Michael F. Layland Collection - The History of the Exploration of the Amazon
Part 2: Books
With an Addendum of Maps

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Peru, 1st half of the 20th century. Four spears and arrows, length ca. 147 cm (58 in), 154 cm (60 ½ in), 198,5 cm (78 ¼ in) and 203,5 cm (80 ¼ in). The spears and arrows are in very good condition.
Beautiful collection of original spears and arrows of the Campa Asháninca people of the Peruvian Amazon. With the bodies of bamboo and heads of hardwood or bone, the items are decorated with paint and ornaments made of threads; two arrows are feathered. All heads have different shapes, from a smooth sharp point to a deadly harpoon-like head with long spikes.
“The feathered arrows are used for hunting small and medium sized game and fish by many different tribes of the Peruvian Amazon. They are made from combinations of reeds, bamboo, hardwood and pieces of bone. The feathers are from the Harpy eagle. These were obtained in Pucallpa on the Ucayali River and believed to be from the Campa Asháninca people.
The fearsome double-barbed spears with a cane shaft and head of “chonta” palm wood are for ceremonial and warfare use, and usually painted with curare. They were obtained in Tingo María, Perú, from members of the Arahuaca tribe” (Michael Layland).



Peru, 1st half of the 20th century. Wood of longleaf duroia (remo caspi tree). Ca. 131 cm (51 ¾ in) x 31,5 cm in the lower part (12 ½ in). Inner side of the paddle with a small crack (apparently as produced), otherwise the paddle is in very good condition.
“The paddle is typical of the middle reaches of tributaries of the Peruvian Amazon such as the Ucayali and Huallaga, i.e. where the rivers flow more slowly. It is carved from a single buttress root of a “remo caspi” tree. It was purchased directly from a member of the Yagua people at Requena” (Michael Layland).


Vías del Pacífico al Marañón. Publicación de la Junta de Vías Fluviales [Routes from the Pacific to the Marañon River. Publication of the Committee on River Routes].

Lima: Imprenta la Industria, 1903. First Edition. Folio. [2 - t.p.], iii, 34, [4] pp. With many photo illustrations in text and nineteen folding colour lithographed maps in the rear pocket. Original publisher’s brown cloth with gilt lettered title on the upper cover. Paper label “Imprenta del Estado” on the first pastedown endpaper. Binding rubbed, with a crack on the rear hinge, otherwise a very good copy.
“Concerned by reports of forest products being smuggled into Brazil over the Isthmus of Fitzcarrald, in 1901 the Peruvian government established the Junta de Vias Fluviales to explore and assess its remote southeastern borderlands of the Madre de Dios Basin. This agency was ordered specifically to determine limits of headwaters navigation on the main rivers and to select the best railroad routes from there across the Andes to Pacific coastal ports. Personnel for these expedition were not always well chosen and their experience with the dangers of river travel often had disastrous results. Five years of exploratory effort resulted in a series of publication containing the first reliable scientific data on the resources and hydrography of the Peruvian rainforest, and recommended the establishment of pioneer settlements” (Craig, A. Exploration of Eastern Peru by the Junta de Vias Fluviales// Revista Geográfica. No. 90 (JULIO-DICIEMBRE 1979), pp. 199-212// JSTOR online).
Our book was based on a special expedition under commend of Eduardo de Habich (1835-1909) “to seek out the most accessible transandean route from the northern coastal city of Chiclaya to the Marañon (Amazon) River via the lowest pass in the Cordillera” (Craig, p. 202). The text by Habich is illustrated with 19 detailed maps and is supplemented with an introduction by the secretary to the Junta Carlos Larrabure y Correa.


4. ACUÑA, Christobal Diatristán de, Padre (1597- ca. 1676)
Nuevo Descubrimiento del Gran Rio de las Amazonas [New Description of the Great River of the Amazons].

Madrid: [Juan Cayetano Garsía], 1891. Second Spanish edition. Duodecimo. xxxi, 235, [5] pp. Period owner’s inscriptions on the title page and page v. Period brown quarter sheep with marbled boards, gilt lettered title on the spine, and decorative endpapers. Binding slightly rubbed on extremities, otherwise a very good copy.
“Tirada 500 ejemplares”. Second Spanish edition of Acuña’s famous work, this imprint was published in 500 copies only. Separate in itself complete work published as volume 2 of the “Colección de libros que tratan de América, raros ó curiosos”.
“Cristóbal Diatristán de Acuña was a Spanish missionary and explorer. He was admitted a Jesuit in 1612, and afterwards sent on mission work to Chile and Peru, where he became rector of the college of Cuenca. In 1639 he accompanied Pedro Teixeira in his second exploration of the Amazon, in order to take scientific observations, and draw up a report for the Spanish government. The journey lasted ten months; and on the explorer's arrival in Belém, Acuna prepared his narrative, while awaiting a ship for Europe. <…> Acuña was the first European to describe the Casiquiare canal, a natural canal linking the Amazon and Orinoco Rivers, in 1639” (Wikipedia).


The Great River - Notes on the Amazon and the Steamer Services.

London: Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, Kent & Co., 1904. First Edition. Octavo. 95, [1], xix pp. With a photo illustrated frontispiece, many other photo illustrations in text and three folding maps. Original publisher's gray quarter cloth with printed pictorial papered boards. Front hinge broken, covers slightly stained, otherwise a very good copy.
The present work is a detailed and well illustrated guide book of the Amazon for steamship tourists. “The first direct foreign trade with Manaus was commenced around 1874. Local trade along the river was carried on by the English successors to the Amazonas Company - the Amazon Steam Navigation Company - as well as numerous small steamboats, belonging to companies and firms engaged in the rubber trade, navigating the Negro, Madeira, Purús and many other tributaries, such as the Marañón to ports as distant as Nauta, Peru” (Wikipedia).


6. ANGELIS, Pedro de (1784-1859)
De la Navigation de l’Amazone. Réponse a un Mémoire de M. Maury, Officier de la Marine des Etats-Unis [Navigation of the Amazon. Response to a Memoir by M. Maury, Officer of the US Navy].

Montevideo: Impr. du Rio de la Plata, 1854. First Edition. Octavo. [2 – t.p.], 218, [3] pp. Later black full sheep; spine with gilt lettered title and raised bands. Original publisher’s wrappers bound in. Faded (apparently the author’s) presentation inscriptions on the front wrapper: “Au M. Agassiz avec les homage de Mr. [?]”. With a library label and markings, otherwise a very good copy.
Early interesting Uruguayan imprint. Written by one of the first Argentinean professional historians Pedro de Angelis, the book develops the discussion of the possibility of international free navigation up and down the Amazon River. The topic was first raised in 1851 by Matthew Maury, whose cousin Lt. William Herndon headed the expedition to the river the same year. Pedro de Angelis apparently wrote a reply to Maury’s “The Amazon and the Atlantic Slopes of South America” (Washington, 1853).
Our presentation copy is from the library of Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (1807-1873), “a Swiss biologist, geologist, physician, and a prominent innovator in the study of Earth's natural history” (Wikipedia). He had a deep interest in the Amazon after his expedition to Brazil in 1819-1820 during which he assembled an important collection of Brazilian and especially Amazonian fresh water fish (detailed description of the collection was published in 1829).


7. BELMAR, Alejandro de
Voyage aux Provinces Brésiliennes du Pará et des Amazones en 1860, Précédé d’un rapide coup d’oeil sur le littoral du Brésil. [Travel to the Brazilian Provinces of Para and the Amazon in 1860, preceded with a Quick Glance at the Coast of Brazil].

Londres: W.W. Trezise, 1861. First Edition. Octavo. 236 pp. Later black full sheep; spine with gilt lettered title and raised bands. Front page of the original publisher’s brown printed wrapper bound in. Two author’s presentation inscriptions on the wrapper and the title page (very similar, the difference is only in the date which is marked only on the wrapper): “Au savant Prosesseur M. L. Agassiz homage très sincères de l’Auteur. Rio. 5 juillet 1865.” With a library label and markings, otherwise a very good copy.
Very rare travel account of the Amazon River and Brazil. The book describes the main geographical features and cities on the coast of Brazil (Rio Grande, Santa Catarina, Rio de Janeiro, Bahia, Pernambuco, Maranhão et al.) and the state of Grand Para. Special chapters are dedicated to the geography, climate, agriculture and economy of the Amazon River, divided into the “Amazon” proper and the “Upper Amazon”. The last chapter contains numerous statistical tables showing the volume and structure of exports and imports in Brazil. Our presentation copy was given by the author to Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (1807-1873), a Swiss biologist, geologist, and physician who himself traveled to the Amazon in 1819-1820 and assembled an important collection of Amazonian fresh water fish.


8. BINGHAM, Hiram (1875-1956)
The National Geographic Magazine - April 1913 Issue - In the Wonderland of Peru. The Work Accomplished by the Peruvian Expedition of 1912, Under the Auspices of Yale University and the National Geographic Society.
[With: Presentation copy to the Author's Son]: BINGHAM, Alfred M. Portrait of an Explorer Hiram Bingham Discoverer of Machu Picchu.
Iowa State University Press 1989. xxvi, 381, [1]. With many photo illustrations on plates. Original blue and beige gilt cloth with original pictorial dust jacket. A fine copy.
[With]: An Autographed Letter Signed to Doug Bingham from his Father Alfred M. Bingham dated January 1989.

Washington D.C.: National Geographic Society, April 1913. First Edition. Quarto. [xviii], [387]-574, [22] pp. With many photo illustrations in text. Period brown gilt tooled quarter sheep with marbled boards. Extremities rubbed but overall a very good copy.
“Bingham was thrilled by the prospect of unexplored Inca cities, and in 1911 returned to the Andes with the Yale Peruvian Expedition of 1911. On July 24, 1911, Melchor Arteaga led Bingham to Machu Picchu, which had been largely forgotten by everybody except the small number of people living in the immediate valley (possibly including two local missionaries named Thomas Payne and Stuart McNairn whose descendants claim that they had already climbed to the ruins in 1906). Also the Cusco explorers Enrique Palma, Gabino Sanchez and Agustín Lizarraga are said to have arrived at the site in 1901. Bingham returned to Peru in 1912 and 1915 with the support of Yale and the National Geographic Society” (Wikipedia). Howgego 1850-1940, Continental B47.


9. BONNYCASTLE, Sir Richard Henry (1791-1847)
Spanish America; or a Descriptive, Historical, and Geographical Account of the Dominions of Spain in the Western Hemisphere Continental & Insular.

Philadelphia: Abraham Small, 1819. First American Edition. Octavo. viii, 482, (2) pp. With an engraved folding map and a folding hand coloured engraving. Later quarter cloth with gray papered boards and printed paper spine label. Map with some archival tape repair, otherwise a very good copy.
“Bonnycastle spent most of his life in the Corps of Royal Engineers, where he saw much service in the Americas, especially Canada. He was an accomplished Spanish scholar. Volume I relates to Florida, New Spain (including New Mexico, the Californias, Sonora, and Sinaloa), Guatemala, the Spanish West Indies, and New Granada. Volume II contains Peru, Buenos Aires, and Chile. It is a useful study of the conditions in Spanish America just before the wars for independence” (Hill 151); Sabin 6333.


10. BROWN, Charles Barrington (d. 1917) & LIDSTONE, William
Fifteen Thousand Miles on the Amazon and Its Tributaries.

London: Edward Stanford, 1878. First Edition. Octavo. (iii)-xvi, 520 pp. With a wood engraved frontispiece, five other wood engravings on plates and many wood engravings in text and a large folding outline coloured map. Original publishers' green patterned gilt cloth. Map slightly foxed, hinges strengthened, extremities bumped, but overall a very good copy.
“An account of an expedition financed by the Amazon Steam Navigation Company for the purpose of selecting and reporting upon territories allotted to them by the Brazilian government” (PBA Galleries). “The authors travelled for two years (1873-1875) along the entire course of the Amazon River and its principal tributaries” (Borba da Moraes I p.130); Howgego 1850-1940, Continental, I2; Welch 34.


11. CALDAS, Francisco José de (1768-1816)
Semanario de la Nueva Granada Miscelanea de Ciencias, Literature, Artes e Industria. Nueva Edicion [Weekly Miscellania of New Granada in Sciences, Literature, Art and Industry].

Paris: Libraria Castellana, 1849. New, corrected and augmented edition. Octavo. x, 572 pp. With a lithographed portrait frontispiece and a large folding engraved plate. Period brown full sheep, elaborately gilt tooled and blind stamped. Spine mildly faded, also with a very mild water stain on right upper margin of text throughout, binding rubbed on extremities, spine with a crack on the rear hinge, but overall a good copy.
Special corrected and enlarged edition of the most important articles from the first South American scientific magazine “Semanario de la Nueva Reino de Granada” (Bogota, 1808-1811). The original magazine was published by Francisco José de Caldas “a Colombian lawyer, naturalist, and geographer who was executed by orders of Pablo Morillo during the Reconquista for being a precursor of the Independence of New Granada (modern day Colombia)” (Wikipedia).
Our edition includes several previously unknown articles by Caldas, as well as Alexander von Humboldt’s famous article “Geography of Vegetation” (from the original magazine), supplemented with the large folding table showing zones of plant distribution on Mount Chimborazo depending on the altitude. First Columbian edition of the “Semanario” is extremely rare (with only three copies found in Worldcat), but our edition is also scarce and has appeared on auction sales only three times (1978, 2005, 2006).


12. CHURCH, George Earl (1835-1910)
The Route to Bolivia via the River Amazon: a Report to the Governments of Bolivia and Brazil.

London: Waterlow and Sons Limited, 1877. First Edition. Quarto. 216 pp. With two maps, one folding. Original publisher's brown quarter cloth with gray printed pictorial papered boards. Spine and a few text gutters repaired with archival tape, Folding map with a couple of minor tears and fragile, but overall a good copy.
The author was president of the National Bolivian Navigation Company and chairman of the Madeira and Mamore Railway Company, Limited. “In 1869, Church was appointed by the Government of Bolivia to find a way to explore a navigation enterprise that linked the Mamoré and Madeira Rivers, to extract raw materials from the Amazon jungle. However, on realizing the difficulty of this undertaking from the Pacific Ocean side of the mountains, in 1870 he gained a concession from the Government of Brazil to explore the construction of a railway to connect the border states of Rondônia and Acre to the navigable Amazon river at Porto Velho. He made two failed attempts to construct the Madeira-Mamoré Railway, one in 1870 and a second in 1878, both through the failure of sub-contractors who were blighted by malaria” (Wikipedia). This rare report gives details about these endeavours. Howgego 1850-1940, Continental, C40.


13. CODAZZI, Agustín (1793-1859)
Atlas Fisico y Politico de la Republica de Venezuela dedicado por su autor el Coronel de Ingenieros Agustín Codazzi al Congreso Constituyente de 1830 [Physical and Political Atlas of the Republic of Venezuela Dedicated by its Author, the Colonel of Engineers, to the Constitutional Congress of 1830].

Caracas & Paris: [Lith. De Thierry Fres. À Paris], 1840. First Edition. Elephant Folio. Pictorial lithographed title page (drawn by Carmelo Fernandez, lith. By Eduard Laplante), 8 pp. of text and 18 (of 19) hand-coloured double-page engraved maps (engraved by A. Benitz). Period purple quarter cloth with purple papered boards and later printed spine and front cover labels. This copy is from the library of the British legation in Caracas (paper label on the front board and ink stamps on verso of the maps). Maps with extensive worming which is strengthened with archival paper on verso, binding worn and rubbed, and front hinge cracked, a few leaves with a tear on bottom margin. Overall a fair copy.
“The first atlas of modern Venezuela and one of the earliest national atlases of South America” (Sotheby’s). “A scarce South American atlas with maps showing the political and physical geography of Venezuela and portions of Colombia, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia” (Doyle).
Our copy from the library of the British Legation in Caracas lacks map No. 4 (Venezuela politica en 1810; Venezuela politica en 1840, sacadas de los trabajos del autor).
“Giovanni Battista Agostino Codazzi (alternatively known in Latin America as Agustín Codazzi) was an Italian military, scientist, geographer and cartographer. He made his main investigations and cartographic work in Venezuela and Colombia, thereby creating for both countries a complete set of maps and statistics after the tumultuous post-independence years from Spanish Empire. <…> For the Atlas of Venezuela he was awarded in 1842 the Legion of Honor by the King of France, on behalf of the French Academy of Science” (Wikipedia); “Scarce” (Sabin 14114); Phillips, Atlases 2775


14. COSTA E SILVA, Bernardo
Viagens no Sertão do Amazonas, do Pará á do Mar Pacifico pelo Amazonas, Bolivia e Perú [Travels into the Interior of the Amazon, from Para to the Pacific Ocean through Brazil, Bolivia and Peru].

Porto: Typ. De Arthur José de Sousa & Irmão, 1891. First Edition. Octavo. 379, [4] pp. With seven plates (two folding) after drawings by Costa e Silva and A. Ramalho. Period brown quarter sheep with marbled boards and endpapers, and gilt lettered title on the spine. Binding slightly rubbed on extremities, several pages and plates strengthened on margins and folds, library marking on title page, otherwise a very good copy.
Illustrated travel account of a voyage from Belem to the Pacific ocean via the Amazon and its tributaries. This copy is from the library of the Congregation of the Holy Spirit (“Congr. Du St. Esprit et du St. Coeur de Marie. Bibliotheque de la Maison Mere”).


Monographia Brazileira de Peixes Fluviaes [Monograph of Brazilian River Fish].

São Paulo: “Graphicars”, 1931. First Edition. Quarto. 260, [2 - errata] pp. With 62 plates, some in colour. Original publisher’s illustrated printed wrappers after a drawing by E. Johse. Paper exlibris of José Crispim (Lisboa) on the inner side of the front wrapper. Wrappers with a couple on minor chips and with minor repaired tears on extremities, but overall a very good copy.
Interesting Sao Paulo imprint - detailed systematic description of Brazilian fresh water fish, richly illustrated with colour and black and white plates. Agenor Couto de Magalhães was a the head of the hunting and fishing department of the Sao Paolo Board of the Animal Industry (Chefe da Secção de caça e pesca da diretoria de Industria Animal de S. Paulo).


16. CREVAUX, Jules-Nicolas (1847-1882)
Fleuves de L’Amérique du Sud, 1877-1879. Missions du Ministère de l’Instruction Publique [Rivers of South America].

Paris: Société de Géographie, 1883. First Edition. Oblong Folio. [2 - t.p.], iv, [1] pp. With 40 double-page maps. Original publisher’s brown printed wrappers. Spine reinforced with archival tape. Some chipping of spine and wrappers but overall still a very good copy.
Detailed atlas of the rivers of Guyana and the northern Amazon basin based on the travels of the French explorer of the Amazon Jules Crevaux in 1877-1879. The thirty-nine maps show detailed surveys of Oyapock, Rouapir, Kou, Yaru (Yari), Parou, Iça and Yapura Rivers; and the general chart outlines the whole region, with the dates of Crevaux’s travels to the main districts.
“French naval doctor and explorer <…>, Jules Crevaux undertook his first expedition to the interior of French Guiana in 1877, becoming the first European to explore the Tumuc Humac Mountains on the disputed border with Suriname. The following year, he explored the Oyapock basin and several tributaries of the Amazon. His last, and longest, expedition began in 1880. Reaching the Guaviare River in Colombia on 20 October, he pursued a southward route and on 15 January 1882 discovered the remains of an Incan city near Salta in northwestern Argentina. It was during the course of this expedition that he and the entire party under his command were killed by the Toba people. A peak in Suriname bears his name. His explorations are recounted in a number of his writings: “Voyage en Guyane” (1877), “Voyage d'exploration dans l'intérieur des Guyanes” (1876-1877), “Voyage d'exploration du Guyane” (1879), and “Voyages dans l'Amérique du Sud” (1878-1881). He also produced an atlas of maps of the rivers he travelled, which was published posthumously in 1883” (JSTOR/ Global Plants/ Plant Collectors on-line).


17. FABO, Pedro, Fray (1873-1933)
Idiomas y Etnografia de la Region Oriental de Colombia [Languages and Ethnography of the Eastern Region of Colombia].

Barcelona: Jose Benet, 1911. First Edition. Octavo. 293 pp. Author’s presentation inscription on verso of the half-title “A su Excellencia el Sr. Ministro Plenipotenciario del Peru, Ernesto de Tezanos Pinto, respetuosamente, El Autor. Bogotá, Dbre del 1911”. Original pink publisher’s patterned cloth, with the title stamped in white on the front cover. Binding slightly stained, otherwise a very good copy.
Special presentation copy given by the author to Ernesto de Tezanos Pinto, Peruvian minister plenipotentiary in Columbia. Fray Pedro Fabo del Purísimo Corazón de María was a Columbian writer, historian, philologist, and founder of the Panama Academy of Language. In his poems, novels and articles Fr. Fabo often described the eastern Columbian Casanare region where he lived and preached, reflecting on the landscapes, nature, customs and ways of life of the indigenous people. This book gives a comprehensive overview of the native languages and ethnography of Casanare, including concise grammar directories, quoted proverbs and three dictionaries: Spanish-Tunebo (Uw Cuwa), Spanish-Saliva (Saliba) and Spanish-Achagua (Achawa).


18. FERNÁNDEZ DE ENCISO, Martin (ca. 1470-1528)
Descripción de las Indias Occidentales. Sacada de la Suma de Geografia de este autor y reimpresa con un Prólogo Bibliográfico de J.T. Medina [Description of the West Indies, reprinted with the bibliographic foreword by J.T. Medina].

Santiago de Chile: Imprenta Elzeviriana, 1897. Second edition. Large Octavo Pamphlet. 31 pp. Original publisher’s printed wrappers, housed in a Gaylord pamphlet binder. Exlibris of Ruth and McKew Parr, and printed description of Richard C. Barnes’ bookshop, both attached to the inner sides of the binder. Top corner of title page clipped of, otherwise a very good copy.
Interesting Chilean bibliophile edition of the famous “Suma de Geografia de las Indias” (1519) by Spanish navigator Martín Fernández de Enciso, which was the first Spanish language printed account of the discoveries in the New World. This special edition was published in 200 copies only. The manuscript note by Richard S. Barnes describes the provenance of the copy: “The library I got this from bought it from H.P. Kraus for about $12 or $15 as I recall”.


19. GIANNECCHINI, Dorotéo, Fray (1837-1900)
Diario de la Expedicion Exploradora Boliviana al Alto Paraguay de 1886-1887 [Diary of the Exploratory Bolivian Expedition to the Upper Paraguay in 1886-1887].

S.M. De Los Angeles (Asis): Tip. De la Porciúncula, 1896. First Edition. Octavo. 359 pp. Ink exlibris-stamps of Fabian Vaca Chávez on pages 3 and 7. Original publisher’s printed wrappers, with minor tears and creases, otherwise a very good copy.
Dorotéo Giannecchini was a Franciscan missionary in Tarija (Bolivia); he participated in the Bolivian expeditions to the upper reaches of the Paraguay River (1886-1887) and northern Gran Chaco region (1888); he was also known for his Spanish-Chiriguani (eastern Bolivian Guarani) dictionary. The reason for the expedition was Bolivia’s intention to settle in the Grand Chaco in order to get the direct access to the Paraguay River and to the Atlantic ocean. This was crucial after Bolivia had become a land-locked country with the loss of its Pacific coast in the War of the Pacific. The confrontation between Bolivia and Paraguay over the Gran Chaco eventually led to the Gran Chaco War (1932-1935).
This copy belonged to Fabián Vaca Chávez (1883-1949), Bolivian statesman, writer and journalist, Member of the Bolivian Academy of Language (1935). He worked and Bolivian Minister of Public Works (1927) and of Foreign Affairs (1929-1930), and carried out diplomatic functions in Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Paraguay and Brazil.


20. GRASSET DE SAINT SAUVEUR, Jacques (1757-1810)
[Native People of the Amazon and Guyana, Costumes] Encyclopedie des Voyages, Contenant l'abrégé historique des moeurs, usages, habitudes domestiques, Religions, Fêtes, Supplices, Funérailles, Sciences, Arts, Commerce de tous les Peuples… [Amerique. Amazones Anciennes et Modernes. Habitans de la Guyane] [Encyclopaedia of Travels… America. Amazons Ancient and Modern. Inhabitants of Guyana].

Bourdeaux: Chez L’auteur, [1795-1796]. First Edition. Quarto. 8, 8 pp. With six hand coloured engraved plates after drawings by Grasset de Saint Saveur (engraver - L. Laroque). Original yellow publisher’s printed wrappers. Mild water stains on the wrappers and in text, but overall a very good copy with bright plates.
This part from the “America” volume of Grasset de Saint Sauveur’s “Encyclopedie des Voyages” is dedicated to the native inhabitants of the Amazon and Guyana. Beautiful hand coloured plates portray a male and a female “savages” from Guyana, and a local medicine man; the Amazon region is illustrated with three types of the legendary Amazons: ancient Greek, African and a “female warrior from the Amazon river”, with the latter’s costume strongly influenced by the ancient Greek legend.
Jacques Grasset de Saint-Sauveur was a French diplomat and writer, vice-consul in Hungary and Cairo and author of twenty books, including several collection of costumes of people from different parts of the world, illustrated with numerous engraved plates. Colas 1292.


21. HERNDON, William Lewis (1813-1857) & GIBBON, Lardner (b. 1820)
Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon Made Under Direction of the Navy Department.

Washington: Robert Armstrong & A.O.P. Nicholson, 1854. First Edition. 3 vols., Octavo. iv, 417, [4]; x, [1], 339 pp. Map volume with three folding lithographed maps, two very large. Text volumes with two tinted lithographed frontispieces and with 50 other tinted lithograph plates and two lithographed folding maps. Original publishers dark brown gilt cloth. Spines mildly faded, upper spine of volume one with some tears, text mildly browned and foxed, but overall a good set.
[With]: Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon. New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 1952. xxviii, [1], 201. Original publishers green gilt cloth with map end papers.
“The idea of this expedition was advocated in a series of articles written for American periodicals by the famous oceanographer, Matthew F. Maury. He portrayed the importance of the Amazon for American commerce, and also as a drain for the excess slaves in America. He proposed that farmers emigrate to the Amazon with their slaves, and find their fortunes there. Maury was one of the great fighters for the opening up of the Amazon to international commerce. He contrived to have his brother-in-law Herndon, and Midshipman Gibbon sent on an expedition at the expense of the Navy Department in 1851 and 1852 to study the region... This is an excellent book on the regions mentioned” (Borba de Moraes I p.399).
“Lt. Herndon pushed into the upper Amazon. Lt. Gibbon traveled south through Bolivia and then into the selvas of Brazil. The two groups met in Serpa, Brazil, and then continued down the Amazon River to Para” (Hill 803); Howgego 1800-1850 H24; “It contains material on Chile and Bolivia as well as the Amazon. Volume 2 of the independently published edition appeared under the imprint of A.O.P. Nicholson” (Naylor 162); Sabin 31524; Welch, p.208.


22. HUMBOLDT, Alexander von (1769-1859) & BONPLAND, Aime J.A. (1773-1858)
Personal Narrative of Travels to the Equinoctial Regions of the new Continent During the Years 1799-1804.

London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme and Brown, 1822-1826. Mixed First, Second &Third Editions. Octavo, 6 vols. pp. li, 293, 294, [2]; [iv], 575; [iv], 374, [199]; [iv], 501; [iii], 502-865, [1], 3; v, 390, iv, 391-845. Bound with only one folding engraved maps and without volume seven. Period dark brown full sheep with green gilt labels. Some hinges cracked, map mildly water stained, vol. 6 with chip of lower spine, front covers with library extralibris, otherwise a good set.
[With]: The Story of the Life and Travels of Alexander von Humboldt. London. T. Nelson and Sons 1896. 207pp. With twenty seven wood engravings on plates. Period brown elaborately gilt tooled full calf. A fine copy.
“On their famous travels, Humboldt and Bonpland studied the meteorological phenomena, physical geography, and the ancient and modern cultures of the regions they explored. At Callao, Humboldt measured the temperatures of the ocean current which came to bear his name. He also made investigation into the properties of guano, which ultimately led to its export to Europe. He used scientific instruments for a continuous survey in orography, meteorology and earth magnetism. Bonpland studied plant life in its environmental conditions and collected about 60,000 specimens, among them thousands of new species and genera” (Hill 848); Howgego H120-1.
“On June 5, 1799. Humboldt and Bonpland. Armed with powerful recommendations, sailed from Corunna to the Canary Islands, where they stopped for a short time and made the ascent of the peak of Teneriffe. Thence they proceeded to Caracas in Venezuela. And in Feb., 1800, left the coast for the purpose of exploring the course of the Orinoco. This trip, which lasted four months, and covered seventeen hundred and twenty-five miles of wild and uninhabited country, had the important result of establishing the existence of a communication between the water-systems of the Orinoco and Amazon and of determining the exact position of the bifurcation. On 24 Nov. The two friends sailed for Cuba, and after a stay of some months regained the mainland at Cartagena. Ascending the swollen stream of the Magdalena, and crossing the frozen ridges of the Cordilleras, they reached Quito after a tedious and difficult journey, Jan. 6, 1802. There they ascended Picchincha and Chimborazo, and made an expedition to the sources of the Amazon, en route for Lima. At Callao Humboldt observed the transit of Mercury, and studied the fertilizing properties of guano, the introduction of which into Europe was mainly due to his writings. After a year stay in Mexico, and a short visit to the U. S. A., they returned to Europe. In this famous expedition Humboldt may justly be regarded as having laid the foundation of the sciences of physical geography and meteorology in their larger bearings. His services to geology were mainly based on his attentive study of the volcanoes of the New World” (Maggs); Sabin 33770.


23. JIMÉNEZ DE LA ESPADA, Marcos (1831-1898)
Noticias Auténticas del Famoso Río Marañón y Misión Apostólica de la Compañía De Jesús de la Provincia de Quito en los Dilatados Bosques de Dicho Río [Authentic News about the Famous River Maranon and the Apostolic Mission of the Society of Jesus in Quito Province].

Madrid: Establecimiento Tipográfico de Fortanet, 1889. First Edition. Large Octavo. 676 pp. With a folding map. Period brown quarter sheep with patterned papered boards and gilt lettered title on the spine. Blind stamp “Praep. Provincialis Aragoniae. Soc. Iesu” on the title page. Text a little browned, otherwise a very good copy.
Rare imprint as only six copies found in Worldcat. This is the first printing of a manuscript account by an anonymous Jesuit missionary written in the Quito province in 1738; the original manuscript was deposited in the library of the Real Academia de la Historia. The book was edited and commented by Marcos Jiménez de la Espada and supplemented with ten appendices and the large folding map by father Samuel Fritz. Our copy is from the Aragon province library of the Jesuit society.
“Marcos Jiménez de la Espada was a Spanish zoologist, herpetologist, explorer and writer, known for participating in the Pacific Scientific Commission, with whom he traveled America from 1862 to 1865. He also published several works on geography and history of the American continent <…>. In 1876, he founded the Geographic Society of Madrid, and in 1883, he entered the History Academy. From there, he directed the re-edition of works of great medieval and modern travelers like Pero Tafur and the Jesuit, Bernabé Cobo, and the works of pre-Hispanic Perú from Pedro Cieza de León and Bartolomé de las Casas. From 1881 to 1897 he published four volumes of his work Geographic Relations of the Indies, which garnered him the Loubat prize from the History Academy. His work in favor of the divulgation of the Inca culture won him the Gold Medal from the Government of Perú” (Wikipedia).


24. LA CONDAMINE, Charles Marie de (1701-1774)
Relation abrégée d’un Voyage fait dans l’Intérieur de l’Amérique Méridionale. Depuis la Côte de la Mer du Sud, jusqu’aux Côtes du Brésil & de la Guiane, en descendant la Rivière des Amazones [Abridged Relation of the Voyage to the Interior of South America, from the Coast of the South Sea to the Coasts of Brazil and Guyana down the River of the Amazons].

Paris: Vouve Pissot, 1745. First Edition. Octavo. [4], xvi, 216, [3]; [2], 108 pp. With a folding engraved map of the Amazon and a folding engraved plate. Period brown speckled full calf, neatly rebacked in style; spine with raised bands and gilt lettered morocco label. Book plate of the Calwich Library on the first paste-down endpaper. Mild water stains on the upper margin of several leaves, otherwise a very good copy.
“The map of the Amazon contained in this Relation (both first and second editions) is the first one to have been drawn in which the latitudes were observed. It shows, by dotted lines, the course of the river according to Father Fritz’s map, and reveals his mistakes. This map by de la Condamine indicates for the first time the course of the Araguay. <…> The Relation <…> is of great importance, because for the first time the long course of the Amazon was penetrated by a man of science capable of making astronomic observations, and determining longitudes. Written in a very lively and picturesque style, the Relation is full of interesting and curious observations. One of La Condamine’s preoccupations was to verify the existence of the women known as ‘Amazons’ “ (Borba de Moraes, 446-447).
The book also includes “Lettre à madame *** sur l'émeute populaire excitée en la ville de Cuenca au Pérou, le 29 d'août 1739 contre les académiciens des sciences envoyés pour la mesure de la terre” (Paris, 1746). “In this riot which took place in the arena prepared for a bull-fight, Sieur Seniergues, Surgeon of the King, was killed” (Sabin 38481); Howgego L10.


25. MARKHAM, Sir Clements Robert (1830-1916)
First Part of the Royal Commentaries of the Yncas by the Ynca Garcilaso de la Vega.

London: Hakluyt Society, 1869-1871. First Edition. Octavo, 3 vols. xvi, xi, 12-359; 553 pp. Large folding outline hand coloured engraved map of Peru in map folder and a folding plan of Cuzco in text. Original publishers blue pictorial gilt cloth. Endpapers brittle and loose, otherwise a very good set.
Markham “was also secretary (1858-86) and then president (1889-1910) of the Hakluyt Society, for whom he also edited some thirty volumes, many of them translations from the Spanish; in effect he kept the society going” (Oxford DNB).
“Garcilaso (“The Inca”, to distinguish him from the famous poet and forbear of the same name) was the son of the Spanish conquistador Sebastian Garcilaso de la Vega, and princess Isabel Chimpu Occlo, relative of the last Incan emperor, Atahuallpa. He was born in Cuzco in 1539 and spent the first 21 years of his life in Peru absorbing both the Indian and Spanish cultures. In 1560 he travelled to Spain, never to return to South America. He is unique among the early chroniclers of Spanish America in his native background, education and first-hand knowledge, as a Quechua speaker, of Incan history and traditions. This Primera parte de los commentarios reales contains the origins and rise of the Incan empire and is based on his own childhood memories and accounts sent to him by native friends” (Sothebys).


26. MARKHAM, Sir Clements Robert (1830-1916)
Travels in Peru and India While Superintending the Collection of Chinchona Plants and Seeds in South America, and Their Indtroduction into India.

London: John Murray, 1862. First Edition. Octavo. xviii, 572 pp. With a wood engraved frontispiece, two other wood engraved plates and many wood engravings in text. Later brown gilt tooled half morocco with marbled boards. Hinges crack, plates and maps mildly stained, overall a good copy.
“Markham directed this expedition in 1860, which transferred Chinchona trees to Travancore, India. Quinine was extracted from the bark of these tress, sometimes known as “Peruvian bark,” and used to treat malaria. This form of quinine is still occasionally used today, although artificial quinines have since been developed. This volume is one of the scarcest works by this leading authority with years of experience in Peru” (Hill 1083).
Markham “was commissioned to carry from Peru to India seeds of the cinchona tree, the source of quinine and then found only in Peru; to establish the tree in India and Ceylon; and to make quinine readily available there. The remoteness of the country, the possibility of war between Peru and Bolivia, and the hostility of the Peruvian authorities and entrepreneurs to the scheme, which threatened their hold on the quinine trade, made it hazardous. Markham's Travels in Peru and India (1862) and Peruvian Bark (1880) recount his adventures in Peru, where he was accompanied by his wife, Minna.., and several botanists. He managed to gather plants and seeds, and found time for work on his first Quechua dictionary.., Although Markham's own plants did not survive, the party as a whole succeeded in getting seeds and plants out of South America and establishing plantations in India and Ceylon, and making pure quinine available throughout the subcontinent. He was awarded a grant of £3000 for his services” (Oxford DNB); Sabin 44616.


27. MAÚRTUA, Victor Manuel (1865-1937)
[Atlas Only]: Juicio de Límites entre el Perú y Bolivia. Prueba Peruana Presentada al Gobierno Argentino por V.M. Maurtua, Abogado y Plenipotenciario ad hoc del Perú. Cartas Geográficas (Segunda serie) [Cartographic Proofs for the Border Dispute between Peru and Bolivia. Peruvian Analysis presented to the Government of Argentina by V.M. Maúrtua].

Barcelona: Tipolit. De Henrich y Co., 1906. First Edition. Elephant Folio. [2 - t.p.], [4] pp. With 58 maps, some double-page and/or printed in colour. Period light brown half sheep with brown cloth boards; spine with raised bands, gilt tooling and three gilt lettered title labels (title, author, place and date of issue). Title page repaired on the upper margin, some very minor worming and foxing, otherwise a very good copy.
Atlas to the 12-volume collection of documents supporting the Peruvian side of the border dispute with Bolivia (Barcelona-Madrid, 1906; 12 vols. Text, atlas with 58 maps and portfolio with 34 maps). The work presents the history of the colonisation of the disputed lands, based on original historical documents, and was intended to accompany the “Exposición de la República del Perú presentada Excmo. Gobierno Argentino en el juicio de limites con la República de Bolivia” (Barcelona-Madrid, 1906).
Both text and maps were prepared under guidance of Peruvian diplomat Victor Manuel Maúrtua. In 1904 he was appointed minister plenipotentiary to defend the Peruvian claim in the border dispute with Bolivia, for which purpose he made an extraordinary documentary research, in collaboration with specialists Luis Ulloa, Victor Andres Belaunde and Carlos A. Romero. The atlas contains 58 perfectly reproduced historical maps of the region, from Diego Gutiero’s “Americae sive qvartae orbis partis nova et exactissima description” (1562) to the “Milliet de Saint Adolphe” (1863). The last two maps are the cadastral sketch of the basin of the Madre de Dios River, and a “controvertida” map of the region. The atlas is supplemented with the index classifying maps according to specific opinion on the borderline they illustrate, e.g.: “Mapas bolivianos que consignan como limite pretendido por Bolivia la linea Inambari-Yavari”, “Mapas que indican los limites de las Audiencias de America conforme a la Recopilacion de Leves de Indias”; “Mapas que suprimen toda indicacion geografica sobre la provincia y tribu de Chunchos”, “Mapas de diversas Misiones” et al.


28. MAURY, Matthew Fontaine (1806-1873)
The Amazon, and the Atlantic Slopes of South America. Revised and Corrected by the Author.

Washington D.C.: Franck Taylor, 1853. First Edition. Octavo. 63 pp. With a lithographed map frontispiece. Period purple gilt cloth. A very good copy.
First separate printing, “originally published in the National Intelligencer under the pseudonym of “Inca.” Maury's letters pleaded for the opening of the Amazon to ships of all nations” (Lefkowicz); Borba de Moraes II p.541.


29. MAW, Henry Lister (b.1804)
Journal of a Passage from the Pacific to the Atlantic, Crossing the Andes in the Northern Provinces of Peru, and Descending the River Maranon, or Amazon.

London: John Murray, 1829. First Edition. Octavo. xv, 486 pp. With a separate folding engraved map. Later period style beige papered boards with printed paper spine label. Map with archival tape residue on verso and from another copy. Overall a very good copy.
“Rich in facts relating to the history, condition, and character of the Indians of Peru and Brazil, particularly of the unexplored districts in the valley of the Maranon or upper Amazon. John Russell Smith said that this rare work “was not printed for sale” (Hill 1115).
“Possibly the first Briton to cross South America by way of the Amazon.., During the 1820's British merchants in Lima had begun to show an interest in the feasibility of exporting their goods by a route across Peru and down the Amazon.., Seeing the enterprise as a route towards promotion, Maw volunteered to undertake the journey at his own expense, while the Peruvian government, enthusiastic about the idea, gave him a passport and letters requesting that he should be helped at various stages of his route.., His journal, the first narrative of a complete descent of the Amazon in English as the primary language” (Howgego 1800-1850, M25); Borba de Moraes II p.541; Sabin 46988.


30. MICHELENA Y RÓJAS, Francisco (1801-1872)
Exploración oficial por la primera vez desde el norte de la America del Sur siempre por rios, entrando por las bocas del Orinóco, de los valles de este mismo y del Meta, Casiquiare, Rio-Negro ó Guaynia y Amazónas, hasta Nauta en el alto Marañon ó Amazónas, arriba de las bocas del Ucayali bajada del Amazonas hasta el Atlántico <...> Viaje a Rio de Janeiro desde Belen en el Gran Pará, por el Atlántico, tocando en las capitales de las principales provincias del imperio en los años, de 1855 hasta 1859.
[Official Exploration for the first time of Northern South America by Means of Rivers, from the Mouth of Orinoco, Valleys of the same River, and by the Meta, Casiquiare, Rio Negro, Ucayali and the Amazon Rivers <…> down the Amazon to the Atlantic.<...>Travels to Rio de Janeiro from Belem in the Gran Para, by the Atlantic, <…> in 1855-1859].

Bruselas: A. Lacroix, Verboeckhoven y Ca., 1867. First Edition. Large Octavo. 684 pp. With a large folding map frontispiece (hand coloured in outline) and eight other maps and plans. Handsome period brown treed full sheep with green gilt lettered morocco label and gilt tooled ornaments on the spine. Paper label of a Buenos Aires bookstore “Libreria de la Plata” on the first paste-down endpaper. Owner’s pencil inscription on the title page, maps with mild creases, but overall a very good copy.
Detailed account of a four-year expedition to the valleys of the Orinoco, Casiquiare, Rio Negro, Ucayali and Amazon by Don Francisco Michelena y Rojas, undertaken under special assignment of the Venezuelan government. Michelena y Rojas traversed the territories of Venezuela, British Guiana, New Granada, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia and finally sailed from Belem to Rio de Janeiro. He ascended the Orinoco River 150 miles over the point which had been considered the end of navigable river and corrected geographical mistakes made by Humboldt. Then he determined the location, climate, plains and forests in the valleys of Rio Negro and the Amazon; and for the purpose of prospective colonization gave a detailed account of all rivers flowing into the Orinoco and the Amazon, thus presenting the advantages to steam navigation. He also marked the boundaries of Venezuela and described towns and cities he visited during the journey.
Francisco Michelena y Rojas was a Venezuelan diplomat and statesman, known for his extensive travels across South America and around the world and was nicknamed “El Viajero Universal”. His extensive travel around the world in 1822-1842 resulted in “Viajes científicos en todo el mundo: desde 1822 hasta 1842” (Madrid, 1843) and “Viajes cientificos, durante los cuales fue visitada la oceanía” (Madrid, 1851) - 'one of the rarest and least-known voyages to the Pacific' (Hill). In 1848-1849 he served as the ambassador of Ecuador in France, and in the late 1860s as the governor of Venezuelan provinces Amazonas and Cristobal Colón.


31. ORBIGNY, Alcide Dessalines d’ (1802-1857)
Descripcion Geográfica, Histórica y Estadística de Bolivia [Geographical, Historical and Statistical Description of Bolivia].

Paris: Libreria de los Señores Gide y Compania, 1845. First Edition. Octavo, Vol. 1 (all published). liv, 402, [1] pp. Later dark green cloth with the original gilt tooled spine laid down. Crossed out ink inscription on verso of the title page dated 1853. Mild water stains on the lower corners of several leaves in the front, otherwise a good copy.
Interesting early description of Bolivia based on the travels of a French naturalist Alcide d'Orbigny. In 1826-1833 he “travelled on a mission for the Paris Museum, in South America. He visited Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Chile, Bolivia and Peru and returned to France with an enormous collection of more than 10,000 natural history specimens. He described part of his findings in La Relation du Voyage dans l'Amérique Méridionale pendant les annés 1826 à 1833 (Paris, 1824–47, in 90 fascicles). His contemporary, Charles Darwin called this book “one of the great monuments of science in the 19th century”. <…> The South American Paleocene pantodont Alcidedorbignya was named in his honour” (Wikipedia).
The book was published in one volume only. Sabin 57452.


32. OSCULATI, Gaetano (1808-1894)
Esplorazione Delle Regioni Equatoriali Lungo il Napo ed il Fuime Delle Amazzoni: Frammento di un Viaggio Fatto Nelle due Americhe Negli anni 1846-1847-1848 [Exploration of the Equatorial Regions along the Napo and Amazon Rivers].

Milano: Tipografia Bernardoni, 1850. First Edition. Quarto. 320 pp. With an engraved map frontispiece and thirteen lithographs (one folding) and a large folding map. Period brown gilt tooled quarter sheep with marbled boards. Lower joints starting to crack, two plates smaller and seemingly from another copy, large map with a minor repaired tear, otherwise a very good copy.
“Returning to the coast at Guayaquil, from where he decided to follow the route of Orellana across South America, he set off across country for the Rio Napo, but after several days march two weeks subsisting on palm-leaves and a particular type of fruit, he successfully reached the Napo alone. By way of the Napo he entered the Amazon, then descended the river to Belem, a journey of fourteen months” (Howgego O7); “The author sailed down the River Amazon from Tabatinga to Para collecting material for a study on natural history” (Borba de Moraes II p.637); Sabin 57767.


33. PALACIOS, José Agustin
Exploraciones de Don José Agustin Palacios Realizadas en los Rios Beni, Mamoré y Madera y en le Lago Rogo-agnado, durante los años 1844 al 47. Descripción de la Provincia de Mojos [Explorations of Don José Agustin Palacios made near the Beni, Mamoré and Madeira Rivers, and Lake Rogo in 1844-47. Description of the Mojos Province].
With: Idem. [Map of Madeira River and its Rapids]: Plano Topográfico y Geográfico del Rio Madera y sus Cachuelas. Esplorado y delineado por el Cño José Agustin Palacios en el año 1846.

Book:La Paz: Imprenta de “El Comercio”, 1893. First edition. Octavo. 60 pp. With a portrait of J.A. Palacios. Original publisher’s printed wrappers, reinforced with archival tape on spine. Period manuscript note in Spanish on the first page. Overall a very good copy.
Map: La Paz: Lit. Americana, n.d. Large colour lithographed map ca. 60,5x40,5 cm (23 ¾ x 16 in), mounted on a paper sheet. Tears on folds, but overall a very good map.
Two very rare Bolivian imprints with only three copies of the book and no copies of the map found in Worldcat. The book and map represent the results of an early topographical survey of Madeira river rapids for the prospective railroad that would connect Bolivia with the Atlantic Ocean. The survey was conducted by José Agustin Palacios in 1844-1847 when he served as a General Administrator of Taxes in the Bolivian Department of the Beni (Province of Mojos).
The map delineates the Madeira River, from Exaltacion town in the south to Tamandua Island in the north. 21 smaller insets show all Madeira rapids and most of her tributaries, with the navigation routes during high and low water. The map is included into “Catálogo de los documentos concernientes a la historia geográfica de Bolivia” issued by the Archive of the Ministry of Interior of Bolivia (La Paz, 1889, p. 32).
“In 1846 the engineer José Augustin Palácios convinced Bolivian authorities that the best way to secure access to the Atlantic Ocean was through the Amazon. At the time, Bolivia had access to the Pacific Ocean (subsequently lost to Chile in the war of the Pacific in 1884), but the lucrative trade routes with the United States and Europe were located in the Atlantic. In 1851, the government of the United States became interested in access to Bolivian products (notably rubber), and contracted Lieutenant Lardner Gibbon to study the viability of a rail link between the navigable Amazon river and Bolivian production centres. Gibbon's study concluded that a rail-road along the Madeira river rapids would allow efficient transport of goods from the Bolivian capital of La Paz to US markets” (Wikipedia).
Several attempts to overcome the Madeira rapids were unsuccessful, and subsequently the Madeira-Mamoré Railroad which bypassed the rapids was constructed (1907-1912).


34. PINKAS, Julio (1848 - ca. 1938)
Relatorio Apresentado A.S.Ex. O Sr. Conselheiro João Ferreira de Moura, Ministro e Secretario de Estado dos Negocios da Agricultura, Commercio e Obras Publicas/ Commissão de Estudos da Estrada de ferro do Madeira e Mamore [Report to His Excellency Councellor João Ferreira de Moura, Minister and Secretary of State for Agriculture, Commerce and Public Affairs/ Committee for the Railway in Madeira and Mamore].

Rio de Janeiro: Imprensa Nacional, 1885. First Edition. Quarto. Xx, 243, 113, [1 - errata] pp. With four large folding lithographed maps. Later crimson Brazilian binding with gilt lettered spine and decorative papered boards and endpapers. Period presentation inscription on verso of the title page. Period ink stamp of a Rio de Janeiro bookseller “Livraria do Povo” on the title page. Binding slightly rubbed at extremities, otherwise a very good copy.
A scarce Brazilian imprint, with only nine copies found in Worldcat. The book contains the survey of the Madeira and Mamoré rivers undertaken in order to find the most convenient trade route between Brazil and Bolivia.
“In 1883 a surveying expedition was sent out under the leadership of the engineer-in-chief, Julio Pinkas. The object of the expedition was mainly to survey the great bend between the lower river and the upper river, with a view to the construction of a railway. The result was so favourable that the report concludes by definite proposal for carrying out the scheme. The expedition consisted of a considerable staff of very competent men, and as their programme included observations on the geography of the region in all its aspects, hydrography, ethnology, climate, sanitary condition, character of soil, vegetation, &c., Senhor Pinkas’ Report is of considerable scientific as well as engineering value. One most useful and attractive feature are the many very excellent photographs of the scenery of the Madeira- Mamoré region, giving one a very satisfactory idea of the various aspects of the country. The maps are: General sketch map of the proposed route (1:200,000), profile of the same (horizontal scale, 1:200,000; vertical scale, 1:2000); map showing the present and future communication of Bolivia with Europe (1:5,000,000); sketch map of Keller’s survey (1:800,000)” (Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society. New Monthly Series. Vol. VIII. London, 1886. p. 345).


35. RAIMONDI, Antonio (1826-1890)
[Presentation Copy]: El Peru: Tomo 1. Parte Preliminar; Tomo 2-3. Historia de la Geografia del Peru. [Geographic History of Peru].

Lima: Imp. del Estado por J. Enrique del Campo, 1874-1879. First Edition. Quarto. 3 vols. [4], iv, [4], 444; vii, [2], 475; v, [2], 614 pp. With six folding maps and ten lithographed plates. Period green quarter morocco with patterned papered boards and gilt lettered titles on the spines, marbled paper endpapers. Ink presentation inscriptions “Al Sr. Dr. D. Emilio L. Mola. A. Raimondi” on the title pages of the first and second volumes. Second copy of one of the maps from vol. 3 loosely inserted in vol. 1. Bindings rubbed on extremities, several pages loosely inserted in vol. 1, but overall a very good set.
The first edition of the first major work of the geographic history of Peru. The book was initially published in three volumes, with two supplementary volumes “Estudios mineralógicos y geológicos”being issued in 1902 and 1913 by the Geographical Society of Lima. Ours is the presentation copy given by the author to Dr. Emilio L. Mola.
“El Perú: Itinerarios de Viajes is an expansive written work covering a variety of topics in the natural history of Peru, written by the prominent Italian-born Peruvian geographer and scientist Antonio Raimondi in the latter half of the 19th century. The work was compiled from extensive and detailed notes Raimondi took while criss-crossing the country, studying the nation's geography, geology, meteorology, botany, zoology, ethnography, and archaeology <…>. The volumes are a classic example of exploration scholarship, and form one of the earliest and broadest scientific reviews of Peru's natural and cultural heritage” (Wikipedia).
Howgego: 1850-1940, Continental Exploration, R3.


36. SAAVEDRA, Bautista (1870-1939)
Defensa de los Derechos de Bolivia ante el Gobierno Argentino en el Litigio de Fronteras con la Republica del Peru [Defence of the Rights of Bolivia Presented to the Government of Argentina in the Border Dispute with the Republic of Peru].

Buenos Aires: Talleres de la Casa Jacobo Peuser, 1906. First Edition. Octavo, 2 vols. 316, [1]; 292, [1] pp. With twenty-four large folding colour printed maps. Period brown quarter morocco with marbled boards and gilt lettered title on the spine. Recased with original spines laid down, library exlibris and markings, otherwise a very good strong set.
Nice copy of this richly illustrated report dedicated to the establishment of the border between Bolivia and Peru of the disputed territory which included a part of the Amazon basin. By the special agreement in 1902 Argentina was appointed the arbitrator of the dispute, and in 1909 the Argentinean president Figueroa Alcorta made his decision establishing the border. This work presents the Bolivian position about the border dispute and was written by Rosa Bautista Saavedra Mallea, then a Bolivian lawyer and later twice the President of Bolivia (1920-21 and 1921-1925).


37. SALINAS, Manuel Macedonio (1809 - ca. 1873)
Navegacion de los Rios de Bolivia Confluentes del Madera y Amazonas y Colonizacion [Navigation of the Bolivian Rivers Confluent with the Madera and Amazon].

Cochabamba: Imprenta de Gutierrez, 1871. First Edition. Small Octavo. 42 pp. With two woodcut vignettes (on the title page and in text). Later black cloth with gilt lettered title on the front board. Period ink inscription “H.S. Ministro D.P. Tomas Frias” on the title page. A very good copy.
Very rare Bolivian imprint with only four printed copies found in Worldcat. Our copy belonged to Tomás Frías Ametller (1804-1884), a “noted politician who served twice as president of Bolivia (1872–73 and 1874–76). Tomás Frías Province and Tomás Frías Autonomous University are named after him” (Wikipedia).


38. SAVAGE, Timothy
The Amazonian Republic, Recently Discovered in the Interior of Peru. By Ex-Midshipman Timothy Savage, B. C.

New York: Samuel Colman, 1842. First Edition. Octavo. 177 pp. Period gray papered boards. Head of spine chipped and front hinge cracked. Overall a good copy.
This rare “Utopian novel, is generally considered to be the first American feminist fantasy” (New England Book Auctions); “The protagonist of The Amazonian Republic Recently Discovered in the Interior of Peru (1842) is rescued from shipwreck by a group of Amazons who take him to their hidden City, which houses a Utopia where sex-roles are reversed” (The Encyclopaedia of Science Fiction on-line); Sabin 77250.


39. SMYTH, William (1800-1877) & LOWE, Frederick
Narrative of a Journey from Lima to Para, Across the Andes and down the Amazon: Undertaken with a view of Ascertaining the Practicability of a Navigable Communication with the Atlantic, by the Rivers Pachitea, Ucayali, and Amazon.

London: John Murray, 1836. First Edition. Octavo. vii, 305, 8 [ads] pp. With ten engravings and lithographs on plates and three maps (two folding). Period style brown gilt tooled full calf with a red gilt label. A couple of plates smaller, mildly foxed and seemingly supplied from another copy but overall a very good copy.
Smyth was in Lima when he learnt of the possibility of “penetrating the Montaña, as the interior is always styled, as far as Mayro, where, by all accounts, there was to be found a large and navigable river called the Pachitea, which, communicating with the Ucayali, opened a direct route by the Marañon to the Atlantic” (p. 2). In the event, the expedition was unable to reach Mayro. “A little known account of the tribes and terrain between Peru and the Atlantic Ocean. The plates were taken from the drawings of Lt. Smyth” (Hill 1595); Howgego 1800-1850, S35; Naylor 115; Sabin 85346.


40. TEMPLE, Edmond
Travels in Various Parts of Peru, Including a Year's Residence in Potosi.

London: Henry Colburn & Richard Bentley, 1830. First Edition. Octavo, 2 vols. xiii, 431; viii, 504 pp. With an engraved map and eight aquatints, lithographs and engravings on plates. Very handsome brown period elaborately gilt tooled diced full calf with brown gilt labels. With a period inscription on front flyleaf. A near fine set.
“An interesting account of Temple's two-and-a-half year sojourn in Peru. Temple was employed by the Potosi, La Paz and Peruvian Mining Association, which collapsed in 1826, and he published a work on that company, in 1829, in addition to his travels” (Hill 1683); “Temple came out from England to South America in 1825, on the staff of a mining firm, and he kept a sympathetic and optimistic outlook despite its failure. Many humorous and picturesque incidents and descriptions, chiefly of Bolivia and Argentina” (Griffin 3747); Abbey Travel 725; Howgego 1800-1850, M25; Sabin 94660.


41. VIVERO, Domingo de (1853-1901)
Galería de Retratos de los Gobernadores y Virreyes del Perú (1532-1824). Publicada por Domingo de Vivero, Texto por Don J.A. De Lavalle. Láminas por Don Evaristo San Cristóbal [Gallery of Portraits of Governors and Viceroys of Peru (1532-1824)].

Lima: “Librería Clásica y Científica”, 1891. First Edition. Folio. 88, [1] pp. With forty-four lithographed portraits. Later brown and orange cloth boards. Lower corner of title page chipped, about a dozen leaves in the end with very minor trace of worming, but overall a very good copy.
Very rare Peruvian imprint with only one printed copy found in Worldcat. This is the first edition of the collection of biographies of Peruvian governors and viceroys written by a noted Peruvian journalist, writer and diplomat Domingo de Vivero. The book contains forty-four biographies, including those of Francisco Pizarro, Blasco Nunez Vela, Antonio de Mendoza, Francisco de Toledo, Melchor de Linan y Cisneros, Diego Ladron de Guevara, Teodoro de Croix, Joaquin de la Pezuela and others. The biographies are supplemented with portraits drawn by local artist Evaristo San Cristóbal.


42. WALLACE, Alfred Russel (1823-1913)
A Narrative of Travels on the Amazon and Rio Negro with an Account of the Native Tribes and Observations on the Climate, Geology and Natural History of the Amazon Valley.

London: Reeve and Co., 1853. First Edition. Octavo. viii, 541, 16 (ads) pp. With a tinted lithographed frontispiece, eight lithographic plates by and after Wallace, an engraved map and a folding letterpress table. Original publisher's brown patterned gilt cloth. Recased but overall a very good copy.
“Wallace was twenty-five years old when, inspired by W.H. Edward's book, Voyage up the Amazon, he sailed up the Amazon and assembled a considerable collection of natural history items. He collected 1,300 species of insects in the first two months alone. Unfortunately his collections were destroyed by fire on his return journey. Wallace was the co-discoverer of the theory, better known as Darwin's, of the origin of the Species” (Borba de Moraes II p.933).
“Wallace [choose] to concentrate on the central Amazon and Rio Negro regions. There he first came into contact with native peoples unaffected by European influence, an experience that left an indelible positive impression on him. A map he prepared of the Rio Negro proved reliable and became a standard reference for many years. Most of his time was spent studying the area's ornithology, entomology, physical geography, primatology, botany, and ichthyology, and he soon became fascinated by two problems in particular: first, how geography influenced species distribution boundaries, and second, the way the adaptive suites of many populations seemed more attuned to ecological station than to closeness of affinity with other forms” (Oxford DNB); Howgego 1800-1850, W10.



43. BUACHE, Philippe (1700-1773)
[Map of Peru] Carte du Perou. Pour servir à l’Histoire des Incas et à celle de l’Etat present de cette Province. Sur les Observations Astronomiq.es faites aux Environs de l'Equateur et Communiquées à l'Academie depuis l'an 1736. jusqu'en 1739. Par M.M. Godin, Bouguer, et de la Condamine de l'Acad. R.le des Sciences, Assujetie pour les autres parties aux Observations du P. Feuillée, et de M. Frezier aux Routes et Remarques Geographiques de divers Voyageurs.

Paris, 1739. Copper engraved map, consisting of two joined sheets, in total ca. 38,5x31 cm (15 ¼ x 12 in). Faintly outline hand coloured. Blank on verso. Blank margins with some wear, otherwise a very good map.
"Buache was trained under the geographer Guillaume Delisle, whose daughter he married, and whom he succeeded in the Académie des sciences in 1730. Buache was nominated first geographer of the king in 1729. He established the division of the world by seas and river systems. He believed in a southern continent, an hypothesis which was confirmed by later discoveries. In 1754, he published an "Atlas physique." He also wrote several pamphlets" (Wikipedia).
The map was issued in two parts: “Parte Septentrionale” and “Parte Meridionale du Peru” which have been trimmed and joined; the map is from: Histoire des Incas rois du Perou / Garcilaso de la Vega ... Faite par T.F. Dalibard ... Paris, Prault fils, 1744. Tooley's Mapmakers A-D, p. 204.


44. CARY, John (1755-1835)
A New Map of South America from the Latest Authorities.

London, 1807. Large folding copper engraved map on two sheets each ca. 45,5x52,5 cm (17 ¾ x 20 ¾ in), with full original hand colouring. Original centerfolds. Overall a very good attractive map.
Maps 59 and 60 from “Cary’s Universal Atlas” (London, 1808) which give a detailed overview of the South American continent and the Caribbean.
“John Cary was an English cartographer. Cary served his apprenticeship as an engraver in London, before setting up his own business in the Strand in 1783. He soon gained a reputation for his maps and globes, his atlas, The New and Correct English Atlas published in 1787, becoming a standard reference work in England. In 1794 Cary was commissioned by the Postmaster General to survey England's roads. This resulted in Cary's New Itinerary (1798), a map of all the major roads in England and Wales. He also produced Ordnance Survey maps prior to 1805. In his later life he collaborated on geological maps with the geologist William Smith. His business was eventually taken over by G. F. Cruchley (1822–1875)” (Wikipedia); Philips. Maps of America, p. 805; Tooley's Mapmakers, A-D, p.239.


45. CHATELAIN, Henry Abraham (fl. 1684-1743)
Carte de la Terre Ferme, du Perou, du Bresil, et du Pays des Amazones. Dressee sur les Mémoires les plus Nouveaux & les observations les plus exactes [Map of Terra Firma, Peru, Brazil, and the Country of the Amazons...].

[Amsterdam], ca. 1720. Copper engraved map ca. 40,5x52 cm (16 x 20 ½ in), period outline hand colouring. Original centerfold, blank on verso. Some minor mild damp stains on the top right corner, otherwise a very good map.
A map from the 6th volume of Chatelain’s “Atlas Historique” (Amsterdam, 1705-1720, 7 vols.).
“Handsome map of the northern part of South America based on the cartography of Guillaume Delisle. It is filled with place names and notations speculating about the Indian tribes and the tributaries of the Amazon. The Capitanias are named in Brazil and the Inca Way is shown from Chuquisaca in Peru to Pasto in Colombia. Title at top with text block at upper right” (Old World Auctions); Philips. Maps of America, p. 797.


46. CONDAMINE, Charles Marie de la (1701-1774)
Karte von der Provinz Quito in Peru nach den astronomischen Wahrnehmungen, geographischen Ausmessungen, Reisetagebüchern und Nachrichten des Hrn de la Condamine [Map of the Province of Quito in Peru..,].

Leipzig: [D’Anville], 1751 [1757]. Large folding uncoloured copper engraved map ca. 59x35 cm (23 ¼ x 13 ¾ in). Fold marks, paper slightly age-toned, otherwise a very good map.
"Condamine decided to return to Europe [from Colombia] by way of the Amazon, with the intention of accurately charting the river. Travelling south from Tarqui to Loja he descended the rivers Chinchipe and Chuchunga to Jaen (in Peru) on the Rio Maranon" (Howgego L10). From Jaen, he travelled via the Rio Maranon, Rio Ucayali and Rio Negro to Belem on the Atlantic.
This is the German version of La Condamine’s map which appeared in „Allgemeine Historie der Reisen zu Wasser und Lande“ (Leipzig, 1757, Bd. 15, p. 302); Phillips, Maps of America, p. 738.
This map shows "the long chain of triangulation down the spine of the Andes. This map was to summarize his several years labour measuring the length of a degree of latitude at the Equator — an amazing feat of mountaineering, quire apart from its considerable scientific merit! Another French team had gone to Lapland to do the same for a degree at a northern latitude. This was all in connection with a scientific debate between Newton and Cassini about the shape of the Earth — was it flattened at the poles or at the equator? National pride was very much in play. It so happened that Newton was correct (oblate = flatter at the poles) but Condamine's team did remarkable trigonometric survey work" (Michael Layland).


47. CORONELLI, Vincenzo Maria (1650-1718)
Corso del Fiume dell Amazoni [Course of the River of the Amazons].

[Venice], ca. 1691. Attractive copper engraved map ca. 28x45 cm (11 x 17 ¾ in). With later hand colouring, blank on verso. Minor creases, otherwise a very good map.
"This uncommon map of the northern half of the continent focuses on the course of the Amazon River. Typical of Coronelli's strong engraving style, the topographical features are very prominent. But most interesting are the many small illustrations of Native American life including several depictions of warfare, execution and cannibalism. Dispersed throughout the map are also several indigenous animals, including the incorrectly depicted elephants and lions. The distance scale is encircled in a ribbon that is being tied by a playful sea creature and the title is contained in a garland cartouche with the coat of arms of Giovanni da Verrazzano, to which the map is dedicated" (Old World Auctions); Phillips, Maps of America, p. 100.


48. D'ANVILLE, Jean Baptiste Bourguignon (1697-1782)
[Very Large Three Part Map of South America] Amerique Meridionale Publiée sous les Auspices de Monseigneur le Duc d'Orleans Prémier Prince du Sang.

Paris: Chez de l’Auteur, 1748. Copper-engraved map on three un-joined sheets ca. 122x77 cm total printed surface, hand-colored in outline. Engraved by G. Delahaye. With original folds and one sheet with some mild creasing, otherwise a very good map.
Much of the information on this large scale detailed map on the Amazon river and the rivers that flow into it comes from La Condamine. "Condamine decided to return to Europe [from Colombia] by way of the Amazon, with the intention of accurately charting the river. Travelling south from Tarqui to Loja he descended the rivers Chinchipe and Chuchunga to Jaen (in Peru) on the Rio Maranon" (Howgego L10). From Jaen, he travelled via the Rio Maranon, Rio Ucayali and Rio Negro to Belem on the Atlantic. Phillips, Maps of America, p. 799; Adonias, I. A Cartografia da Região Amazônica. Vol. 1., p. 272.


49. FRITZ, Samuel (1654-1728)
The Great River Maranon or of the Amazons Geographically Describ'd by Samuel Fritz, Missioner on the Said River.

[London], ca. 1715. Copper engraved map ca. 15,5x36,5 cm (6 ¼ x 14 ¼ in). Blank on verso. With old fold marks, overall a very good map.
“Samuel Fritz, a Jesuit missionary, spent 42 years in South America. During this time he mapped the missionary territory on the Upper Maranon between Peru and Quito, which was involved in a boundary dispute between Spain and Portugal. In 1689 he explored the Amazon and charted the river's course. This was the first approximately correct chart of the Maranon territory. He was also the first to follow the Tunguragua instead of the Gran Para (Ucayali) and proved it to be the real source of the Maranon. His important chart and the fascinating story of his imprisonment as a suspected Spanish spy were copied in numerous accounts during the 18th century. This map depicts the numerous tributaries of the Amazon River and identifies cities of all sizes, including Quito, Lima, and Cuzco. The mythical Parima L. Takes a rectangular shape just north of the great river” (Old World Auctions); Phillips, Maps of America, p. 100.


50. FRITZ, Samuel (1654-1728)
Cours du Fleuve Maragnon autrement dit des Amazones, par le P. Samuel Fritz, Missionnaire de la Compagnie de Jesus [The Great River Maranon or of the Amazons Geographically Describ'd by Samuel Fritz, Missioner on the Said River].

[Paris], ca. 1717 or 1781. Copper engraved map ca. 21,5x34,5 cm (8 ½ x 13 ½ in). Blank on verso. Original fold marks, right margin trimmed close to the printed surface as the map was originally bound in; overall a very good map.
According to Old World Auctions, the map is from “Lettres Edifiantes et Curieuses” (Paris, 1717 or 1781?). Fritz was a "Bohemian jesuit missionary who spent nearly forty years on the River Amazon and its tributaries.., In addition to his missionary work, he contributed considerably to the geographical knowledge of the region, producing the first accurate map of the Amazon River system, published at Quito 1707. The boundary between the Portuguese and Spanish domination of the Amazon was eventually fixed at the Rio Javari by the Treaty of Madrid in 1750" (Howgego F77); Phillips, Maps of America, p. 100.


[Map of the Northern Part of South America and the Amazon Basin] Tabula Americae Specialis Geographica Regni Peru, Brasiliae, Terrae Firmae et Reg. Amazonum; Secundum relationes de Herrera, de Laet, & PP. De Acuña & M. Rodriguetz. Aliorumas observations recentiores de Signata & edita per Guiliem de l'Isle, Geogr: Reg: Parisiensem. Nunc recusa.

[Nuremberg]: Homanianos Heredes, ca. 1740. Large double-page copper engraved map ca. 48,5x56,5 cm (19 x 22 ¼ in); period hand colouring. Original centrefold, blank on verso. With a small minor repaired marginal tear, otherwise a very good map.
A map from Homann’s "Atlas Novus Terrarum Orbis." (ca. 1745).
“This large and beautifully engraved map covers the northern half of South America. It is centered on the Valley of the Amazon and delineates the river and its myriad tributaries in particularly fine detail. The map is filled with annotations and place names. In Terra Firma the map locates Caracas, in Peru scores of cities are named including S. Miguel la Ribera, Cusco, Sevilla del Oro los Xibaros, Payta, Truxillo and Lima. There are extensive notes throughout the interior. The title is enclosed is a very large allegorical cartouche with soldiers, a personified sun burst, and a pot of gold coins” (Old World Auctions); Philips. Maps of America, p. 800; Adonias, I. A Cartografia da Região Amazônica. Vol. 1., p. 269.


52. KIRCHER, Athanasius (1601 or 1602–1680)
[Map of the Americas] Mappa fluxus et refluxus rationes in Isthmo Americano, in Freto Magellanico, caeterisque Americae Littoribus Exhibens.

[Amsterdam], ca. 1664. Copper engraved map ca. 34x41,5 cm (13 ½ x 16 ¼ in). Text in Latin. Original centerfold, blank on verso. With some very mild damp staining and with several small tears neatly repaired on verso. A couple of places with loss of original margin (one with loss of printed surface), neatly repaired with old paper. Overall a good map.
Map from the first volume of Kircher’s famous “Mundus Subterraneus, quo universae denique naturae divitiae” (Amsterdam, 2 vols, 1st ed. – 1664-1665, 2nd ed. – 1668, 3rd ed. - 1678).
“Very unusual map depicting all of South America and most of North America. The map is totally devoid of political detail with the exception of the floating city of Mexico, shown a bit too far north, and California is named. Instead the map features the principal rivers, lakes, mountains and volcanoes in South America. A huge crater lake, probably Lake Titicaca although it is situated too far north, is depicted as the source of the Amazon. The Andes are shown as a range of live volcanoes. Three sailing ships and a strap work title cartouche adorn the map. Kircher is credited with publishing the first book describing the ocean's currents and this map is a beautiful example of his representations that are surprisingly accurate” (Old World Auctions); Burden 382; Tooley: Dictionary p. 357.


53. MONTANUS, Arnoldus (ca. 1625-1683)
[Map of Brazil] Brasilia.

[Amsterdam], ca. 1671. Uncoloured copper engraved map ca. 29x36 cm (11 ½ x 14 in). Original fold marks, blank on verso, otherwise a strong impression and overall a very good map.
A map from Montanus’ famous work "De Nieuwe en Onbekende Weereld" (Amsterdam, 1671).

“Excellent map of the eastern part of Brazil based on the cartography of Hessel Gerritsz and an earlier map by Blaeu. Extensive detail in coastal regions with the interior left largely blank except for some conjectural river systems. The Linea Aequinoctialis is prominently shown dividing the Spanish and Portuguese colonial claims. Richly embellished with rhumb lines, compass roses and sailing ships. European traders, Indians and putti surround the title and scale of miles cartouches” (Old World Auctions).


54. PHILIP, George (1800-1882)
[Map of] Guiana with Parts of Colombia & Brazil.

London & Liverpool: George Philip & Son, [ca. 1856]. Large double-page colour lithographed map ca. 50x61 cm (ca. 19 ½ x 24 in). Original centrefold, blank on verso. A very small tear on the blank lower margin, otherwise a near fine map with wide margins.
Map of the northwestern part of South America including Guiana, Colombia, most of Venezuela, the northern part of Brazil with the Amazon basin, as well as parts of Ecuador and New Granada. Probably from a later edition of “Philips' series of penny maps, forming a comprehensive atlas of modern and ancient geography” (first edition – Liverpool, 1853). Tooley's Mapmakers K-P, p.423-5.


55. PINKERTON, John (1758-1856)
[Map of] Peru.

London: Cadell & Davies, & Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, 1810. Large double-page copper engraved map ca. 50,5x70 cm (ca. 19 ¾ x 27 ½ in). Borders hand coloured. Original centrefold, blank on verso. Drawn by L. Hebert, engraved by Neele. A very good map with wide margins.
A map from “Pinkerton’s Modern Atlas” showing the Pacific coast of Peru, as well as its interior with the Amazon basin. The inset shows the extension of the southern coast of Peru from Arequipa to the Atacama Desert.
“Pinkerton was a celebrated master of the Edinburgh school of cartography which lasted from roughly 1800 to 1830. Pinkerton, along with John Thomson & Co. And John Cary, redefined cartography by exchanging the elaborate cartouches and fantastical beasts used in the 18th century for more accurate detail. Pinkerton’s main work was the “Pinkerton’s Modern Atlas” published from 1808 though 1815 with an American version by Dobson & Co. In 1818. Pinkerton maps are today greatly valued for their quality, size, colouration, and detail” (Wikipedia); Phillips. Maps of America, p. 694; Tooley's Mapmakers K-P, P.435-6.


56. RUGENDAS, Johann Moritz (1802-1858)
[Lithograph Showing Puri Indians in Brazil]: Tanz der Puris.

[Paris]: [Engelmann], [1835]. Uncoloured lithograph ca. 20,5x27,5 cm (8 x 10 ¾ in). Lithographed by J. Brodtmann. A very good lithograph.
Plate # 7 from “Malerische Reise in Brasilien” by Johann Moritz Rugendas (Paris, 1835, 4 parts). These fine plates "are of the utmost importance for the study of Brazilian life at the beginning of the nineteenth century" (Borba de Moraes II, p.754); Colas 2594; Sabin 73934.


57. RUSCELLI, Girolamo (ca. 1518-1566)
[New Map of Brazil] Brasil Nuova Tavola.

[Venice]: [Giordano Ziletti], [1564]. Uncoloured copper engraved map ca. 18,5x25,5 cm (7 ¼ x 10 in). Original centrefold, Italian text on verso. Very good map with wide margins.
Plate XXX from the second edition of Ruscelli’s “La Geografia de Claudio Tolomeo Allessadrino” which is “a mere reprint or reissue of the first. The 64 double-page copperplate maps, with the descriptive text on the backs, are the same as those in the preceding edition and in the Latin edition of 1562, having been printed from the same plates” (Eames, W. A list of editions of Ptolemy’s Geography, 1475-1730. P. 38-39).
“This is one of the earliest maps of Brazil that is available to collectors. Though most of the maps in Ruscelli's edition of Ptolemy are enlarged re-engravings of those found in the Gastaldi edition of 1548, there are four important, original maps including this one of Brazil. The map is oriented with north to the right. There are some coastal place names, but very little interior detail other than scattered rivers, mountains, forests and a large volcano. The interior is labeled Terra non Descoperta and there is a notation referring to cannibals (Gli indi natij di questi paesi mangiano carne humana). In later editions this notation is replaced with an illustration of cannibalism. This is the first state with the platemark running through the top margin” (Old World Auctions).


58. SANSON, Nicolas (1600-1667)
Le Perou et le Cours de la Riviere Amazone, depuis ses Sources jusques a la Mer [Peru and the Course of the River Amazon, from its Sources to the Sea].

Paris: Pierre Mariette, 1656. Large copper engraved map ca. 40,5x54,5 cm (15 ¾ x 21 ½ in). Engraved by Jean Somer (Iohannes Somer Pruthenus). Original period hand colouring. Original centrefold, blank on verso. Overall a very good map with wide margins.
“This is the uncommon folio version of Sanson's handsome map of the western part of the continent and the full course of the Amazon. The spurious Lac, ou Mer de Parime is prominent as is the location of the mythical city Manoa el Dorado (city of gold). The mythical lake of Xarayes also appears east of Titicaca L. Fully engraved to show topography, cities and villages and decorated with an attractive strapwork title cartouche” (Old World Auctions).
“Sanson’s map of Peru and the Amazon was the first to publish data derived from Teixeira’s expedition on 1637-1639. […] Sanson’s rivers are drawn with confidence and considerable detail. He depicts the intermeshing channels in the middle reaches in a picturesque “braiding” effect. Sanson’s map notes a tributary, a village, a mountain and a mine, all called de l’Or – recording the place where Teixeira had quelled his mutiny” (Layland, M. Teixeira’s Act of Possession, p. 28).
“Pedro Teixeira (d. 1641) was a Portuguese explorer who became, in 1637, the first European to travel up the entire length of the Amazon River. […] His exploits are considered remarkable even by today's standards. Because of Teixeira and other Portuguese who pushed into the depths of the Amazon, Portugal was able to obtain far more of South America from their Spanish competitors than the Treaty of Tordesillas had granted in 1494. He was called by the Indian natives Curiua-Catu, meaning The Good and Friendly White Man” (Wikipedia); Phillips, Maps of America, p. 693.


59. TIRION, Isaak (1705-1765)
Kaart van het Onderkoningschap van Peru, zig uitstrekkende over Chili, Paraguay en andere Spaansche Landen: als ook van Brazil en verdure Bezittingen van Portugal in Zuid-Amerika [Map of the Viceroyalty of Peru, extending over Chile, Paraguay and other Spanish Lands: and also of Brazil and other Possessions of Portugal in South America].

Amsterdam, 1765. Folding copper engraved map ca. 36x39,5 cm (14 ¼ x 15 ¾ in). Upper and right margins slightly trimmed, blank on verso. Fold marks, paper mildly age toned, otherwise a very good map.
A map from “Nieuwe en Beknopte Hand Atlas” (also published in the second volume of “Hegendaagsche historie tegenwoordige staat van America”). “Handsome, detailed map of most of the continent - leaving off the northern coastline. The southern tip is enclosed in a large inset balancing the composition with the block-style title cartouche” (Old World Auctions); Adonias, I. A Cartografia da Região Amazônica. Vol. 1., p. 309; Phillips. Maps of America, p. 801.


60. WYTFLIET, Cornelius van (1555-1597)
[Early Map of Peru] Peruani Regni Descriptio.

[Douai], ca. 1605. Uncoloured copper engraved map ca. 23x29 cm (9 x 11 ½ in). Original centrefold. In an attractive 19th century wooden frame elaborately decorated with multicolour wooden inlays. With a small minor stain in the center right part of the map, otherwise a very good map. The map hasn’t been examined out of the frame.
"This important early map of Peru is finely engraved with numerous cities located throughout. Lake Titicaca is elongated and joined with Aulaga Lake. The map is embellished with a large strap work title cartouche and a stipple engraved sea. This is the second state of the map, with the date removed from the title cartouche. The first state appeared in Wytfliet's Descriptionis Ptolemaicae Augmentum... In 1597, which is considered the earliest atlas to focus on the Americas. This edition is from the first French translation of Wytfliet's important atlas"(Old World Auctions). This map is from “Histoire Universelle des Indes” (F.Fabri, 1605); Nordenskiold #309-6; Phillips, Maps of America, p. 692.


61. ZATTA, Antonio (fl. 1757-1797)
La Terra Ferma la Gujana Spagnola, Olandese, Francese, e Portughese e la Parte Settentrle. Del Bresil. [Map of Terra Firma and Spanish, Dutch, French and Portuguese Guiana..,].

Venice: Antonio Zatta e Figli, 1785. Copper engraved map ca. 31x40,5 cm (12 ¼ x 16 in). Engraved by G. Pitteri. Outline hand coloured. Original centerfold, blank on verso. A very good map.
An attractive map showing the northern part of South America including the Amazon Basin. This map is from the 4th volume of Zatta’s “Atlante novissimo” (Venice, 1775-1785, 4 vols.); Phillips. Atlases 650 – vol. 4, 26; Tooley's Mapmakers Q-Z, p. 429.


Michael Layland first visited the Amazon while on a three year engineering project in Peru. While there, he travelled to the Andean headwaters of the Amazon and made a journey down the River Ucayali to Iquitos, visiting indigenous forest peoples along the way. He subsequently returned to South America several times and spent a total of eleven years there, also visiting the Amazon basin in Colombia, Ecuador and Bolivia. In addition to his mapping work, he avidly developed his other hobbies connected with the region, namely photographing tropical butterflies and collecting antique maps and travel accounts relating to the exploration of the Amazon.

The present collection was formed as a reference source for researching his (yet unpublished) book "They Charted the Amazon, Five Centuries of Exploration and Mapping the World's Greatest River." Michael has also authored numerous articles on the exploration of the Amazon which have been published in 'The Map Collector," "Mercator's World" and "The Oxford Companion to World Exploration." He has recently published a book on the cartographic history of Vancouver Island, "The Land Of Heart's Delight."

Michael was trained as a surveyor and map maker by the Royal Engineers in the British Army, in which he served for seven years in diverse locations like Cyprus, Arabia's Empty Quarter, the Seychelles and the Outer Hebrides. When he left the army, he entered civilian life by working on commercial surveying projects in Peru, Central America, Mexico and North and West Africa.

Michael has lived in British Columbia for the last thirty years and is the current president of the Friends of the BC Archives, a committee member of the Historical Map Society of BC, a former president of the Victoria Historical Society, a former chairman of the Vancouver Branch of the Canadian Institute of Surveying and Mapping and a member of the Society for the History of Discoveries and the International Map Collectors' Society.

Michael has recently published:

Maps move us, ground us, and open a window into the era in which they were produced. With the oldest known maps dating back twenty-five thousand years, it is evident they have long been part of our collective history. But who creates them, and why, is key to understanding how they are meant to be read. The Land of Heart’s Delight is an informative and fascinating compilation of the early maps of Vancouver Island, and the stories behind their creation.

When Captain George Vancouver first came upon the island that would later be named for him, he wrote that it was “the most lovely country that can be imagined.” In this book, learn how and why Vancouver Island came to be mapped by generations of mapmakers. This is a remarkable cartographic history of a rich and thriving region, with 120 maps and charts – from hand-drawn notes to detailed cartographic works of art – dating between 1566 and 1914. However, the maps, by themselves and without context, cannot tell the whole story. The accompanying text reveals the motives, constraints, agendas, and intrigues that underpin their making, and mark the progress in our knowledge of the island’s rich recorded history of European settlement. The narrative, roughly chronological, begins before the arrival of Europeans and concludes at the outset of the First World War. It includes an introduction to the history and significance of map-making, as well as an afterword summarizing subsequent cartographic developments. Also included are an index, endnotes, a list of cartographic sources, and a glossary. The author gratefully acknowledges the financial support of the British Columbia Arts Council, for a grant through their Project Assistance for Creative Writers.

Author Michael Layland


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