very good letter.
Interesting letter written by Lord Dufferin while on service as the Third Governor-General of Canada, revealing some curious details of his personality. Addressing an Eton teacher of his son (either his eldest son Archibald Leofric Temple (1863-1900), or his second son Terence (1866-1918)), Dufferin writes: “I think he is very young of his age, which is some excuse for his thoughtlessness, and I trust in time his mind may sufficiently ripen to master at least the elements of mathematics. I am afraid I must consider myself responsible for his arithmetic failures, for to this day – only I should not wish the fact to be published in …[?] – I have been unable to master the multiplication table, but I am particularly fond of mathematics, and indeed the only prize I ever obtained at Eton was a mathematical one, so I trust that Clandeboye’s difficulty over his figures need not necessarily imply any weakness in the logical faculty. I have always consoled myself with the reflection that Newton himself could never do a compound addiction sum correctly.”
“Lord Dufferin brought an immense passion for Canadian unity to his duties and was equally at home in English and French. During his tenure, Prince Edward Island joined on federation (1873), and the Royal Military College and the Supreme Court were established. Lord and Lady Dufferin were the first to use La Citadelle in the city of Québec as a second vice-regal residence. Residents of that city long had a particular regard for Lord Dufferin after he persuaded municipal officials not to tear down the walls of the Old City to accommodate the provincial capital's expansion.
Lord Dufferin established the Governor General's Academic Medals to reward excellence by Canadian students in high schools, colleges and universities, and they are still awarded today. After serving in Canada, Lord Dufferin was appointed Viceroy of India (1884 to 1888), took up several high-profile ambassadorial posts, and died in Ireland in 1902” (Heraldic Symbols in the Senate Speaker’s Chambers/ Parliament of Canada online).
He also went on a journey to the North Atlantic in 1856 on the schooner Foam, visiting Iceland, northern Norway and Spitsbergen. His travel account “Letters from High Latitudes” (London, 1857) “was extremely successful and can be regarded as the prototype of the comic travelogue” (Wikipedia).

 

17. [CAPE HORN]
[WALKER, Henry, Captain]
[Manuscript Journal of the Ship Ida From Boston Voyage to Valparaiso, San Blas, Guayaquil and back to Boston in 1821-23, Titled]: Journal kept on board the Ship Ida of Boston <...> from Boston towards N.W. Coast of America.

[Primarily at sea], 1821-1823. Folio (31x19 cm). [188] pp. With two manuscript deeds, and four other sheets of manuscript laid in. Period brown quarter sheep with marbled boards, housed in a new light brown cloth clamshell box with green gilt lettered sheep label. Rubbed at extremities, lightly soiled. Some minor scattered foxing, else text is clean and very legible. Deeds chipped and lightly foxed. Old fold lines; one reinforced along folds, the other with a hole one inch by two, affecting text. Overall a very good manuscript.
The journal details Ida’s voyage in 1821-23 from Boston to San Blas in Mexico around Cape Horn, with stops in Valparaiso (Chile) and Guayaquil (Ecuador), and the return journey to the United States. The voyage went in several stages: at first, from Boston to Valparaiso (December 7th, 1821 - February 14th, 1822); then after a two-month furlough from Valparaiso to San Blas (April 12th - May 24th, 1822); then back to South America, to Guayaquil (August 2nd - September 4th of the same year); from there back to Valparaiso (October 11th - November 24th, 1822), and a return journey to the US (June 1st - July 6th, 1823).
The journal methodically records the nautical details of Ida’s voyage: wind and weather conditions, daily mileage, speed of the ship each hour, latitude and longitude, and geographical objects encountered and passed on the way. Captain Walker notes that he departed on the Ida from Boston harbor "with a heavy heart and thoughts of home," crossed the Equator on the 30th of December, and the next day passed the archipelago of Fernando Noronha (354 km offshore from the Brazilian coast). On the 25th of January she passed the Falkland Islands, and went through the Drake Passage: along Terra del Fuego "for eight leagues making in sharp peaks like steeples," Staten Land (Isla de los Estados) and Diego Ramirez Islands. On the 4th of February Ida rounded Cape Horn, and on that day Walker "saw a Rain Bow at midnight caused by the moon", two days later he observed a moon eclipse. Santiago’s port San Antonio was sighted on the 13th of February, and the next day Ida arrived in Valparaiso.
During the sailing to San Blas Walker noted the ship passing the Galapagos Islands, Cabo Corrientes (Mexico) et al; on return journey to Guayaquil - Islas Marias (Mexico) and Isla de la Plata (Ecuador). Ida arrived to Puna island at the head of Gulf of Guayaquil on the 4th of September. On the way back to Valparaiso she passed Juan Fernandez Island and stayed in port San Antonio, at the mouth of Maipo River for several days. During this part of the voyage Ida got caught in many storms, the note from 24th of October witnesses "Strong gales, squalls and rough sea; ship requires pumping every two hours."
The journal contains an impressive entry describing the Valparaiso earthquake on the 20th of November 1822: "At 11 P.M. We was sudenly [sic] alarmed by a violent shock that effected the ship as if she had struck the bottom, all hands sprung on deck and cried out the ship ashore...on reflection knew it was impossible for her to have struck any bottom in so heavy a sea as was on at the time without bilging the bottom in. I then thought of a wreck of a vessel but lastly I imputed it to an earth quake." Aftershocks wrack the sea periodically for the next few days. On the 22nd of November they got word about the effects of the quake: "They <..,> informed us that there had been a heavy shock of an earth quake on shore and that Valparaiso had been nearly destroyed and had lost 23 lives in the fall of a Castle. St. Jago & several of the towns in the interior had suffered severely the inhabitants about the sea coast fled to the mountains for safety fearing that the sea would flow in upon them, animals of every kind on shore appeared to be affected by the shock."
There is also an interesting note about the ship Emerald of London coming from New South Wales to Rio de Janeiro with a cargo of oil which Ida encountered in the South Atlantic on the 20th of January, 1822. She provided Emerald with provisions, including "6 barrels of flour, 6 of beef, one of pork and two of bread and two cases of gin," but the next day the sailors "found a strange man on board that had secreted himself under one of the forecastle berths; he said he came from the Emerald in the second boat - he is supposed to be a convict from New Holland." No hint is given as to the fate of the stowaway. The journal also keeps track of wildlife seen at sea, including dolphins, sharks, turtles, flying fish, and albatrosses, boobies and various other birds.
One of the later notes records the sale of Ida: "I was informed by Capt. Scott that the ship Ida was sold this day" (1st of March, 1823). There is no record of the interim period, and Walker's entries are both brief and incomplete about a return journey to Boston in summer 1823. There are notes in a later hand throughout the volume which give pieces of information about Walker, and a paragraph on the last page gives an account of Walker's return, indicating that Walker returned on a whaling vessel to Nantucket and thence to Boston.
The two deeds pertain to land. They are marked as "Deed, Walker to Woodbury," and "Nancy Walker's share in the estate of Luke Woodbury - Copy." The other manuscript sheets are in the same later hand as in the journal and elaborate further on Walker's life and career.
Overall an interesting collection related to 19th century US commercial maritime voyages.

 

18. [CAWNPORE]
NAPIER, Sir Charles James, General (1782-1853)
[Autograph Letter Signed “C. Napier” to “My Dear Jackson” Regarding the Prosecution of Captain William Charles Hollings of the Native Infantry].

Simla, 25 April 1850. Octavo bifolium (ca. 20,5x13,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on pale blue writing paper, blind stamped monogram in the left upper corner. Mild fold marks, ink very slightly faded, but overall a very good legible letter.
An interesting private letter written by Sir Charles James Napier in Simla while the Commander-in-Chief of India (1849-1851). Napier was notable for the conquest of the province of Sindh for British India in 1842-43, and served as the Governor of the Bombay Presidency in 1843-47. His posthumously published work 'Defects, Civil and Military of the Indian Government' (Westerton, 1853) which unveiled tensions between British and native residents in India was considered prophetic in the light of the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
This letter relates to the court-martial of Captain William Charles Hollings, 47th Native Infantry, who was tried at Cawnpore on the 11th of January 1850. Hollings was accused on three charges and was eventually found guilty on all three of them (for being in a state of intoxication while on duty as a Superintending Officer of a Native Court of Requests; for using abusive language and striking an opponent in court; and for being drunk at an inspection parade of his regiment). Hollings was sentenced to be cashiered, but was recommended by the court to Sir Napier as the Commander-in-Chief who could grant him a pardon on the grounds of “his long service and high character”. Napier decisively rejected the pardon, which apparently caused Hollings’ indignation and some public actions (More details about Hollings’ case see: Records of the Indian Command of General Sir Charles James Napier, G.C.B. Calcutta, 1851, p. 108).
The letter obviously gives Napier’s reaction to the Hollings’ case: “My dear Jackson, I am very much obliged to you for your opinion about Mr. Hollings, I had half worked myself up to prosecute the fellow, but it was uphill work as I never felt the least angry at anything he said and I only thought of the prosecution as a matter of dignity and propriety; now as I am never either dignified nor very proper, except when I go to church, I will take your advice by telling Mr. Hollings and his letter go to ---- together.”

 

19. [CENTRAL AFRICA]
SHARPE, Alfred, Sir (1853-1935)
[Collection of 25 Autograph Letters and Notes Signed “Alfred Sharpe” to “Dear Colles” – his Literary Agent William Morris Colles, with a number of topics touched, including Sharpe’s prospective book about his travels, Central Africa, polemics with the Labour Party’s idea of Postwar International Administration of Equatorial Africa, and politics in the Balkans during WWI].

Various places in Britain (the majority – Elmhurst, Lancaster), 1915-1918. Various sizes, from Small Octavo (ca. 17,5x11 cm) to Quarto (ca. 23x19,5 cm). 39 pp. In total. Brown ink on various paper (blue laid paper, blue San Remo linen paper, white “Basildon Bond” paper et al.). Eighteen letters with blind stamped address “Elmhurst, Lancaster” on the upper margin, and two with the “Plâs Nantyr, Glyn” ink stamp; one letter on the printed form of “Euston Hotel, London”, and one – on the form of the “Royal Societies Club, St. James’s Street, London”. All but one letters with the ink stamp “Received” on the first page, specifying the date of reception; all letters with blue pencil numbers apparently put by Colles. Mild fold marks, holes in one of the corners after the letters having been stapled together, some letters with minor creases and tears on the margins, but overall a very good archive of interesting letters written in a legible hand.
Very interesting historically important archive of Sir Alfred Sharpe, British traveller and colonial administrator in Central Africa, who was actively engaged in the formation of the British Central Africa Protectorate (after 1964 - Malawi), became its High Commissioner (1896-1907) and later, when the colony was renamed to Nyasaland – its first governor (1907-1910). Sharpe was also a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society (RGS) since 1891, received its Cuthbert Peak Award in 1898 and became a member of the Society’s Council in 1913-1917. Much of the collection relates to the history of writing and publication of Sharpe’s memoirs about his travels in Africa. The first documents regarding this date from the end of 1916 (Nov 24 and Dec 11) when Sharpe had the diaries of his journey to South Africa retyped and sent to Colles “together with 100 photos from which a choice – or all – can be taken”. After that Sharpe went on another trip, writing to Colles: “I leave for Africa on Friday” (11 Dec, 1916), and already in July 1917 he sent to the agent “notes on my last journey” (9 Jul, 1917). From this time starts long correspondence about different aspects of the prospective book: what stories should be included, what should be edited or revised; whether it is possible to find paper to print a book (in wartime) et al.
Some examples of the correspondence about “the Book”: Sharpe is talking about his travel to the German East Africa in 1904 – “to the magnificent high district immediately north of Lake Nyasa”. He encloses the diary he kept at the time saying that he can “complete a running narrative out of it” (5 March, 1918). “I can make out say 2000 or 3000 words on the German Kondeland – with a general description of that nice country, and the notes of the journey I sent you. Let me know if you want it” (6 March, 1918), “You said I owe a paper – Here is one of the Cape to Cairo fetish [?] <…> Would it do also to incorporate as a chapter in the book?” (9 March, 1918). Several letters reveal the negotiation process with prospective publisher Edward Arnold: he is first mentioned in a letter from 9 July 1917. Almost a year after, on 1 May 1918 Sharpe writes to Colles that Arnold wants him to rewrite the manuscript and make “a fresh book”. Throughout the next five letters continues the discussion about Sharpe’s royalty: the author wanted “20 % and £200 down” and then was ready “to go down to the South coast & shut myself up for 2 to 3 months & make the thing to work”. The outcome on 21 May was unfavourable, Sharpe writing: “It is not sufficiently attractive for me to go in for four months hard work. Moreover it is a form of agreement which would bend me to write, but leaves A. open to publish or not according to when he likes, and if paper goes to his price. Will you kindly inform him that I can not consider his offer”. Note: Sharpe’s book was eventually published in 1921 by H.F. & G. Witherby under the title “The Backbone of Africa: A record of Travel During the Great War, with Some Suggestions for Administrative Reform."
Other letters from the collection reveal a number of different interesting subjects: Four letters touch on the idea of post-war international administration of the Equatorial Africa suggested by the Labour Party, the idea which Sharpe was a passionate opponent of: “What on earth the Labour Gentlemen have to do with our African possessions <…>”; Their idea of a mixed up Africa governed by a mixed up international Govt is of course a farce. Does anyone really looks on it seriously?” (2 Jan, 1918). The other letters are dedicated to the article by H.G. Wells which supported the Labour’s idea and was published in the Daily Mail (30 Jan 1918) under the title “The African Riddle”. Sharpe wrote a reply article for the Daily Mail for 1000 words, and another one for 3500 words – and is asking Colles to find a magazine to publish it (5 Feb, 1918). From the next letter we get to know that it went to the “Land and Water” magazine (10 Feb, 1918).
Six letters dated October-December 1917 contain some interesting contemporary observations on the events in the Balkans theatre of WW1, e.g. Extensive notes on the “present German actions in Greece” also discusses Greek Prime-Minister Eleftherios Venizelos (31 Oct); letter about the British politics regarding Bulgaria and its desire to ally with the Entente (2 Nov); description of Sharpe’s private meeting with Venizelos when the conditions of Bulgaria’s alliance with the Entente were discussed (15 Nov); or thoughts about the future of the Balkan and Mediterranean fronts: “It is now sticking out for anyone to see that Germany, after she has done what she can in Italy, will send her spare army down to the Balkans, & make a big effort to force us out to the sea. After that she will go for Mesopotamia & Gaza. And how can we do anything there to stand up to her? – These many fronts are our weakness” (6 Nov).
William Morris Colles (1865-1926) was English literary agent, the founder and managing director of The Authors' Syndicate, Ltd. (1890); a Member of the Council of the Society of Authors, and of the Copyright Association. His extensive correspondence with numerous writers is held in several depositories, including the library of UCLA (correspondence with James Barrie, Arnold Bennett, E. F. Benson, R. Haggard, and S. Maugham), and the University of Columbia (Thomas Hardy, Alfred Ollivant, John Pendleton, William H. Rideing, Peter Kropotkin and others).

 

20. [CENTRAL ASIA]
BONVALOT, Pierre Gabriel Édouard (1853-1933)
[Autograph Note Signed ‘G. Bonvalot’ to André Liesse, with the Original Envelope with Postal Stamps].

Lyon, 20 February 1896. Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper with printed letterhead ‘Quai de la Charite, 3’. With the original envelope inscribed by Bonvalot, with Lyon postal ink stamps. Both the letter and the envelope are mounted in a paper folder (ca. Early 20th century) titled in ink ‘Bonvalot, explorateur français’. Two newspaper clippings with Bonvalot’s portraits are also mounted in the folder on the opposite side. The folder is worn at extremities, with a tear on the hinge, but the letter and the envelope are in very good condition.
A short note by Pierre Gabriel Édouard Bonvalot, French explorer of Central Asia and Tibet. Bonvalot writes to André Liesse, a French Journalist and economist, thanking him for his ‘precious information’ and asking about a forthcoming meeting with M. De Chambrice.
By the time when this note was written Bonvalot had already become famous after his expeditions to Russian Central Asia in 1880-82 and 1886 (Pamir, Alai and Karakoram Mountains), and to Tibet in 1889-1890 when he crossed Asia from Chinese Turkestan to the French Indochina through the Tian Shan Mountains, the Tarim Basin, the Lop Nor and the Tibetan Plateau. The letter is supplemented with two newspaper clippings with the portraits of Bonvalot, one of which shows him with Prince Henri of Orléans (1867-1901) who accompanied Bonvalot during two of his travels to Central Asia.

 


21. [CEYLON]
CLEATHER, William H., Captain‚ 1st Ceylon Regiment (1783-1820)
[Two Extensive Autograph Letters Signed “W.H. Cleather” to his Sister Mary Littlehales, Describing his Early Service in the Military Regiment in British Ceylon, with notes on His Travel to Ceylon on Board HMS Thalia, Colombo Garrison and Officers, Local Society, Day Schedule et al].

HMS Thalia, “18 leagues to the North of St. Jago”, 20 October 1805 and Colombo Fort, 21 June (completed 2 September) 1806. Both Octavos (ca. 23x18 cm and 25x20 cm). Each 3 ½ pp. Both addressed and sealed on the last pages. Brown ink on watermarked laid and white paper. Fold marks, both letters with minor holes on the 4th pages after opening, affecting several words; second letter with tears and minor holes on folds, but overall very good letters.
Two extensive letters giving an interesting firsthand account of the early British rule in Sri Lanka (the British occupied former Dutch possessions on the island only ten years earlier, in 1795). The first letter describes Cleather’s voyage to Ceylon from England on board HMS Thalia, with the notes on the heat of the gun room‚ the frigate’s captain Walker, Santiago Island (Cape Verde) where they got fresh supplies and water, social life on board the ship et al. “I sleep every night in the most tantalizing situation you can possibly imagine, Rayner having strung my cot in the after gun room in the midst of <…> chests of dollars to the amount of 40.000 £ which they are taking out for the Company, there is 400.000 £ standing more below.”
The second letter completed almost a year later gives an inside look into the life of British military and civil society on Ceylon, shortly after the end of the First Kandyan War (1803-1805). Cleather praises the Colombo garrison’s chaplain Reverend W.H. Heywood in whose house he started writing the letter, notes that he has dined with the “Chief Secy. Mr. Arbuthnot (the 2nd personage in the Island),” and mentions “innumerable” balls and suppers to which “I am constantly invited.” His regiment “is stationed about ten miles from the Fort <…> I have a small house but very comfortable near the parade & not far from a pretty little Cot.[tage] of Heywoods where he generally resides – for this I pay two guineas a month (nothing here).” Cleather mentions that the Regiment which consists of sepoys trains a lot because it is expected to be reviewed shortly; notes on his relation with his colleague officers – Lieut.-Col. T.W. Kerr who “has an unfortunate disposition to talk scandal,” Fort Adjutant Mr. Stewart, officers wives and daughters and others. “I do not much …[?] the heat and have never had a day’s illness since I landed in the Island. I had no duty for two or three months at first being laid up with hurts in my legs. This is common enough & is thought nothing of, it is long since over…”
Captain W.H. Cleather of the first Ceylon Regiment, was educated at Exeter College, Oxford, and arrived in Ceylon in 1805. Through his sister Mary Littlehales (to whom the letters are addressed) he was a brother-in-law of Vice-Admiral Bendall Robert Littlehales (1765-1847), a participant of the Napoleonic Wars, and an uncle of Captain Edward Littlehales (1805-1888), a commander of HMS Dolphin on the coast of West Africa during the suppression of the slave trade in the 1840s. During his career in the British Ceylon, he served in different Ceylon Regiments, was the Fort adjutant at Galle, Jaffna, and Colombo. He took part in military actions during the Uva Rebellion (1817-1818) and for many years served as Deputy Judge Advocate in Ceylon.

 

22. [CHILEAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE]
[Historically Significant and Important Period Manuscript Report of the Naval and Military Actions in Chile and Peru]: Estado que en el dia de la fecha tiene el Vireinato de Lima; Provincias del de Buenos Ayres recuperadas y concervadas por el Ejercito del alto Peru; y finalmente en el que ce halla el Reyno de Chile [The State at this date of the Viceroyalty of Lima, the Provinces of Buenos Aires, taken back by the Army of Alto Peru; and finally the State of the Kingdom of Chile].

Lima, 1 November 1818. Small Folio (ca. 31x21 cm). 6 pp. Brown ink on laid paper with watermarks ‘A’ and ‘PLA’. Text in Spanish in legible hand writing. Later marbled paper wrappers. Manuscript in very good condition.
Historically significant and important period report of the final stage of the Chilean (1810-1826) and Peruvian (1811-1824) Wars of Independence, compiled by Spanish colonial authorities. Our copy apparently belonged to Joaquín de la Pezuela, 1st Marquis of Viluma (1761–1830) who was a viceroy of Peru during the War of Independence: there is a handwritten remark “Es copia Pezuela” in the end of the text.
The document is divided into three parts (“Vireinato de Lima”, “Egéreito del Perú”, and “Reyno de Chile”) and starts with the report of advance of the Royalist forces (3400 men under command of General Mariano de Osorio) from Callao to Talcahuano in order to regain Chile. Then follow the descriptions of Battle of Cancha Rayada (18 March 1818), Battle of Maipú (5 April 1818), San Martín’s famous Crossing of the Andes (January-February 1817) et al. A large part of the text is dedicated to the actions of the Royalists’ army in Alto Peru under command of José de la Serna e Hinojosa (1770-1832). The author reports on the numbers of armed forces in different provinces of the Vireinato de Lima and gives a picture of the wartime Peru from north to south.
Very important is the extensive material on the naval war near the coast of Chile and Peru, and the actions of the First Chilean Navy Squadron which was formed in 1817-1818 and eventually “terminated Spanish colonial rule on the south-west coast of South America” (Wikipedia). The report lists 12 vessels of the Royalists’ naval forces (Las fuerzas de mar): frigates Esmeralda, Cleopatra, Presidenta and Venganza, brigantines Pezuela and Potrillo, corvet Sebastiano et al. There are notes on the condition and amount of guns of each vessel. A separate list is dedicated to the enemy vessels and also details their artillery: Lautaro and Cumberland (bought from the British East India Company); corvette Coquimbo (bought from the US), four brigantines, and seven corsairs (Anglo-American and French).
The document reports on the blockade of Valparaiso in March-April 1818, and naval actions, e.g. The attack on Spanish corvette Resolution near Callao by the corsair force consisting of the British, American, Portuguese and Irish sailors (19 October). The text is concluding with the news that the naval reinforcement for the Royalists has departed from Spain: frigate Especulation left Cadiz on the 21st of May with 6 officials and 200 men from the Regiment of Cantabria, a part of a larger force which will embark in Callao and will go immediately to reinforce the army of Alto Peru. Frigate Maria Isabel will increase the maritime forces destined to blockade Valparaiso. The author has no doubt that “Our maritime force should succeed in destroying the rebels and will give us advantage in the reconquista de Chile”.

 

23. [CONGRESS OF VIENNA]
BENTINCK, Lord William (1774-1839)‚ and other correspondents
[Volume of Important Original Diplomatic Correspondence Related to the Settlement of Europe During and After the Congress of Vienna, Mostly Relating to Italy and Austria ‚ Preserved by British Minister Plenipotentiary to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, Lord Burghersh in Contemporary Secretarial Copies; the Documents Include Official and Private Letters, as well as Extracts of Reports Written by and Addressed to Lord William Bentinck (British representative to the Court at Palermo)‚ William à Court (envoy to the Kingdom of Naples)‚ Lord Castlereagh‚ Lord Stewart‚ Lord Cathcart (from St. Petersburg), Prince Metternich‚ Prince Esterhazy‚ Marquis Circello‚ and others, Titled:] Correspondence to which Letters, &c. By & to Lord Burghersh have relation. 29th March 1815 to 28 Sept. 1816. Arranged and bound in 1858.

1815-6. Folio (ca. 33,5x21,5 cm). [4] leaves, 263 numbered pages. 46 documents dated from March 1815 to September 1816‚ many of considerable length‚ none removed. Period black half morocco with marbled boards, spine neatly rebacked (with gilt tooled decorations and a title). Paper slightly age toned, right lower corner of the manuscript title cut out, but overall a very good collection of important documents.
Historically important and possibly hitherto unknown confidential source of the details of the intense diplomatic activity at the end of the Napoleonic Wars during and after the Congress of Vienna‚ particularly relating to Italy and Austria. The volume was compiled for General John Fane, Lord Burghersh (1784-1859), the head of the British Mission to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany in 1814-1830, and to Parma, Modena and Lucca since 1818. Among the documents are copies of official and private letters and extracts from correspondence of Lord William Bentinck (1774-1839) – British Envoy to the court of the Two Sicilies and commander-in-chief of the British forces in the Mediterranean in 1811-1815; Sir William à Court (1779-1860) – British envoy to the Kingdom of Naples in 1814, who later replaced Lord Bentinck on the service in Sicily; Robert Stewart, Lord Castlereagh (1769-1822) – British Foreign Secretary in 1812-1822 and the principal British diplomat at the Vienna Congress (September 1814 – June 1815); Charles William Vane, Lord Stewart (1778-1854) – British Envoy Extraordinary to the Prussian Court in Berlin (1810-1814) and British Ambassador to Vienna in 1814-1823, a participant of the Vienna Congress; General William Schaw, Lord Cathcart (1755-1843) – Ambassador to Russia in 1812-1820 and staff officer during the War of Liberation (1812-1814); Prince Klemens von Metternich (1773-1859) – Foreign Minister of the Austrian Empire in 1809-1848 and the chairman at the Vienna Congress; Paul III Anton, Prince Esterhazy (1786-1866) – Hungarian Prince and diplomat; Marquis de Circello, the Neapolitan ambassador at London, and others.
The subjects discussed include: fears about the Armistice holding‚ military action against Murat‚ the intentions of the Neapolitan government‚ surveillance of French exiles‚ Bentinck’s refusal of a Diamond Snuff Box offered him by the Neapolitan minister in Rome‚ relations between Russia and England and Metternich’s intrigues (Castlereagh)‚ measures taken by the King of France‚ the Emperor of Austria’s visit to Italy‚ rumours from Sicily‚ the negotiations between Austria and Bavaria‚ the indemnity to Prince Eugene Beauharnais‚ intrigues about the exchange of territory (after the Peace of Paris) between Austria and Bavaria. The volume opens with a table of contents giving a brief overview of 37 main letters.

 

24. [DUBLIN]
[Contemporary Manuscript Account of an English Lady’s Trip to Dublin in 1823, with a Description of the Dublin Suburb of Howth, Dublin streets, Cabs and Carts, Beggars, Irish Manners and Ways of Dealing with People, Clothes et al.].

Ca. 1830s. Folio (ca. 33x21 cm). 6 leaves fastened with a string, with 11 numbered pages of manuscript text. Brown ink on laid paper with the Britannia and “1834” watermarks. The first leaf headed “In 1823.” Fold marks, paper slightly soiled, otherwise a very good manuscript written in a legible hand.
Interesting account of a trip to Dublin apparently written by an English lady (she is addressed as 'Ma'am' and uses the colloquial 'paddy' to describe an Irishman), and addressed to one of her friends (there is a direct appeal to her correspondent in the only footnote). The travelling party arrived to Howth and then moved to Dublin, renting the apartments on the Dawson Street, 'one of the most fashionable streets in Dublin.' The narration describes Howth, 'an open space, with only a few, straggling cottages, low, thatched, and very miserable looking, such as one might have expected to see in the wilds of Ireland, but certainly most unlooked for, within a few miles of the Capital.' On the way to Dublin the travellers were 'surrounded by the most wretched looking objects, in absolute rags, without shoes or stockings, & with their long tangled hair flying loose in the wind, loudly vociferating for charity in every possible variety of tone & gesture'. Along the road to Dublin they saw 'dirty thatched cottages with narrow slits instead of windows', and the 'shabby & dilapidated' houses of the gentry. 'The people we met looked untidy & idle. The men in great coats, put on in "honest Thady's" fashion - without their arms in the sleeves - the women enveloped heads and all in large cloth cloaks - these really and bona fide were the better class, we saw nothing else but rags & barefeet'.
The author also describes the 'very amusing phraseology of the Irish', difficulties with lodging houses, manners of Dublin merchants ('you cannot go into the meanest shop, in which they will not tell you with the most satisfied air, that whatever you buy, is the best in Dublin'); dirty appearance of the Irish people, Dublin streets full of people that “are filthy beyond all power of description, not clothed, but rather partially covered with tattered garments made up of every kind of patchwork, these in general hang so loosely on their wretched owners that their skins are covered at every step. These poor creatures are so loathsome, & swarm in such shoals about some of the best and most frequented parts of Dublin, that the pedestrian is constantly shrinking back in horror, & not without a degree of compunction at being thus obliged to loathe his own kind'. The beggars who 'seem almost to have given up their claim to the rank of human beings, & who it is worthy of remark seldom or never solicit charity from any of their country people as if utterly hopeless of relief', are contrasted with 'elegant figures dressed in the height of fashion, in the richest silks & satins, trimmed with the costliest sables & ermines'.
There is also a description of “the enormous quality of pigs” that inhabit Dublin streets; “the Irish - not satisfied with their ordinary squealing & grunting, have a barbarous custom which is astonishing in a civilized country. They cut the ears of the poor animals which are sold, by way of distinction, so that one's senses are constantly sickened by droves of these creatures stumbling over the stones, & bleeding as if they had just made their escape from the slaughter house - It is not uncommon to see a Cart load or two of Potatoes emptied out in the middle of a street & a fine drove of some hundreds of fat pigs feeding in profusion'.
The final part of the manuscript is dedicated to the Irish 'national vehicle' - 'The jaunting car;' types of carts, manners of cabmen, and ways of calculating payment, 'You must never ask a Car driver or a Hackney coachman his fare - but find out the customary price & offer it, they will not often dispute, but if you shew the least uncertainty about their due they will ask double and triple the amount'.
Overall an interesting firsthand account of Dublin in the Regency era revealing the existing arrogance of the British upper class to the Irish people, a sign of discrimination of Ireland as a part of the United Kingdom which would result in the Irish independence movement.

 

25. [EARLY OVERLAND TRAVEL FROM VIENNA TO BOMBAY]
[Early Interesting Unsigned Autograph Letter by a Resident of British India, Addressed to One of the Strachey Baronets, with the Recommendations to his Cousin on the Best Way of an Overland Travel from England to India, via Vienna, Bucharest, Constantinople, Baghdad and Basra, Advising on the Routes, Dress, Luggage and Ways of Dealing with Native Guides].

[British India], ca. 1803-1806. Octavo bifolium (ca. 23,5x18,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on laid paper watermarked “1803.” Mild fold marks, but overall a very good letter.
Interesting content rich letter advising on the best way to travel overland from England to India via the Middle East. Written in India, most certainly by an officer of the East India Company, the letter contains some noteworthy comments on one of the two main overland routes to India – via Vienna, Constantinople, Baghdad, Basra and hence by sea to Bombay. Compiled relatively early for such a route, the letter is addressed to “Dear Strachey” (apparently one of the Strachey Baronets) and provides “a few hints for the purpose of enabling your cousin to get hither by land & I trust with less inconvenience than he would experience was he to start without being possessed of my information on the subject.”
The author advises to choose a route from Vienna to Constantinople via Hermannstadt and Bucharest, not the usual route via Prague and Belgrade as the latter one is unsafe. He also recommends to procure recommendation letters to the Governor of Hermannstadt and the British Agent in Bucharest, and to “not encumbering himself with much luggage, as there are parts of his trip where he will find it totally impossible to convey it; two small portmanteaus ought to contain all that he starts with from Vienna.”
“At Constantinople the Company’s Agent will provide him, with a Tatar’s dress (and I strongly recommend him to adopt it for many reasons) and also a Tatar to attend him. With this Tatar a bargain must be made to provide Horses, provisions and every thing required on the road, a part of which Sum is advanced at Constantinople, and the remainder paid at Bagdat, together with a present if the Tatar behaves well. He should on no account carry any money or any thing of value with him from Constantinople, for in his poverty consists his safety, or rather in the expectation of the Tatar to gain more by landing him is safety at the end of his journey than by destroying him on the road. He will obtain letters of credit at Constantinople to Sir Harford Jones at Bagdat, and Sir Harford will procure boats or other conveyances for him from Bagdat to Bassorah from where he will have many opportunities of coming to Bombay…”
“He must be prepared to meet with many difficulties, to undergo considerable fatigue, as he will be obliged to ride from Constantinople to Bagdat, and during which he will fare very badly indeed, - neither he can carry above six changes of linen in addition to his European stock in the before mentioned two portmanteaus. I carried no change!!! and never was any one so miserable, but I believe I should have suffered more from the encumbrance of much baggage.
From Constantinople he might take the route by Antioch to Aleppo and thence over the Great Desert to Bassorah, but I found this so much worse than that by Bagdat, that I do not recommend his attempting it. The route by Diarbekin, Mosul and Merd in to Bagdat is far preferable, villages and caravanserais are met with the whole way”.
Overall a very interesting letter.
Sir Harford Jones (1764-1847) mentioned by the author, was an East India Company assistant and factor at Basrah (1783-94), and its president in Baghdad (1798-1806). “He acquired great proficiency in oriental languages, and with the assistance of Robert Dundas's patronage he was appointed envoy-extraordinary and minister-plenipotentiary to the court of Persia, where he remained from 1807-1811. He was attached to the first Persian mission lead by Sir John Malcolm (1801). He remained in Tehran from 1809 to 1810, in the service of the Dundases. During this time his main achievement was the Preliminary Treaty of 1809 that effectively barred France from the route to India” (Harford Jones Collection/ Online Archive of California).

 

26. [EGYPTOLOGY]
PIETSCHMANN, Richard (1851-1923)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Richard” to a German Historian Eduard Meyer; With: a Printed Obituary of Wilhelm Spitta (Director of the Khedival Library in Cairo), Authored and Inscribed by Meyer].

Breslau, 2 April, 1884. Octavo (ca. 22x14 cm). 12 pp. Brown ink on six folded cream paper leaves. Fold marks, two pages slightly soiled, otherwise a very good letter written in legible hand.
The obituary: MEYER, E. Wilhelm Spitta, Director der viceköniglichen Bibliothek in Kairo: Nekrolog. Leipzig: Otto Harrassowitz, [1883]. Offprint from the “Centralblatt f. Bibiliothekswesen.” Octavo. 7 pp. Original publisher’s wrappers. Inscribed by the author on verso of the front wrapper. Wrappers slightly soiled and with minor tears and losses on the corners, but overall a very good copy.
Important primary document illustrating German Oriental and ancient history studies in the latter half of the 19th century. This extensive letter by a prominent German Orientalist and Egyptologist Richard Pietschmann is addressed to his colleague and friend Eduard Meyer (1855-1930), German historian, a specialist in ancient history. In the letter Pietschmann thanks Meyer for the obituary “you have done for our poor Spitta” and discusses several works of German Orientalists and historians – Wilhelm Spitta (1853-83), Meyer himself, Gaston Maspero (1846-1916), and Wolfgang Helbig (1839-1915).
The letter was written when Pietschmann was the university librarian in Breslau, later he also served as the librarian in the universities of Marburg, Göttingen (where he was also a Professor of Egyptology and ancient Oriental history), Greifswald, and the Royal Library in Berlin. Eduard Meyer was a professor of ancient history at Breslau in 1885, at Halle in 1889, and at Berlin in 1902. He lectured at Harvard in 1909. Honorary degrees were given him by Oxford, St. Andrews, Freiburg, and Chicago universities. His major work is Geschichte des Altertums (1884-1902)” (Wikipedia). Wilhelm Spitta was a German linguist who for the first time described the grammar of the Egyptian colloquial in his book “Grammatik des arabischen Vulgärdialects von Aegypten” (1880).

 

27. [FRASER RIVER GOLD RUSH]
TEN EYCK, Samuel
[Important Autograph Letter Signed from Samuel Ten Eyck to O.B. Throop, giving a Description of Guaymas, Mexico, his Impressions of Mexicans, and Briefly Relating his Experiences During the Fraser River Gold Rush].

Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico: April 27th, 1859. Quarto bifolium. [4] pp. Brown ink on bluish paper. Blind stamp of a papermaker (Rolland Freres, Bordeaux) in the upper left corner. Housed in a later custom made blue quarter morocco clam shell box with gilt lettered spine. Old fold marks, otherwise a near fine letter.
In this letter Samuel Ten Eyck writes to his friend, Origin B. Throop, back home in Schoharie, New York, offering a description of the Mexican port city of Guaymas, Sonora, giving his assessment of Mexican attitudes toward Americans, and describing his experiences in the Fraser River Gold Rush.
Samuel Ten Eyck came from a prominent family in New York's Schoharie County. He left Schoharie in the early 1850s, went to California in search of gold, took part in the Fraser River Gold Rush in British Columbia of 1858-1859, and then arrived in Guaymas, Mexico in the spring of 1859. He apparently went to Sonora in anticipation of that state and the surrounding Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sinaloa being annexed to the United States. The Gadsen Purchase Treaty, ratified in 1854, brought a part of northern Sonora into the United States, and there appears to have been some agitation for the United States to take more territory in the region. Such a thing did not occur, and it is unknown for how long Ten Eyck stayed in Guaymas waiting for it to happen, or where his travels took him next.
The letter begins by Ten Eyck asking Throop to make discreet inquiries to some of his friends as to why they have not corresponded with him. "I suppose you will be astonished to learn I am in this God-forsaken country. I must confess, I am astonished to find myself here, but here I am and what is still more pleasant, have a mighty fine prospect of, as it is termed in California, making my pile. I have been here but a month. On my arrival I found the country all excitement, and a revolution going on in the three states, 'Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa,' they being, I think, the tail end of creation, but they are full of silver mines and in saying that I say all that can be said in their favour. The Mexicans are the most hostile people in the world and think no more of killing an American than of taking a drink and as this is the scene of Walker's exploits and also where the unfortunate H.A. Crabb & followers were massacred, I am obliged to keep a pretty sharp look out. The women, however, are very kind & affectionate, and in case of difficulty invariably give you a warning and find a place of concealment for you. At least I have found it so on two occasions. <..,>
Guaymas, the seaport of Sonora & an old city, contains perhaps eight thousand inhabitants and being an earthquake country the houses are but one story high and mostly built of adoby [sic], which is the building material of mostly all houses in Mexico and on entering one is reminded more of a large brickyard than of a large city. <..,> I would not have come here but that the three states above named will without doubt be annexed to the U.S. - if so your humble servant is all right. I have had five years experience in California and any chance that may offer here I am on hand, in fact the pioneer."
Ten Eyck also briefly describes his experiences in British Columbia during the recent Fraser River Gold Rush: "It is as hot as blazes [in Guaymas]. I feel it more perhaps than others just having come from a northern country, as the year past I have been at Vancouver's Island & British Columbia. You of course heard of the Fraser River excitement. I was almost the first of the many thousands that rushed to that cold country. It did not prove as profitable as was anticipated, still it paid me very well, as I was able after nine months hard work to leave with a five hundred more than I took with me."
In the end Ten Eyck gives his assessment of the qualities of the women he has encountered in Guaymas, "beautiful, full of life and spirit", "very positive to us Americans" etc. A very interesting important letter, with provocative views on Mexico and a bit of information on one American's experiences in the Fraser River Gold Rush.
O.B. Throop was the owner of the only drug store in the county which still exists today as the Schoharie pharmacy, and a Secretary of the Board of Directors of the Albany and Schoharie plank road (1862).

 

28. [GOLD MINES IN SENEGAL]
GRANDJEAN, J. S., Adjutant-General
[Signed Manuscript Regarding French Possessions in Africa]: Note Sur Les Possessions Francaises En Afrique.

Paris, 19 Pluviôse, 3rd Year of the Republic [1795]. Folio (ca. 31,5x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Manuscript in fine condition and housed in a custom made red gilt tooled quarter morocco portfolio.
Manuscript signed by the Adjutant-General J.S. Grandjean is a summary of the main points of the report submitted by him in 1766, on his return from Gorée, to minister Choiseul. The report discusses the gold mines at Galam (Senegal), gum arabic that should be shared with the Dutch, and special water resistant wood found on the Island of Boulam.
"The island of Gorée was one of the first places in Africa to be settled by Europeans.., After the French gained control in 1677, the island remained continuously French until 1960.., Gorée was principally a trading post, administratively attached to Saint-Louis, capital of the Colony of Senegal. Apart from slaves, beeswax, hides and grain were also traded..., Étienne-François, comte de Stainville, duc de Choiseul (1719-1785) was a French military officer, diplomat and statesman. Between 1758 and 1761, and 1766 and 1770, he was Foreign Minister of France and had a strong influence on France's global strategy throughout the period. He is closely associated with France's defeat in the Seven Years War and subsequent efforts to rebuild French prestige" (Wikipedia).

 

29. [GREENLAND]
CHARCOT, Jean-Baptiste (1867-1936)
[Autograph Letter Signed ‘J. Charcot’ to ‘Un Monsieur’ About the Latter’s Son’s Desire to Join the ‘Pourquoi-Pas?’ Crew].
Neuilly-s-Seine, 5 May 1933. Quarto ca. 27 x 21 cm (10 ½ x 8 ¼ in). One page. Laid paper, folded twice, the text is written in ink in a legible hand, with the address printed on top. Very minor tear on fold, otherwise in very good condition.
[With: An Original Press Photograph Oblong Octavo ca. 13 x 18cm (5 x7 inches) Dated 24 June 1934 Showing "Polar Explorer Honoured O.P.S.: Dr. Charcot, the famous French polar explorer, receiving a medal from Marshal Franchet d'Esperey at the Geographical Society today. On right is Mme Charcot, the servant's wife, on left Mme Waldeck-Rousseau, sister of Dr.Charcot." Photograph annotated in Spanish and with several stamps and pasted on notes in English and Spanish. A very good photograph].
These two items are related to the last expedition of the famous French Antarctic Explorer Jean-Baptist Charcot. Conducting an ethnographic survey of Greenland and Iceland in partnership with the French explorer Paul-Émile Victor, the crew of the ‘Pourquoi-Pas?' also mapped the region. The expedition ended with tragedy, when on 16 September 1936 the ship was caught in a violent cyclonic storm and was lost on the reefs off the coast of Iceland. Twenty-three of the crew were lost in the wreck and 17 survivors died before rescue came, leaving only one survivor, Eugène Gonidec, master steersman. Jean-Baptiste Charcot was one of the dead, aged 69 (Wikipedia).
The letter is from Charcot to an unidentified recipient whose son wished to join the crew of the expedition ship 'Pourquoi pas?.' Charcot would have liked to respond positively, but: "Le 'Pourquoi pas?' est armé par la Marine Nationale et son équipage ne peut être formé que par des marins d'Etat en activité. Si votre fils s'était trouvé sous les drapeaux au moment de la désignation de l'équipage j'aurais pu tenter une démarche au Ministère mais dans les conditions actuelles il n'y a malheureusement rien à faire." [The 'Pourquoi pas?' is outfitted by the Marine Nationale and its crew can only be formed from currently working Marine's servicemen. If your son was doing his national service at the time the crew was chosen, I could have tried and queried the Ministère. However, owing to these circumstances, there is nothing much that I can do]. Charcot also mentioned Doctor Louis Gain (1883-1963), the naturalist of the French Antarctic Expedition 1908-10, who directed the request to him. Regarding the date of the letter it’s likely related to Charcot’s last expedition departed for Greenland in 1934. In that case the letter is not only an interesting historical witness of the last Charcot’s expedition, but also a document which might have saved the life of a young French mariner.
The accompanying press photograph was taken shortly before Charcot left on this, his last expedition.

 

30. [HALIFAX]
RYDER, Sir Alfred Phillips (1820-1888)
[Period Copy of Two Official Documents “Reporting circumstances attending Her Majesty’s Ship Hero touching the ground,” Submitted to Vice Admiral Alexander Milne, Commander-in-Chief].

HMS Hero, Halifax, 14 October 1862. Folio (ca. 32x21,5 cm). 10 pp. On six leaves, glued together. Brown ink on blue paper. Fold marks, minor tears on extremities, outer leaves soiled at edges, but overall a very good manuscript.
Detailed official report of the curcumstances of HMS Hero touching the ground while entering the Chebucto Bay (Halifax harbour) on a foggy day of 14 October 1862. The ship’s captain, Alfred Ryder gave a detailed report to his commander, Vice Admiral Alexander Milne (1806-1896) about the difficult weather and the ship’s course chosen for the passage into the Chebucto Bay. The account gives a good description of the navigational hazards found on the approach to the bay: “Your orders were that I should be with your Flag today. I was desirous of being punctual. For a steamer to remain outside a harbor in Nova Scotia, because the weather is foggy, would, as all navigators on these waters are well aware, result in their remaining at sea for days, and sometimes weeks, after the day ordered for their return, and as there are no good land marks, the runs by Patent log, confirmed by Sounding, must be vainly depended on, even in the occasional clearing of the fog. <…> The extent of the injury appears to be very slight. There are two slight weeps, discovered by careful search in the Fore magazine, and one further forward, but whether arising from the accident, or not we are not certain <…> In conclusion I beg to state that I have commanded four of H.M. Ships in the West Indies, the Baltic, the Mediterranean and Black Sea, and necessarily for many years, and that this is the first occasion on which any one of these has touched the shore…”
The report is supplemented with the “Statement in compliance with Printed Instructions, part 3, p. 160 regarding the circumstances attending H.M.S. Hero striking the ground off the Harbour of Halifax, Nova Scotia, at 3.5. p.m., Tuesday, the 14 Oct. 1862;” the original statement is signed by Ryder and the ship’s master J. Sullivan.
“Admiral of the Fleet Sir Alfred Phillips Ryder KCB joined the Royal Navy in 1833. He was the captain of the HMS Dauntless in 1853-1857, of HMS Hero since 1862; Comptroller of the Coastguard in 1863-1866, Second in Command of the Channel Squadron, Naval attaché in Paris; Commander-in-Chief of the China Station in 1874, Commander-in-Chief, in Portsmouth in 1879. He was decorated with the award of Knight, Order of the Medjidie and gained the rank of Admiral of the Fleet” (Wikipedia).

 

31. [HMS GORGON (MUTINEERS OF THE BOUNTY)]
[PATERSON], Admiral Charles William] (1756-1841)
[Collection of Two Original Manuscripts Related to Paterson’s Service as the Commander of Famous HMS Gorgon, Compiled a Year Later, After Her Return from New South Wales as a Part of the Third Fleet, with a Mixed Passenger List Including Mutineers from HMS “Bounty”. The collection includes: an Autograph Note Signed by Rear Admiral John Dalrymple Addressed to Paterson, and an Incomplete Note of Paterson’s Autobiography, Mentioning his Service on HMS Gorgon].

The note: [HMS] Sandwich at the Nore, 2 August 1793, ca. 16,5x20,5 cm. Written in secretarial hand, signed “Jh. Dalrymple” and docketed on reverse. The autobiography: ca. After 1825, Folio (ca. 32,5x20 cm). Both brown ink on watermarked laid paper (the autobiography on laid paper watermarked “R. Barnard, 1825”). Documents with fold marks and creases, paper slightly age toned, with occasional marginal tears, otherwise a very good collection.
The official note from Rear Admiral Dalrymple addressed to Paterson as the Commander of HMS “Gorgon” instructs him to “immediately discharge John Marsh from he being an apprentice, and give him a Certificate of it’s being done by my order.” The note relates to an apprentice unlawfully pressed into service on a Royal Navy ship - the Navy were bound to release such individuals on appeal from their masters. The second manuscript is an incomplete piece of Paterson’s autobiography, covering his naval career from 1793 to 1819 when he became a Vice Admiral. The first complete sentence relates about his service on HMS Gorgon: “On the commencement of the French Revolution I was appointed to the command of H.M. Store Ship the Gorgon and was sent to the Mediterranean under Lord Hood who promoted me to the rank of Post Captain in 1794 into H.M.S. ‘Ariadne.'” The autobiography also contains some facts not included in Paterson’s biography published in the New Oxford DNB, e.g. That he had 'the honour of attending His late Majesty two seasons at Weymouth', and that he 'went up the Mediterranean with a large Convoy, delivered it safe and on my return joined the Blockade of Havre de Grace until the peace of 1802'.
HMS Gorgon (1785) a 44-gun fifth-rate two-decker troopship. “Under Commander John Parker, she went to New South Wales, along with the Third Fleet, arriving on 21 September 1791. She carried six months provisions for 900 people in the starving colony. She also carried about 30 convicts, and Philip Gidley King who was returning to the colony to take up the post of lieutenant-governor of Norfolk Island. On 18 December 1791 the Gorgon left Port Jackson, taking home part of the marine contingent, sent by the First Fleet to guard the convicts, including Watkin Tench, Robert Ross, William Dawes, and Ralph Clark. Gorgon also carried samples of animals, birds, and plants from New South Wales. At the Cape of Good Hope Gorgon took on board Mary Bryant, her daughter Charlotte, and the four surviving male convicts involved in an escape from the penal colony. She also took on board ten of the mutineers from HMS Bounty that HMS Pandora had seized in Tahiti and who had survived the wreck of that vessel. During the voyage many of the children on board, including Charlotte Bryant, died of heat and illness. Gorgon arrived at Portsmouth on 18 June 1792, discharging her mixed passenger list of marines, escaped convicts, and mutineers” (Wikipedia).
Charles William Paterson was a British naval officer, an active participant of the American Revolutionary and French Revolutionary Wars. He “served on the home and Newfoundland stations as able seaman and midshipman in the Flora, Rose, Ardent, and Ramillies, before passing his lieutenant's examination on 4 October 1775. In 1776 Paterson was in Howe's flagship, the Eagle, in North America, and on 3 February 1777 Howe promoted him lieutenant of the fire ship Strombolo. In Howe's engagement with d'Estaing on 11 August 1778 Paterson commanded the galley Philadelphia. In June 1779 he joined the Ardent (64 guns), which, on 17 August, was captured off Plymouth by the combined Franco-Spanish fleet. In April 1780 he was appointed to the Alcide (74 guns), which joined Lord Rodney in the West Indies in May; Paterson went to New York with him during the summer, returned to the West Indies in November, and in the following January was present at the capture of St Eustatius and the other Dutch islands.
In February 1781 Paterson joined the Sandwich, Rodney's flagship; he went home with the admiral in the Gibraltar, and returned to the West Indies with him in the Formidable. He was appointed acting captain of the armed ship St Eustatius in February 1782 and on 8 April was promoted to command the fire ship Blast, in which he returned to England on the conclusion of the peace. In 1793 Paterson was appointed to the store ship Gorgon, in which he served under Hood at Toulon, and on 20 January 1794 he was made captain of the Ariadne (20 guns). On the surrender of Corsica he was moved into the frigate Melpomène, before returning to England in 1795. In 1797 he was inspecting captain of the quota men in Kirkcudbright and Wigtownshire, and in 1798 superintended the fitting of the Admiral de Vries, until she was turned over to the transport board. He commanded the Montagu in the channel in 1800, and from 1801 to 1802 he commanded the San Fiorenzo.
Paterson had charge of the French prisoners of war in Portchester Castle in 1810, and from 1811 to 1812 he commanded the guard ship Puissant at Spithead. He was promoted rear-admiral on 12 August 1812, vice-admiral on 12 August 1819, and admiral of the white on 10 January 1837" (Oxford DNB).

 

32. [INDIAN BIRDS]
FORBES, Edward (1815-1854)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Edward Forbes” to a Colleague Naturalist, Regarding the Exchange of Specimens from His Collection, a Meeting of the British Association at Liverpool and a Collection of Indian Birds in the University of Edinburgh].

Edinburgh, 16[?] September 1854. Small Octavo (ca. 20x12 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on cream laid paper. Fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
An interesting letter by noted British naturalist Edward Forbes written in his later years, while professor of natural history at the University of Edinburgh. The letter was written shortly after Forbes’ departure to the Liverpool meeting of the British Association where he was the president of the geological section. Addressed to a colleague, Forbes gladly agrees to do some exchanges of specimens from his collection proposed by his correspondent, but warns that there will be some delays as his collection is not in order at the moment. “You shall however have as complete a set as I can master & since I saw you I have received several […] rare & curious species. <…> Can you [tell me] to where shall I send them for you when they are ready? If you are going very soon it is almost hoping against hope to hold out a prospect of time being ready for you, especially as I am only here at present for a couple of days preparing to my leaving for the meeting of the British Association at Liverpool. That meeting commences on Wednesday next. I hope you can arrange to come to it. You could enjoy it exceedingly & <…> it will be an excellent gathering.
If under the above circumstances you can confide your Ceylonese & Indian land & […?] to me you will do a very great favour – as they would fill the greatest blanks in the collection here. How are you provided in your new collection with Australian & Madeiran types? Sir […] has just been with me looking up two boxes of Indian birds in the collection at Edinburgh – I wish you could have seen them.”
“Edward Forbes, British naturalist, pioneer in the field of biogeography, who analyzed the distribution of plant and animal life of the British Isles as related to certain geological changes. He was known for an extensive study of mollusks and starfishes, to which he devoted much of his life, participating in dredgings and expeditions in the Irish Sea (1834), France, Switzerland, Germany, Algeria (1836), Austria (1838), and the Mediterranean (1841-42). Forbes was a curator at the Museum of the Geological Society of London (1842), professor of botany at King’s College, London (1842), paleontologist to the British Geological Survey (1844), professor of natural history to the Royal School of Mines in 1851, the youngest man elected president of the Geological Society (1853), professor of natural history at the University of Edinburgh and the president of the geological section at the Liverpool meeting of the British Association (1854)” (Encyclopaedia Britannica).

 

33. [INDIAN MUTINY]
ROBERTS, Frederick Sleigh, 1st Earl Roberts, Field Marshal (1832-1914)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Roberts” to “Dear Colonel Rose” Reminiscing on his Experiences during the Second Battle of Cawnpore, at the Time of the Indian Mutiny].

5 August 1913. Small Octavo bifolium (ca. 18x11,5 cm). 2 pp. Black ink on writing paper with a printed letterhead of the “Empire Hotel, Buxton.” With the original envelope with a period ink note (in different hand) “Letter from Lord Roberts.” The letter with fold marks, a tear along the bottom part of the bifolium’s centrefold, otherwise a very good letter.
In his letter British Field Marshal Lord Roberts, “one of the most successful commanders of the 19th century” (Wikipedia), tries to clarify some details of the Second Battle of Cawnpore (19 November – 6 December 1857) in which he took part as a staff officer of Sir Collin Campbell, Commander-in-Chief of India. Addressing to “dear colonel Rose”, Roberts writes: “Will you kindly tell me whether I am correct at the battle of Cawnpore on the 6th December 1857. In my “Forty-one years in India” I stated that the Brigade which I saw advancing against the mutineers’ Battery, was composed of the 42nd, 93rd, and 53rd, and I don’t think I made a mistake, but not very long ago I read in some book that the Brigade was formed of the 79th, 93rd, and 53rd. Being away from home I cannot refer to my notes, so I trouble you with these few lines.” The book he refers to in the letter was published in London in 1897 by Richard Bentley.
“Field Marshal Frederick Sleigh Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, VC, KG, KP, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCIE, KStJ, VD, PC was a British soldier who was one of the most successful commanders of the 19th century. He served in the Indian rebellion, the Expedition to Abyssinia and the Second Anglo-Afghan War before leading British Forces to success in the Second Boer War. He also became the last Commander-in-Chief of the Forces before the post was abolished in 1904” (Wikipedia).
“The Second Battle of Cawnpore (19 November – 6 December 1857) was a battle of Indian rebellion of 1857. It was decisive as it thwarted the rebels' last chance to regain the initiative and recapture the cities of Kanpur (Cawnpore) and Lucknow” (Wikipedia).

 

34. [JAMAICA SHIPWRECK]
[Two Detailed Manuscript Testimonials of a Voyage of the Merchant brig Jane to the West Indies in 1780, and the Circumstances of Her Shipwreck during the Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane, Notarially Certified in Montego Bay and London; With a Period Copy of Jane’s Portledge Bill for 1781].

Montego Bay (Jamaica) - London, 1780-1781. Three Folio Manuscripts (ca. 44x28 cm, ca. 40x26 cm and ca. 36,5x22 cm) folded to Octavos. 3, 1 and 3 pp each. Each brown ink on watermarked laid paper, each docketed on the last blank page. Two signed by deponents and notaries, one with two tax stamps and a notarial seal. Fold marks, but overall very good and legible documents.
Interesting collection of three original manuscripts revealing the story of the voyage of British merchant brig Jane to the West Indies in 1780 and her experience of the Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane on 3 October 1780, during which she was considerably damaged and a large part of her cargo was lost. The documents include an affidavit, compiled in Montego Bay (Jamaica) on 10 January 1781 and signed by Jane’s Commander James Jones, first mate William Barrey and boatswain Sever Brown. The affidavit was witnessed before Samuel Mottershed, Esq., a Justice for the parish of Saint James; and certified by Ralph Montague, Notary Public in Montego Bay (St. James parish, Cornwall County, Jamaica). The other document is a notarially certified “Declaration of a protest”, compiled after Jane’s return to Britain. The document is signed by James Jones and William Barrey and certified by a London notary on 31 August 1781. The last document is a period copy of Jane’s portledge bill, for the period from 30 January to September 1781, listing twenty-six crew members (including captain), their station, length of service, and amount of wages due and paid.
The affidavit and declaration of protest give a detailed account of Jane’s voyage to the Caribbean and the circumstances of her damage during the notorious Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane which struck Montego Bay where Jane had been moored, on 3 October 1780. Jane arrived to Kingston from London on 1 August 1780, under the escort of HMS Thunderer and other men-of-war; later that month she sailed for the Black River where she received a cargo of logwood, mahogany and pimento. In Montego Bay she was additionally loaded with sugar and rum. Whilst there Jane experienced a severe storm, and in spite of the attempt to find asylum in the mouth of the Great River, the brig drag both anchors and was driven to a reef where she was struck against the rocks many times. The ship was a wreck and couldn’t be taken off the reef for another three weeks. The cargo, anchors and guns were reloaded in order to lighten the ship, and when the time came to reload, it turned out that a large part of the cargo had been “washed about the beach owing to sundry gales of wind <…> and many pieces buried in the sand.” In spite of the “utmost endeavours” some part of cargo were never recovered.
Jane returned to Montego Bay on 27 January 1781 and on 17 March left the West Indies for London, in a convoy of ninety merchantmen, protected by HMS Edmont Graffton, Trident Bristol and Endymion. The long, five-month return trip was perilous, with her taking “a great deal of water <…> so as to keep the pump almost constantly going.” The next day after arrival the captain filed the present declaration of protest at the office of a London notary which solemnly stated: “I do protest against the Seas and bad weather, and particularly against the Violent Hurricane which the said Ship met with in Jamaica when taking on board her said Cargo as above mentioned for all Loss and Damage happened to the said Brig and Cargo;” he declared “that when the said Brig begun to take in her said Cargo at Jamaica aforesaid She was tight Staunch and Strong <…> and provided with all things needful for such a Brig and Voyage. That as well During the time the said Brig was on Shore in Jamaica as aforesaid, as at all other times, he this appearer and the Rest of the said Brig’s Company Exorted [sic!] themselves to the utmost of their Power and used their utmost Endeavours to preserve the said Brig and Cargo from Damage, so that what Loss and Damage hath happened to the said Brig and Cargo was intirely [sic!] occasioned by the means aforesaid and not through any insufficiency in the said Brig neglect of him appearer or any of his mariners.”

 

35. [LIBERIA]
MILLER, Abraham
[Autograph Letter Signed by Abraham Miller, a Black Presbyterian Missionary to Liberia, Addressed to Rev. Daniel Wells in the Mission Rooms, New York].

Bassa [Liberia], 31 March 1841. Quarto bifolium (ca. 25x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked paper. Addressed and stamped on the second blank leaf, with the red stamp of New York post office endorsed with inscription “pr. Brig Mentor”. Fold marks with some splitting along folds, some splits repaired with archival tape, two holes on the second blank leaf after opening, but overall a very good letter.
Rare early missionary letter from Bassa written by Abraham Miller, a member of the first Presbyterian mission to Liberia. He was a native prince of the Liberian Kru tribe and spent nearly a year at school in America and returned home with a strong and sincere desire to be useful to his native Liberians. The letter is addressed to Rev. Daniel Wells, the treasurer and member of the executive committee of the Board of Presbyterian Foreign Missions.
In his letter Miller mentions other members of the mission Rev. Oren K. Canfield and Rev. Jonathan P. Alward, and describes one of the first meetings with the Kru people: "Some of the Kroo men come on the board on the sabath day I ask them can the Kroo children learn and he answers yes the Kroo children very well, then I tell them about the good this missionaries will do among to them, there we remain the few days at Monrovia and the people there received this brethren very well... The climate here is not very hot because soon the rain will commence. I hope God will spare my life in this country that I may do good among my country people, and I think the people who love the African ignorent [sic!] people, if they see their lives [?] it will make them be sorry much because they all were heathen and ignorent [sic!] people of knowing nothing about God and Jesus."
The Presbyterian mission to Western Africa included Rev. Canfied and Rev. Alward with wives, Mr. Abraham Miller, “coloured native Teacher” and Miss Cecilia Van Tyne, “coloured teacher.” They were sent “to the Kroos, a large tribe residing on the coast, about half way from Monrovia to cape Palmas” with the centre in the town of Settra-Kroo. “Abraham Miller, the native African Prince, after being ten months at school in this country returned with the brethen. He will still continue his studies with them, and from his intelligence, hopeful piety, and unabated desire of improvement, he promises to be greatly useful to people” (Fourth Annual Report of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. New York, 1841, p. 8-9).

 

36. [MANZANILLO, CUBA]
[Collection of Period Manuscript Copies of the Official Papers Compiled by Various Citizens of the City of Manzanillo, Cuba, Describing its History, Politics, and Topography].

[Manzanillo, ca. 1822]. Folio (ca. 31,5x21,5 cm). [49] leaves disbound from a stub. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper, legible handwriting in Spanish. Paper age toned, with light soiling and wear, some ink bleed; old stab holes in left margin. Overall a very good document.
Extensive collection of period manuscript copies of several important documents, compiled by various citizens of the port city of Manzanillo, located in the Granma Province of eastern Cuba, on the Gulf of Guacanayabo near the delta of the Cauto River. The documents include copies of petitions and contracts and contain important information on the history, politics, and economic development of Manzanillo. The notes relate to the city port upgrades, construction of sugar refineries, improvement of defense, Manzanillo’s natural resources and geography, and the further development of agriculture and commerce in the area. The city’s proximity to Santiago and the island of Jamaica are noted and described as an advantage for further developing the town, which at that time had twelve streets, 388 houses, and a population of about 2,700 people. The purpose of the petitions seems to be in the achievement of greater municipal autonomy and authority.
There is a copy of the census made by Miguel Fernandez, dated Dec. 2, 1819, which is broken down according to race, and whether the people in question were slaves or freemen. The document also relates a tale of six enemy insurgent ships landing and attacking the towns people, who successfully repelled them, on Oct. 7, 1819. It is asserted that these invaders were English – possibly some of the many English filibusterers, unemployed at the end of the Napoleonic Wars, who sailed for South America to participate in the revolutions underway there at that time. The document closes with the signature of Jose Imbluzqueta, Secretary, and a note dated March 5, 1822.

 

37. [MARQUESAS ISLANDS]
COLOMB, Joseph, Captain
[Two Autograph Letters Signed to Vice-Admiral Le Blanc and Admiral Guy-Victor Duperre discussing Colomb's Desire to be Sent to Serve France in the Marquesas Islands].

Both Rochefort, 27 and 28 December 1849. Each Large Octavo (ca. 25,5 x 19,5 cm). Each 2 pp. Brown ink on laid paper. Mild fold marks and creases, otherwise very good letters.
Two interesting letters giving an early mention of the French rule on the Marquesas Islands. The author, most likely addressing Vice-Admiral Le Blanc, Maritime Prefect of the Rochefort’s port, and Admiral Guy-Victor Duperré (1775-1846), tries to convince them to grant him an officer position in the French garrison on the Marquesas.
“Out of three regiments, of all adjutant captains, who live in France, I am one of the most senior officers, who has never been in the service in the colonies. Admiral, possibilities to go at war are very rare in the naval infantry, you may let me at least expose myself to some perils once my turn has come, and as I am entitled to it by right.” [from the letter to Le Blanc]
“In 1839, when you were the Minister of the Navy, it was in the most favourable manner that you welcomed a request of mine about a transfer from infantry regiments to the navy regiments <…> Admiral, that notable preferential treatment of yours makes me look for any opportunity to bring out greater services. A battalion has just been assigned to garrison in the Marquesas Islands. For a reason I cannot fathom out and contrary to orders, a captain adjutant-major, whose departure should not precede mine, has been appointed to join that battalion. I hold the most senior-ranking position of all adjutant-majors living in France and who have never served in the colonies. Either that right has been forgotten or it is not very well known. Admiral, the kindness you expressed in 1839 lets me hope that still today relying on your benevolent protection, I might get from the ministry a right of recall. Admiral Le Blanc, Rochefort's port admiral, to whom I forwarded my complaint through official channels, has allowed me to have it recognized.” [from the letter to Duperre].
"The American Maritime Fur Trader Joseph Ingraham first visited the northern Marquesas while commanding the brig Hope in 1791, giving them the name Washington Islands. In 1813, Commodore David Porter claimed Nuku Hiva for the United States, but the United States Congress never ratified that claim, and in 1842, France, following a successful military operation on behalf of a native chief (named Iotete) who claimed to be king of the whole of the island of Tahuata, took possession of the whole group, establishing a settlement (abandoned in 1859) on Nuku Hiva. French control over the group was re-established in 1870, and later incorporated into the territory of French Polynesia" (Wikipedia).

 

38. [MELBOURNE, EARLY IMMIGRATION]
[Autograph Letter Signed by a Farmer from the Surroundings of Melbourne to His Family in England, with a Description of his Stock and Business, and with a Request for the Purchase of Various Agricultural Tools for His Farm].

Hamilton Mill, 12 July 1858. Octavo bifolium (ca. 25x20,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on C. Harris laid paper watermarked “1853.” Fold marks, paper mildly soiled, but overall a very good letter.
Interesting extensive letter written by one Thomas (last name written, but illegible), a farmer who had immigrated to the country near Melbourne approximately two years prior. Addressed to his parents and siblings back in England, the letter informs the family that “I am still in the Mill yet, but doing very well, I have got all my brothers and sisters working to me…” He pays one of his brothers “£3 a week and all their rations so I think that is a very good change from £1 at home. <…> I have bought 100 acres of land, and my brother in law is managing it breaking it up into cultivation. I paid £2 per acre for it, I would not take £4 for acre for it. <…> I have eleven heads of cows and 10 working bullocks, and 4 horses, but I am about buying more bullocks and another mare, so that is all my stock at present. <…> You can tell James Turnbull of Spithal[?] that I am getting on very well and carring [sic!] a large business, some week turnover at £1000 per week <…> there is many ways in making money in Australia that a working man has not the Chance at home, so I am taking the chance and I hope I will have as good luck as I have had in last 2 years.” He then shares his hopes to “have a good bet of Money in the Bank” if the business is successful in the next two years and tells his father that he sent 300 pounds to them, with some of this money to be spent on various agricultural equipment for his farm: “two good strong wire plows [sic!], 11 winding machines for cleaning corn[?], they must be first class ones, 12 wheat plouges [sic!] 3 of them wire ones, 12 oats […?] all wood ones, 12 wire sives, 12 slogies all wood ones. There must be [durable?] set of metal works for the plough…” There is a detailed discussion of the way of processing the order and paying for it. He also conveys some family news, informs about deaths of relatives and adds a couple of lines about the weather in Australia: “Dear father, this is just the middle of winter in Australia when it will be the middle of summer at home. We here have a very fine winter…”
The letter is written with mistakes and the handwriting is not always easy to read, but it is an important example of a correspondence between early working class immigrants to Melbourne and their families back in England. Overall a very good content rich letter.

 

39. [NAPOLEONIC WARS]
[SMITH, Admiral Sir William Sidney] (1764-1840)
[Collection of Five Original Documents Related to the Career of Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith, Including a Naval Pass Signed by Smith as Minister Plenipotentiary at the Ottoman Porte and Commander of the British Naval Squadron in the Levant; Autograph Letter Signed by Smith to French General Duc de Maillé Regarding a Frenchman Relieved from Slavery in Algeria, and Three Other Original Notes and Letters Written by Smith or Addressed to Him; With: a Large Stipple Engraved Portrait of Smith printed on the same leaf with a Copper Engraved Scene of the Siege of Acre].

[Mediterranean] & Paris, ca. 1799, 1818, 1835-1838. Five documents of different size from Octavo (ca. 21,5x14 cm) to Folio (ca. 34,5x22,5 cm). In total 6 pp. of text. All documents in French. Brown ink on woven and laid paper, one note on decorative printed letterhead. Fold marks, paper slightly soiled and age toned, but overall a very good collection.
The portrait: London: Anthony Cardon, 1804. Stipple engraving by A. Cardon after the portrait by Rober Ker Porter. Printed on the same leaf with the “Siege of Acre” scene, engraved by James Mitan. Size of both images together: ca. 40x21 cm (15 ¾ x 8 ¼ in). Paper slightly soiled around edges, with minor creases on the right margin, otherwise a very good engraving.
Interesting collection of original manuscripts and a printed document authored by or addressed to Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith, famous British naval commander of the Napoleonic Wars. The earliest document dating ca. 1799 relates to the peak of Smith’s naval career – his service in the Mediterranean and successful defence of the fortress of Acre against the troops of Napoleon (20 March – 21 May 1799). The Siege of Acre was one of Napoleon’s few defeats and became the turning point in the French invasion of Egypt and Syria. The document is a naval pass, printed in French and signed by Smith who is titled as a Minister Plenipotentiary at the Ottoman Porte and a Commander of the British Naval Squadron in the Levant. The pass is unfilled, it bears an official Ottoman stamp, and a red wax seal under paper embossed with the British stamp; according to the note on the bottom margin it was issued by the order of Smith’s secretary John Keith. Noteworthy is the fact that Smith’s title given to him in 1799 and endowing him with both political and naval authority caused a conflict with his direct superiors Lord St. Vincent and Admiral Nelson.
Another interesting document is Smith’s recommendation letter written in 1818 and addressed to French General Charles-François-Armand, duc de Maillé (1770-1837). The letter discusses one Dumont, a French mariner who was released from slavery after being held captive in Algeria for many years. Smith asks for a possibility of a pension for Dumont, sharing his impression of the mariner: “His story is so simple and so detailed, his character even if simple, is so candid and truthful in all that I could check of him, that I have no doubt that he had been a castaway as he says on the coast of Africa onboard the Corvette Le Lievre, then a boy of 14 years of age, and a servant to the aide-de-camp of Mr. Duc de Maille…” The letter illustrates Smith’s active involvement in the anti-slavery and anti-piracy movement against the Barbary pirates of the southern Mediterranean in the 1810s.
Among the other documents related to the time of Smith’s residence in Paris later in life, is a manuscript note from Smith requesting for an audience with the Minister of Foreign Affairs regarding an urgent and important matter; a note to one “Mr. Sasa” who “has been invited by Admiral Sir Sidney Smith to review some lifesaving machines of his own inventions <…> He has also been granted permission to bring along with him some acquaintances of his who might take an interest in those devices” (dated 1838 and signed “W.S.S.”), as well as a letter to Smith, from his friend, apparently a free-mason who was unable to attend a gathering in the lodge owing to professional duties. Overall an interesting collection from the archive of a renowned hero of the Napoleonic Wars.
"Admiral Sir William Sidney Smith was the British admiral of whom Napoleon Bonaparte said, "That man made me miss my destiny" (Wikipedia).

 

40. [NAPOLEONIC WARS]
COUTINHO, Domingos António de Sousa, 1st Conde and Marquis de Funchal (1760-1833).
[Manuscript Document by a Notable Portuguese Diplomat, Reporting on Napoleon's 1800 Campaign in Italy, including the Battle of Marengo].

Livorno, 6 July 1800. Folio (36,5x24 cm). 10 leaves stitched together over pink ribbons; pink stitching in gutter mostly gone. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper, text in Portuguese. Leaves 1-7 and the table of contents on verso of the last leaf written in neat and legible secretarial hand, leaves 8-9 – by Sousa Coutinho, with his name at the bottom of leave 9 (recto). With a leaf of a French manuscript text loosely inserted. Paper slightly age toned and with mild creases, but overall a very good manuscript.
This manuscript report by a prominent Portuguese diplomat D. Domingo Antonio de Sousa Coutinho deals with Napoleon's 1800 campaign in Italy, including the siege of Genoa and the Battle of Marengo and its aftermath. The author, as a diplomat, was focused on the manoeuvrings that resulted in the Convention of Alexandria signed the day after the Battle of Marengo by Napoleon and Austrian General Michael von Melas. By the Convention, Austria ceded all Italy above the Mincio River to the French. Sousa Coutinho reports more briefly on the activities of the British fleet and military manoeuvres in various towns and regions of Northern Italy (Lucca, Bologna, Florence, Genoa, and elsewhere). These observations were made in the author's capacity as special envoy to the Court at Naples. There is a rather vague single-line reference (f. 2r) to "Mylord Nelson, Cavalheiro Hamilton e Miladi sua mulher".
The leaf laid in, in French, begins "Traduction literalle. J'ai reçu et mis sous les yeux de S.A.R. La Prince Regent notre Maitre votre Depeche." It relays orders to give "deux millions de Livres en pieces Portuguaises de 6.400 à la disposition du Gouvernement François."
D. Domingos António de Sousa Coutinho, a Portuguese diplomat and political figure, represented Portugal in Turin (1796-1803). Brother of D. Rodrigo de Sousa Coutinho, the first Conde de Linhares, he served for many years, with distinction, as Portuguese ambassador to the Court of St. James (1803-1814) and to Rome (1814-1818). In the civil war that was raging when he died, he lent his considerable support to D. Maria II. A member of the Academia Real das Sciencias de Lisboa and author of numerous works on diplomatic and political questions, he was responsible for the publication of the periodical “Investigador Português” in London, a counter blast to the “Correio Brasiliens”, edited by Hipólito José da Costa. From February 26 to July 4, 1821 he served as regent for the absent D. João VI. Sousa Coutinho was created Conde de Funchal in 1808 by the future D. João VI, acting as Prince Regent for his mother D. Maria I. Shortly before his death in England in 1833, he was made Marquês de Funchal by D. Pedro, former Emperor of Brazil, acting as regent for his daughter D. Maria II.
See Afonso Eduardo Martins Züquete, ed., “Nobreza de Portugal e do Brazil”, II, 629; also “Grande enciclopédia” XI, 964-5.

 

41. [NEWFOUNDLAND]
OMMANNEY, Erasmus Austin, Commander, RN (1850-1938)
[Collection of Twelve Autograph Letters Signed to His Father and Mother (Including two letters by his Superiors), Related to His Naval Service in the West Indies and Quebec, and with Travel Notes about Halifax and Saint John’s, Newfoundland].

Various locations: Gosport Royal Academy, HMS Britannia, Chew Magna, HMS Aurora (at Port Royal and Quebec), SS Hibernian, Halifax, SS Alpha, St. Thomas (Barbados), 1 April 1863 – [26 June 1876]. Twelve Octavo letters (from ca. 18x11,5 cm to ca. 21x13,5 cm). In all 67 pp. of text. Brown or black ink on letter paper (white, blue or green); ten letters by E.A. Ommanney and two by his superiors. Fold marks, some letters weak on folds, with minor tears; two with traces from old staples being removed. Overall a very good collection.
Twelve autograph letters related to the naval career of Commander Erasmus Austin Ommanney, a son of distinguished Arctic explorer Admiral Sir Erasmus Ommanney (1814-1904), who commanded the "Assistance" on the first Franklin Relief Expedition of 1850 and was responsible for discovering the first traces of Franklin's party. Covering the period of thirteen years, the letters contain interesting notes about Quebec, Saint John’s (Newfoundland), Halifax, and naval service in the West Indies.
Nine early letters date back to the time of Ommanney’s studies in the Gosport Royal Academy (1863) and his service as a midshipman on HMS Britannia and Aurora (1864-1867), including a superior’s note about him successfully having passed the summer exam (16th out of 64; 1863); and news of him becoming a midshipman “with a first class certificate, <…> a good conduct certificate and a gold compass” (Sept. 30, 1864). Two letters written on board HMS Aurora tell about his service in the West Indies - Barbados, Trinidad, La Guaira (Venezuela) and Port Royal (Jamaica), with a detailed description of the recovery of the wreck of HMS Bulldog which ran aground near Cap-Haitien in 1865, whilst attacking the port as part of a punitive raid against local revolutionaries. The recovery was conducted using “diving dresses;” and later Ommanney went on shore to witness the destruction of the city: “the shot had great effect upon the town, the houses knocked about a great deal <…> The forts are in ruins, the guns are in a most ludicrous state, some turned right over others on their sides & I should not care to be close to them when they were fired off as I think they might chance to burst, they look so rotten” (March 18, 1866).
Three letters written while a midshipman on HMS Aurora stationed in Quebec contain an interesting description of Ommanney’s ten-day trip “into the woods,” down the Murray River to the Murray Bay (La Malbaie, north shore of St. Lawrence River). The party of three went down the river in bark canoes, accompanied by four Indians, slept in wigwams and enjoyed “capital fishing” and “magnificent scenery <…> we were sitting in canoes being moved along quickly but swiftly among tremendous high steep mountains, they were like a lot of “Gibraltars” all together, but thickly wooded.”
The letter from Ommanney’s superior on HMS Aurora informed his father that he had received a first class certificate and had been sent temporarily to a gunboat “Prince Albert” stationed between Windsor and Sarnia on the Great Lakes, “as it is expected that the Fenians intend giving some more trouble out here.”
Three letters written by Ommanney in May-June 1876, during his travel to his new ship - HMS Rover stationed in Port Royal (Jamaica), have some distinct notes on Saint John’s (Newfoundland) and Halifax. The houses in St. John’s “are of wood and very irregularly built, the streets are badly paved & very dirty and a strong smell of fish pervades the whole place; whalers and seal ships come here a great deal.” When entering St. John’s harbour Ommanney’s steamboat struck an iceberg, and “fortunately no damage was done <…> it only grazed along the side. It had such a peculiar appearance, with the light shining on it <…> Female passengers were greatly agitated & thought their last moments had arrived.”
“I find Halifax very dull & it seems quite different to what I remember it in former days <…> The country is not very pretty, all the trees seem so stunted, the roads are disgraceful everywhere, both town & country <…> Fog seems to be the great feature of the place, it has hardly been fine one whole day since I have been here.”
The collection is supplemented with a later card inscribed by E.A. Ommanney’s son, stating that it was his father who found relics of Franklin’s expedition while on board Aurora under Sir Leopold McClintock. In fact, it was E.A. Ommanney’s father, Sir Erasmus, who found the first Franklin relics while commanding HMS ‘Assistance’ on Horatio Austin’s Admiralty search for Franklin in 1850.
Ommanney was appointed to HMS corvette “Rover,” Commander Thomas Barnardiston, on 28 April 1876 (The Navy List, Corrected to the 20 June 1877. London: John Murray, 1877, p. 169). He retired from the navy with the rank of Commander in 1879. He took Holy Orders in 1883, serving his ministry as a vicar in the South seas.

 

42. [NORTHWEST PASSAGE]
[Collection of Four Related Autograph Letters Signed by John Franklin, Frederick William Beechey, John Richardson and John D. Hunter, Apparently Addressed to Nicholas Garry, Deputy Governor of the Hudson’s Bay Company).

Four ALS, all dated by days of the week but without a year, but 1824. Three Small Octavos (ca. 18x11,5 cm), and one small note ca. 9,5x11 cm. Each 1 page, brown ink on paper. One with a pencil written list of names on verso. All with old identical guards on verso, indicating that the letters were mounted together in an album. Very good letters.
An interesting collection of original letters by noted Arctic explorers, apparently all related to meetings to make preparations for the 1824-25 voyages to find the Northwest Passage. Three letters were written by the members of two corresponding expeditions to the region: John Franklin and John Richardson, who explored the shores of the Arctic Ocean west and east of the Coppermine River in 1825-1827, and Frederick William Beechey, who explored the Bering Strait from the west in 1825-1828, in an attempt to meet Franklin’s expedition. In his letter Franklin also mentions George Francis Lyon who was to sail on HMS Griper to the Repulse Bay in June 1824. The author of the fourth letter, John D. Hunter, also mentioned in Franklin’s letter as a participant of one of the meetings, was apparently an organiser or a member of one of those expeditions. Dated by days of the week, the letters refer to several meetings in March 1824. John Richardson’s letter was written at “55 Devonshire Street,” which was John Franklin’s London address.
Beechey’s and Hunter’s letters are addressed to “Mr. Garry,” most likely Nicholas Garry (ca. 1782-1856), deputy governor of the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1822-1835. Fort Garry (now Winnipeg) was founded and named after him in 1822. Several places in the Northwest Passage were named after him during the expedition season of 1825-27. John Franklin gave his name to the Garry Island in the delta of the Mackenzie River “for all his active kindness and indefatigable attention to the comfort of myself and my companions” (Franklin, J. Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea, 1825, 1826, and 1827. London, 1828, p. 36). William Parry named Cape Garry in the Somerset Island, Prince Regent Inlet “after by worthy friend Nicholas Garry, Esq., one of the most active members of the Hudson’s Bay Company, and a gentleman most warmly interested in everything connected with northern discovery” (Parry, W. Journal of a Third Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific; Performed in the Years 1824-25 in His Majesty's Ships Hecla and Fury. London, 1826, p. 140).
In his letter to Mr. Garry, John D. Hunter also mentions “Mr. Halkett”, who was most likely, John Halkett (1768-1852), director of the HBC and a member of its London Committee.
The texts of the letters:
Franklin: “My dear Sir, I shall have great pleasure in joining your party on Thursday the 25th but you must let me off early as I am engaged to an Evening party. I was just going to write to you when your note came, to say Mrs. Franklin and I will be glad to have the pleasure of your company at dinner on Tuesday 30th March at six. I hope Mr. Hunter will be with us also. I will send your letter to Capt. Lyon and I shall probably take the opportunity of seeing Parry tomorrow. Ever sincerely & faithfully yours, John Franklin. Tuesday Eveng.”
Richardson: “Dear Sir, I shall with much pleasure dine with you on Wednesday next at 7. I am dear Sir yours sincerely, John Richardson. Saturday, 55 Devonshire Street.”
Beechey: “Captain Beechey presents his compliments to Mr. Garry and will have the pleasure of accepting his polite invitation for the 6th inst. Harley Street, March 21st.”
Hunter: “I sincerely thank you my dear Mr. Garry for the book you were kind enough to send me, but my engagements will I fear render it out of my power to read it through. I will dine with you on Tuesday if I return from Brighton in time. I shall start at 11 this morning, & contemplate to return on Monday evening, I am much pleased to hear that among other friends Mr. Halkett will be one. Believe me very sincerely yours &c. John D. Hunter. Saturday morning.”

 

43. [NOVA SCOTIA]
TAILER, Gillam, Assistant Commissary at Passamaquoddy, New Brunswick
[Official Report Signed “Gillam Tailer” to Major General John Campbell, “Commanding His Majesty’s Troops in the Province of Nova Scotia,” Regarding Lack of Provisions for the Loyalist Troops and Residents in Passamaquoddy].

N.p., n.d. Ca. after May 1784. Folio (ca. 32x20 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on C. Taylor watermarked laid paper. Numbered in ink in different hand in the upper left corner. Fold marks, tears on extremities and along the folds, paper aged, worn, and with some soiling, but overall a very good letter written in legible hand.
Interesting report about the early years of St. Andrews, New Brunswick, compiled shortly after the end of the American Revolutionary War. The Assistant Commissary at Passamaquoddy Gillam Tailer informs Major John Campbell (ca. 1727-1974) of the lack of provisions and extreme distress experienced by the disbanded corps in the settlement, and implores Campbell to provide adequate food and relief to the people: “many of the settlers there are reduced to the most Extreme Distress having neither Provision or Clothing, and some of them have no other sustenance than Water, and have not strength to help themselves; <…> those Settleres have never Received any Meat, for the Sixty Days Extra allowance which was Graciously intended, and that 2600 weight of the Flour which was sent from St. John’s intended to be delivered to your memorialist, was issued at Bever [sic!] Harbour before it got to his hand, by which means the Settlers at St. Andrews and that District fell short that quantity of the Flour for the Sixty days. Your memorialist humbly prays you would take the Very Deplorable Case of these unhappy people into your Consideration and order such Relief as may be in your Power to Grant.”

 

44. [PACIFIC STATION]
BRUCE, Sir Henry William, Admiral (1792-1863)
[Collection of 32 Autograph Letters Signed “Henry Bruce”, Including 16 Complete, Addressed to his Daughter Jane, the wife of a RN Officer John Alexander, Discussing Bruce’s Appointment to the RN Pacific Station, Crimean War, Various Naval Topics, South American Affairs, and Social News; with Four Original Envelopes and a Letter to Bruce from his Friends in Santiago Inviting him for Dinner].

London, Oxenford, Liverpool, HMS “Monarch” et al., ca. 1854-1859. Of those dated: 31 May 1858 – 20 December 1859. With four original envelopes, two with postal stamps dated ‘1848’ and ‘1852’. 12mo. In total over 120 pages of text. Brown and black ink on different writing paper (white, pale blue, laid paper). With a large folded undated letter to Bruce from his friends in Santiago (ca. 1854-57). Sixteen of the thirty-two letters incomplete, fold marks, paper of some letters slightly age toned, otherwise a very good collection.
Interesting collection of private letters written by Admiral Sir Henry William Bruce, KCB, a Commodore of the RN West African station in the early 1850s, Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Station (25 November 1854 – 8 July 1857), and Commander-in-Chief in Portsmouth (since 1860). During his service on the West coast of Africa, Bruce took part in the Bombardment of Lagos (1851) and signed the Treaty between Great Britain and Lagos suppressing the slave trade (1 January 1852). When the Commander-in-Chief of the Royal Navy Pacific Station, Bruce initiated the construction of a military hospital in Esquimalt which became the first on-shore establishment of the Esquimalt Royal Navy base; which in its turn became the headquarters of the Pacific Station in 1865.
The collection includes Bruce’s private letters to his daughter Jane Letitia Troubridge Alexander (nee Bruce) written during his service at the Pacific Station and after his return; the Admiral confides to Mrs. Alexander his plans and thoughts, and shares the latest news from the British navy and high society.
The earliest letters written in 1854 announce Bruce’s appointment to the Pacific Station: "I have got the Pacific Command and must go by the next W. Indies packet and over the Isthmus. The packets are now uncertain being taken up for Troops. The Brisk is to sail from Portsmouth in a few days; will Alexander [Jane’s husband, a naval officer, see more below] like to go in her round the Horn or to accompany me? <…> The Indefatigable is to be my Flagship <…> Your loving father Henry Bruce Pacificus" (undated, incomplete). “I am to proceed on the 9 Decr. In the Cunard Steamer which goes direct to New York from Liverpool, where it is desirable that I should see Mr. Crampton (the English Minister) and thence to Panama, Alexander will accompany me…” (25 Nov. [1854]).
The second letter also contains an interesting note on the Crimean War and the fate of Sir Thomas St. Vincent Hope Cochrane Troubridge, who was severely wounded during the Battle of Inkerman: “I send you Col. Egerton’s account of St. Vincent. He was not with his Regt. Being Field Officer of the day on duty in a battery; he was sitting with his legs crossed, a round shot came and torn off both feet and part of one leg; he was operated on immediately under the influence of chloroform most successfully, and Graham saw him “so patient, so noble, and so brave, it brought tears to his eyes”; tho’ just come from tending his own numerous wounds. <…> St. Vincent himself writes that one foot will be saved. <…> The Russians seem to have had enough for a time".
Another letter relates to his service as the Commander-in-Chief of the Pacific Station: “The Trincomalee has gone on from Hilo bay; the Packet is expected on Tuesday, and is of importance for Public News; the Monarch will await the mail here and then proceed direct to Vancouver Is.” (ca. 1855-1858).
Several letters relate to various South American affairs – “Castilla has landed in safely and […] in full pursuit of […]" (undated, regarding the Ecuadorian-Peruvian territorial dispute of 1857-60); “Logan tells me that Loyd is reinstalled in the Railway &c. Which shews good sense on the part of the Chilean Govt. That […?] Petrie managed to displace Roses; Logan went to the Comy. Here about it, and told them Rose was the most valuable servant of the two; he was told he came too late, but that Petrie must be at Callao, not Valpo. As he intended” (19 November 1858; regarding the Lima and Callao Railway Company); regrets about not being able to go to Lima - “my correspondence much increased by the late events” (undated, written on board HMS “Monarch”).
Other subjects include promotion of Jane’s husband John Richard Alexander (31 May 1858); naval career of Bruce’s youngest son “Jimmy” (future Rear Admiral James Minchin Bruce, 1833-1901); Bruce’s intentions to ask for a flagship “in the beginning of the next year” (20 December 1859); naval promotions, movements and deaths, i.e. “Fremantle gets the Channel fleet: a very bad and favouritism appointment. I am very glad it is not me,” “I see Tryon is appointed second of the Queen’s yacht…”; “If Alexander is not perfectly satisfied of the soundness of the ship, he ought to give her up and return to seek[?]; and not burthen himself with the responsibility of the valuable lives of so many men"; criticism of the Admiralty; Lord Palmerston "was twice in minorities, but they say will not retire”; notes about numerous social events – balls, “fetes,” dinners, pleasure trips; social gossip; family news; doesn't want to visit a house when "old Mother Stinkpot" is there; and others. One letter is supplemented with a poem praising life in Lamington written by Bruce; another one – with his humorous self-portrait made in ink.
John Richard Alexander (1829-1869) was a British naval officer and a flag lieutenant to Henry Bruce in 1852-54 (HMS Penelope, West African station) and in 1854-57 (HMS President and HMS Monarch, Pacific Station). In the early 1860s he was appointed the Captain of the screw sloop HMS Ariel off the coast of Africa. Alexander married Bruce’s daughter Jane in Sierra Leone in 1853.

 

45. [PENNSYLVANNIA HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES]
[Very Attractive Original Manuscript Autograph Book of Members the Pennsylvania House of Representatives Titled in Calligraphy:] Autographs of the Members and Officers of the Members and Officers of the Legislature of Pennsylvania, Session 1843. Designed by J. A. Reigart for Mr. Isaac G. McKinley, State Printer.

1843. Large Octavo (ca. 21x16,5 cm). Ca. 100 leaves. Ca. 40 unnumbered leaves of autographs, some leaves with hand drawn coloured vignettes and decorative borders for the autographs in calligraphy, and additionally illustrated with four steel engraved city views and one page with two lithographed oval portraits of James K. Polk and George M. Dallas. Attractive period brown elaborately gilt and blind stamped full straight grained sheep. Expertly rebacked in style, first few leaves with very mild water staining but overall a near fine autograph book. Originally bound by Hickok & Cantine Binders, Harrisburg, P.A., with their blind stamp on the front pastedown.
Original Manuscript Autograph Book of Members the Pennsylvania House of Representatives, Including the Autograph of Pennsylvania's Ninth Governor David R. Porter (1788-1867), and the Autographs of the Electors who Voted for James K. Polk in 1844.
An important piece of Pennsylvania Legislature history, an album signed by the state's representatives from each county, during the 1843 session. Also signed by the Electors who voted for the James K. Polk, in 1844. The City of Philadelphia and then Philadelphia County are the first two pages, each signed by 7 and 8 representatives respectively. Most notably signed by David R. Porter, the ninth Governor of Pennsylvania from 1839-1845 and his chief staff. Porter was the first Governor under the State Constitution of 1838. He was elected for two terms, and was denied a third term by the Legislature. Porter was a proponent of improving roads and canals to expedite transport of iron works, an industry in which he was a financier and manager prior to politics. The state went into heavy debt as a result of his aggressive spending, but eventually recovered.

 

46. [PICTURESQUE VIEWS - SOUTH COAST OF ENGLAND]
COOKE, William Bernard (1778-1855)
[Autograph Letter Signed “W. Cooke” to His Mother with Interesting Notes about the Napoleonic Wars and Illustrated with a Large Beautiful Ink Drawing of St. Mawes, Cornwall].

St. Mawes, Sunday, 29 November 1812. Octavo (ca. 23x18,5 cm). 4 pp., with text on the upper third parts of pages only. Brown ink on paper, with a large double-page ink sketch of St. Mawes on pp. 2 and 3. Addressed, sealed and with postal marks on the last page. Mild fold marks, minor tear and chip on the second leaf after opening not affecting the text, otherwise a very good letter.
Beautiful illustrated letter by prominent British engraver William Bernard Cooke, with interesting notes about the War between Britain and France (1803-1814) and a large drawing of St. Mawes, preceding Cooke’s famous series of the “Picturesque Views on the Southern Coast of England” (48 etchings, 1814-1826). The letter was addressed to his mother, Anna Maria White (d. 1821) and describes Cooke’s stay in St. Mawes with his wife “Bethy” - Elizabeth Blundstone (d. 1830). He talks about his illness, an invitation from his brother Samuel to come to Spain (but it is too late in winter for travelling, so Cooke will not go); and notes that “the trading Vessels the same kind as we came with were lately taken by the French between Falmouth & Plymouth. I don’t know how we shall get home again, for Bethy has the greatest aversion by Sea and by land it is so extravagantly dear that it would cost us 25 d. To London.”
Most part of the central spread is occupied by a beautiful ink drawn view of St. Mawes, “entirely done from Memory, but has <…> rece’d the greatest approbation of several I have shewn it to on account of its likeness of the Place; we can only see from our Window St. Anthony’s Point, the open Sea and the distant view of the Manacles. You must suppose yourself upon a high hill much above St. Mawes and looking down upon the whole.”
Cook describes the view: “In the foreground is St. Mawes, the House with the Chimney smoaking [sic!] is the one we live in. A fleet is going off with convoy for the Mediterranean, in one of the ships suppose myself, and Bethy near the castle waving her handkerchief, taking leave of me <…> . A Train of Buoys are in the middle of the Harbour to denote the deep Water. 15 fathom. Men of War go a great Way up the Harbour on the night. Where the Packet is firing a Gun as the Signal of departure for passengers on Shore – is called the Roads.”
He also notes that the number of birds drawn by him in different groups relates to specific objects in the view, and explains: [1 bird]. The Pier of St. Mawes; [2 birds]. One of the Seine Boats. A Seine is a Net of extraordinary size, which will surround 18 Hundred hogsheads of live Fish at one Time; [3 birds]. St. Anthony’s Point, it joins the mainland at about a mile up, forming a Creek or Small River; [4 birds]. The Manacle Rocks. The Lizard is situated just beyond them. St. Keverne Church us on the Top; [5 birds]. Pendennis Castle, firing a salute on my Father’s birthday; [6 birds]. Falmouth, a large Dot on the Hill near the Church is Mr. Blundstone’s Tomb Stone; [7 birds]. Penryn. Just below Penryn, a few Roofs of Houses are seen, on the other side the Hill. This is Flushing.” Overall a beautiful artistic letter with interesting information on the Napoleonic Wars.

 

47. [PORTUGAL]
WEST, Charles Augustus, Lt.-Col. (1766-1854)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Augustus West” to Lord Beresford concerning the Latest Affairs of the War of Two Brothers in Portugal].

Paris, 15 May 1829. Quarto (ca. 23x18,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Fold marks and centre folds with small tears on the outer margins (on folds) not affecting the text, otherwise a very good letter.
A letter with an important diplomatic report on the development of the conflict between the liberal and absolutist parties in Portugal during the War of Two Brothers (1828-1834). The author, Lt. Col. Charles Augustus West was a British military officer who saw active service in Ireland, Holland, Egypt, Germany, Denmark, Portugal and Spain, winning an additional clasp for his bravery at the Battle of Talavera (1809). In 1811 he became Lieut. Governor of Landguard Fort (near Harwich) and since then seems to have been engaged in the affairs of Europe.
“William Carr Beresford, Viscount Beresford (1768-1854) was a British general and Portuguese marshal prominent in the (Iberian) Peninsular War of 1808-14. General Sir Arthur Wellesley, the future Duke of Wellington, chose him to reorganize the Portuguese army, in which Beresford was given the rank of marshal (March 7, 1809). He served Portugal until 1819, being successively created count, marquess, and duke in that country’s peerage. During Wellington’s first prime ministry he was master general of the ordnance (1828-30)” (Encyclopaedia Britannica).
“The M. De Palmella called on me yesterday to thank me for my attention to his unfortunate sister - he talked a good deal about Portugal of times past and present and he wanted to know how things were now going on there and particularly in the Palace and alluding to the quarrel between D.M. [Dom Miguel] and his sister [infanta Isabel Maria]. It appears to me that the plan was to get the Princess to escape, either in a French or in an English vessel and I have reason to believe that the great emigration from Portugal of many of the families and others was a planned thing from the beginning and all done by the same party - but now I see that a great many would be rejoiced to return to Portugal tomorrow and would return if there was an amnesty - many of those that are here are in great distress and Parati will in a few days be without a soul. Abrantes denies me to say anything to gain Lordship for him, but he is as violent as ever. Villa Flor is again returned to London – he merely came here with his wife & I suppose to receive instructions. I am told he goes as Governor to Terceira. The M. De Valenca has also left Paris for London & in great want of money. Joao Carlos de Saldanha is gone to Calais for his wife & it appears he and his family are completely opposed now to the M. De Palmella. I have called on poor Alva but I have not seen him since the death of his wife his head is not right & he wanders a good deal…”.
The War of the Two Brothers was between Dom Pedro & Dom Miguel, sons of Dom John king of Brazil and Portugal. Leaving his eldest son to govern Brazil, Dom John reluctantly returned to Portugal having fled to Brazil during the Napoleonic Campaigns. His wife Carlota Joaquina and younger son Dom Miguel refused to swear an oath to uphold the constitution. Dom John died in 1826 having made no provision for the succession, his daughter Maria Isabel was named Regent. When his older brother refused to return to the throne of Portugal, declaring Brazil independent and himself as the first Emperor, renouncing the Portuguese throne in favour of his daughter Maria da Gloria provided she marry her uncle, Dom Miguel took that opportunity to foment the feeling against his brother. In 1827 he was appointed Regent and King in 1828. Only the island of Terceira in the Azores remained loyal to Maria da Gloria and declared a Regency in June 1829. West gives notice in this letter, dated the month before, that Villa Flor, later Duke of Terceira, is off to the island presumably to effect that declaration.

 

48. [PORTUGUESE CIVIL WAR, 1828-1834]
[BADCOCK, Sir Lovell Benjamin, General, KH, KCB] (1786-1861)
[Collection of Three Autograph Letters, Written by, Addressed to or Mentioning Badcock, and Closely Related to the Events of the Portuguese Civil War in Which Badcock was a Military Reporter].

1832-1834. Three ALS, two Folios and one Octavo. In all 9 pp. of text. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper or writing paper. Fold marks, paper of one letter slightly age toned, otherwise a very good collection.
The collection includes:
1) Autograph letter written in secretarial hand and signed by Henry Unwin Addington, addressed to Lovell Badcock. With Addington’s additional P.S. Note in the end. St. Ildefonso [Spain], 26 August 1832. Folio (ca. 31x20 cm). 4 pp.
2) Anonymous letter of a British official about the latest events of the Portuguese Civil War mentioning a report by Badcock. Lisbon, 4 Jun. 1833. Quarto (ca. 25x20 cm). 3 pp.
3) Autograph Letter Signed by Badcock, probably to his superior Lord William Russell. London, 23 May 1834. Folio (ca. 32,5x20 cm). 2 pp.
In his letter to Badcock Henry Unwin Addington (1790-1870), then a British ambassador to the Spanish court in Madrid, talks about the latest events after the recent embarkation of the fleet of Dom Pedro, one of the contestants of the Civil War, on the Portuguese coast near Porto and his capture of the city. Addington informs his correspondent about the preparations of the Spanish troops and naval forces to intervene into the Portuguese affairs. “… the Count d’Alcudia has announced to me that it may be deemed necessary by his Government to exact it by force, namely by marching Spanish troops into Portugal and by placing Spanish ships of war before Oporto. <…> The movements which you report exactly coincide with those which the Count d’Alcudia had previously announced to me <…> We … stand in a critical position, and it is therefore necessary to exert every possible vigilance to prevent a surprise; or to meet it if it should come upon us <…>”
The second, anonymous letter was written by a British resident of Lisbon, then under control of the Miguelite forces and shorty before its capture by the Liberal troops of Dom Pedro. “We are here in the same state looking to you to relieve us as you seem to be looking to foreign intervention, so I fear we should look till Providence relieves us. I see no other chance, unless your new French general does something to get you out of Oporto, indeed in my opinion it is of the greatest importance that Dom Pedro should now gain some military success for it would incline the Court of Spain to listen to M. Stratford Canning’s proposition, <…> so convinced are they of his ultimate failure… What a misfortune that the Algarva expedition never took place, I am told there is not a soldier in that Country, that a final body of troops might march to the south bank of the Tagus… But there is neither energy nor enterprise in your friends. <…> Dom Pedro seems to be surrounded & governed by such fools & rogues that I take less interest in his course every day. But the tyranny that oppresses this Country cannot be endured, here people are growing heartily sick of it and the wish for the abdication of Miguel increases every day. It is said that Mr. St. Canning is to propose Da. Maria mutual conception, this is the best thing to do, for I see no men fit to govern this unfortunate Country, nor the material for making two Chambers. Portugal must be governed by force for some time to come”.
The last letter written by Badcock and apparently addressed to his superior, Lord William Russell (1767-1840), gives a brief report of the former’s service during the Portuguese Civil War: “Having lately returned from Portugal & Spain, where I have been serving two years under your Lordship’s Command, I beg to solicit your favour to endeavour to obtain for me, from His Majesty’s Government, some remuneration or reward for my services during that period, in which I believe I met with your Lordship’s appropriation as also that of Mr. Addington, the then Minister at the Court of Madrid.
I need not recall to Your Lordship the disagreeable as well as perilous situations in which at different times I have been placed, passing thro’ a country excited by Civil War. The remaining 4 Months with the Spanish army, considered by them as an enemy & exposed to all the jealousy of the Spanish Authorities. And for which I received the thanks of the Minister at Madrid. On my return to Portugal from Spain proceeded immediately to Porto & remained there during the Siege, from the beginning of Jany. 1833 till the end of it in July. And present at most of the affairs that took place between the contending parties.
On my return from Porto repeatedly employed in writing and reporting upon the armies before Santarim[?] and latterly to the Algarvas &c., during which periods exposed not only to the fire of the contending parties, but also to pestilence & famine <…> I have mentioned remuneration or reward in the body of my letter, but I beg your Lordship to understand that, as a Military man, I should value some mark of my Sovereign’s approbation, conveying professional distinction beyond any other”.
Overall an interesting collection of informative letters giving an inside into the British prospective on the Portuguese Civil War (1828-1834)

 

49. [PRUSSIA]
FREDERICK I, King in Prussia (1657-1713)
[Letter Signed "Frideric" Dated Colln on the Spree 29 December 1707 and addressed to the provincial government in Koenigsberg (East Prussia). The Mayor, Councillors, Judges, Merchants etc. of Kneiphof-Konigsberg (East Prussia) wanted to create a widows and orphans fund and had asked for the King's consent. This letter is a reply stating the King consents with pleasure but asks the initiators to work out the project in writing and then send it to the him for examination and approval. Counter-signed by a brother of the discredited Eberhard von Danckelmann (1643-1722) who served as Prime Minister of Brandenburg-Prussia from 1692-97].

29 December 1707. Folio (32.5 x 20.5cm). Two pages in dark brown ink on a bifolium of laid paper. Medium hole from opening, not affecting the text, remnants of wax seal, otherwise a very good letter.
This letter is a good example of the positive activities undertaken during the reign of Frederick I as he was also a patron of the arts. The Akademie der Künste in Berlin was founded by Frederick in 1696, as was the Academy of Sciences in 1700 (Wikipedia).

 

50. [QUR'AN (KORAN)]
[Arabic Qur'an of 303 Leaves plus one Initial Flyleaf on Fine Burnished Paper].

Amasya, Turkey, 1739. Small Octavo (17 x12cm). 15 lines to the page, written in naskh script in black ink, verses separated by gold roundels pointed in blue and red, surah headings in red ink framed in gold borders decorated with floral motifs in gold, blue and red; margins ruled in red, black, and gold frames and frequently illuminated with blue, red and gold marginal floral or other devices and red or black catchwords; opening illuminated double-page frontispiece composed of layers of blue, gold and red interlacing flowers surrounding 3-part title block lettered in black with floating gold clouds, upper and lower gold, red and green rectangles of white lettering on gold. Colophon in round cartouche of gold. Original reddish brown richly gilt decorated full morocco wallet style binding. Rebacked and cornered in later morocco preserving original covers. Overall in very good condition.
The colophon leaf identifies the illuminator as Khalil bin Sulaiman al-Akhanahwi, the scribe as 'Uthman al-Said al-Haj Muhammad H[i]lmi in the village (baldah) of Amasya (Turkey), and that the Qur'an was owned by his teacher al-Said Hassan ibn al-Said Muhammad ibn [al-]Halil, 1152 AH/1739 AD. Overall a very attractive Qur'an.

 

51. [RIO DE JANEIRO]
[Autograph Letter in French from a Young French Cotton Merchant in Rio de Janeiro to his Father, Signed “J.H. Laine,” with the latest News about the Brazilian Market].

Rio de Janeiro, 20 September 1816. Quarto (ca. 25,5x19,5 cm). 3 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper, addressed and sealed on the 4th page. With a period ink inscription in another hand on the 1st page. Small hole on the 3rd page after opening, not affecting the text, otherwise a very good letter.
An interesting letter from a young French merchant in Rio de Janeiro addressed to his father who is also his business partner. In the beginning he outlines the most efficient way of sending correspondence to Rio de Janeiro – via a British packet boat which “leaves on the first day of each month from Falmouth and reaches us in about fifty days.” Then the author complains that the “trade is still very bad here. I would have sold all the cheap things if we haven’t badly done the invoice”. He complains that because of the mistake in the invoice they received “rouge de theatre” instead of “porcelaine [?]”, and it can’t be sold [apparently talking about different colour of fabrics]. Then follows the contents of the invoice, supplemented with a note that “in this country they don’t use red, and the theatre being closed we can’t get rid of it”. The young merchant also mentions trade ships from Bordeaux and hopes that there won’t be too many of them loaded with luxury goods. He notes that sugar, as well as leather and coffee is expensive in Brazil, and then proceeds: “If you want to send me cheap things please don’t send me tobacco and wine, because the former is considered smuggling and very difficult to import, and the second is a very unprofitable article along with all sort of fragrance”. In the end he asks his father for at least 300 francs to buy a horse which is absolutely necessary here. “We live 1 and a half lieue from the city, as I’m obliged to go very often, summer will start here, and the heat is extremely strong; but I can’t go to town often without becoming sick”. Overall a letter in rich content about early French trade in Rio de Janeiro.
The author is most likely a relative of noted French admiral Pierre Jean Honorat Laine (1796-1875).

 

52. [RIO DE JANEIRO]
BARBOSA, Januario da Cunha (1780-1864)
[Protocols and Procedures for Burials in the Churches of Rio de Janeiro] Exposição do Padre Januario da Cunha Barbosa a El-Rei D. João VI sobre as sepulturas nas Egrejas do Rio de Janeiro.

Ca. 1813-1816. Folio (ca. 33x20 cm). 4 pp., with two integral blank leaves, tied with two pink ribbons. Brown ink on laid paper watermarked “1813”, legible text in Portuguese. Paper tag ("Avulços") glued to final leaf. Laid into later ruled paper folder (typed title as given above). Paper slightly age toned, mild fold marks, otherwise a near fine document.
Unpublished manuscript on church burials in Rio de Janeiro by one of the earliest Brazilian literary critics and an important figure in the independence movement.
An apparently unpublished work on the protocols and procedures for burials in churches of Rio de Janeiro, written at a time when such burials were becoming an important public health issue. Cunha Barbosa was appointed prégador for the royal chapel in Rio de Janeiro in 1808. There he became involved in deciding which tombs in the church could be opened when a member of a family or of a religious order died. Apparently Cunha Barbosa had been reprimanded for opening one tomb, and in this work he explains his decision at greater length than he had previously done. He also states the procedures for opening a tomb and notes which church officials had to authorize it. Cunha Barbosa refers to the addressee as "V.A. R." throughout, and once as "Principe." This suggests that the addressee was D. João VI during his tenure as Prince Regent (i.e., before 1816).
Two works dealing with burials as a public health matter were published by Brazilians before independence: Vicente Coelho de Seabra Silva e Telles' Memoria sobre os prejuizos causados pelas sepulturas dos cadaveres nos templos, e methodo de os prevenir (Lisbon, 1800), and José Correa Picanço's Ensaio sobre os perigos das sepulturas dentro das cidades, e nos seus contornos (Rio de Janeiro, 1812; See Guerra, Bibliografia medica brasileira 20.)
Januario da Cunha Barbosa took orders in 1803 and soon earned such a reputation as a religious orator that in 1808 he was named prégador for the royal chapel in Rio de Janeiro. One of the leading spirits in the Independence movement, he founded and edited (along with Joaquim Gonçalves Ledo) the periodical Reverbero Constitucional Fluminense from September 1821 to October 1822. At the end of 1822 his rival from the liberal party, José Bonifácio, had him deported without trial, but a year later - as Bonifácio himself was being deported - Cunha Barbosa returned to Brazil. There he was simultaneously elected deputy to the new legislature for Minas Geraes and for Rio de Janeiro. He later served as director of the Imprensa Nacional and the Biblioteca Nacional.
Cunha Barbosa published numerous sermons, some poetry, and articles on a wide range of subjects in the journals of various learned societies. His anthology Parnaso Brasileiro (Rio de Janeiro, 1829-30) is a major literary contribution. With its publication Cunha Barbosa became one of the earliest Brazilian literary critics and preserved much poetry of the colonial period which would doubtless otherwise have been lost. (See Verissimo, História da literatura brasileira [1969] p. 119.) He also co-founded, with Raymundo José da Cunha Mattos, the Instituto Historico e Geographico Brazileiro in 1838. The Instituto had much wider interests than its name suggests, and came to serve as a forum for all Brazilian writers. Work done under its auspices set the direction for much of the historical, geographical and ethnological research later done in Brazil. (See Verissimo, p. 127).
On Cunha Barbosa, see Innocêncio III, 254; VI, 127; VII, 71; X, 117. See also Sacramento Blake III, 294-300. OCLC: No printed version or other manuscript version located. No printed or manuscript version located in Porbase, Copac, or OCLC.

 

53. [RUSSIAN EMBASSY TO VENICE, 1656-1657]
[REMARKABLE PRIMARY SOURCE ON 17TH CENTURY RUSSIAN-WESTERN EUROPEAN RELATIONS: Autograph Letter by an Anonymous Author from Livorno Witnessing the Muscovite Embassy to Venice (1656-1657) and Containing Vivid Observations and Remarks About Russians]: Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi de’Sig.i Ambasc. Moscoviti, che ora si trovano in Livorno per passare all’Ambasciata di Venezia.

Livorno, ca. 1656. Quarto, ca. 27x19,5 cm (10 ½ x 7 ¾ in). Four pages; brown ink on cream laid paper with fleur-de-lis watermark, written in a legible hand. Paper aged and slightly faded, with fold marks, but the text is still bright and easy distinguishable. Beautiful period style crimson elaborately gilt tooled custom made full morocco clamshell box with cloth chemise. The letter in very good condition.
Remarkable and Very Important Primary Source for Russian-Western European relations in the 17th century. This is a very important anonymous letter: "Curiosissimi Costumi de’Sig.i Ambasciatori Moscoviti, che ora si trovano in Livorno per passare all’Ambasciata di Venezia." According to the historians who worked with two other known copies of the letter (see below: Attribution of "Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi") it was written by a first-hand witness of the embassy, somehow involved with it, most likely between the 19th and 23rd of December, 1656. The written dialect of the letter’s language indicates that the author was a common person from Livorno, possibly of Sicilian origin.
The letter vividly describes the Muscovite diplomatic delegation, staying in Livorno on its way to Venice in the winter of 1656. It was an official embassy to the Doge of Venice from the Russian Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich (1629-1676) sent in 1656-57 and headed by the Pereyaslavl governor Ivan Ivanovich Chemodanov (before 1618 - after 1657) and Deacon A. Postnikov. The goal of the embassy was to strengthen political and commercial relations with Venice, to negotiate the joint struggle against the Turks, to give Venetians the permission to trade in Archangelsk, and to borrow money from the Doge. A small "side task" was to: "to sell a hundred poods (1600kgs) of rhubarb and some sable furs for a thousand roubles." Overall the embassy didn’t achieve its goals as it didn’t manage to get the money from the Doge and to successfully sell the stale rhubarb and the sable furs (some of which were damaged during the voyage to Italy and some were sold to feed the embassy itself). The embassy left Venice in March 1657 and went back to Russia through Switzerland, Germany and Holland.
In spite of a lack of diplomatic skills, Chemodanov’s embassy left its trace in history. Its members became the first Russians to travel to Italy by sea, around northern Europe. They left Archangelsk on the 12th of September, 1656; passed the "Northern Nose" (North Cape), the "land of the Danish king," "Icelant, or Icy island (Iceland)," "the lands of Hamburg and Bremen," Scotland, Holland, "possessions of the English King," French and Spanish lands - "all those countries we passed from the left," and arrived in Livorno on the 24th of November the same year. During the voyage they suffered from storms in the Atlantic, when most of the state goods were damaged.
The embassy’s appearance in Italy was met with great interest and curiosity; the official relations from both the Russian and Italian sides noted crowds of people accompanying the Muscovites wherever they went. Our letter "Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi" reveals what impression the Russian diplomats made on the Italians, e.g. "they are dressed in cloth of cotton wool as they are afraid of cold, which is very common in their country"; "they beat their servants with their own hands, and so brutally that four of five of them was on the verge of death, and one ran away and is still not found"; "they have sable skins for 100 thousand skudi and also a big amount of rhubarb, caviar and salted fish, and it stinks so much, that people get sick, and where they were for one hour it stinks afterwards for twelve hours."
The Muscovites often seemed barbaric to the inhabitants of Livorno, as they all slept together, "and the Ambassador with them too, as he was afraid to fall off the bed"; they liked wine, but "put it all in one barrel, not distinguishing whether it is white or red or any sort of wine"; when the Governor took them around the city in a carriage, local people were astonished to see that the Muscovites didn’t open the doors, but climbed over them. There are also descriptions of their table manners which indicate that the Muscovites didn’t know how to use forks, also descriptions of how balls and festivities amused them, how "all small houses seemed to them as Gran Palazzos." Amusing also is the note that the Muscovites liked "Belle Donne" a lot, and spent many sable furs on them. A separate story describes how the chief Ambassador got attracted to the wife of a local doctor and tried to get her attention.
The letter concludes with a note of the embassy’s coming departure to Florence, where they will be met as Royal ambassadors, and "comedia redecolosa" and that a big feast will be given in their honour, as "they like it more than anything else."

Attribution of "Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi"


There are two other known copies of "Curiosissimi Costumi," the older one is found in the Vatican Library (Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana) as a part of "Codex Vaticanus Latinus" № 8891. It was first published in printed form in 1890 as a part of "Spicilegio Vaticano di Documenti Inediti e Rari, Estratti Dagli Archivi e Dalla Biblioteca della Sede Apostolica (Roma 1890, p. 381-383). The editor of the book, Monsignor I. Carini attributed that the Vatican letter was written in the middle of the 17th century by a first-hand witness of the Muscovite Embassy. Based on the written dialect of the letter’s language, Carini attributed the author as one of Livorno’s common people, a Sicilian by origin.
The second of the two other known copies of "Curiosissimi Costumi" is deposited in Russia, in the archive of the Saint Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The text of the letter is included in the Italian manuscript collection titled "Storie Diverse." Soviet historians also published a printed version of their copy of the letter and thoroughly analysed it (see special articles by S. Anninskii, 1934, and I. Sharkova, 1972); The Saint Petersburg copy was attributed to be written slightly later than the Vatican copy, at the end of the 17th or in the very beginning of the 18th century.
A thorough analysis of the texts of our letter and the Vatican and Saint Petersburg copies reveal several minor differences between all three, but also show a strong resemblance between our "Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi" and the Vatican copy. They are very similar in regards to the completeness and spelling of the text, whereas the Saint Petersburg copy often has some words replaced or removed, and also has spelling patterns different from the Vatican and our copies. This allows us the to state, that our copy was written at the same time with the Vatican copy or close to it. It’s remarkable, on the other hand, that the text of our copy is more extensive, than the Vatican one: there are additional lines in several places supplementing the contents of the Vatican copy. It could mean either that our copy is earlier - making it the earliest known copy of "Curiosissimi Costumi," or that the author of our copy knew more about the events described in the letter, and decided to enrich it with more details.
Bibliography:
[Ambasceria Russa in Italia] / [Ed. By I. Carini] // Spicilegio Vaticano di Documenti Inediti e Rari, Estratti Dagli Archivi e Dalla Biblioteca della Sede Apostolica. – Roma 1890. – P. 376-383.
[Anninskii] Аннинский, С.А. Пребывание в Ливорно Царского посольства в 1656 г. (Впечатления иностранца) // ИРЛИ. Сборник статей, посвященных академику А.С. Орлову. – 1934. – С. 201-207.
[Kazakova] Казакова, Н.А. Статейные списки русских послов в Италию как памятники литературы путешествий (середина XVII века) // Труды Отдела древнерусской литературы. — Л.: Наука. Ленингр. Отд-ние, 1988. – T. XLI. – С. 268-288.
[Liubopytneishie nravy…] Любопытнейшие нравы господ послов московских, которые находятся теперь в Ливорно, проездом в Венецию / Публ. И перевод К. Шварсалон // Русская старина, 1894. – Т. 81. - № 1. – С. 197-203.
[Sharkova] Шаркова, И.С. Посольство И.И. Чемоданова и отклики на него в Италии // Проблемы истории международных отношений. – Л., 1972. – С. 207-223.

 

54. [RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR]
[Collection of Three Official Reports Regarding the Reconnaissance and Communication Services of the 1st and 2nd Russian Manchurian Armies during the Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905: Reconnaissance Report “Strength and Organisation of the Japanese Army” (1905); Report of the Communication Services of the 2nd Manchurian Army (1906); and Original Manuscript of the Lecture about “Foot Reconnaissance” (ca. 1910s)].

[1905, 1906, ca. 1910s]. Three documents, all Folio, housed in the original archival folder of the pre-revolutionary 4th Finnish Rifle Regiment. Folder slightly faded and worn and documents with minor tears on extremities, but overall a very good collection. 1) Mimeographed report “Strength and Organisation of the Japanese Army”. 22 August 1905. [11] pp.; 2) Typewritten Report “Communication Services”. [11] pp. Dated in pencil on the first page “25/7 1906”; occasional pencil marks in text. Pencil inscription in Russian on the last blank page: “For handing over to Count Kamensky from Riga”; 3) Manuscript lecture “Reconnaissance on Foot”. [2 – typewritten table of contents], 35, [2 - blank] pp.
Interesting collection of military archival documents uncovering the work of reconnaissance and communication of the 1st and 2nd Manchurian Armies during the Russo-Japanese War (27 January/9 February 1904 – 23 August/5 September 1905). Both armies were formed in October 1904; 1st Manchurian Army under command of General Linevich took part in the Battles of Shasho and Mukden; 2nd Manchurian Army under command of General Grippenberg took part in the Battles of Port Arthur, Shasho, Sandepu and Mukden.
First document is a mimeographed copy of the report by colonel Rozanov of the reconnaissance department of the Staff of the 2nd Manchurian army. Dated 9 January 1905 O.S., the report relates to the second phase of the war, after the fall of Port Arthur on 20 December 1904/2 January 1905, when the frontline transferred to the area around Mukden. The report titled "Strength and Organisation of the Japanese Army” was specially prepared for the planned advance of the Russian army which resulted in the battle of Sandepu (12-16/25-29 January 1905). The report thoroughly analyses the positions, number and equipment of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Japanese armies (under command of generals Kuroki, Oku, Nogi and Nozu); and gives several probable scenarios of their actions during the advance. Our copy was prepared on 22 August 1905 O.S. (a day before the end of the war) and was verified by “Shtab-rotmistr [Staff Captain of Cavalry] F. Krusenstern [?]”.
The second document is a “Report of the Communication Service of the Administration of the Quarter-Master of the 2nd Manchurian Army” (25 July 1906), covering the period “from the formation of the 2nd army to 20 September 1905” (with the main attention paid to the activity after 10 January 1905). The report is finishes with the “Main conclusions about the organisation and use of particular types of communication”, emphasizing the importance of telegraph and telephone lines, wireless telegraph, and recommends the establishment of the special Communications Cavalry Regiment, and improvement of work of orderly officers (ordinartsy). “It is necessary, that not only senior officers and the General Staff, but all troops, regular officers and lower ranks (especially in cavalry) realise all futility of their best intentions to defeat the enemy, if there is no communication, in the mean of the complete mutual awareness of the battle order throughout the whole front”.
The third document is an original manuscript text of the lecture about the “Reconnaissance on foot”, apparently prepared in the 1910s for the staff and reconnaissance officers. The manuscript with several inserts and corrections occupies 35 pages and is supplemented with a typewritten table of contents. The author was obviously a veteran of the Russo-Japanese war, and the lecture gives examples of work of the reconnaissance service of the 1st Manchurian Army. The lecture explains the goals and significance of military reconnaissance and gives a detailed characteristic of the reconnaissance on foot, divided into R. With the close approach to the enemy, R. From different dislocations, and R. During the battle. Separate paragraphs analyse foot reconnaissance of the Russian and Japanese armies during the war.

 

55. [SAN FRANCISCO]
[OGDEN, Richard Livingston] (1822-1900)
[Private Diary Describing Sailings of the Yachts Restless and Peerless in San Francisco Bay]: A concise and condensed history of the goings & comings & voyages of the Sloop Yacht "Restless" by a reliable not contraband but highly respectable gentleman, slightly tinctured with a fondness for salt water, a piscatorial weakness and the pursuit of ducks under difficulties...

[San Francisco], ca. 1860-1870s. Quarto (ca. 25x20 cm). 25 pp. of text and fifty blank leaves. Brown and blue ink on laid paper, with several newspaper clippings and an ink drawing of the yacht “Restless” mounted on the leaves. Original violet full sheep notebook with raised bands and blind stamped decorative borders on the boards. Binding rubbed on extremities, hinges cracked, foot of spine chipped, but overall a very good internally clean manuscript.
Fascinating private account of the sailings of the yachts Restless and Peerless, both belonging to San Francisco industrialist and keen yachtsman Richard Livingston Ogden. Ogden came to California in 1852 as a major of the US army and subsequently established the firm of Ogden and Hayes; he was one of the founders of the Kimball Carriage and Car Manufacturing Company in the 1860s, the first president of the reorganized San Francisco Yacht Club (1874-1878) and one of the founders of the Jekyll Island Club, Georgia, in 1886.
The manuscript starts with a detailed description of the yacht Restless: "31 feet long, 16 feet beam, 3½ deep centre board, 10 feet long 12 feet wide 5 feet high, finished a la raeveaux gilt mouldings, stained glass windows, velvet cushions forming very comfortable sleeping accommodations..." Various voyages are described, such as "The first voyages of the Restless were to Sausalito on pic-nics, fishing trips, to Angel Island on clambakes, to Alcatraz on Offish-al business, to Benicia, to Martinez, and on the 3rd of July [1863] to Sacramento in 18 hours against the tide & with calm weather to contend with beating 14 schooners & sloops... On the opening of the Ducking season she was put in shooting trim and some half dozen successful voyages with glorious results..." Later on, as years passed, "The Restless was sold on the departure of the owner for the East for $1000 to a gentleman of the Lager Bier line of business who put her into service as a Ferry Boat between 3rd St. Wharf and the Potrero..."
The second half of the journal is a record of the little schooner "Peerless," another of Ogden’s yachts, launched in 1869. “Length on water line 53, length on deck, beam 17 feet, depth 5 ½. Schooner rigged, built of <…> Eastern oak, bent timber (frames), cedar & Oregon, galvanized fastenings, cabin Oregon maple & cedar, all built in best manner.” The manuscript describes Peerless’ sailings to Belmont, Martinez and Antioch. The first free endpaper bears an amateur ink sketch of the yacht Restless resting on shore and a man shooting a duck from a log nearby.
Commodore Richard L. Ogden, was “the oldest and best known yachtsman of San Francisco Bay <…>. He was in the fifties the owner of the then famous sloop Restless, the first pleasure yacht seen on these waters. It was brought from New York on a ship's deck. In 1868 he built the large schooner-yacht Peerless, one of the handsomest yachts ever built here and one that took part in the first regular regatta ever sailed on this coast. She was sold by him to the King of Samoa and became the "Samoan Navy." When the San Francisco Yacht Club was reorganized in 1875 he was elected commodore, an office he held for several years. About that time Commodore Ogden also built the fine steam yacht Quickstep and the steam launch Hi-Yah.” (San Francisco Call, October 7, 1900, 23:4)

 

56. [SENEGAL]
BINGER, Louis Gustave (1856-1936)
[Autograph Letter Signed “L. Binger” to “Mon cher compatriot” Regarding a Portrait of General Dobbs Ordered by the Governor of French Senegal].

Paris, 19 July 1902. Octavo (ca. 21x13,5 cm). 1 p. Black ink on paper on the printed letterhead of the “Ministére des Colonies”. Paper mildly soiled and worn on folds, with very small holes on the centrefold not affecting the text. Overall a very good letter.
In his letter to a French artist or art dealer, Louis Binger, then the director of the French Ministry of the Colonies, informs his correspondent, that “Monsieur General Governor Roume wanted to acquire the portrait of General Dodds at the price of 1000 francs. The portrait has been delivered to the framer and to the Magazin Central du Colonie which will send it off to Senegal. As soon as it arrives to the colony, the bill will be paid, and you’ll be able to get the money in three weeks or in about a month” (in translation).
“Louis Gustave Binger was a French officer and explorer who claimed the Côte d'Ivoire for France. In 1887 he travelled from Senegal up to the Niger River, arriving at Grand Bassam in 1889. During this expedition he discovered that the Mountains of Kong did not exist. He described this journey in his work Du Niger au golfe de Guinée par le pays de Kong et le Mossi (From the Niger to the Gulf of Guinea through the land of the Kong and the Mossi) (1891). In 1892 he returned to the Guinea Coast to superintend the forming of the boundaries between the British and French colonies. In 1893-1898 Binger was a governor of the Côte d'Ivoire. Louis Gustave Binger died at L'Isle-Adam, Île-de-France, France and was buried in the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris. The city of Bingerville is named after him” (Wikipedia).
Ernest Nestor Roume (1858-1941) was a French colonial administrator, a governor of French West Africa in 1902, and a governor of French Indochina in 1914-1917.
“Alfred-Amédée Dodds (1842-1922) was a French General, commander of French forces in Sénégal from 1890, commander of French forces in the second expeditionary force to suppress The Boxer Rebellion, and commander of French forces during the Second Franco-Dahomean War. As both an octoroon and a metis, he was famed in the African Diaspora at the beginning of the Twentieth century as an example of African leadership, despite the fact that he led the destruction of one of West Africa's most powerful pre-colonial states” (Wikipedia).

 

57. [SEVEN YEARS WAR]
SAUNDERS, Charles, Sir, Admiral (ca. 1715-1775)
[Two Official Orders Addressed to "Captain Tonyn, Commander of HMS Brune", both Written in Secretarial Hand, and Signed "Chas. Saunders."]

Both: on board HMS Neptune, Gibraltar Bay, 5 January 1762. Both Folios (ca. 32,5x20,5 cm). Each 1 p.; brown ink on watermarked laid paper, main text in secretarial hand (“By Command of the Admiral Sam. More”). Both signed by Saunders, one with a manuscript note by Tonyn “This is the original order” at the bottom. Both docketed in ink “Brune” on versos. Documents with stains, tears and two minor holes on folds (one affecting a word), but overall a good collection written in very legible hand.
Two important naval orders from the time of the Seven Years’ War, issued a day after Britain’s declaration of war to Spain (4 January 1762). Both orders were created by the secretary of Admiral Charles Saunders, Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean fleet, and addressed to Captain George Anthony Tonyn (d. 1770) of the HMS “Brune.” The first document directs Captain Tonyn: “You are hereby required and directed to put yourself under my Command & follow all such further Orders as you shall receive from me, till further orders”. The second order informs Tonyn of the Britain’s declaration of war to Spain and orders “immediately to commence Hostilities against his Catholic Majesty [Spanish King] & his Subjects by taking, sinking, burning, or destroying their Ships, Vessels, & Effects, and to protect his Majesty’s trading subjects to whom you are to give Notice of the Rupture with Spain.”
George Anthony Tonyn became a lieutenant of the Royal Navy in 1756, a captain of HMS Fowey in 1758, and a captain of the frigate Brune in 1761. In 1767 he was appointed to the Phoenix of 44 guns and ordered to the coast of Africa, apparently as the commander of the African Station (see more: Charnock, J. Biographis Navalis; or Impartial Memories of the Lives and Characters of Officers of the Navy of Great Britain, from the Year 1660 to the present time. Vol. VI. London, 1798, p. 344). On 17th October 1762 HMS Brune under command of Tonyn captured the French Frigate "L'Oiseau" commanded by Capitaine De Modene in what is now regarded as the last sea battle of the Seven Years War between France and Great Britain. His nephew was Charles William Paterson (1756-1841), Admiral of the White.
“Admiral Sir Charles Saunders, KB was a Commander-in-Chief of the British Mediterranean Fleet during the Seven Years' War and later served as First Lord of the Admiralty. He was appointed to the Privy Council in 1766. Cape Saunders, on the Otago coast of New Zealand, was named in his honour by Captain James Cook, who had served under Saunders in Canada” (Wikipedia).

 

58. [SHANGHAI - BOXER REBELLION]
POTTER, Frederick William (1874-after 1921), British Associate of the Shanghai Gas Company.
[Collection of 42 Autograph Letters Written while on Service in Shanghai (in total over 200 pages of text), Signed “Fred” and Addressed to his Mother, Including 33 Letters written in 1900-1901 during the Boxer Rebellion, and Nine Later Letters (1912, 1920-1921) with an Original Envelope; With an Original Snapshot Portrait of Potter Taken on the Cricket Grounds in Shanghai in 1900, Newspaper Clippings with the Results of Cricket Matches in Shanghai which he Took Part in, and Some Earlier Letters from Potter’s Archive].

Shanghai, 29 July 1900 – 12 August 1901. With two letters dated Shanghai, 1912, seven letters dated Shanghai, 1920-21, and five letters written in Europe and dated 1896-1901. Various sizes, mostly Small Octavos (ca. 20x12,5 cm), six letters of a Quarto size (ca. 26,5x20,5 cm). In total over 200 pp. of text. Black ink mostly on white or pale blue writing paper, one letter on the printed form of the Shanghai Club; one - with an ink sketch in text. With a snapshot photograph portrait of Potter (ca. 4x5 cm). Mild fold marks, two letters incomplete, paper of some letters slightly age toned, but overall a very good archive of interesting letters written in a legible hand.
Interesting historically important archive of Frederick William POTTER, British associate of the Shanghai Gas Company in the 1900s, an avid cricket player and steeplechaser. Potter played for several Shanghai cricket teams and was a member of the Shanghai Paper Hunt Club. He arrived to Shanghai in December 1899 (he mentions the “anniversary of my landing” in the letter from 11 December 1900) and was in the city during the Boxer Rebellion (August 1899-September 1901). Thirty three of his letters give an important eye-witness account of life in Shanghai during the rebellion, describing the politics of influential Chinese diplomat Li Hung Chang, Eight Nations Alliance Forces stationed in the city (Potter admires Japanese and contempts Germans and Russians), rumours and stories about Seymour Expedition to Beijing (10-28 June 1900), a big parade in honour of Count Alfred von Waldersee’s arrival to Shanghai with inspection (he was the Allied Supreme Commander of China in 1900-1901), fights and rows on Shanghai streets started by French and German soldiers, possibilities of a war with Russia, et al.
The letters also often talk about the cricket matches Potter took part in (giving the information about the name of the teams, final scores and his contribution to the games); social life (Scottish Ball in November 1900, numerous theatre shows et al.), pleasure trips up the Yangtze River or to the countryside for snipe shootings; death of the Queen Victoria “the day following the Queen’s death all the men of war of every nationality fired off 101 […] guns. I think it frightened many of the Chinese as they were not aware of the cause of it” (28 January 1901); British ladies in Shanghai who he has “a great contempt for most of them <…>, I think they must have been milliners & dressmakers at home;” his Chinese servants; local crafts which he liked (Hankow silk lace); pony or bicycle riding in winter time; “Paper Hunt” pony race during the Christmas season of 1900; extreme heat in Shanghai in summer and frosts in winter; his success in buying shares on the stock market; about him being elected a member of the Shanghai Race Club (23 February 1901); et al. Two letters are addressed to his younger brother Herbert Cecil Potter (1875-1964).
The archive contains an original photograph portrait of Potter taken on the cricket grounds in Shanghai; his later letters written while residing in Shanghai in 1912, 1920-1921, newspaper clippings from a Shanghai newspaper with the results of cricket matches, and several earlier letters from his archive. Overall a very interesting informative collection of letters by a noted Shanghai resident.
Extracts from some letters:
29 July 1900. “Li Hung Chang is still in Shanghai, but has not called on me. I hear he is very sick at being taken no notice of whatever & having the triumphal arch put up in his honour by the Chinese pulled down. The Consuls belonging to all the countries have each paid him a visit in July[?] saying that he is to let them know in five days what has become of the Ministers in Pekin. He is very sick & in a great funk. Admiral Seymour is down here now. We have a lot of men of war near us. I think they are planning a scheme for the defence of the Yangtze. I saw young Thompson on the cricket ground yesterday. There was a match against the navy but I did not play as it is too hot. They easily beat the saylors who are not much good at the game. I bear we are to have 3000 troops in Shanghai, but it is not certain. <…> An order has been issued by the Consuls here that no ammunition is to be sold to the natives. I believe some low German firm has been selling some thousands of rifles. It is just the sort of thing the Germans would do. I hate them nearly as much as the Chinese.”
3 August. “According to him [Major Johnston of the Centurion <…> He commanded the Marines in Seymour’s column] the Russians & French <…> had all the easy jobs to do. The Russians are without discipline, their officers having no control over them. The French have no pluck. There were very few Germans there, but they were very good, so were the Americans. The Chinese are almost with better weapons that the European troops & Johnston said that they are very brave, not fearing death, but most frightfully cruel. All our dead & wounded, that is those that they were able to get at, were mutilated.
Seymour’s column were in such strait that at one time they thought of killing their own wounded men <…> There were so many casualties, they could only move slowly, but what saved them was finding the Arsenal that no Europeans in China knew anything of. They took this and found millions of rounds of ammunition & heaps of rifles & guns. Here they stopped and helped themselves, which was the means of saving the whole column…
4 September. “We had a great parade of troops on the race course last Wednesday, all the Indians and volunteers turned out & were inspected by the General. There were one battalion each of Beluchis, Rajputs & Gurkhas, whilst the French had some Annamite troops, who had no foot gear. The English, German, French, American & Japanese volunteers also turned out, so it was a great show for S’hai. <…> There was the illumination in honour of the relief of Pekin, but when nearly all of it was finished, the Council thought it would excite the Chinese & there might be a row, so they were all pulled down again. The consequence is that the natives say we are afraid of them which is natural.”
10 September. “I expect Russia has been bribed in some way by the Chinese Gov. To withdraw, everyone hopes here that our Gov. Will not. All the natives are now saying that we are afraid. The Mandarin have had bills posted in the country districts to say that we have been defeated, so the whole country will now believe they are more than a match for us, which will make them unbearable for foreigners.”
24 September: “There are such crowd of missionaries in S’hai. All dressed like Chinese with pigtails, the ladies are also got up a la China. They scrum about all over the place, we despise them as much as the natives, it is no doubt very wicked to do so, but if you saw them, you would too. What is more, the whole of the row in China are caused by them, as the natives cannot tolerate anyone interfering with their rites and customs in religion. The sooner they are kicked out of China the better, if they are not, many more valuable lives will be lost in the future, & may some day lead to a European war. ”
29 November: “There have been a good number of rows in the streets by the German & French soldiers who are allowed to carry their side arms. The other night fifteen French men carried all about the place brandishing their bayonets, knocking & injuring police and people.” (describes fights between French and British soldiers, mentions that Germans “have also been misbehaving,” with one soldier and one Chinaman being shot).
5 February 1901, to his brother Herbert Potter: “The trouble in China seems to hang on & I expect will do so while Li Hung Chang remains alive. There is no doubt that he has sold his country to the Russians & will do anything for a bribe. He and the Dowager Empress ought to have their necks screwed.”
18 July: “It rather looks as if there is going to be trouble with Russia. Personally I like wars (especially I have never been to one), but it does play such havoc with business & it is quite bad enough with some firing now.”

 

59. [SOUTH AMERICA ETC.]
[E.S.B.]
[Attractive Private Scrapbook of a British Lady, Containing a Cut Silhouette of Sir William Hoste, a Great Frigate Captain of the Napoleonic Wars, Eleven Pasted-in Watercolours from a European Tour, a copy (?) of a pencil sketch by Edward Lear, a Pencil Portrait Probably of the Artist, and Fifteen Pencil or Watercolour Sketches Apparently made on a South American Trip.]

Ca. 1820-1840s. Oblong Octavo (ca. 12x19 cm). Over sixty leaves of multicolored paper. With a cut silhouette, eleven pasted-in watercolours from ca. 10,5x15,5 cm (4x6 in) to ca. 6x9 cm (2 ¾ x 3 3/8 in), all but two signed “E.S.B.” in the lower corners. With seventeen watercolour and pencil drawings on the album leaves, one signed in pencil “Edw. Lear del, 29 May 1841.” Original green full calf, with gilt tooled ornamental borders on the boards and spine, all edges gilt. Spine with a long crack on the upper hinge, the front board partially detached, binding slightly rubbed on the edges, but overall a very good internally clean album with bright watercolours.
This attractive private scrapbook, compiled by a British lady in the 1820-1840s, starts with an expertly executed silhouette of Sir William Hoste (1780-1828), a protégé of Admiral Nelson and one of the great frigate captains of the Napoleonic Wars. The owner of the album also included eleven beautiful watercolour views of Europe, most likely of France, Italy and Greece. Two of them, captioned in ink, are copies of the contemporary steel engravings “The plains of Waterloo” (by R. Brandard, after a drawing by Th. Cooper, 1834), and “The Temple of Jupiter Olympus at Athens. Greece” (by E. Finden, after a drawing by C. Stanfield, 1832). There is also a pencil drawn Italian view signed in pencil “Edw. Lear del, 29 May 1841,” probably, a copy of a work by Lear. Another pencil drawing done in amateur manner portrays a woman, who is writing or drawing – apparently the artist and compiler of the album. The last pages are occupied with dynamic drawings showing horse riders in different positions travelling in the countryside, shepherds throwing a lasso, women riders (including a scene with a woman fallen off a horse), a scene of a bull fight, et al. This last group of drawings was most likely done during a trip to South America. The drawings throughout the whole album are interspersed with handwritten charades and anecdotes, the answers to charades and unfinished list of drawings are at rear. Overall a charming example of an early 19th century lady's scrapbook with some interesting watercolours.

 

60. [SPAIN]
RUJULA, Juan Félix de, Chronicler and the King of Arms (1744-1806)
[KINGDOM OF SPAIN: Beautiful Manuscript Nobility Patent, Given to the Montero Family, Written in Calligraphic Secretarial Hand, and Illustrated with a Large Watercolour of the Montero Coat of Arms and Pictorial Initials]: Don Juan Feliz de Rujula, Cronista y Rey de Armas en todos los Reynos, Dominios y Señorios de su Majestad Catolica el Señor Don Carlos Quarto (que Dios guarde) Rey de España y de las Indias Orientales y Occidentales, Islas y Tierra firme del Mar Occeano etc. ect...

Madrid, 10 October 1796. Folio (ca. 31x20,5 cm). Eight unnumbered paper leaves. Calligraphic manuscript text in black, red and blue ink, within red ink decorative borders. With a full page watercolour on vellum in colour and gold (the coat of arms). With five pictorial watercolour initials and two vignettes. Signed at the end by Juan Felix de Rujula, Juan Manuel Lopez Fando and two other officials. With the official ink stamp of “Carolus IV D.G. Hispaniar Rex” within the watercolour ornamental frame on the first leaf, and with an official paper label of “Cabild. De Escribanos de el numero. Madrid” on the last leaf. Original brown full treed calf with gilt ruled ornamental borders, gilt spine and marbled endpapers. Binding slightly rubbed, last leaf with minor tears on the margin, without last free endpaper, traces of a manuscript label removed from the last pastedown, but overall a beautiful document in very good condition.
Beautiful example of an official Spanish 18th century nobility patent, the document bears the personal signature of the Spanish Chronicler and King of Arms (Cronista y Rey de Armas) “D. Juan Felix de Rujua”, as well as those of Madrid notary Juan Manuel Lopez Fando and two other officials. The patent contains the text of the certificate of arms, a concise genealogy of the Montero family and the description of the Montero coat of arms. The large superb watercolour of the coat of arms, heightened in gold, features a tree with two keys hanging on its branches, and five golden horns on red background, all within elaborate floral ornament. The text is decorated with five beautiful initials illuminated in gold and black with small coloured landscape scenes in the background.
The document mentions a number of representatives of the Montero family, but seems to concern firstly the line of Dona Francisca Ambrosia Montero, Rios y Anaya, legitimate wife of Don Diego Ximenez de Lasarte, resident of the city of Antequera; legitimate daughter of Don Pedro Josef Montero de Anaya, granddaughter of Don Luis Montero, and second granddaughter of Don Christoval Ruiz Montero.
The last name of Montero is included into the famous “Enciclopedia Heráldica Hispano-Americana” by Alberto and Arturo Caraffa (88 vol., 1919-1963). The index prepared by the Library of Congress lists the last name of Montero in vol. 58, p. 162.

 

61. [SPEKE FAMILY]
[Manuscript Poetry Book of Frances Speke, an Aunt of the Famous African Explorer John Hanning Speke, Written Mostly in Jordans, Ilminster, the Ancestral Home of the Speke Family].

Ca. 1822-1834. Octavo (ca. 18,5 x12 cm). Brown ink on paper. Presentation inscription on the first leaf "Frances Speke from Her Papa, February 16th, 1822", many entries noting the place as Jordans (Ilminster, Somerset) and date. Period green gilt tooled half sheep notebook with marbled boards and endpapers. Binding slightly rubbed on extremities, otherwise a very good manuscript.
Nice manuscript book of poems and quotations which belonged to Frances Speke, an aunt of the famous African explorer John Hanning Speke (1827-1864). She was a daughter from the second marriage of John Speke’s grandfather, William Speke (1798-1886). The book contains a presentation inscription on the first leaf: “Frances Speke from Her Papa, February 16th, 1822.” There are over a hundred poems or sentences in the book, either written by Frances Speke and her acquaintances or copied from Byron, Thomas Moore and other poets, with occasional ink drawn vignettes. A number of entries was written in Jordans, Ilminster (Somerset) - the hereditary seat of the Speke family.
“The tiny village of Dowlish Wake lies in the heart of Somersetshire, some two miles south-east of Ilminster and about 45 miles from Bath: and here, in the presence of his old travelling companion Grant, of Dr. Livingstone (who had returned to England two months before) and of Sir Roderick Murchinson, Speke was buried. The parish church is the shrine of many generations of the Speke family, and a window and monument have been erected to the explorer’s memory. Jordans, the ancestral home and still in the hands of the Speke family, is in a neighbourhood parish, Ashill, lying about 2 miles to the north of Ilminster” (Thomas, H.B. Notes on the death of Speke in 1864// The Uganda Journal. Vol. 13, 1949. P. 106-107).

 

62. [THIRTY YEARS WAR]
FISCH, Colonel W.
[An Important Signed Reconnaissance Letter Addressed to the Imperial Field Marshal Piccolomini from Colonel W. Fisch Dated 12th July 1648].

Gloz (Klodzko (Glatz)), 12th July 1648. Folio (32 x 21cm). Text, one page of a folio bifolium. Original fold marks and some mount residue on verso, but overall a very good letter.
Colonel Fisch reports that Swedish General Wittenberg had amassed about 5,000 men and 20 cannons in the Principality of Liegnitz between Konradswalde and Schoenfeld and was marching forward. Wittenberg had passed Weisswasser and united with the troops of Major General Müller. According to statements made by prisoners of war, a further advance to Troppau was planned. This letter gives important information about troop movements immediately leading up to the final battle of the Thirty Years War at Prague (25 July - 1 November 1648). Ottavio Piccolomini (1599-1656) was an Italian nobleman whose military career included service as a Spanish general and then as a field marshal of the Holy Roman Empire. Wikipedia.

 

63. [TIMBUKTU]
RITCHIE, Joseph (ca. 1788-1819)
[Interesting Autograph Letter to John Whishaw, Secretary of the African Institution, Written at the Beginning of Ritchie's Ill-Fated Expedition to Africa, to Introduce Sidi Hassuna D'Ghies, who was a son of the Prime Minister of the Pasha of Tripoli, and Later Would Become the Pasha’s Foreign Minister, and Additionally he was Later also Connected to the Fate of Alexander Laing].

Marseilles, 28 August 1818. Quarto (ca. 25,5x19,5 cm). 1 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Mild fold marks and light chipping of the top margin, ink slightly faded, but overall a very good legible letter.
Rare historically important letter by Joseph Ritchie, an English surgeon and African explorer, written during his ill-fated expedition to Northern Africa in 1818-1819, which tried to ascertain the course of the Niger and the location of the fabled Timbuktu. Ritchie and George Lyon followed the route of Frederick Hornemann’s expedition of 1797, crossing the Sahara via Murzuq. “The expedition was underfunded, lacked support and because of the ideas of Barrow departed from Tripoli and thus had to cross the Sahara as part of their journey. A year later, due to much officialdom they had only got as far as Murzuk, the capital of Fezzan, where they both fell ill. Ritchie never recovered and died there” (Wikipedia).
The letter, written in Marseille shortly before Ritchie's departure for Malta was addressed to John Whisham (1764-1840), the secretary of the African Institution and the biographer of Mungo Park. Ritchie introduced to him 'Sidi Hassuna D'Ghies, a Tripolitan who has passed some time in this Town - & son of the present Minister of the Pacha. I am anxious in some measure to repay the Services which he has rendered me during a tedious detention here (waiting for a passage to Malta) by giving me much useful information respecting Africa; the interest which has been so kindly taken in the Attempt I am about to make, emboldens me to hope that his liberality & goodness will be well-appreciated in England'.
Hassuna D’Ghies was appointed the foreign minister of the Pasha of Tripoli in 1825. He “came from a wealthy merchant family with commercial interests in Ghadamis, Fazzan, and various European countries. Having spent seven years in London and Paris on business and diplomatic missions, he was familiar with European ways. [British consul in Tripoli] Warrington, who had most to lose from Hassuna D’Ghies insistence on conducting business with the consuls in a way which prevented their intervention in local affairs, used the death near Timbuktu in 1826 of the English explorer Major Laing as an occasion to force the pasha to dismiss his foreign minister. <…> Warrington claimed, without any substantial evidence, that Laing’s assassination had been plotted by the Pasha and D’Ghies, that the latter had given Laing’s papers to the French consul in return for a forty per cent reduction of a debt which he owed him and that Caillie had never set foot in Timbuktu and the diary he had published under his name was compiled from Laing’s papers.” As a result in 1829 D’Ghies was announced by the pasha responsible for Laing’s death and replaced as foreign minister by his brother Muhammed (Abun-Nasr, Jamil M. A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period. Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 202).
Ritchie was involved into scientific and literary circles of London. He foretold the exceptional literary future of John Keats, and “possibly from some association of ‘Endymion’ with the Mountains of the Moon, promised to carry a copy of the poem with him to Africa and fling it into the midst of the Sahara” (Oxford DNB).

 

64. [WHITE MAN'S GRAVE - GOLD COAST]
ARTHY, E.
[Original Manuscript]: List of Death Among the Late African Company Officers in the Settlements on the Gold Coast from the 1st of January 1812, to 1st of January 1822 Being a Period of Ten Years.

Gold Coast, 1822. 4 pages. Folio manuscript ca. 34x21 cm (13 x 8 in). Manuscript with tears but no loss of text housed in a blue cloth custom made portfolio with a red gilt morocco cover label. In very good condition.
The author was Assistant Surgeon in the late African Company. The manuscript gives an annual account of the deaths of the officers of the company including their names and then a 1 1/2 page remarks section comparing the mortality of Europeans in the Gold coast and other colonies. "The African Company Establishment when fully appointed consisted of forty-five commissioned and non commissioned European officers but during the period of time stated above, there was not more than thirty-five residing in the Settlements on a yearly average & the deaths among them being five annually on an average..,"
"The African Company of Merchants was a Chartered Company in the Gold Coast area of modern Ghana, in the coastal area where the Fante people lived. It was founded in 1752 and replaced the Royal African Company which was dissolved in that year.
In 1817 the Company had signed a treaty of friendship that recognized Asante claims to sovereignty over large areas of the coast, including areas claimed by the Fante. The Company was abolished in 1821, as the slave trade had not been suppressed in these privately held areas. Authority over the area was given to Governor Charles MacCarthy, the governor of Sierra Leone, who was subsequently killed in the First Anglo-Asante War" (Wikipedia).

 

65. [WROCLAW (BRESLAU) AND GRAEFENBERG]
[Souvenir Autograph Book with 23 Loose Leaves Filled in with Manuscript Poems and Wishes in the Tradition of a University “Album Amicorum,” Mostly from Breslau and Graefenberg, the Latter entries most likely Done by the First Patient of Vincent Priessnitz’s Hydrotherapy Clinic in Graefenberg; The leaves Include Three Ink and Pencil Drawn Full-Page City Views].

Breslau and Graefenberg, ca. 1816, 1834-1839. 23 loose leaves, each ca. 8x13,5 cm (with twelve blank leaves at rear). Brown ink on white writing paper, the text is generally in German, but also in French, English and Russian; three leaves are with one ink and watercolour, and two pencil drawn views. Leaves with all edges gilt and housed in the original card box (ca. 9x14,5 cm), with velvet covered boards and spine, and gilt covered paper decorative borders. The box is inserted in the original pink card slipcase. The box and slipcase are slightly worn and soiled, but otherwise a very good internally clean item.
An attractive example of a 19th century German souvenir autograph book, containing manuscript verses and wishes, as well as three nicely executed miniature drawings. The leaves were filled in mostly in Breslau and Graefenberg (now Lázně Jeseník, Czech Republic), which was the site of a famous spa and hydrotherapy clinic of Vincent Priessnitz at the time. The entries from Graefenberg are dated 1838 and 1839 which were the very first years of the clinic’s official work, and most probably were written by some of the clinic’s first patients. Among the authors of the inscriptions are an Austrian baron Louis Ransonnet-Villez, and Caroline von Münchhausen (Braunschweig). The drawings include two pencil views of Breslau, and one beautiful pen and watercolour view of an unidentified German city.
The Album Amicorum is supplemented with a period manuscript book titled “Erzählungen für Kinder von meinem guter Vater,” and signed “Dr. Bischoff,” apparently from the estate of the compiler of the Album Amicorum. The manuscript book (Small octavo, bound in a period brown half sheep with cracks and losses on the spine) contains 40 pages of handwritten children stories (in German) and is illustrated with 19 hand coloured woodcuts, pasted to the book’s blank leaves.

 





 
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