June 2015 - Part 2 - ALL UNDER $1000 Archives, Journals, Letters & Manuscripts

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MOFFAT, John Smith, Reverend (1835-1918)
[Autograph Letter Signed “John Smith Moffat” to “Master Alfred William Gough” about Latter’s Desire to Become a Missionary in Africa].

Kuruman, […?] Hopetown, Cape of Good Hope, 25 January 1876. Quarto (ca. 27x21,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on blue laid paper. Paper aged, weak on folds and with minor tears neatly repaired, otherwise a very good letter, written in a very legible hand.
Historically interesting letter from Reverend John Smith Moffat, a noted British missionary in South Africa and a brother-in-law of David Livingstone. The letter written in a very personal manner, is addressed to a young boy and reveals Moffat’s thoughts on the essence and purpose of Christian missions. The letter was most likely addressed to Alfred William Gough (1862-1931), who was 14 at the time, and later became a renowned Christian activist and author, Prebendary of St. Paul’s Cathedral.
“My dear young Friend, I was glad to have your note, and to hear that you would like to be a missionary. It is much better to be missionary than to be anything else. A man who lives for himself may get rich and powerful and have a great many things that a missionary cannot have, but he can never have such happiness; and when the world has passed away he will have nothing to show for all the time he lived and enjoyed the world. But every act of love & kindness will then live; like the seeds which we bury and see no more for a time, and then we come back to find them beautiful fragrant flowers. <…> If you ever become missionary you must be prepared for a good many things that you are hardly like I think about now. Indeed I do not address you to become a missionary unless you are quite sure that God calls you <…> [when you are sure] that the Lord will be with you & that you will make a good missionary.”
“We are getting on very slowly here, but Africa is a slow country & patience is necessary for everything. It is a good thing however that when one set of missionaries dies, another is ready to take its place. <…> It is a pleasant thought to me that when I am gone there will be plenty of strong young fellows to come into my place. Perhaps this is not just the sort of letter you might have expected from me, but it does us all good, even jolly young cubs at school, sometimes to sit down and think about these things, which are just as real & true as the life you are now living & will all have to come to pass, so let us meet them bravely & pass away like heroes. Remember me to any of your schoolfellows who may know me. Perhaps someday I may be also to give you another letter like the last about the Bechuana or the Matebele”. The letter was written in the famous Kuruman station of the London Missionary Society (modern Northern Cape, South Africa). Known as “the fountain of Christianity," it was founded in 1821 by Robert Moffat, the father of the author of this letter; and it was at Kuruman where David Livingstone arrived for his first position as a missionary in 1841. John Smith Moffat took over running the Kuruman station from his father in 1865 and worked there until 1879 when he joined the British Bechuanaland colonial service. An Interesting personal account on the Christian missionary activities in the 19th century Southern Africa by one its leading figures.


LYTTELTON, Alfred (1857-1913)
[Autograph Letter Signed “A. Lyttelton” to “My Dear Sir” Regarding the Alaska Boundary Dispute].

21 January 1904. Small Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm). 3 pp. Brown ink on watermarked paper with blind stamped “Colonial Office” letterhead; marked “Confidential” in ink in the upper left corner. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
A confidential private letter by Alfred Lyttleton, British Colonial Secretary in 1903-05, regarding the communications with Canadian officials about the Alaska Boundary Dispute. The letter was most likely addressed to Richard Everard Webster, first Viscount Alverstone (1842-1915), Chief Justice of Great Britain, one of three commissioners on the Alaska boundary dispute – as president of the commission he voted against the Canadian claim.
“I shd be very glad to see your reply to Sir W. Laurier. It is interesting to find that in a memo of [Joseph Hodges] Choate in 1902 Laurier is described as in a most timorous and conciliatory attitude <…> They did not report me at the Canada [?] in full, but I cd not refrain from saying something about you, & the Canadians received it very well, though it was not violently abusive of you.”


BAUDIN, Lieutenant de Vaisseau, Commander of the Warship “Vulcain”
[Official Certificate Given to Michel Lastrén, 2nd maitre cannonier, who served on the Warship “Vulcain” in 1829-1830, and in particular during the French Invasion of Algiers; the Certificate is Signed “Baudin”].

Toulon, 1 December 1830. Folio (ca. 29x18 cm). 1 p. Black ink on watermarked laid paper. A very good letter.
The certificate was given to one Michel Lastrén, “2nd maitre cannonier,” who “served under my command in 1829-30 and acted with the greatest zeal, the function of his grade. <…> Apart from the indispensable knowledge of his profession, he set an example of obedience, submission, zeal, courage and devotion”. The commander recalls of an incident on the 18th of July 1829, when a sailor fell off board the “Vulcain”, and “Lastrén was the first one to rush to his rescue. <…> [he] launched a small boat, grabbed the hurt man who was about to sink, and brought him on board. <…> The expeditions to Algeria and Tripoli de Barbarie have not allowed our mariners to show their courage and the devotion. Lastrén would have been the first one to show it. I’ve mentioned that officer in my report of advancement as extraordinary, and I give him this certificate as a proof of my esteem wishing that it will be useful one day” (in translation).
The “Vulcain” under command of lieutenant Baudin was a part of the reserve squadron of the French naval forces during the Invasion of Algiers (14 June – 7 July 1830).
“The Invasion of Algiers in 1830 was a large-scale military operation by which the Kingdom of France, ruled by Charles X, invaded and conquered the Ottoman Regency of Algiers. The invasion of Algiers began on 5 July 1830 with a naval bombardment by a fleet under Admiral Duperré, and a landing by troops under Louis Auguste Victor de Ghaisne, comte de Bourmont. The French quickly defeated the troops of Hussein Dey, the Ottoman ruler, but native resistance was widespread. This resulted in a protracted military campaign, lasting more than 45 years, to root out popular opposition to the colonisation. The so-called "pacification" was marked by resistance of figures such as Ahmed Bey, Abd El-Kader and Lalla Fatma N'Soumer. The invasion marked the end of several centuries of Ottoman rule in Algeria and the beginning of French Algeria. In 1848, the territories conquered around Algiers were organized into three départements, defining the territories of modern Algeria” (Wikipedia).


BLANCKLEY, Henry Stanyford (1752-1820)
[Original Certificate on the Printed Form of the British Chancery Office in Algiers, Appointing Lewis Tonna as Blanckley’s Secretary].

Algiers, 9 October 1806. Oblong Folio (ca. 25x39 cm). Official printed form of the British Chancery Office in Algiers, with woodcut arms at head; finished in manuscript in secretarial hand and signed by Blanckley in the right lower corner. Brown ink on laid paper. With official red wax seal on the left margin. Overall a very good document.
“We, H. S. Blanckley Esquire, His Britannic Majesty’s agent and consul general in this City and Kingdom, certify that We do constitute and appoint Lewis Tonna Esqr. Our Secretary and do hereby Order that he is to be obeyed and acknowledged as such by all and every Person whom this may concern”.
Issued at the British Chancery Office at Algiers in 1806 and signed off by the then consul general Henry Stanyford Blanckley, this document appointed Lewis Tonna as his secretary. Blanckley, an army Mayor, had taken part in the siege of Gibraltar in 1782 before a nineteen year stint as consul in the Balearic Islands. He was the British Consul General in Algiers in 1806-1812 and went on to play a role in shaping British policy towards the Barbary Coast. Lewis Hippolytus Joseph Tonna (d. 1828) later became British vice-consul in Algiers and at Bona, vice-consul for Spain and consul for the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in Liverpool. He married Blanckley’s daughter Maria, and their son Lewis Tonna (1812-1857) was a polyglot, fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, and evangelical protestant campaigner.


ROBERTSON, George R. (circa 1829-1862)
[Archive of Four Autograph Letters Signed "George D. Robertson, John Cosgrove" Lincoln Cavalry Letters to Matthew Cosgrove, all on Colour Patriotic Letter Sheets Discussing Life in the 1st New York Cavalry].

Various places, Jan.-Mar. 1862. Octavo (ca. 20x12,5 cm). Total 14 pages. Brown ink on beige colour patriotic letter sheets, including one Magnus "For the Union" sheet depicting the Massachusetts. Some mild damp staining but overall a very good archive.
This archive describes life in the 1st New York Cavalry, the "Lincoln Cavalry" formed in New York City by Carl Schurz. All of the letters are written in the first-person singular, but bear the same unusual closing in one hand: "Your friend and brother, George D. Robertson, John Cosgrove." The letters make frequent reference to "Jack," and one bears a postscript from G.D.R. Apparently, Robertson wrote these often humorous letters at the behest of John Cosgrove, an Irish immigrant who was presumably illiterate. The last of these letters offers a perhaps exaggerated account of an action near Manassas: "Drove in the Reble pickets, 14 of our boys charged on about 150 rebles, routed them & took 13 prisoners... We scared them so bad that they did not stop running till they were 20 miles beyond Manassas" (16 March 1862). John Cosgrove (b. ca. 1836) and George D. Robertson (ca. 1829-1862) both served in the 1st New York Cavalry, Company A, with Private Cosgrove surviving his three-year enlistment. Robertson reached the rank of sergeant before being fatally wounded; he died in a hospital in Chambersburg, PA in October 1862.
"The First Battle of Bull Run, also known as First Manassas (the name used by Confederate forces), was fought on July 21, 1861, in Prince William County, Virginia, near the city of Manassas, not far from Washington. The Union forces were slow in positioning themselves, allowing Confederate reinforcements to arrive by rail. Each side had about 18,000 poorly trained and poorly led troops in their first battle. It was a Confederate victory followed by an embarrassing retreat of the Union forces. It was the first major land battle of the American Civil War" (Wikipedia).


BACK, George (1796-1878)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Geo Back,” to “Webster, Esq.” asking him “when you correct the list of Members, will you add to my name, instead of Captain, Rear Admiral, DCL. FRS”].

[London]: 109 Gloucester Place, Portman Square, 2 April 1857. Duodecimo (ca. 14,5x9 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on laid paper. With a 19th century ink inscription “Sir George Back, R.N., the Arctic Navigator.” Upper left corner cut off, hole at top of page marginally affecting the address, but overall a very good letter.
A short note from a British naval officer and renowned Arctic explorer George Back, referring to the list of members of the Royal Geographical Society of which he was a vice-president at the time. Written in early April 1857 and apparently addressed to one of the office employees of the society, the note informs of his promotion to the rank of rear-admiral (which had happened two weeks before, on the 19th of March 1857).
“Sir George Back, naval officer who helped to trace the Arctic coastline of North America. He twice accompanied the British explorer John Franklin to Canada’s Northwest Territories (1819-22 and 1825-27) and later conducted two expeditions of his own to the same region. The first of these expeditions, in 1833, was to search for another British explorer, John Ross, who had disappeared on an Arctic voyage in 1829. The venture resulted in the exploration of the Great Fish River, now the Back River. In 1836 Back returned to explore the coastal region east from the mouth of the river. His writings include Narrative of the Arctic Land Expedition to the Mouth of the Great Fish River (1836) and Narrative of Expedition in H.M.S. Terror (1838). He was knighted in 1839” (Encyclopaedia Britannica).


BARROW, John, Sir, 1st Baronet (1764-1848)
[Official Letter on the form of the Admiralty Signed "John Barrow" to "Sir G. Hammond, Bt., KCB" with the Latest Instructions about the Naval Armament].

Admiralty, 9 December 1834. Folio (ca. 32,5x20 cm). 1 p. (bifolium, with a second blank leaf). Official printed form of the Admiralty (on the Smith & Son laid paper watermarked "1831"), completed in brown ink in secretarial hand and signed by Barrow at the bottom. With a manuscript note “Duplicate” and date 13 May/35 in the left upper corner. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good document.
This official letter signed by John Barrow as the second Secretary of the Admiralty was addressed to Sir Graham Eden Hamond, 2nd Baronet GCB (1779-1862), a British Royal Navy officer (Admiral of the Fleet in 1862) who served during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. At the time he was the commander of the Royal Navy’s South American Station (16 September 1834 - 17 May 1838). The letter accompanied the copies of “their Lordship’s Circular Order of the 21 October last forbidding the use of Coal Tar upon Gun and Carronade Carriages as a substitute for Paint".
John Barrow was a renowned English statesman, traveller and great promoter of Arctic exploration; a member of the Royal Society (1805), a founding member and a president (1835-1837) of the Royal Geographical Society. He accompanied Lord Macartney’s embassy to China (1792-4), and served during the latter’s governorship in South Africa (1797-9) "collecting much of the commercial and strategic intelligence about the eastern seas and southern Africa" (Oxford DNB). He was the second Secretary of the Admiralty in 1804-1845 (except for the period between 10 February 1806 and 7 April 1807).
According to the chapter “Fitting and General Service” of the “Admiralty Instructions for the Government of Her Majesty’s Naval Service” (1844), “A coating of coal tar is never to be applied to guns of carronage carriages while on board Her Majesty’s Ships instead of paint, such substance being detrimental to the carriages.”


BARROW, John, Sir, 1st Baronet (1764-1848)
[Autograph Letter Signed "John Barrow" to "Mr. James Mayning, Boatswain, HSM Talavera, Gibraltar" Informing Him About His Promotion; With a Rare Lithographed Proof Plate of Barrow’s Portrait]: Sir John Barrow. F.R.S. &c., &c.

Letter: Admiralty, 8 March 1838. Folio (ca. 31,5x20 cm). 1 p. (bifolium, with a second blank leaf). Brown ink in secretarial hand on J. Green & Son laid paper watermarked "1837"; signed by Barrow at the bottom. Fold marks, otherwise a very good letter. Portrait: ca. 1840s, ca. 25x20 cm. Lith. By T. Bridgford A.R.H.A. A printed note "Proof" on the lower margin. Minor edge wear not affecting image. Overall a very good portrait.
An official letter signed by John Barrow as the second Secretary of the Admiralty informed that "My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty having been pleased to advance you from the Pay of a Third Rate to that of the First Class". The letter is addressed to a Royal Navy boatswain James Mayning. He was in the naval service for over 46 years, being stationed in the Caribbean, North America and East Indies, and was slightly wounded "at the reduction of the island of Cheduba" (Burma) while serving on HMS Slaney (The Oriental Herald and Colonial Review. London. Vol. Viii, September-December 1824, p. 576). Mayning served on HMS Talavera, a 74-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, in 1836-1840. The letter is supplemented with a rare proof lithographed portrait of John Barrow.
John Barrow was a renowned English statesman, traveller and promoter of exploration; a member of the Royal Society (1805), a founding member and a president (1835-1837) of the Royal Geographical Society. He accompanied Lord Macartney’s embassy to China (1792-4), and served during the latter’s governorship in South Africa (1797-9) "collecting much of the commercial and strategic intelligence about the eastern seas and southern Africa" (Oxford DNB). Barrow was the auditor general to Cape Colony 1798-1803 and the second Secretary of the Admiralty in 1804-1845 (except for the period between 10 February 1806 and 7 April 1807).
"In his position at the Admiralty, Barrow was a great promoter of Arctic voyages of discovery, including those of John Ross, William Edward Parry, James Clark Ross, and John Franklin. The Barrow Strait in the Canadian Arctic as well as Point Barrow and the city of Barrow in Alaska are named after him. He is reputed to have been the initial proposer of St Helena as the new place of exile for Napoleon Bonaparte following the Battle of Waterloo in 1815" (Wikipedia).


FRANKLIN, Jane, Lady [née Griffin] (1792-1875)
[Autograph Letter Signed to Lady Franklin from Fanny Kemble Mentioning Captain McClintock and Lady Franklin’s New House in Kensington].

Park Hotel, Park Place, Monday 2nd [ca. 1862]. 2 pp. Octavo bifolium (20,5x26,5 cm). Brown ink on laid paper. Mild fold marks, four minor tears on margins neatly repaired, a strip of paper attached to the centrefold as the letter had been tipped in a book or attached to a sheet of paper, otherwise a very good letter.
The letter was written to Lady Franklin by a prominent British actress, Frances Anne Kemble (1809-1893), who attended several dinners given by Lady Franklin in the hew house in Kensington.
“In 1862 when she was seventy years old, Jane Franklin moved into an exquisite jewel of house in the most fashionable district in London. Ashurst Majendie, serving as curator and controller general of Kensington Gardens, helped her acquire this “bijou recherché” in Kensington Gore, near present-day Royal Albert Hall. Secluded, charming, and blessed with a magical garden, the house had been built by John Wilkes, a controversial member of Parliament, in the mid-eighteenth century. <…>
At Gore Lodge, she entertained diverse luminaries, and delighted in creating unlikely combinations. She had a core group of Arctic aficionados, men like McClintock, Barrow, and Beaufort, and she added to these eminent explorers of Africa such as John Hanning Speke, who discovered the source of the Nile <…>. On more than one occasion, she hosted dinners whose guests included Fanny Kemble, the outspoken poet, author, and Shakespearean actress who had left her wealthy American husband over his support of slavery…” (McGoogan, K. Lady Franklin’s Revenge: A True Story of Ambition, Obsession and the Remaking of Arctic History. E-book, 2010).
“From 1862 Lady Franklin and her niece maintained a house in London, its walls hung with portraits of men who had shared the ordeal of the Franklin search. From here she supervised the preparation of memorials to her husband” (Oxford DNB).

Lady Jane Franklin (1792–1875) was a traveler, a Tasmanian pioneer, second wife of the explorer John Franklin and a promoter of Arctic exploration.
In 1836 Sir John was appointed lieutenant-governor of Van Diemen's Land, later renamed Tasmania, at Lady Franklin's suggestion, and they set sail, accompanied by her stepdaughter Eleanor and her niece by marriage Sophia (Sophy) Cracroft. Although Sir John's enlightened views on prison reform and his wife's ‘busyness’ had their critics, the couple were generally popular. They encouraged the social and intellectual development of Tasmania, establishing a scientific society, which became the Royal Society of Tasmania, and a school. Lady Franklin took every opportunity of exploring Australia and New Zealand as well as Tasmania.
Sir John was recalled in 1844, and critics of his progressive views may have prejudiced the further employment for which he and his ambitious wife were eager. After pressure from both, he was appointed commander of the Admiralty expedition to look for the north-west passage. He set sail in 1845. When two years had passed with no news, Lady Franklin demanded that steps be taken to find the missing ships. She bombarded the Admiralty with pleas and suggestions for routes. Her persistence and her willingness to court useful friends and spend the money she had inherited from her father won the respect of many at the Admiralty. Between 1850 and 1857 she helped fit out five ships for the search. The last, the yacht Fox (Captain Leopold McClintock), launched after the official search had been called off, traced the expedition's story to its tragic end. For her role in the search the Royal Geographical Society awarded Lady Franklin the patron's medal for 1860, the first and for many years the only woman it so honoured. Sir Roderick Murchison, president of the society, was one of the main champions of her cause, realizing that it coincided neatly with his wish to promote Arctic exploration for commercial as well as scientific ends.
After the ordeal of the search Lady Franklin disdained the expected retirement. With Sophy Cracroft, who had become as experienced a traveller and keeper of the record as herself, she travelled extensively, although her later journeys were more formal and less adventurous than her earlier ones. She was received with deference in America, Japan, India, and elsewhere. She had an audience with Pope Pius IX, ‘having ascertained that there would be no nonsense about it—no kneeling I mean’, recorded Miss Cracroft (Woodward, 349). She discussed Arctic research with the emperor of Brazil, met Brigham Young at Salt Lake City, and made friends with Queen Emma of Hawaii. She hoped through Murchison to persuade Queen Victoria to stand godmother (with herself as proxy) to Queen Emma's son, with the aim of asserting British influence and thus thwarting American and French designs on the islands. Although the child died before the elaborate ceremony planned could take place, the friendship persisted, and in 1865 Lady Franklin arranged for Queen Emma, now childless and a widow, to visit Britain (Oxford DNB).


10. [ARCTIC]
MCCLURE, Sir Robert John Le Mesurier, R.N. (1807-1873)
[Autograph Note Accepting the Invitation of "Admiral and Mrs. Hamilton;" with a Portrait of McClure, Lithographed by James McGlashan, Dublin].

Note: 28 June 1865. Ca. 11x9 cm. 1 p. Brown ink on laid paper with a blind stamped monogram of the "United Service Club". Portrait: Dublin: James McGlashan, 1854. Ca. 22x13,5 cm. Both mounted on two grey album leaves. Portrait slightly age toned on the margins, otherwise a very good pair.
This short note by a famous Arctic explorer Sir Robert McClure is of a social nature: "Sir Robert McClure has much pleasure in accepting the invitation of Admiral & Mrs Hamilton for July 6th." The note is supplemented with a lithographed portrait of McClure after a drawing by John Smart. McClure is shown whole-length, standing, left profile, in uniform, with a sword in left hand and a facsimile of his autograph underneath (see another copy in the National Library of Ireland).
"Sir Robert John Le Mesurier McClure (or M'Clure) was an Irish explorer of the Arctic. In 1854, he was the first to transit the Northwest Passage (by boat and sledge), as well as the first to circumnavigate the Americas" (Wikipedia).


CHIKHACHEV, Petr Alexandrovich (1808-1890)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Pierre Tchihatcheff” Regarding the Publication of His Classic Work “Asie Mineure”, and His Translation of J. De Liebig’s Book about Francis Bacon].

Rome: Hotel Costanzi, 1 December 1868. Octavo (ca. 20,5x13 cm). 2 pp., with an integral blank leaf. Brown ink on laid paper with Chikhachev’s monogram, text in French written in a legible hand. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
An interesting informative letter by Petr Chikhachev, a renowned Russian explorer of the Altai Mountains where he discovered the richest coal deposit in the world (Kuznetsk Coal Basin). He was also famous for his extensive travels to the Asia Minor in 1847-63 which resulted in the classic work about the region “Asie Mineure: Description physique, statistique et archéologique de cette contrée” (Paris, 1853-1869; text in 8 vols. And atlas in 3 vols.). This edition was prepared in cooperation with a number of experts in different branches of natural science, and describes geography, climatology, zoology, botany, geology, and paleontology of the Asia Minor. For this book Chikhachev was elected an honorary member of the Russian, Berlin and Munich Academies of Sciences and several other European scientific societies.
The letter contains important information about publication of the “Asie Mineure”: Chikhachev informs his correspondent that his ‘grand ouvrage’ on Asia Minor has just been finished with the two last volumes, which the publisher, Mr. Guérin is going to issue under the title “Géologie de l’Asie Mineure”, the whole edition thus comprising eight volumes. “This was the work I was desperate to finish, and I am very happy that I have done it” [in translation]. Chikhachev also mentions a small volume he has just issued under the title “Une Pages sur l’Orient” (Paris, 1868, first edition), which was intended to popularise his scientific works about Asia Minor.
Chikhachev thanks the addressee for his very interesting communication regarding “Bacon” (“Lord Bacon” by Jusdus de Liebig, translated by Chikhachev from German and published in Paris, 1866). He reassures that he will consider the remarks during the work on the second edition and that he will be happy to forward them to Mr. de Liebig as well. He also notes that the first edition will be out of print soon. Overall a very interesting letter.


HAMMER-PURGSTALL, Joseph Freiherr von (1774-1856)
[Autograph Letter in Secretarial Hand Signed by Hammer-Purgstall to “Charles Fellows, Esquire” Regarding the Latter’s Book.

Vienna, 12 January 1841. Quarto (ca. 25x20,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Clear and complete text in secretarial hand, signed by “Your obedient much servant J. Hammer-Purgstall”. Addressed, sealed and with the postal stamps on the 4th page. Paper soiled and slightly worn on folds, a hole on the 4th page after opening, not affecting the text, overall a very good letter.
Interesting scientific correspondence between two European Orientalists: Joseph Freiherr von Hammer-Purgstall, founder and the first president of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (1847-1849) and British archaeologist and traveller in Asia Minor Sir Charles Fellows (1799-1860).
In the letter Hammer-Purgstall informs his correspondent, that Mr Arneth, director of the Vienna Imperial Cabinet of Antics “has just transmitted to me in a small box sealed with the seal of the cabinet, the cast of all the coins which you desire and which the cabinet is possessed of. I’ll deliver this small box immediately at our Secretary of State’s office, to be forwarded with the next messenger”. He advices Fellows about the fastest way of the parcel’s delivery to London and later notes: “If you mention in our work the Vienna coins, be so good as to record Mr. Arneth’s name in order to encourage him to further communications of this kind. I am myself eager for the appearance of your work, of which I promise myself much pleasure and information”.
The letter most likely relates to one of the Fellows’ works about the archaeology of ancient Lycia: “An Account of Discoveries in Lycia, being a Journal kept during a Second Excursion in Asia Minor”, published later that year, or “Coins of Ancient Lycia before the Reign of Alexander; with an Essay on the Relative Dates of the Lycian Monuments in the British Museum” (1855).


ARAGO, François Jean Dominique(1786-1853)
[Autograph Letter Signed to Mr. Petit, the Director of the Observatory in Toulouse].

Paris, 28 July 1845. Octavo (ca. 20,5x13,5 cm). 2 pp. Black ink on bluish paper, text in French, legible writing. With the original envelope inscribed by Arago and with a later ink note “Autograph de M. Arago”. A very good letter.
Interesting letter from a noted French mathematician, physicist, astronomer and politician Francois Arago, a brother of the French explorer Jacques Arago (1790-1855). Written when Francois Arago was the director of the Paris Observatory, the letter introduces Mr. de Laforest a new director of Gazette légitimiste de Toulouse to the editors of the local L’Émancipation, and reassures that Arago is “as little a legitimist as in 1830: they in fact share three quarters of my ‘religion politique’, and believe in natural and imprescriptible rights which aim to banish privileges in our electoral code. Introducing such principles in the regions where they used to be fought against, Mr. de Genoude and his friend Mr. de Laforest had given invaluable service to the country”.
Arago recalculated the coordinates of the Paris meridian, discovered the principle of the production of magnetism by rotation of a nonmagnetic conductor, devised an experiment that proved the wave theory of light, contributed to the calculation of the velocity of light and engaged with others in research that led to the discovery of the laws of light polarization. He became a member of the French Academy of Science at the age of 23 and later served as its permanent secretary. Since 1830 he was also the director of the Paris Observatory. He was active as a republican in French politics. As minister of war and marine in the provisional government formed after the Revolution of 1848, he introduced many reforms.
An interesting letter from a noted French scientist, one of the seventy-two, whose names are engraved on the Eiffel Tower.


HILLS, George (1816-1895)
[Autograph Letter Signed “G. Columbia” to one Miss Mackenzie with Interesting Details of the Construction of St. Savior’s Church in Barkerville].

70 Upper Berkeley St., London, 23 November 1869. Small Octavo (ca. 17,5x11,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Housed in the 19th century paper wrappers with handwritten biographical note on Hill on the first page. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
Historically interesting letter from George Hills, the first Anglican bishop of British Columbia (in 1860-92). The letter contains an extensive quote from the letter by Rev. James Reynard, who built the famous St. Saviour church in Barkerville. Written in the midst of the construction, the letter gives a vivid picture of the process: “I have just had an interesting letter from Cariboo in which Mr. Reynard details his recent trials, his difficulty in getting his church built which some have opposed – he had however been at last rewarded by being able to make a start. He says “as a result of all these efforts we do start tomorrow. I am paying two clever builders ten dollars (2 £) a day each to superintend, make foundations & doors, windows, and on Tuesday next I call “a Bee”. The freshet has put many men out of work & I have had many offers of free labour. I am under obligation to pay 500 dollars (100 £) as soon as possible for the lumber & the balance 1545 dollars (310 £) by installments. All the church proceeds will be devoted to reduce this and therefore I shall still be almost beggared for another year. I hope soon to send you a sketch of the Church among the Golden Hills.” This letter is dated Oct. 10…”
Hill also express his gratitude “for the kind mention of the Columbia Mission in your interesting work & for the response which you name. It will do if you send the amount you have received to us at the end of the year”. Overall a very interesting letter.


Signed Recommendation Letter for Emissary Wernherr of Castiglione from Johann Georg (1577-1624) (Margrave of Brandenburg, Bishop of Strasbourg and Duke of Jaegerndorf) addressed to Prince Ludwig of Anhalt-Koethen (1579-1650) (Ruler of the unified principality of Anhalt and famous co-founder, in Weimar in1617, of the Fruitbearing Society, the first German Literary Society).

Erichsburg (Einbeck), 21 August 1614. Folio (31x20 cm). One page on a bifolium, black ink on laid paper. Address and remnants of a wax seal on verso. Overall the Letter is in very good condition.
Johann Georg was the second son of the Elector Joachim Friedrich of Brandenburg (1546-1608) and helped develop Protestantism in Silesia. Wernherr of Castiglione was involved in the reformation in central Europe.


16. [BRAZIL]
PEREIRA, José Clemente, Barão de São Clemente (1787-1854)
[Autograph Letter Signed, to Francisco Gomes da Silva ("O Chalaça"), Regarding the Dowry of Sua Alteza Imperial a Senhora D. Maria Amelia].

Rio de Janeiro, 10 July 1849. Large Quarto (ca. 27,5x22 cm). 2 pp., with an integral blank leaf. Brown ink on pale blue paper, text in Portuguese in a small, neat hand; docketed on verso of the second leaf. Blind stamp monogram of the paper factory in the upper left corner of the first leaf. Fold marks and minor creases, paper age toned, otherwise a very good letter.
In this letter of 1849, Pereira, a Brazilian official, tells Francisco Gomes da Silva, Secretário de Estado da Casa de Bragança, that he hopes to persuade the Brazilian parliament to approve a dowry for D. Maria Amelia, a Brazilian Princess, perhaps the same amount as her sister D. Francisca's ("700 contos, moeda forte"). The second part of the letter is a discussion of D. Maria Amelia's legal status.
Princess Maria Amelia (1831-1853), daughter of D. Pedro I and his second wife Amélie of Leuchtenberg, was born in France after D. Pedro had abdicated the throne in favor of D. Pedro II. Before Maria Amelia was a month old, her father set out to depose D. Miguel and restore the crown for his eldest daughter, D. Maria II. After D. Pedro died in 1834 of tuberculosis, D. Maria Amelia went to study in Munich and later to live in Portugal. Although she never met her half-brother D. Pedro II, when he was declared of age in 1840, he intervened to have D. Maria Amelia declared a member of the Brazilian imperial family. Since she was foreign born, the Brazilian government had refused to accept her status until that time.
José Clemente Pereira was one of the most enthusiastic promoters of Brazilian independence. In the first election for deputies, he was chosen to represent Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, and Minas Gerais, and was chosen senator for Rio de Janeiro, Alagôas, and Pará.
This letter is addressed to Francisco Gomes da Silva (1791-1852), a close friend of D. Pedro I who emigrated from his native Lisbon to Brazil in 1807 and became a leader in the movement for Brazilian independence. He was one of several men considered by the Marquez de Barbacena to be anti-liberal, hence likely to subvert the Emperor's inclination toward constitutional government. In 1833 he was named Secretário de Estado da Casa de Bragança, a position he held until his death.
A few years after this letter was written, in early 1852, D. Maria Amelia was engaged to Archduke Maximilian of Austria; unlike most royal engagements, this one seems to have been based on a strong romantic relationship. Before the marriage could take place, however, D. Maria Amelia contracted scarlet fever, then tuberculosis. Although her mother took her to the healthy climate of Funchal, Madeira, the princess's health continued to decline, and she died unwed at age 21. She was buried in Portugal, but in 1982 her remains were transferred to Brazil, where they now lie with the rest of the Brazilian imperial family. In her memory, her mother funded the construction of a hospital in Funchal that bears her name.
Archduke Maximilian, visiting his deceased fiancée's brother D. Pedro II, was so impressed with Brazil's stability and prosperity that in 1864 he accepted an invitation to become emperor of Mexico. He was executed by a republican firing squad in 1867.
On Pereira, see Sacramento Blake IV, 384-6, and Grande enciclopédia XXI, 153. On Gomes da Silva, see Grande enciclopédia XII, 528-9.


17. [BRAZIL]
WATERTON, Sir Charles (1782-1865)
[Manuscript Copy of an English Translation of Waterton’s Letter to the Commander of Fort St. Joachim, Portuguese Guiana, During his 1812 Expedition].

First half of the 19th century. Octavo (ca. 21x16,5 cm). 3 pp. Brown ink on bluish paper; inscription on the 4th page “Translation of Chl. Waterton’s letter to __”. Fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
A good 19th century English translation of Charles Waterton’s letter to the commander of Fort St. Joachim, Branco River, Portuguese Guiana (modern Brazil). The original letter was written in Spanish during Waterton’s first exploratory journey into Guyana’s remote inland in 1812, with one of the purposes being to study the nature of the wourali poison, better known as curare. The description of the meeting with the Portuguese commander, as well as the Spanish text of the letter were published in the first edition of Waterton’s travel account "Wanderings in South America, the South-West of the United States and the Antilles, in the Years 1812, 1816, 1820 and 1824" (London, 1825).
Waterton wished to see "the stronghold of the Portuguese for which I beg the favour of Your Excellency and permission", reassuring that his "motives are the most honorable <…> I came latterly from Demarara which place I left on the 5th of April to see this beautiful Country and collect a few Curiosities, particularly the poison called Wourali". He proceeded with the latest news of the war with Napoleon: "Valencia had fallen into the hands of the common Enemy and General Blake with his brave troops had been made prisoners of war <…> Lord Wellington had taken possession of the City of Rodrigo". An interesting note in the end tells: "I beg you to excuse this Letter not being written in Ink – and Indian having dropped the inkstand, it broke into pieces". The letter is signed as "Carlos Waterton."
Charles Waterton was a British naturalist and explorer; he travelled four times in the interior of Guiana in 1812-1824 and was the first to bring the curare poison to Europe. "In 1825, Charles Waterton described a classical experiment in which he kept a curarized female donkey alive by artificial respiration with a bellows through a tracheostomy (Wikipedia). Waterton is also considered as one of the first environmentalists. He has been described by David Attenborough as "one of the first people anywhere to recognize not only that the natural world was of great importance but that it needed protection as humanity made more and more demands on it" (Wikipedia).


[Autograph Letter Signed by a Buenos Aires Merchant Gaspar Ressa to the Members of the City’s Prior y Counsel, Written at the Time of the French Blockade of Buenos Aires During the Spanish American War of Confederation].

Buenos Aires, 1 December 1838. Folio (ca 31x21,5 cm). [1] p. Brown ink on watermarked paper, legible text in Spanish, signed and docketed on verso. Light wear and chipping at edges. Very minor foxing. Very good.
An interesting document from the tense period of the French blockade of Rio de la Plata (28 March 1838 - 1840) during the War of the Confederation between Argentina and Chile on one side and the Peru-Bolivian Confederation on the other side. Buenos Aires merchant Gaspar Ressa filed a complaint to the members of the city Council about Don Jose Costa, the captain of the ship “Flor de Rio” which belonged to Ressa. “I requested before the town's office of registered licences that Don Jose Costa, the then captain of a ship of mine, Flor del Río, reports on matters done in his capacity [as a captain], pertaining to his management and regarding the aforesaid ship; as a result the aforesaid captain Costa, instead of fulfilling what was his duty, ran away and went to Montevideo in secret without any authorisation from the aforementioned headquarters and police: as his way of behaving was prejudicial to my interests, I hereby complain before the same court about all damage which may arise <…> The chief of navy and the captain of the port of Montevideo were in charge so that they ordered Captain Costa to appear within a couple of weeks before this jurisdiction's court <…>; there was no reply to date as it shows on those decrees…”
As follows from the verso of the letter, Ressa’s appeal was processed by the Buenos Aires Council the same day, and on the 3rd of December “the testimony was received and given to the interested party, Ressa.” The document bears the seal of Argentina and is signed by Gaspar Ressa and a member of the council Antonio Francio Gomez.
In 1838 France had sent ships to blockade Buenos Aires, in support of their allies in the Peru-Bolivian Confederation. This eventually helped spark the Uruguayan civil war, which lasted from 1839 to 1851.


HODGSON, James (from Hodgson, Robinson & Co.)
[An Extensive Autograph Letter Signed, from James Hodgson‚ Merchant at Buenos Aires‚ to Messrs. Fielden Brothers, Owners of the Cotton-Spinning Firm in Manchester, Regarding the Insurance of the Latest Shipment‚ with Comments on the Textiles Suitable for Export to South America].

Buenos Aires, 22 February 1821. Quarto (ca. 25x20 cm). 3 pp. Addressed, sealed and docketed on the fourth blank page, with two postal stamps, including a stamp of “Portsmouth Ship Letter” ibidem. Fold marks, minor hole on the third page after opening, slightly affecting the text, but overall a very good legible letter.
An interesting and extensive business letter from James Hodgson, the owner of one of the main British trade houses in South America in the first half of the 19th century. Addressing his partners in Manchester, Fielden Brothers’ textile firm, Hodgson describes at length the latest sales of their goods, and settlement with the insurance company (“Lloyd’s Company of Underwriter”) in a case pertaining to damaged cargo. He also expresses slight critique of the Fielden Brother’s production and suggests some improvements: “By the way I should observe that the width of your Prints is somewhat complained of, & I am sorry to say, I fear with some justice, they being only 23 ½ inches. In your next shipment you may put in a Couple of Cases of handsome furniture patterns. I wish also to give you a few very useful instructions, for your future guidance. Your Magda pollams [?], Irish Shirtings & Platillas may be of double pieces or length, say 48, 48x56 yds. Each <…> Where the packets of patterns are very large, they should be divided into several parcels to avoid any tedious notice of the Customs House <…> In case you should ever have to recommend my Establishment to any new Correspondent, I beg you will not mention my terms of Commission to yourselves… Above all, for my just guidance I beg of you to Invoice your goods at their exact price & do me the justice to believe that I only consult your best Interest when I make this request…”
In a copy of his previous letter from 7th of February 1821 written after the main text Hodgson gives and interesting note on the preferable textiles for the South American market: “The red ground prints are getting out of vogue, and it will not be advisable for you to repeat them. Your next shipment of this article should be <…> red, green, yellow, pale lilac and <…> handsome darkish grounds – all with very bright lively tints. The newest patterns are generally the most favorite. I cannot obtain any tasteful patterns.”
A very interesting and informative letter.
“Hodgson, Robinson & Company (formerly Green & Hodgson) was a major British import/export house trading with South America during the first half of the nineteenth century. The developing markets of South America provided good opportunities for British textile manufacturers and merchants to export their wares, while wool, hides, tallow and dried beef were traded in the opposite direction. James Hodgson went into partnership with Joseph Green of Liverpool in 1818, trading between Britain and Argentina. The partnership was dissolved in 1829 and in the following year Hodgson formed a partnership with John Robinson, his former accountant; both partners were based in Buenos Aires. The partnership lasted until 1844, whereupon James Hodgson returned to Liverpool, although he continued to trade on his own account, and still owned a ranch in the Cordoba province of Argentina” (See: e-catalogue of the John Rylands Library of the University of Manchester).
“The partnership of Fielden Brothers was formed in 1816, based at Waterside Mill in Todmorden, West Yorkshire, and it became one of the most important and profitable textile firms in the country. John Fielden, a practising Unitarian, was elected MP for Oldham in 1832 with William Cobbett. He was known for his radical politics, taking an active part in the movement to limit the hours of factory labour and attempting to get a minimum wage agreement for handloom weavers” (See: e-catalogue of the John Rylands Library of the University of Manchester).


[Autograph Letter Signed by Jasper Taylor[?], a Miner in Nevada City Quartz Mill, to his Sister Discussing the Nature and Climate of Nevada County, and Gold Mining and Social Life in Nevada City].

Nevada [City], 28 November 1856. Quarto (ca. 25x19,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Fold marks, slightly worn on centre folds, otherwise a very good letter.
An interesting personal letter from a miner in a quartz mill near Nevada City, written in the later years of the California Gold Rush. The quartz mill the miner mentions in the letter is most likely the Empire Mine in the Grass Valley, "one of the oldest, largest, deepest, longest and richest gold mines in California," and nowadays a state historic park (see: Empire Mine SHP on California Department. Parks & Recreation online).
Addressing his sister, the miner describes the nature and social life in Nevada County: “the country where I live, is nothing [but] mountains hills and dales, it is a very rough country around here but there some of the most beautiful here that there is in the world, down in the valleys is splendid country level and rich, it is the most productive of any land I ever heard of, wheat goes as high as 75 bushels per acre <…> There is not much Society here, Sundays pass of very slow, churches are about as scarce as hen teeth. There was a preacher came around the other day to me and wanted me to give him some money to build a church, I told him that I had just sent on to San Francisco for a large stock of goods and it had drained me out entirely. A little about the weather now: winter has just set now and it is very cold, we had a very hard snow storm last night”. He also remarks on the quartz mining operations he is involved in: “I am going to Nevada today, I am working at a guarts [sic!] mill about one mile and a half from Nevada, here is where they take gold out of quarts rock, you have often heard of quarts having gold in it, there is a grat [sic!] quantity of it here, it is very profitable business, it pays as high as fifty and a hundred dollars a ton here, but other places it pays a more.”
In a note to his father the miner says, that “I think being that I have come to California I must try and make something before I come home <…> in about one year from this time if I do not strike anything good. I am working at a quarts [sic!] mill now, here is where they take gold out of quarts rock. I wish you could come out and see them take gold out of quarts. You had better take trip out here next spring, you would feel like another man, rent your farm out it will be a good thing for you…”
Overall a very interesting firsthand account of gold mining in Nevada County, which itself was formed as a result of the California Gold Rush.


HANWAY, Jonas, Sir, 1st baronet (1712-1786)
[Victualling Board Document Signed by Jonas Hanway, Joah Bates and John Slade, ordering a payment to William Wilkinson, owner of the Three Sisters Victualler, which had been chartered 27 December 1779 “to carry Provisions for the use of His Majesty’s Ships on the West Indies”].

London: Victualling Office, 15 November 1780. Folio (ca. 30,5x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink in secretarial hand on ‘R. Williams’ laid paper, numbered and docketed on verso. Signed ‘Bates’, ‘Jonas Hanway’, ‘J. Slade’. Fold marks, slightly trimmed on the upper and lower margins, otherwise a very good document.
Interesting document illustrating the posterior career of a renowned British traveller Jonas Hanway. He is most famous for his travel to Persia and Russia in 1743-45 which he undertook in order “to sell English broadcloth for Persian silk and to evaluate the potential of trade with Persia, then ruled by the last great steppe conqueror, Shah Nadir Kuli Khan (1688–1747). […] Hanway was robbed on the way to Persia, by the rebellious Khars on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea and was rescued by merchant colleagues. […] He was later partially compensated by Nadir Shah, who desired cordial relations with the British in order to enlist British artisans to construct a Persian navy for the Caspian. […] In 1753 he published the description of his adventures “An Historical Account of the British Trade over the Caspian Sea” (4 vols., 1753), the most original entertaining of all his books” (Oxford DNB).
Our document relates to Hanway’s activities as the chairman of the Marine Society (which he founded in 1756) and the Commissioner for victualling the British navy, the latter post he held for almost 20 years (1762-1783). The official paper of the Victualling Board orders to pay to a certain Wilkinson, the owner of a ship engaged in supplying British ships at the Caribbean Theatre of the American War of Independence (1775-1783). The document is signed by two other members of the board, Joah Bates (ca. 1741-1799) and John Slade (d. 1801).


DU CHAILLU, Paul Belloni (1831/35/39-1903)
[Autograph Letter Signed Regarding Du Chaillu’s Prospective Lectures in Leeds].

129 Mount Street (London), 2 October 1866. Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on Joynson laid paper with Du Chaillu’s monogram. Mild fold marks, overall a very good letter.
A letter by a noted African explorer and anthropologist Paul Belloni du Chaillu. In the course of his two major expeditions to West and Central Africa (1856-59, 1863-65) he became famous as “the first modern outsider to confirm the existence of gorillas, and later the Pygmy people” (Wikipedia).
“During his travels from 1856 to 1859, he observed numerous gorillas, known to non-locals in prior centuries only from an unreliable report by Hanno the Navigator of Carthage in the 5th century BC and known to scientists in the preceding years only by a few skeletons. He brought back dead specimens and presented himself as the first white person to have seen them. A subsequent expedition, from 1863 to 1865, enabled him to confirm the accounts given by the ancients of a pygmy people inhabiting the African forests. Du Chaillu sold his hunted gorillas to the Natural History Museum in London and his "cannibal skulls" to other European collections” (Wikipedia).
In the letter written just a year after his return from the second expedition, Du Chaillu turns down a proposal of his correspondent to give lectures at Leeds, saying that he is “not a professional lecturer. I do not seek such occupation and only can make such provincial visits at considerable personal inconvenience to myself and it will not be convenient for me to lecture at Leeds the coming winter”. Du Chaillu was in great demand at the time, giving public lectures in London, Paris and New York.


JOHNSTON, Sir Harry Hamilton (1858-1927)
[Autograph Letter Signed to Mr. Buckland Regarding Waste Land Regulations Intended for Use during Johnston’s Service in Central Africa].

Government House, Calcutta (printed letterhead), 14 February 1895. Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on paper. Small tears on the top and bottom of the left blank margin, paper age toned, otherwise a very good letter.
An interesting letter by a British African explorer and colonial administrator Sir Harry Johnson relates to his service as the first commissioner of Nyasaland (British Central African Protectorate, modern Malawi) in 1891-1896. The letter particularly refers to the land regulations which needed to be established in Africa: “Dear Mr. Buckland, I am much obliged to you for so very kindly sending me the Waste Land regulations which will I am sure be of much use to me for determining the policy to be pursued in Central Africa in regard to Land questions." A number of land property issues were later discussed in Johnston’s “British Central Africa: An attempt to give some account of a portion of the territories under British influence north of the Zambezi” (London, 1897).
Sir Harry Johnston was a “British explorer, botanist, linguist and colonial administrator, one of the key players in the "Scramble for Africa" that occurred at the end of the 19th century” (Wikipedia). In 1882-3 Johnston accompanied a geographical and sporting expedition to Angola‚ serving as artist‚ naturalist‚ and Portuguese interpreter. The party travelled slowly from Mossamedes to the upper Cunene‚ where Johnston left it‚ making his own way to the Congo estuary. There he was befriended by H. M. Stanley‚ who was then establishing the Congo Independent State for Leopold II of the Belgians. With Stanley's help‚ Johnston ascended the river as far as Bolobo‚ and spent some weeks collecting plants‚ birds‚ and insects‚ and vocabularies of the local Bantu languages. His books‚ The River Congo (1884) and The Kilimanjaro Expedition (1885) confirmed his reputation as an authority on Africa. He was resident in Nyasaland as British commissioner from 1891 to 1896. His other books were Liberia (1906) and The Negro in the New World (1910).


SCHWEINFURTH, G[eorg August] (1836-1925)
[Autographed Signed Note on a Mounted Decorative Pictorial Card with Egyptian Motiv Giving Happy New Year's Wishes for 1898 Signed G. Schweinfurth; With: A Cabinet Photograph Portrait (Karl Wahl Berlin) of Schweinfurth Signed G. Schweinfurth and Dated 1914. Additionally Inscribed with a Signed Presentation to Prof. Dr. A. Wiedemann and Signed G. Schweinfurth and Dated 24th July 1916].

The autographed note on card ca. 11x16,5 cm (4 x 6 ½ in). Cabinet photograph portrait ca. 16x10,5 cm (6 ½ x 4 in). Photograph with a small scratch, otherwise the photograph and New Year's card are in very good condition.
Schweinfurth "returned to Germany with a most valuable accumulation of geographical and ethnographic data for regions never before visited by Europeans. He had made extensive observations of the flora and fauna of Central Africa and had delineated for the first time much of the watershed of the Bahr el Ghazal. His discovery of the pygmy Akka settled conclusively the question of the existence of dwarf races in tropical Africa. His important narrative, "Im Herzen vin Afrika," was published at Leipzig in 1874. Schweinfurth returned to Africa in 1873 to accompany Friedrich Gerhard Rohlfs in his exploration of the Western Desert of Egypt, during which he visited the oases of Farafra, Dakhla, El Kharga and Siwa. Schweinfurth settled at Cairo in 1875 and the following year under the auspices of Khedive Ismail, founded the Societe Khedivale de Geographie. He devoted himself to African studies, in 1876, in the company of Richard Paul Guessfeldt, exploring into the Arabian Desert and carrying out geological and botanical investigations in the El Faiyum region of lower Egypt. He removed to Berlin in 1889 but returned to Africa in 1891, 1892 and 1894 to explore Eritrea. Schweinfurth died at Berlin in September 1925 and was buried in a botanical garden created in his honour" (Howgego, Continental Exploration, 1850-1940, S14).


CHARNAY, Claude-Joseph Désiré (1828-1915)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Désiré Charnay” to “Mon cher ami” with the Latest News after his Arrival to Algiers for the Winter Season, the Letter is Decorated with a Printed Vignette Depicting Arab Camel Riders in a Desert].

Algiers, 25 October 1891. Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm). 2 pp. Violet ink on thick paper with a printed vignette depicting travellers on camels in a desert. Centrefold mark, otherwise a very good letter.
In a letter to his friend, noted French traveller and archaeologist D. Charnay describes his voyage to Algiers from France and his place of stay in the city: “Our place is 17 Rue Flatters, Alger, Belcourt, 20 minutes from town by train <….> The weather has been very good, 24 to 28 degrees, also my wife is all right, although coughing always a little bit. I’m expecting rain and cold which will be a hardship for her” (in translation). The letter is decorated with an attractive printed vignette reproducing a photo of two Arab camel riders in a desert.
“Claude-Joseph Désiré Charnay was a French traveller and archaeologist notable both for his explorations of Mexico and Central America, and for the pioneering use of photography to document his discoveries. In 1850, he became a teacher in New Orleans, Louisiana, and there became acquainted with John Lloyd Stephens's books of travel in Yucatan. He travelled in Mexico, under a commission from the French ministry of education, in 1857-1861; in Madagascar in 1863; in South America, particularly Chile and Argentina, in 1875; and in Java and Australia in 1878. In 1880-1883, he again visited the ruined cities of Mexico. Pierre Lorillard IV of New York City contributed to defray the expense of this expedition, and Charnay named a great ruined city near the Guatemalan boundary line "Ville Lorillard" in his honor; the name did not stick and the site is more commonly known as Yaxchilan. Charnay went to Yucatan in 1886” (Wikipedia)


SQUIER, Ephraim George (1821-1888)
[Autograph Letter Signed to Samuel Birch regarding tickets to the reading room of the British Museum, and the forthcoming meeting of the Archaeology Department].

Morley, Friday. Small Octavo (ca. 18x11 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on laid paper. Fold marks and traces of the old mount on verso, not affecting the text. Overall a very good letter.
A letter by a prominent American archaeologist Ephraim George Squier is addressed to the head of the antiquities department of the British Museum and one of the first British Egyptologists Samuel Birch (1813-1885). In the letter Squier thanks Birch for the tickets to the Reading Room of the Museum and expresses “great pleasure in attending the meeting of the Archy S[ection?] this afternoon”. He adds: “I shall also be happy if I can in any way contribute to the [issue?] of its proceedings.”
Ephraim George Squier was an American archaeologist, author, businessman, editor and diplomat, known for its works about the archaeology of USA, Central and South America: “Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley (1848), “Nicaragua: Its People, Scenery, Monuments” (1852), “Peru: Incidents of Travel and Exploration in the Land of Incas” (1877) et al. Squier worked as a special chargé d'affaires to Guatemala (1849-50), US Commissioner to Peru (1863-65), Consul-General of Honduras at New York City (1868) et al.


VAMBERY, Arminius (1832-1913)
[Autograph Letter Signed; With: Autograph Note Signed "A. Vambéry" to Martin Wood, sometime Editor of "The Times of India" and the author of several books on India; With: one original envelope addressed by Vambéry. [Embossed heading] Athenaeum Club, Pall Mall, [London], 10 and 11 July 1892 respectively].

London, 1892. Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm). Total four pages with one envelope with stamp. The letter, note and envelope are all in near fine condition.
[10 July, 3pp.] He reacts to a letter sent by Wood, saying "In political questions of high importance, as the Central Asiatic is, diversity of opinions is very natural, and I am not the least astonished of [sic] the quite opposite view you exhibit in your letters." He would like to show his respect for his views with a personal meeting, and asks him to suggest a time and place. [11 July, one page] He confirms their appointment to meet the following day at the Athenaeum. Note: Vambery, a friend of Bram Stoker's, is said to have been the model for Van Helsing, the vampire hunter in "Dracula."
"Vámbéry was especially attracted by the literature and culture of the Ottoman Empire including Turkey. By the age of twenty, Vámbéry had learned enough Ottoman Turkish to enable him to go, through the assistance of Baron Joseph Eötvös, to Constantinople and establish himself as a private tutor of European languages. He became a tutor in the house of Pasha Huseyin Daim, and, under the influence of his friend and instructor, Ahmet Efendi, became a full Osmanli, serving as secretary to Fuat Pasha. About this time he was elected a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in recognition of his translations of Ottoman historians.
After spending about a year in Constantinople, he published a Turkish-German dictionary in 1858. Later, he also published various other linguistic works. He also learned some twenty other Ottoman languages and dialects. Returning to Budapest in 1861, he received a stipend of a thousand florins from the academy, and in the autumn of the same year, disguised as a Sunnite dervish, and under the name of Reshit Efendi, he set out from Constantinople. His route lay from Trebizond on the Black Sea to Tehran in Persia, where he joined a band of pilgrims returning from Mecca, spending several months with them traveling across Central Iran (Tabriz, Zanjan, and Kazvin). He then went to Shiraz, through Ispahan, and in June, 1863, he reached Khiva (Central Asia). Throughout this time, he succeeded in maintaining his disguise as "Reshit Efendi," so that upon his arrival at Khiva he managed to keep up appearances during interviews with the local khan. Together with his band of travelers, he then crossed Bokhara and arrived at Samarkand. Initially, he aroused the suspicions of the local ruler, who kept him in an audience for a full half-hour. Vámbéry managed to maintain his pretences, and left the audience laden with gifts. Upon leaving Samarkand, Vámbéry began making his way back to Constantinople, traveling by way of Herat. There he took leave of the band of dervishes and joined a caravan to Tehran, and from there, via Trebizond and Erzerum, to Constantinople, arriving there in March 1864.
This was the first journey of its kind undertaken by a Western European; and since it was necessary to avoid suspicion, Vámbéry could not take even fragmentary notes, except by stealth. He returned to Europe in 1864. That following June, he paid a visit to London, where he was treated as a celebrity because of his daring adventures and knowledge of languages. That same year, he published his Travels in Central Asia, based on the few, furtive notes he was able to make while traveling with the dervishes. Returning to Hungary, Vámbéry was appointed professor of Oriental languages at the University of Budapest in 1865, retiring in 1905" (Wikipedia).


28. [CHILE]
TAYLOR, William Rufus
[Autograph Letter Signed by William Rufus Taylor to Lieutenant James Melville Gilliss (1811-1865) U.S. Navy Congratulating Gilliss' on his Successful Expedition i.e., the U.S. Naval Astronomical Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere 1849-52 and thanking him for the "beautiful and interesting books" which were most likely copies of the results of the expedition which were published in 1855-6].

Newport R.I., April 17th 1856. Small Quarto (ca. 20x16 cm). One page. Brown ink on wove paper, verso blank. Letter with a minor crease of upper left corner, otherwise in near fine condition.
The letter reads: "My Dear Sir, Upon my return to this place, ten days ago, after an absence of several months, I found here the beautiful and interesting books that you did me the favour to send me. Permit me to offer you my best thanks for this mark of remembrance. I shall read them with much interest. Often during your absence I thought of your labouring in that distant field, & I sincerely congratulate you upon the successful results of your expedition. Will you be pleased to present my respectful compliments to Mrs. Gilliss. Believe me sincere esteem. Yours very truly, Wm. Rufus Taylor."
Gilliss a naval astronomer and founder of the United States Naval Observatory, in August 1848 "succeeded in obtaining $5,000 from Congress for a naval astronomical expedition to Chile. The chief purpose was to determine the solar parallax--and thus the scale of the solar system--by observations of Mars and Venus. From August 1849 until its return in November 1852, Gilliss headed this expedition, again making observations far beyond the original purposes of the expedition and leaving behind the foundation for the Chilean National Observatory" (ANBO). The author of the letter is most likely William Taylor (1821-1902), evangelist and missionary bishop of the Methodist Episcopal church and author of "California Life Illustrated" (pub. 1858) amongst several other books. "Taylor was one of the most energetic and influential missionary leaders in nineteenth-century Methodism. He was especially responsible for the spread of Methodism in Australia, India, South America, and Africa. Among his most notable accomplishments was his commitment to the principle of indigenous leadership and self-supporting churches" (ANBO).


29. [CHINA]
OSBORN, Sherard Rear Rear-Admiral (1822-1875)
[Autograph Letter Signed by Sherard Osborn to "My Dear Rogers" about his current illness and his time in China].

Ca. 1870. Octavo (18x11,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on wove paper. With a small printed paper label on the foot of page one "Capt. Sherard Osborn." With a small cloth strip on left, fold marks but otherwise a very good letter.
Judging by the content, Rogers is most likely a naval officer Osborn served with in China. Osborn discusses that he has been ill "for the last three weeks and [is] still very sicketty (sic)." Further he discusses China and mentions Admiral [Sir Alexander Inglis] Cochrane (1758–1832) who he served under in China: "Do know I sometimes regret ever having left China. I had the strangest letters in my favour sent out to Ad. Cochrane by an old friend of his.., I begin to pine for its bright sunny days and Eastern Delights. Those dear old Straits of Malacca. I always look back with pleasure to the days I spent there."
"In September 1837 [Osborn] was entered by Commander William Warren as a first-class volunteer on board the sloop Hyacinth, fitting for the East Indies. The Hyacinth arrived at Singapore in May 1838, and in September was ordered to blockade Kedah, then in a state of revolt. Osborn was appointed to command a tender and so from December 1838 to March 1839 he was ‘captain of his own ship’. The responsibility thrust on him at such an early age went far to strengthen and mature his character. Parts of his journal during the time were published in 1857 as Quedah, or, Stray Leaves from a Journal in Malayan Waters. In 1840 the Hyacinth went to China, and took part in the operations in the Canton River. In 1842 Osborn was moved into the Clio with Commander Troubridge, and in her was present at the capture of Woosung (Wusong) on 16 June. He was afterwards transferred to the Volage, and came home in the Columbine in 1843. He passed his examination in December, and, after going through the gunnery course in the Excellent, was appointed gunnery mate of the Collingwood, fitting out for the Pacific as flagship of Sir George Seymour.
On 4 May 1846 Osborn was promoted lieutenant of the Collingwood, in which he returned to England in the summer of 1848. He then had command of the Dwarf, a small screw-steamer, employed during the disturbances of the year on the coast of Ireland. In 1849, when public attention was turned to the fate of Sir John Franklin, Osborn entered into the question with enthusiasm and energy, and in 1850 was appointed to command the steam tender Pioneer, in the Arctic expedition under Captain Austin in the Resolute. Considered as a surveying expedition, it was eminently successful, and proved that Franklin's ships had not been lost in Baffin's Bay" (Oxford DNB).


BOUGAINVILLE, Hyacinthe Yves Philippe Potentien, Baron de (1781-1846)
[Private Autograph Note Signed ‘de Bougainville’ to His Friend “cher Henry”].

N.p., 3 August. On a folded Octavo leaf (15,5x10 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on paper, text in French. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
“I have received your letter my dear Henry and may set a date with you for the 16th as it is most convenient for you - you may tell me where we should meet up, whether I should go to the secondary school or to your aunt's and at what sort of time. I believe that it would be better at 5 o'clock at your aunt's, but it will be as you wish. The last letter that I have received from your father was dated May 26th. He was in good health, and has mentioned at last how boring it was for me in Martinique [...]”
“As a young second-class midshipman of eighteen Hyacinthe de Bougainville participated in the 1800-02 Baudin expedition to Australia. Hyacinthe de Bougainville sailed around the world from 1824 to 1826 onboard Thétis and Espérance, sent by the Minister of the Navy and the Colonies, the duc de Clermont-Tonnerre. On 12 January 1825, Hyacinthe de Bougainville led an embassy to Vietnam with Captain Courson de la Ville-Hélio, arriving in Da Nang, with the warships Thétis and Espérance. Although they had numerous presents for the Emperor, and a 28 January 1824 letter from Louis XVIII, the ambassadors could not obtain an audience from Minh Mạng. Hyacinthe de Bougainville infiltrated Father Regéreau from the Thétis when it was anchored in Da Nang, triggering edicts of persecution against Christianity by Minh Mạng. Bougainville visited New South Wales in 1825. That same year, he visited Port Jackson and Sydney where he set up a monument to La Pérouse in Botany Bay” (Wikipedia). Bougainville was a French naval officer (appointed rear admiral in 1838), circumnavigator and ambassador to Vietnam and a son of the first French circumnavigator Louis-Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1811).


RIGAUT DE GENOUILLY, Pierre-Louis-Charles, Admiral (1807-1873)
[Autograph Letter Signed “C. Rigaut de Genouilly” asking “Mon cher Colonel” for Assistance with Obtaining a Pension for Mme Charbonnier, a Widow of a Naval Department Administrator].

Paris, 14 December 1860. Octavo (ca. 24x19 cm). 3 pp. Black ink on watermarked blue laid paper. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
A private letter from French admiral Pierre Rigaut de Genouilly, the commander of French naval forces during the opening phase of the Cochinchina campaign (1858-62), which laid the foundation for the French conquest of Vietnam. Appealing to a colonel who was in connection with marshal Jacques Louis Randon, French minister of defence in 1859-1867, Rigaut de Genouilly asks him to show the minister the request (apparently about a pension) of a widow “of an administrator of the navy department, whom I knew as an excellent State servant, as a commissioner of the navy aboard many ships and as the treasurer of the Invalides de la Marine. Furthermore the widowed Madame Charbonnier is the daughter of a sea captain, who fought during the First French Empire and who I met over the Algiers expedition”. Rigaut de Genouilly also mentions some of their common acquaintances, according his correspondent’s brother who was serving on board a French naval vessel at the moment.
“Rigault de Genouilly took command of French naval forces in China and Cochinchina and in 1857 held Canton with the British, who had joined France in declaring war on China. The following year, as vice admiral, he once again attacked Tourane; he was told to secure it with the forces at his disposal and he was not to negotiate with the Vietnamese. On Sept. 1, 1858, he took the city and would have proceeded to the capital at Hue, but his ships could not navigate the shallow river inland; instead, he turned south to conquer Saigon and achieved his objective with the help of Spanish troops, Feb. 17, 1859. With his men debilitated by the climate and disease, his supplies low, and no reinforcements forthcoming, he could neither consolidate his conquests nor bring the Vietnamese to surrender. The following October 20 he asked to be relieved of his post. Back in France, Rigault de Genouilly became a senator (1860), was promoted to admiral (1864), and was named minister of the marine and of the colonies (1867). In the Franco-German War (1870-71), he rejected his appointment as commander in chief of an expedition to the Baltic Sea and went to Spain to live out his years” (Encyclopaedia Britannica online).


CABAL, José Maria
[Autograph Letter Signed, Concerning Troop Payments, soon after the Declaration of Columbian Independence in Cartagena].

16 November 1811. Folio (ca. 30x21,2 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Text in Spanish in a large, fairly legible hand. Light damp stains, otherwise a very good document.
A letter to the officials of the Superior Gobierno de la Provincia de Popayán (part of the viceroyalty of New Granada) order that soldiers be paid for August, September, and October, in accordance with an attached list. After the southern part of Spain was captured by the French in May 1810 and the Spanish Supreme Central Junta dissolved itself, many areas of Latin America set up Juntas Supremas, including Popayán. Cartagena, on the northern coast of Colombia, established a Junta on May 22, 1810, and Bogotá on July 20, 1810, the date now celebrated as Colombia's Independence Day.


MEREDITH, Edmund Allen (1817-1898)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Meredith” to James McFesters, the Mayor of Bowmanville, Regarding Russian Guns Captured During the Crimean War and Transferred to Canada].

Toronto: Secretary’s Office, 19 May 1859. Folio (ca. 33x20,5 cm). 2 pp., with an integral blank leaf. Brown ink on F.A. Gordon blue laid paper watermarked “1858,” docketed on verso of the second leaf. Fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
An official letter with an interesting subject, written by Edmund Allen Meredith, the Assistant Provincial Secretary of Upper Canada (1847-67), Under-Secretary of State for the Dominion of Canada (1867-73), First Deputy Minister of the Department of the Interior (1873-78).
Addressing James McFesters, the Mayor of Bowmanville (Ontario), Meredith writes: “I have the honour to receive and lay before His Excellency the Governor General your letter of the 17th Instant, enquiring whether any of the Guns captured by the British during the Russian War and forwarded to Canada will be allowed to the Town of Bowmanville. His Excellency desires me to state that until the Members of the Executive Council who are now absent from Toronto, reassemble, His Excellency cannot decide upon the distribution of these Guns. The claim of the Town of Bowmanville will then be considered.”
Thousands of Russian guns and mortars were captured with the fall of Sevastopol on 9 September 1855 marking the end of the Crimean War. The guns were presented to different cities in Britain (Bath, Bradford, Glasgow, Dublin, Edinburgh et al), and were also shipped to Canada, Australia and New Zealand.


34. [CUBA]
[EZPELETA ENRILE, Joaquin, Captain General of Cuba] (1788-1863)
[Two Official Letters to Joaquin Ezpeleta Enrile, Captain General of Cuba in 1838-1840, from U.S. Consuls in Havana and Trinidad de Cuba; the First one in English; and the Second One Translated into Spanish by a Havana Translator].

Letter from U.S. Consul Nicholas Philip Trist: Havana, Consulate of the United States of America, 18 April 1838. Folio (ca. 30,5x21,5 cm). 2 pp., with an integral blank leaf. Brown ink on paper, official ink stamp of the US Consulate in Havana in the upper left corner of the first leaf. Legible text in English. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good document.
Letter from U.S. Consul Thomas R. Gray translated into Spanish by Luis Paynes [?]: Havana, 29 September 1838 (original document: Trinidad de Cuba, 15 September 1838). Folio (ca 30x21 cm). 2 pp., with an integral blank leaf. Mild offset, fold marks, otherwise a very good document.
Two official letters to Joaquin Ezpeleta Enrile, Captain General of Cuba in 1838-1840, from Nicholas Philip Trist (1800-1847) and Thomas R. Gray, U.S. Consuls in Havana and Trinidad de Cuba. In the first letter Trist congratulates Ezpeleta Enrile on his appointment as the new Captain General of Cuba, and wishes that good relations between the two nations will continue. He reassures Ezpeleta that “to no other foreign country is an event of this nature so necessarily, so intensively or so deeply interesting, as it is to that which I have the honor to represent <…> I can form no better with for the very numerous class of my countrymen who have direct & special personal interests in the prosperity of this magnificent Island, and consequently in the way in which it may be governed, than that the expectation awakened by Y.E’s Proclamation may be fulfilled…”
In his letter to Joaquin Ezpeleta Enrile Thomas R. Gray, U.S. Consul in Trinidad de Cuba files a complaint regarding “an order from this city's chief of navy informing that all captains of American ships along with its passengers may need to present themselves in person,” which both “Spanish and American merchants as well as captains and passengers had complained to me about <…> I wish that Your Excellency will be kind enough to arrange that I be instructed competently and respectfully regarding that order so that my fellow citizens may find out about it with expected appropriateness” (in translation). The original letter was written in English (Trinidad de Cuba, 15 September 1838), but we have only an official Spanish translation of it, done two weeks later by a Havana translator Luis Paynes.
“Cuba and the United States of America have had an interest in one another since well before either of their independence movements. Plans for purchase of Cuba from the Spanish Empire were put forward at various times by the United States. As the Spanish influence waned in the Caribbean, the United States gradually gained a position of economic and political dominance over the island, with the vast majority of foreign investment holdings and the bulk of imports and exports in its hands, as well as a strong influence on Cuban political affairs. Following the Cuban Revolution of 1959, relations deteriorated substantially and have been marked by tension and confrontation since. The United States does not have formal diplomatic relations with Cuba and has maintained an embargo which makes it illegal for U.S. Corporations to do business with Cuba” (Wikipedia).


ROCHET D'HÉRICOURT, Charles-Xavier (1801-1854)
[Autograph Letter Signed ‘Rochet d’Héricourt’ to a Magazine Editor].

Paris, 18 February 1846. On a folded Octavo leaf (ca. 19,5x12 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on white paper. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
Autograph letter by renowned French explorer of the East Africa, the leader of two expeditions to Ethiopia in 1839-40 and 1842-43, which resulted in his books, “Voyage sur la côte orientale de la Mer rouge dans le pays d'Adel et le royaume de Choa” (Paris, 1841) and “Second voyage sur les deux rives de la mer Rouge, dans le pays des Adels et le Royaume de Choa” (Paris, 1846).
In a letter to a magazine editor, Rochet d'Héricourt denies a proposal to publish his biography with the detailed description of his travels: “The relation of my travel has been published in the ‘Revue Novelle’ and I don’t have anything to add; regarding my biography the only event of my life which could be included are my travel adventures, and I don’t have anything to add to what I’ve published” [translated from French]. However he will send the editor a copy of the report to the French Academy of Sciences which will be printed soon, and is ready to give “verbal explanations” (“explications verbales“) which could be useful for the correspondent.
Interesting letter revealing the process of publication of the results of Rochet d'Héricourt’s second travel to Abyssinia (1842-43). He mentions the official account of the expedition (Arthus-Bertrand, 1846) and the extensive report prepared for to the French Academy of Sciences (see: La Revue Novelle. Tome 9. 2-me année. Paris, 1846, p. 147-165) which were both published that year.


HAMILTON, Sir Charles (1767-1849)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Hamilton” Regarding the Naval Career of his Relative, Mr. Edward Ford Hamilton].

31 August ca. 1805. Octavo (ca. 23x18,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on white paper watermarked “E. Whilding, 1805”. Mild fold marks, creases and minor tears in the right lower corner, otherwise a very good letter.
A private letter from Sir Charles Hamilton, Admiral, Governor and Commander-in-Chief of Newfoundland in 1818-24. “Sir, I have been referred to you by Mr. Robt. Dundas respecting the Cadetship for Mr. Edward Ford Hamilton how serving as Midshipman in the Cornwallis Frigate in the East Indies. He was eighteen years of age last Christmas and there can be no collusion, as he is in his Majesty’s service and on the ships Books, but if there is any information respecting what I ought to do I shall be very much obliged to you to write it to me, as it will not conveniently be in my power to be in London for some weeks, and I shall be much obliged to you to direct to Sir Charles Hamilton at Col. Parkins…”


RICH, Robert, Second Earl of Warwick(1587-1658)
[Original Warrant Signed "Warwicke" as Lord High Admiral of England (for Parliament) during the English Civil War addressed to the Commissioners of the Navy ordering the complete provisioning of the fleet "for the next summer’s guard" listing all 44 ships by name beneath].

Warwick House, 6 February 1648. Four pages (two with text). Folio, ca. 32,5x22,5 cm (13x9 in). Right margin ragged and soiled, but complete, and with original folds, otherwise in good condition. Warwick’s blind stamp (a crown above an anchor) impressed on the upper left corner.
"In 1642, following the dismissal of the Earl of Northumberland as Lord High Admiral, Warwick was appointed commander of the fleet by Parliament"(Wikipedia). Another of Warwick's titles was Lord of the Caribee Islands and he was active in colonial ventures becoming president of the New England Company and a zealous member of the Bermuda and Providence Companies. The warrant replaces an earlier order with this revised list of ships and requires the provision of boatswains’ and carpenters’ stores for the whole summer’s campaign. From the Collection of the 5th Earl of Rosebery. "As the events of 1648 unfolded, some of the ambiguities of Warwick's position appear rather to have deepened than to have diminished. On 27 May 1648 the greater part of the parliamentary fleet in the Downs mutinied against the command of Colonel Thomas Rainsborough, appointed in place of the politically suspect William Batten. Two days later parliament reappointed Warwick to the post of lord high admiral, in the hope that his popularity would secure the fidelity of the sailors" (Oxford DNB).


[VIDOCQ, Eugène François] (1775-1857)
[A Page from a Private Diary with the Latest News on the Case of the Famous Private Detective Eugene Vidocq: Vidoeq in Jail. French Ministry of War Found Their Associates Leaking Important Documents to a Russian Agent].

6 February 1838. Octavo (ca. 19,5x12 cm). 1 p. A stationary sheet with a printed letterhead “Tuesday, February 1838”. Text written in brown ink in a legible hand. Minor tears on the extremities, repaired with archival tape on verso, overall a very good document.
A page from a diary of apparently a British resident in Paris, with the latest news on the famous Vidocq – an ex-criminal, the first private detective, the founder of the modern French police and an inspiration for a number of the 19th century detective novels. The text reads “Vidoeq has been some months in Prison. <…> When taken into custody his Papers were seized and examined. They led to the discovery of Clerks in the Home department who corresponded with or assisted him. Those persons also were arrested, but there were also other Clerks and Employes [sic!] in another important department - the Ministry of War equally detected. They too were arrested and their papers seized,” the discoveries revealed that they had communicated “to a Russian Agent documents and information of much importance”.
Eugène François Vidocq was a French criminal and criminalist whose life story inspired several writers, including Victor Hugo and Honoré de Balzac. The former criminal became the founder and first director of the crime-detection Sûreté Nationale as well as the head of the first known private detective agency, Vidocq is considered to be the father of modern criminology and of the French police department. He is also regarded as the first private detective.
In 1833, Vidocq founded Le bureau des renseignements ("Office of Information"), a company that was a mixture of detective agency and private police. It is considered to be the first known detective agency. Once again, he predominantly hired ex-convicts. <…> From 1837, Vidocq quarreled constantly with the official police because of his activities and his questionable relations with various government agencies such as the War Department. On 28 November 1837, the police executed a search and seizure and confiscated over 3,500 files and documents. A few days later, Vidocq was arrested and spent Christmas and New Year in jail. He was charged with three crimes, namely the acquisition of money by deception, corruption of civil servants, and the pretension of public functions]. In February 1838, after numerous witnesses had testified, the judge dismissed all three charges. Vidocq was free again” (Wikipedia).


[Original Receipt of Land Purchase in the Esquimalt District, Signed by Colonial Surveyor J.D. Pemberton]: VANCOUVER’S ISLAND COLONY. ESQUIMALT DISTRICT. Received, this 9th day of August 1859, from John Matthias Ollis…

9 August 1859. Folio (ca. 33x19,5 cm). Printed document on blue paper, completed in brown ink. Signed “Joseph Pemberton”, docketed in brown ink on verso and signed “Graham Elson, [1865]”. Fold marks, slightly browned at extremities, otherwise a very good document.
Very early original receipt of a land transaction on Vancouver Island given to John Matthias Ollis who bought a parcel of land in the Esquimalt District, lots LXI-LXII, for $196.00. The form is signed by Joseph Despard Pemberton (1821-1893), Surveyor General of the Colony of Vancouver Island, and docketed on verso by Graham Alston in 1865 registering the land in Absolute [Fees Book?].
J.M. Ollis was an Engineer in the Royal Navy, apparently stationed in Esquimalt; the “First Victoria Directory” (Victoria: E. Mallandaine, 1869, 3rd issue), listed a certain “Ollis John R. No fixed residence, freehold, Esquimalt district” in the district’s list of voters (p. 68).


WADDINGTON, George (1793-1869)
[Autograph Letter Signed “George Waddington” Declining to Participate in a Public Meeting].

London, 13 May 1864. Small Octavo (ca. 18,5x11 cm). 2 pp., with an integral blank leaf. Black ink on Joynson’s laid paper watermarked ‘1862’. Mild fold marks, small mount residue on verso of the second blank leaf, otherwise a very good letter.
“My dear Sir, I thank you for the compliment that you have paid me. But I have never at any time taken part in any public meetings with which I was not directly connected & now I think it rather far late to begin. Your practical local application of the principles of the Association appears to be to do you real honor.”
George Waddington was an English clergyman, traveller and church historian. A graduate of the Trinity College, Oxford, he was the Dean of Durham (1840-1869), Warden of Durham University (1862-69), an original member of the Athenaeum Club‚ London on its foundation in 1824. He travelled widely, having published “Journal of a Visit to some parts of Ethiopia” (together with Rev. B. Hanbury), “A Visit to Greece in 1823 and 1824” (1825), and several works on the Christian church history.
“Clergymen Hanbury and Waddington were both Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge, who accompanied the army of Muhammad Ali in its conquest of the Sudan in 1820. This was just after Napoleon's expedition through the Nile, during which time he ordered a team of scientists and architects to record all the ancient monuments and natural features of the country. Stimulated by this work many Europeans travelled to Egypt in search of ancient wonders. This included both Hanbury and Waddington who visited Egypt and Nubia together in 1821 and brought back the coffin set of Nespawashefyt (E.1.1822) which was the first Egyptian object to come into the possession of the [Fitzwilliam] University. In 1822 Waddington published an account of their travels up the Nile in Journal of a visit to some parts of Ethiopia, including accounts of visiting the temples at Abu Simbel and Soleb, and the sites of Napata and Meroe” (The Collections/Egypt/Fitzwilliam University online).


BOURDON DE VATRY, Marc-Antoine (1761-1828)
[Official Letter Written and Signed “M.A. Bourdon,” Addressed to the French Minister of the Navy and the Colonies, and Containing the Accounting Report about Goods Seized by the French Corsairs in the English Channel in 1799-1800].

Havre, le 2 Thermidor an 10 [21 July 1802]. Folio (ca. 33x20,5 cm). 3 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper with printed letterhead of “Havre. Le Prefet Maritime du 2e Arrondissement”. Period brown and red ink notes on the upper margin. Mild fold marks, paper slightly age toned, but overall a very good Letter.
An interesting document illustrating French corsairs’ activity in the English Channel during the French Revolutionary Wars. This official letter was written by the maritime prefect of the port of Le Havre Marc-Antoine Bourdon de Vatry and was addressed to Denis Decrès (1761-1820), French Minister of the Navy and the Colonies. The letter contains an accounting report about the goods taken at sea by corsairs in Boulogne in the years 8 and 9 of the Republic (1799-1800).
“This is in compliance with your predecessor’s provisions and as per a letter dated 19 prairial year 9 to the Tresorerie des Invalids to get revenue-related orders, which are becoming compulsory and necessary for his accounting. I feel honoured to send you some [...] detailed forms, several copies and extracts of seized goods liquidations done in Boulogne over the years 8 and 9. The letter that I have just mentioned included observations about the following three sums, for which the dispatch of orders was requested
=an amount of 25,352. 9. 2 and the amount withheld of 5 c. Francs from the income of prizes, which were sold off in Boulogne prior to year 8;
=25,151.12 from the same withheld amount taken from seized goods whose liquidation had been done since then;
=38,131.18 paid off from other prizes. The revenue-related order of the latter amount had since been sorted out…”
The report continues for the next two pages.
Marc-Antoine Bourdon Vatry, brother of Louis-François Bourdon, was a French official; general secretary of Jean-Baptiste Donatien de Vimeur, comte de Rochambeau’s expedition to the United States (1781-1783), director of the colonies at the Naval Department (1792-1797), Minister of the French Navy (1799-1800), maritime prefect of Le Havre, later prefect of Vaucluse, Maine-et-Loire (1809), Gênes, and Isère.


JOMARD, Edme François (1777-1862)
[Autograph Letter Signed 'Jomard' to Louis Leon Jacob, French Minister of the Navy and the Colonies, Regarding the Recently Published Report of Francois Leprieur’s Voyage in the Interior of French Guiana].

Paris, 23 October 1834. Folio (ca. 32x21 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on watermarked paper with letterhead of the “Société de Géographie, Commission Centrale”. Legible text in French. Centrefold mark, otherwise a very good letter.
In his letter to the current minister of French navy and colonies, Admiral Louis Leon Jacob (1768-1854), the author, French cartographer and archaeologist Edme Francois Jomard informs about the recent publication of the French Geographical Society: Francois Leprieur’s report of his voyage in the interior of French Guiana in the early 1830s. Jomard notes that the report has been approved on the session of the Geographical Society on the 17th of October [1834], and in conformity with the Admiral's wishes, Jomard is sending him a copy of it. The publication he is talking about is most likely an offprint of Leprieur’s article “Voyage dans la Guyane centrale” (Bulletin de la Société de Géographie de Paris, 2e série, I, 1834, p. 201-229).
“François Mathias René Leprieur (1799-1870) was a French pharmacist and naturalist. While being stationed in Senegambia in 1824-1829 he extensively travelled in the region; the results of his observations were published as "Florae Senegambiae tentamen" (1830-1833) by Perrottet, Guillemin and Richard. In 1830-1849 he was based in Cayenne, Guyane, where he attained the post of pharmacist first-class. He travelled along the Oyapock River to its source and collected a large amount of natural history specimens. From 1850 to 1858, he was assigned to the island of Martinique. Plants with the specific epithet of leprieurii are named in his honor, an example being Zanthoxylum leprieurii” (Wikipedia).


DUPETIT-THOUARS, Abel Aubert, Vice Admiral (1793-1864)
[Autograph Note Signed 'A. Du Petit Thouars" Advising His Correspondent to Arrive at the Ministry of the Navy the Next Day with His Hydrographic Album].

Paris, 6 October 1845. Large Quarto bifolium (ca. 27x20,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on paper, text in French. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
A short note by Du Petit Thouars, who played an important part in France’s annexation of the French Polynesia. Dupetit Thouars informs the addressee that according to the letter from the Minister of the Navy, he has to come to the cabinet of the Minister tomorrow at 11:30 in the morning with his ‘hydrographic album’.
Abel Aubert Dupetit Thouars became "Capitaine de vaisseau" on 6 January 1834, and accomplished a circumnavigation between 1836 and 1839 on the Venus. In 1834 he played a key role in protecting French shipping interests against the Peruvians. In 1841 as the commander of the French naval squadron in the Pacific, Dupetit Thouars occupied the Marquesas and a year later signed a protectorate treaty with Tahitian queen Pomare IV. This lead to the confrontation with English missionary and consul in Tahiti, George Pritchard (1796-1883) who was expelled in 1844, and a French protectorate was proclaimed in Tahiti. Dupetit Thouars “was initially denounced for his actions by the French government, which feared a conflict with Great Britain. Relations between France and Great Britain soured considerably during the reign of Louis-Philippe, due to this "Pritchard Affair" (Wikipedia). Dupetit-Thouars became a vice admiral in 1846 and retired in 1858.


BISMARCK, Otto von, Chancellor (1815-1898)
[Fragment of Signed Letter "Your faithful Cousin v. Bismarck" talking about his workload: "I'm doing well and Johanna sends her warm wishes, I'm only buried by my workload and so I only could go for a walk last night at 11pm for the first time in 3 days."[With - mounted on the same sheet] Another Fragment of a Signed Letter by his father, Ferdinand von Bismarck Schonhausen (1771-1845) Dated Schonhausen 25 April 1844 to Frau von Rohr (born of Nessell in Hohenwulsch): "At that very moment I received a letter from the mother, who had been so kind as to buy something for me. They are all healthy..."]

Fragments 19x13 cm and 10x13 cm respectively. Each written in dark brown ink on both sides on wove paper. Fragments in overall very good condition.
Otto von Bismarck, was a conservative Prussian statesman who dominated German and European affairs from the 1860s until 1890. His father, Karl Wilhelm Ferdinand von Bismarck (1771-1845), was a Junker estate owner and a former Prussian military officer. Wikipedia.


45. [GORDON OF KHARTOUM], Charles George, Major-General (1833-1885)
[Two Items Relating to General Gordon Including: Printed Pamphlet]: SULLIVAN, Edward. The Truth About Gordon; With: Signatures of Gordon's Sister ('M. A. Gordon') and Sister-in-Law ('M. F. M. Gordon'). Pamphlet: London: National Union of Conservative and Constitutional Associations, 1885. Series A. - No. 1.]

1885. Octavo (ca. 21,5x13,5 cm). 4 pp. Paper worn, with creases, stains and tears on extremities. Overall a good pamphlet. The signatures are cut from letters, and laid down on part of an octavo leaf from an autograph album, ca. 17,5x15 cm. The signatures are captioned in a contemporary hand. Both aged, but in good condition.
The very rare pamphlet is by Sir Edward Robert Sullivan (1826-1899), Lord Chancellor of Ireland, with only one electronic copy found in Worldcat. The pamphlet is a sharp criticism of the government of William Gladstone which is blamed for the death of Gordon. The initial paragraph reads: 'Before the British Elector makes up his mind as to whom he will entrust the honour of his country at the General Election, it will be well for him to "read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest" a plain, unvarnished history of the betrayal and death of one of the noblest heroes of this or any other age - GENERAL GORDON.' The text consists of several paragraphs, namely: 'Why he was sent', 'What he demanded', 'The hope that ended in despair', 'The end', 'Interest before duty' and 'Our duty and interest'.
The autograph note by Gordon's sister is on a slip ca. 4x10,5 cm, and reads 'Believe me yours very truly – M.A. Gordon'. The autograph of his sister-in-law (the wife of his brother General Samuel Enderby Gordon, 1824-1883) is on a slip ca. 4,5x7 cm, and reads 'Believe me Truly yours M. F. M. Gordon'.
"Gordon withstood a siege of 317 days supported by two white officers with native troops wasted by famine and disease. Then, on 26 January 1885, a fall in the level of the Nile enabled the Mahdists to succeed in a final assault on Khartoum. Gordon was speared by dervishes in his palace, and his dissevered head was displayed in the Mahdists' camp. Wolseley's river steamers came in sight of Khartoum on 28 January, then withdrew. Gordon's body was never found" (Oxford DNB).


[Period Manuscript Copy of]: An Address from the [Principal] Inhabitants of Goree to Lieut. Colonel Chisholm.

Goree Island, 26 May 1816. Folio (ca. 32x20,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Legible handwriting in secretarial hand. Mild fold marks, otherwise a near fine document.
Farewell gratitude letter to Lieutenant-Colonel James Chrisholm (ca. 1765 - 1821) of the Royal African Corps who has been the Commandant of Goree for seven years. British garrison was quartered in Goree during the last British occupation of the island of 1800-1817 (French reoccupied the colony on 25 January 1817). The letter is signed by twelve citizens of Goree, mostly French (Reni Dupuy, Pierre Lapolicett, Cader Francio, Martin Terranjou, Armond Laport, James Bradley, Ja. Lanim, Nicolas Jonga, Jn. Baudin, Pierre Louis, Fs. Defontnoy, Pierre Jurpin, Mayor).
“It is with sincere regret we the undersigned being the principal inhabitants of Goree, learn that you are about leaving this island, we cannot in Justice to our feeling allow you to depart without offering our most grateful thanks for your fatherly care and constant attention to forward our welfare”. The letter praises “the great improvements you have made in this Island”, “the state of defence you put the garrison in when surrounded by the Enemy’s Ships of War”, “the impartiality and moderation of your decisions in the Administration of Justice” and notes that “the high state of discipline you have maintained over the Troops under your Command not only secured to us our Property, but kept the most perfect harmony between the Soldiers and all Classes of Inhabitants.”
“The Friends of the African Institution are greatly indebted to you for your in remitted Exertions in carrying their humane and liberal views into execution. As a token of our regard and gratitude we beg you to accept of few Gold Rings and wear them in remembrance of us”.
James Chisholm was a British army officer who served in the Guzerat and Upper Bengal provinces of India (since 1796). In 1807 he took part in the British attack on Buenos Aires. “In 1808 he was promoted to a majority in the Royal African Corps, with which he served on the coast of Africa, and, during a part of that time, as Commandant of Goree. While thus employed, he uniformly and determinedly opposed the abominable and inhuman traffic in slaves, many of whom he rescued from their oppressors, and restored to their families and to freedom. On his departure from the Island in 1816, the inhabitants of Goree, French as well as English, voted him a gold medal, and an affectionate address, as a flattering testimony of the sense they entertained of his services, and as a mark of gratitude for the zeal with which he watched over the safety and interests of the Settlement. The Reports of the Royal African Institution contain abundant proofs of his cordial exertions in favour of the unhappy natives of Africa…” (Obituary/ Gentleman’s Magazine. February 1822. P. 182).


MOHAN LAL (1812-1877)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Mohan Lal,” Informing his Correspondent that “a Ticket for admission to the Botanical Garden has been forwarded to me by Mr. Oliveira & therefore I beg you not to take any trouble”].

[London]: 53 Manchester Street, 11 June 1845. Duodecimo (ca. 13,5x9 cm). 2 pp., with an integral blank leaf. Brown ink on paper with a blind stamped monogram in the upper left corner. Mild fold marks, minor stains on verso of the second blank leaf, otherwise a very good letter.
A rare letter by Mohan Lal (Zutshi) – one of the few native Indian players of the Great Game who greatly contributed to the British victory in the First Anglo-Afghan War (1838-1842). The letter was written in England where Mohan Lal lived after the end of the war. His two major books, “Travels in the Panjab, Afghanistan & Turkistan to Balk, Bokhara, and Herat” and “Life of the Amir Dost Mohammed Khan, of Kabul” were to be published in London the following year. The latter is considered a primary source on the First English-Afghan War.
An offspring of a Kashmiri noble family from Delhi, Mohan Lal attended the newly formed Delhi English College. In 1832-1834 he accompanied Sir Alexander Burnes on his expedition to Central Asia with the aim of political and military intelligence; they became close friends. “Later, Lal was the Commercial Agent for the British on the Indus and Political Assistant to Burnes in Kabul during the first Afghan War. Unlike Burnes, he survived the massacres of 1841 and continued to keep Calcutta informed of events in the Afghan capital from the house of a merchant where he had taken refuge […] Mohan Lal played a major role in securing the release of British prisoners held hostage in Bamiyan” (Wikipedia).
In the letter Mohan Lal mentions Benjamin Oliveira, a British politician and businessman, writer, philanthropist, Member of Parliament and Director of the British Institution of Beaux Arts and Painting (See more: British Armorial Bindings/ University of Toronto Libraries on-line).


CHARCOT, Jean-Baptiste Étienne Auguste (1867-1936)
[Autograph Letter Signed “J. Charcot” to M. Le Guillou Written shortly after Charcot became Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour].

3 May 1934. Neuilly-sur-Seine, Small Octavo (ca. 21x13,5 cm). 2 pp. Violet ink on watermarked laid paper with printed letterhead “29, Rue St. James, Neuilly-S-Seine, Maillot 04-87”. Worn with repaired tears on folds, otherwise a very good letter.
In his letter Jean-Baptiste Charcot thanks his correspondent for “your amicable congratulations for my promotion to the Legion of Honour, <…> your congratulations were particularly dear to me <…> In all cases I renew the expression of my gratitude as I keep the best memories of our encounters and our collaboration. Your friendship is very important to me and I hope that in the future we’ll be able to meet again, and this will always be a great pleasure to me” [in translation]. Charcot became a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour on 6 March 1934. This award was apparently related to his successful East Greenland expedition in July-August 1933, to relief the research party at the French Second International Polar Year station “Paul Doumer” in the Scoresby Sound.
Jean-Baptiste Charcot “is most famous for being appointed leader of the French Antarctic Expedition with the ship Français exploring the west coast of Graham Land in 1904-1907. The expedition reached Adelaide Island in 1905 and took pictures of the Palmer Archipelago and Loubet Coast. From 1908 until 1910, another expedition followed with the ship Pourquoi-Pas, exploring the Bellingshausen Sea and the Amundsen Sea and discovering Loubet Land, Marguerite Bay and Charcot Island, which was named after his father, Jean-Martin Charcot” (Wikipedia). "The expedition [of 1908-1910] had made an impressive contribution to Antarctic geography and had surveyed some 2000 kilometers of unknown or partially-known coastline with an accuracy unchallenged for several decades. The scientific material, together with its 3000 photographs, filled twenty-eight volumes of reports <..,> In the eyes of many contemporary historians, Charcot’s contribution to Antarctic science outweighs all others" (Howgego, 1850 to 1940. The Oceans, Islands and Polar regions, C9).
Charcot was a member of the French Academy of Sciences (1926), the Academy of Medicine (1930), and the Royal Naval Academy of France. He was a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honor and received gold medals of the geographical societies of Paris, London, New York, Brussels, Antwerp, St. Petersburg and others. The French Academy of Sciences awarded him the first biennial prize of the Prince of Monaco in 1925.


49. [HAITI]
THÉVENARD, Antoine Jean Marie, rear Admiral (1733-1815)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Thevenard” Regarding Packages from the French Minister of the Navy to be Sent to the Colony of Saint-Domingue].

Lorient, 1 December 1789. Small Octavo (ca. 20x16,5 cm). 3 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid bluish paper. Mild fold marks, but overall a very good letter.
An interesting letter from French politician and naval officer Antoine Jean Marie Thévenard, written in the first year of the French Revolution of 1789. He served during the reign of Louis XVI, being for a short time the Minister of the Navy and the Colonies (May-September 1791), and commanded the French Republican fleets in Brest, Toulon, and Rochefort after 1793. Thévenard continued his service during the Napoleonic Wars and after the Bourbon Restoration and was buried at the Panthéon de Paris.
In a letter to his friend Thévenard asks him to send “five packages from the minister and a few other things which have just been delivered to me and are to be shipped out” on the vessels bound for the French colonies of Saint-Domingue and Martinique. “I do not have much opportunity to travel to the colonies whereas it is an everyday occurrence [for you]. Please would you be kind enough, Monsieur, to take advantage of the most convenient time, and what you may deem the safest way to pass those letters on?” Thévenard notes that he will inform “monsieur de la Luzerne” about the shipment and asks his friend to write on which ship the packages would be sent.
Most likely, he mentions César Henri Guillaume de La Luzerne (1737-1799) who was governor-general of the French colony in Saint-Domingue in 1785-1787 and French Secretary of State for the Navy in 1787-1790.
Two manuscript notes in a different hand written on top of the first page of the letter state that “Three parcels to Saint-Domingue were handed over to monsieur Collines, captain of Le Patriote,” and “Three other parcels handed over to M. Bichon, captain of Le Therese, which is heading to Guadeloupe.”


PIM, Bedford Clapperton Trevelyan (1826-1886)
[Autograph Letter Signed "Bedford Pim" to Don Carlos Gutierrez (1818-1882), Minister Plenipotentiary, Honduras Government, with the Latter’s Signed Note, Countersigned by Pim in Receipt].

London: 2 Crown Office Row, Temple, E.C., 15 July 1872. Quarto (ca. 22,5x19,5 cm (9 x 7 ½ in). Four pages with only two filled in. Laid watermarked paper with printed address letterhead and a penny Inland Revenue stamp on the second page; text written in ink in a legible hand. Paper mildly sunned and aged, and with folds, but overall the letter is in a very good condition.
Captain Bedford Pim, R.N. Was a British naval officer, who "In June 1859 he was appointed to the Gorgon, for service in Central America. While stationed off Grey Town he originated and surveyed the Nicaraguan route for an isthmian canal through Mosquito and Nicaragua. While on the station he purchased a bay on the Atlantic shore, for which he was censured by the lords of the Admiralty in May 1860."(Oxford DNB).
This letter concerns his salary as "Special Commissioner of Honduras" to which he was appointed to on the "23rd of May." Proposing payment "on the quarter days usual in this country," Pim includes the details of the first two proposed payments and "Incidental expenses." The letter is docketed, at the foot of the second page, "in the name & on behalf of the Honduras Government & as Minister Plenipotentiary." and signed "Carlos Gutierrez." Countersigned by Pim in receipt of £550 over a penny Inland Revenue stamp, and dated 23 July 1872.


[Humorous Erotic Manuscript Patent Given to “M. Pantelm” to Travel through the Cupid Island with Extensive Description of his Rights in the Domain of Legs and other Seductive Parts].

[France], 1843. Folio (ca. 32x19,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on white paper. Signed by four “officials” and with four “official” stamps. Worn and mildly soiled, fold marks, overall a very good document.
A humorous fictional patent given to a young mariner “Pantelm” by “Us, Ministers and Officers of Equatorial parties” allows him to travel like a butterfly (parcourir en papillon) in their domain of legs and other seductive parts. Other paragraphs “enjoin all individuals of female sex between 18 and 26 years old to shelter him properly and to go with him with or without a candle”; and “pray the janissaires les regime to let the bearer of this certificate to circulate freely in our cities”.
The patent is written in “Our fortress of the Line and sealed on March 1843”. The “Officials” are: “Minister-protector of pregnant women and orphans” (La Chaleur), “Chief Intendant of the Pleasures of the Line” (Lajoie); “Extraordinary courier, the Chief of country roads the Line” (Brule pave), and “Monsier en chef of the Line” (Pousse moulin). A very unusual document.


[An Official Despatch Signed “John Bidwell” to Mr. Walter Cope, Esq., British Consul in Guayaquil regarding the Project of “Direct Communication between Great Britain and the Western Coast of South America” via Panama].

London, Foreign Office, 15 February 1836. Folio (ca. 31x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on blueish watermarked laid paper. Secretarial ink numbers on top of the recto. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
An official despatch from the senior clerk of the Foreign Office John Bidwell to the British Consul in Guayaquil Walter Cope regarding the establishment of a new line of communication between the Great Britain and the Pacific coast of South America via Panama, instead of the long route around Cape Horn. This project was vividly discussed by the British merchants and residents of Lima, Callao and Valparaiso in 1836; and eventually a project of William Wheelwright won, with a proposal of a steamship line between Valparaiso and the Isthmus of Darien, and a mule and canoe transportation further to Chagres on the Atlantic coast. Wheelwright’s Pacific Steam Navigation Company was founded in 1838, becoming the first commercial steamship line in the Pacific.
In the despatch Bidwell refers to a copy of the letter sent by Viscount Palmerston to the British Consul at Panama on "the subject of opening through that Point, a direct communication between Great Britain and the Western Coast of South America", asking Cope for a report on the "general expediency and practicability of the arrangement and upon the several points enumerated in the enclosure, so far as the same are applicable to the place of your residence, and the district within your jurisdiction". Cope was also required to communicate with “Mr. Consul Turner, with whom will rest in a great measure the carrying this plain into operation”.
A detailed description the project of the steamship communication along the Pacific Coast of South America, together with texts of the original supplementary documents was published in P.C. Scarlett’s “South America and the Pacific, Comprising a Journey across the Pampas and the Andes <…> to which are annexed Plans and Statements for establishing Steam Navigation on the Pacific” (London, 1838, 2 vols.).


WILLIAMSON, Adam, Sir (1736-1798)
[Manuscript Permit, Allowing Lieutenant Colonel John Perry "to go to Europe and to be absent from this Island for Twelve Months," signed by Adam Williamson, "Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief of His Majesty’s Island of Jamaica & Territories thereon depending on America, Chancellor & Vice Admiral of the same." Countersigned by William Shaw, Secretary].

Saint Jago de la Vega [Jamaica], 20 July 1794. 1 pp. Folio (ca. 32,5x20 cm). Brown ink on laid paper, water seal affixed. Short period note on verso on the contents of the document "Lieutenant Colonel Perry. Twelve months leave of absence." Horizontal folds, paper slightly browned, but overall in very good condition.
Sir Adam Williamson, Governor of Jamaica and St. Domingo, fought in America in 1755-57, at the siege of Quebec (1759), at the capture of Martinique and Guadeloupe (1762), and at the Battle of Bunker Hill (1775). This official document was written in his office in Saint Jago de la Vega (now Spanish Town), the capital of English Jamaica in 1665-1872. At the time the British had invaded St. Domingo, then a French colony, to establish a protectorate there, which resulted in a five-year military occupation (1793-1798). Port-au-Prince had been captured a month earlier (4 June 1794), and Williamson to be made a knight of the Bath on 18 November and the governor of St Domingo.
The permit concerns Williamson’s aide-de-camp, Lieut.-Col. John Perry, who was later a judge in Jamaica and died there in 1809 (American Vital Records from the Gentleman’s Magazine, 1731-1868; reprint, Baltimore, 2007, p. 222).


EVANS, Charles (1918-1995)
[Two Typewritten Letters Signed by Charles Evans, the Leader of the 1955 British Kanchenjunga Expedition, on Official "Kanchenjunga Expedition 1955" Letterhead, and Addressed to the Manager of the Swiss Watchmaking Company Baume & Mercier, with a Carbon Copy of the Answer].

1955. Three letters, 28, 29 & 31 December 1955. Two Quartos (ca. 25,5x20 cm) and one letter with the blank lower margin cut off, ca. 17,5x20 cm. Each 1 p. Two letters on printed blue letterheads of the Kanchenjunga Expedition, signed by Charles Evans; the letter by Baume unsigned. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good collection.
An interesting collection of three letters about the supply of the 1995 British Kanchenjunga expedition with chronometers. Charles Evans, the expedition leader, writes to L.C. Baume, the head of the London branch of Baume & Mercier watchmaking company, saying that he had received Baume’s offer to supply the expedition with watches. Evans declines the offer with regret since he had already agreed to take wrist watches from Rolex and “to regard them as our exclusive suppliers.” Nevertheless he would like to have “alarm of travelling clocks, which that company does not supply” and which “do not come under this agreement.” In his reply written the next day L.C. Baume says that “apart from electrical timing systems and industrial clocks, I can only supply ordinary wrist and pocket watches, sundry stop watches and navigational instruments. I do not manufacture either alarm or travelling clocks but if you have any difficulty in obtaining some of these, I could no doubt get some for you.” He also wishes Happy New Year and a success expedition to Evans and all other members.
“Charles Evans was John Hunt's deputy leader on the 1953 British Mount Everest Expedition which made the first ascent of Everest in 1953. With Tom Bourdillon, he made the first ascent of the South Summit, coming within three hundred feet of the main summit of Everest on 26 May 1953, but was forced to turn back. Everest was summited by their teammates Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay three days later, on 29 May 1953. Evans was the leader of the expedition which first climbed Kangchenjunga, the world's third highest peak, in 1955. He served as the Principal of the University College of North Wales (now called Bangor University), from 1958 to 1984. He was President of the Alpine Club from 1967 to 1970” (Wikipedia).


LONDON, Jack (1876-1916)
[A Bank Cheque for Two US Dollars Signed by Jack London and Given to John Tyner].

San Francisco, 5 October 1914. Cheque of the Merchants National Bank, filled in and signed by Jack London, ca. 7x15,5 cm. Stamped, perforated and with John Tyner’s name written in ink by a bank clerk on verso. A near fine document.
A cheque signed by Jack London during his later years spent at the Beauty Ranch (near Glen Ellen, California). “Jack London, pseudonym of John Griffith Chaney American novelist and short-story writer whose works deal romantically with elemental struggles for survival. He is one of the most extensively translated of American authors” (Encyclopaedia Britannica). London was an oyster pirate in the San Francisco Bay, went to Japan as a sailor, took part in the Klondike Gold Rush, and cruised on his yacht “Snark” to the South Pacific.


CLONARD, Robert Sutton de (1751-1788)
[Autograph Letter Signed to “Madame” Regarding the Mining Enterprise in Guadalcanal, Spain].

Paris, 24 November 1774. Quarto (ca. 23,5x18,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper, period ink inscription in another hand on the first page. Fold marks, slightly worn, overall a very good letter.
Early letter by a prominent member the ill-fated expedition of La Perouse to the Pacific (1785-1788). Clonard served as a second-in-command on board the “Boussole” and apparently died after both expedition ships wrecked near Vanikoro in 1788.
The letter is dedicated to the Guadalcanal mining enterprise which was founded and administered by Clonard in the 1760-1770s and involved investments from a number of French aristocrats and high ranking officials. The mine turned to be unproductive, and the company declared bankruptcy. Our letter is addressed to one of the shareholders, a French noble woman, and relates to the last phase of the company’s existence. Clonard informs the lady that he has just returned from the mines, supposes that she is already aware of the abuses of the administration and tells her about the measures he undertook to fix the situation: “M. Le Camus resigned the next day after my arrival to Guadalcanal, and M. Besnier resigned the day before my departure”. M. Geffrier was appointed the new general director of the mines. He proceeds: “After careful examination of all the circumstances of our enterprise, I assure you on my honour that my hopes are very strong and even beyond what they were before my departure from Paris. I can boast that they will fulfil in the course of the next month by the certainty of rich and abundant mineral. At least it is my opinion and that of our two engineers”.
“The Guadalcanal Company was run by the comte de Clonard, a naturalised Irish Jacobite, and brought together a range of ducs (Harcourt, du Châtelet, La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt), numerous great lords (the marquis de Bussy, de Lévis, des Réaux, d`Houdetot, d’Hérissy), aristocratic ladies of the industry (the marquises de Marboeuf, de Cambot, de Boursonne), comtes de Blagny, de Payre, de Custinem du Hautoy, a foreign noble Count Doria, the comtesses de Ruffey, de la Suze, de Coustin, the vicomte de La Rouchefoucald and president de Vaudreuil. In 1778 the Guadalcanal Company had absorbed over three million livres” (Chaussinand-Nogaret. The French Nobility in the Eighteenth Century. 1995. p. 108)
“In 1768 <…> Thomas Sutton, comte de Clonard, a member of the Jacobite trading aristocracy and a syndic of the Indies Company, secured a silver mining concession from the king of Spain at Guadalcanal in the Sierra Morena mountains. Among the shareholders of the new company, capitalized at three million livres, were the duc d’Harcourt, the duc de Châtelet, the duc de Liancourt, and the marquise de Marboeuf. When the company broke up a few years later, Sutton, who speculated on his shares, seems to have been the only shareholder to turn a profit” (Shovlin, J. The political economy of virtue: luxury, patriotism, and the origins of the French revolution. New York, 2006. p. 158).


OSWELL, William Cotton (1818-1893)
[Autograph Letter Signed to ‘My dear Nat’‚ a lively letter about family arrangements‚ with a story about Lord Glenelg as Colonial Secretary].

St. Leonards, 20 December. Octavo ca. 18x11,5 cm. 4 pp. Black ink on laid paper. Mild fold marks, abrasion along one edge where formerly mounted, otherwise a very good letter.
A lively letter by a British African explorer William Cotton Oswell. “In the 1850-s he explored the Kalahari desert in Bechuanaland (now Botswana) and located Lake Ngami; later he participated in expeditions to the Zambezi river with David Livingstone, and one of Livingstone's children, born in Botswana in 1851, was named William Oswell Livingstone. The species Rhinoceros oswellii was named for him (this name is no longer used in modern taxonomy). Livingstone described Oswell as having had lucky escapes, having been tossed by a rhinoceros on two occasions” (Wikipedia).
From the letter: “I am not in town more than 6 times a year‚ & I find gentlemen who sit at home in their own arm chairs are not always very prone to take opinions from Mumbo Jumbo‚ latest arrival from the Mts. Of the Moon. We are so apt to side with our own ideas that we very diligently sift other people’s to see if they contain those pearls of great price and if they don’t why they’re rubbish! You remember the story told of Lord Glenelg when Colonial Sectry‚ receiving a deputation from Natal‚ suggest his own project plans & refusing to listen to said deputation on any point. ‘Good morning‚ my Lord’‚ ‘Good morning Gentlemen - by the way‚ how is Natal?’‚ this just as they were leaving the room.”


RIKERT, JAMES H., Union Soldier
[Autograph Letter Signed "Jas. H. Rikert" About the News of the Recent Assassination of President Abraham Lincoln].

Louisville, KY, 24 April 1865. Octavo bifolium (ca. 20x12,5 cm). Brown ink on laid paper with the printed letterhead of "Brown U.S.A. General Hospital." With the original envelope addressed to Mrs. Margaret Seymour, with ink and paper postal stamps. Mild fold marks, paper age toned, otherwise a very good letter.
A very moving letter by a Union soldier apparently to his fiancée, Mrs. Margaret Seymour from East Saginaw, Michigan, on receiving the news of Lincoln's death. The letter was written ten days after Lincoln had been shot by John Booth on 14 April 1865. "We have had a terrible time and a sorrowful one too. I was down town, on the day before the news of the murder came, attending a glorification in honor of our successes, and the prospect of a speedy peace. I came back much elated and was sanguine of the war soon being over and coming home soon. I had just commenced work [at the military printing office which he was in charge of], when one of the clerks came in and told me that the President and Secretary had been assassinated. I told him he was joking, but he affirmed it, and I could see by his looks that he was in earnest, and [?] the newsboy came in and my worst fears were realized. As soon as the President's death was announced our flag was lowered at half mast amid the tears and groans of both soldiers and officers. The band played a wailing tune beneath the flag and [?] were fired from the fort until sundown."


59. [LISBON]
FOSTER (SKEFFINGTON), Thomas Henry, 2nd Viscount Ferrard, 2nd Baron of Oriel (1772-1843)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Ths. Foster” to his mother Margaretta Amelia Foster, Baroness Oriel, with Observations on Lisbon and the Portuguese].

Lisbon, 22 February ca. 1791. Octavo (ca. 22x17 cm). 3 ½ pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Addressed, with postal stamps and remnants of the original seal on the fourth page. Fold marks, tears and holes on the last page after opening, touching a few letters of text but not affecting sense; the tears repaired. Overall a very good legible letter.
An informative letter full of interesting observations, by a member of one of the aristocratic Irish families, who travelled to Portugal either during a Grand Tour or for health reasons (the letter contains notes on his improving, but not yet good condition). Foster starts the letter expressing his impatience to know “how Anna [his younger sister, Anne Dorothea, ca. 1774-1865] has succeeded in her Castle Minuet & only wait for some Authority to congratulate her on her first Appearance as a Lady of Ton…”
The letter contains his observations on the Portuguese weather, people, religious customs and celebrations, etc.: “Snow in Lisbon is so uncommon that a Phisician [sic!] told me, that his Driver on seeing it this time two years got off his Mule to cross himself, the thaw was so sudden then & accompanied with such Warmth that for Many Hours the People of Lisbon concluded that some Part of the Town was on Fire, & very diligently searched for this concealed Flame <…> Oranges or grapes are to be had fresh through the whole year, & there is no Plant that will not flourish in this Climate some one time of the Year, from the Produce of Brazil, to the Coldest Shrub of Iceland <…> Rheumatic Patients are the only growth that dwindles here & some good Englishmen who have been used to a periodical fit of the gout complain that the climate will not fix their disorder to the time they wish. <…>
The Portuguese in general are like the figures you see in Italian Prints, the monks look either dropsical or agueish, you would smile to see a greasy Franciscan friar with only one coarse garment, no stockings & loose broques, carrying an umbrella, when the rules of his order forbid hi, the use of any hat... This is a fair evasion compared with other they practise <…> Where so bad a Police is kept up & so few Atrocious crimes happen, either the Nature of the People must be good, or fear of their Confessors must restrain them. Any man who is detected with a stabbing knife is instantly imprisoned. But the interest of a Nobleman will open any Prison, & the absurd lenity of the Queen will pardon any Offence.
<…> The Patriarch has more than once given me his Blessings as I have passed his Carriage, he represents the Pope in the same Degree that a Vice Roy does his King. The Inquisition is perfectly quiet & scarcely considered as a religious office <…> My Books are by a Friend’s Means released from the Board of Censure, they are very liberal to Strangers in this respect, indeed I know nothing in Portugal which may not be attained by Interest, to put a Man into Prison, or to take him out to marry your Niece <…> All the Nobility are Pensioners to the Crown, & their principal Study that of supplanting each other of the Royal Favour...”
“Thomas Henry Skeffington, 2nd Viscount Ferrard was an Irish peer and politician. He entered the Irish House of Commons for Dunleer in 1793, representing it until the Act of Union in 1801. Ferrard sat as Member of Parliament in the British House of Commons for Drogheda (1807-1812) and for County Louth (1821-1824). In 1811 he was appointed High Sheriff of Louth and in 1818, appointed High Sheriff of Antrim. He succeeded his mother as second Viscount Ferrard in 1821. However, as this was an Irish peerage it did not entitle him to a seat in the House of Lords. In 1828 he succeeded his father in the barony of Oriel, which was in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, and was able to take a seat in the upper chamber of Parliament” (Wikipedia).


NARES, Sir George Strong, Vice-Admiral, R.N. (1831-1915)
[Autograph Note Signed "G. S. Nares"; with a Woodbury Printed Portrait of Nares and His Biography, both from the "Men of Mark: a Gallery of Contemporary Portraits…" by T. Cooper].

HMS Alert, Sheerness, 27 August 1878. 12mo bifolium (ca. 15x10 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on laid paper with a crossed letterhead of "Stoneham House, Winchester". Mild centrefold mark, otherwise a very good note. Portrait: woodbury print in oval, ca. 11,5x9 cm. By Loch & Whitfield.
A brief note written by Sir George Nares shortly before his departure for a survey of the Magellan Strait in 1878-1879 simply says “Dear Sir, I am pleased to grant your request”. The note was written on board of HMS Alert, one of the two ships from Nares’ 1875-76 Arctic expedition, recommissioned for a survey of the Strait of Magellan on 20 August 1878. The note is supplemented with a printed biography and a woodbury printed portrait of George Nares, from the third series (1878) of “Men of Mark: a gallery of contemporary portraits of men distinguished in the Senate, the Church, in science, literature and art, the army, navy, law, medicine, etc. Photographed from life by Lock and Whitfield, with brief biographical notices by Thompson Cooper” (London, 1876-1883).


COLQUHOUN, Archibald Ross (1848-1914)
[Autograph Letter Signed "Archie Colquh[oun]" to Mrs MacGregor and Discussing Work on his Book "Across Chrysê: Being the Narrative of a Journey of Exploration through the South China Border Lands, from Canton to Mandalay" (London, 1883)].

Edinburgh, 11 St. Bernard Court, 19 November 1882. Octavo ca. 18x11,5 cm (7 x 4 ½ in). Two pages; ink on laid paper, written in a legible hand. The text of the letter is clear, despite parts of three words on verso having been trimmed away in detaching the leaf from the second leaf of what was previously a bifolium. These include the last three letters of Colquhoun's signature. Letter with folds but overall in a very good condition.
In his letter Archibald Ross Colquhoun, an explorer, colonial administrator and author, talks about his work on a prospective book, dedicated to his travels in China and Burma in 1881-1882: the "narrative is to be 2 vols: and to be entitled | ACROSS CHRYSÊ | being the narrative of an exploration Through the South China Borderlands from Canton to Mandalay." In a short footnote he describes the derivation of "Chrysê" and afterwards asks Mrs MacGregor to "tell all yr. Friends to make certain of securing tickets for a certain lecture by a certain distinguished Ind<o> China traveller!" Seeing Mr MacGregor "amongst the audience at the c/commerce [i.e. Chamber of Commerce] on Wedy." brought back to him "days wh. Seem very far off now <..,> and indeed hardly part of my own life!" Colquhoun's book was published shortly afterwards under the same title by Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington (London, 18830.)
Colquhoun "joined the Indian Public Works Department in 1871 as an assistant surveyor. In 1879 he was secretary and second in command of a government mission to Siam and the Shan States, and in 1881-2 he travelled from Canton (Guangzhou) to Bhamo to find the best railway route between China and Burma. Widely regarded as an explorer of the first rank, his Indian administrative obligations prevented him from accepting an offer from Henry Morton Stanley to act as second in command of his Congo expedition <..,> He was in reality an accomplished writer of more than fourteen scholarly books and numerous articles on colonial administration, comparative ethnography, railway and canal construction, land settlement, trade prospects, and geopolitics and defence in the European colonial empires, Russia, China, east Asia, and the Americas. He was a regular contributor on these subjects to British, North American, and German journals and newspapers. He was one of the most widely respected travel authors of his time and he built up a series of influential friendships, counting sometime American presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Taft, and the Canadian imperialist Sir George Parkin, among his friends" (Oxford DNB).


GAMBIER, James, Sir, Admiral of the Fleet (1756-1833)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Gambier” to Vice Admiral Sir John Duckworth “off Ushant”, About the Admiralty’s Orders that “Lieutenant Brompton to be discharged from St. George, without waiting to be superceded with directions to join the Neptune immediately”].

Caledonia in Hamoze, 21 September 1808. Folio (ca. 31,5x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on Whatman laid paper watermarked ‘1806’; numbered and docketed in secretarial hand on verso. Written in secretarial hand and signed by Gambier. A fine letter.
This official letter was signed by Admiral of the Fleet James Gambier, when he was the commander of the Channel Fleet of the Royal Navy (1808-1811), and addressed to Admiral Sir John Thomas Duckworth (1747–1817), then the second in command of the Mediterranean Fleet. The letter concerns the transfer of one of Gambier’s officers from his flagship HSM Royal George (1788) to HSM Neptune (1797), a 98-gun second rate ship of the line. She was just about to embark to the West Indies where she would become the flagship of the British invasion to the French colony of Martinique in January 1809 under command of Rear-Admiral Alexander Cochrane. Gambier wrote the letter on board HMS Caledonia (1808), a 120-gun first-rate ship of the line, which had been launched earlier that year at Plymouth.
Sir James Gambier also was the Governor of Newfoundland (1802-1804), and a Lord of the Admiralty. He participated in the American War of Independence, gained the distinction in the Glorious First of June in 1794, and commanded the naval forces in the campaign against Copenhagen (1807) and in the Battle of the Basque Roads (1809). Gambier was a founding benefactor of Kenyon College in the United States, so the town that was founded with it, Gambier, Ohio is named after him. Mount Gambier, South Australia, the extinct volcano and the later city, and the Gambier Island in British Columbia are also named after him (Wikipedia).
Sir John Thomas Duckworth “served during the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, as the Governor of Newfoundland during the War of 1812, and a member of the British House of Commons during his semi-retirement. Serving with most of the great names of the Royal Navy during the later 18th and early 19th centuries, he fought almost all of Britain's enemies on the seas at one time or another, including a Dardanelles operation that would be remembered a century later during the First World War. He commanded at the Battle of San Domingo, the last great fleet action of the Napoleonic Wars” (Wikipedia).


RYAN, Rt. Rev. Vincent William (1816-1888)
[Autograph Letter Written when a Bishop of Mauritius to “The Lord Bishop of Carlisle”].

St. James’s [Cathedral?], Port Louis, 12 May 1856. Octavo (ca. 20,5x12,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on blue laid paper, docketed on top of the first page. Fold marks, minor tears and loss of paper on top and bottom of the centrefold after removing from a stab, repaired on the bottom with tape. Overall a very good letter.
An interesting letter from the first Anglican bishop of Mauritius Vincent William Ryan, written about a year after the beginning of his service on the island. It is addressed to the “Bishop of Carlisle”, then Samuel Waldegrave (1817-1869) who held this rank from 1860 until his death.
The letter expresses Ryan’s “sympathy, encouragement & earnest interception <…> in the midst of much infirmity” and continues with the latest news of the Mauritius diocese: “Many things here continue to impress the need of spiritual help. 128,550 Indians form the chief subject of my thoughts - 800 Chinese are ready for a working Missionary. The descendants of Madagascar & Mozambique slaves are located all over the Island. Romanism here is very repressive. A Major honoured by the whole island buried without any Christian Rites because he was a Freemason; a large church building from the products of a lottery are [?] the old story of arrogance and meanness <…> The Tamil congregation in Town meets in our school room near the cathedral church <…> On Friday of last week I visited an inland missionary station where our small schools are succeeding admirably and the palisaded church was full of parents and friends, all creole or Malegashe & Mozambique <…> The cholera had been very severe amidst them <…> There are 1600 soldiers here. The general & the several colonels very ready to forward our wishes. Last year 15,000 sailors visited the port”.
In 1854 Ryan “was nominated bishop of Mauritius, a post for which his knowledge of French particularly suited him. He set sail for Mauritius on 15 March 1855, and landed at Port Louis on 12 June, accompanied by a catechist from the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. Although the London Missionary Society was represented in other ports of Mauritius, Ryan found only two clergymen in Port Louis, along with one missionary in the country districts. Notwithstanding, he took full advantage of the awakening interest in evangelical Christianity there. On 8 January 1856 he consecrated a new church at Mahébourg. Later in the year (on 11 October) he made his first visit to the Seychelles, which were included in his diocese. In 1859 he visited the islands again, and consecrated the new church at Mahé. He was particularly interested in the schools in his diocese and in the Hindu population. <…>
On 12 July 1862 he went with the special commissioner to Madagascar, to explore the possibility of establishing a new mission there. He visited the capital and the scene of the massacres of Christians, and returned to Mauritius in poor health. In October 1862 he revisited the Seychelles after the hurricane of that year. <…> In 1867 he finally left Mauritius” (Oxford DNB).
Ryan published and account of his service in Mauritius titled “Mauritius & Madagascar, Journals of an Eight Years’ Residence in the Diocese of Mauritius, and of a Visit to Madagascar” (London, 1864).


MCCALL, Mary Dickinson
[Autograph Letter Signed Mary Dickinson McCall to her renowned brother George McCall in the 4th Infantry care of the quartermaster in New Orleans, Recounting his Recent Heroism.]

Philadelphia, 15 June [1846]. Quarto (ca. 27x21 cm). Five Pages. Brown ink on light blue very thin wove paper. Address panel with Philadelphia postmark on verso of last leaf. With fold marks and minor wear but overall a very good letter in a legible hand.
George Archibald McCall (1802-1868) was a career Army officer who had just distinguished himself in the Battle of Palo Alto, the first major battle of the Mexican War. Here his sister reports that he was now "decidedly the most distinguished man in the Army, and more talked about in Washington than anyone else." A freshman representative from Mississippi named Jefferson Davis stated on the floor of Congress that McCall's "cool courage did so much to set a noble example before his men... a more gallant spirit never entered the field." McCall went on to serve as a Union general in the Civil War.


WILLIAMS, T. Aide de Camp (1815-1862)
[General Order # 54 Signed by “J. Williams, A.D. Camp,” Informing of the American Success in the Battle of Buena Vista during the Mexican-American War].

Headquarters, Army of U.S., Vergara, before Vera Cruz, 15 March 1847. Octavo (ca. 24x20,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on white paper. Written in secretarial hand and signed by T. Williams, docketed on verso. Mild fold marks, old mount residue on verso, otherwise a very good letter.
“The General-in Chief of the Army has received authentic information of a great and glorious victory, obtained by the aims of our country, under the successful Major General Taylor, at Buenavista, near Saltillo, on the 22 and 23 ultimo. The general results were 4,000 of the enemy killed and wounded, against our loss of 700 gallant men. General Santa Ana, on sustaining that overwhelming defeat, is known to have retreated upon San Luis de Potosi, and probably will not stop short of the Capital. The General-in-Chief imparts this glorious news to the army, that all, with him, may participate in the joy that is now spreading itself throughout the breadth of our Land.”
“The Battle of Buena Vista (February 23, 1847), also known as the Battle of Angostura, saw the United States Army use artillery to repulse the much larger Mexican Army in the Mexican–American War. Buena Vista, a village in the state of Coahuila, is seven miles (12 km) south of Saltillo, in northern Mexico. The battle was the last major battle in Northern Mexico. It was Taylor's greatest victory of the war, and his legendary command to Cap. Bragg helped him win election as President of the United States in 1848. Santa Anna was later forced to defend Mexico City against an army under Winfield Scott” (Wikipedia). Thomas Williams was a lieutenant upon signing this note, but later became a Brigadier General in the Union army.


ARNOLD, Richard
[Two Certified Period Manuscript Copies of the Financial Statements Regarding Wages of the Staff of the British Garrisons in Minorca and Gibraltar]: 1) Establishment of the Forces and Garrison in the Island of Minorca; 2) Regulation of Subsistance [sic!] to be paid to every Officer & Soldier in the foregoing Establishment.

Ca. 1730. Two leaves, both Folio (ca. 27,5x46,5 cm or 18 ½ x 11 in). Filled in on both sides. Brown ink on laid paper. Paper slightly browned, with some staining and tears on margins; both documents rolled. Overall in good condition.
Two period 18th century manuscript copies of historically important documents regarding the wages of the staff of the British garrisons in Minorca and Gibraltar. The papers contain copies of the signatures of George II, and politicians William Clayton, Sir George Oxenden, and Sir William Yonge; they are both certified as “A true copy” by government official. Richard Arnold.
The first document lists the wages for the garrison of Minorca, showing per diem and annual figures separately. The document accounts for wages for a regiment of foot (commanded by Col. Cosby), including field and staff officers, for a company of infantry, and a company of grenadiers. The final figure which includes wages for eight more infantry companies and three more regiments of foot (commanded by Col. Kane, Brig. Tyrrell, and Col. Handasyd) adds up to 51,136 per year.
On verso are "The Charge of the Garrison of Minorca" which accounts daily and annual payments to the officials and servants, from Governor to Signal Man; and gives separate lists of wages for the staff of Fort St. Anne and Fort St. Phillip. There is also a total figure (57,336 per year).
The second document contains a “Warrant for deducting one day's pay yearly” from the British forces in Minorca and Gibraltar for the “Royal hospital near Chelsea”, for the reason of "maintenance of such Superannuated & disabled Officers and Soldiers as shall be provided for therein". The official document under the signature of George II was “Given to Our Court at St. James this 4th May 1730”. On verso there is a "Regulation of Subsistance [sic!] to be paid to every Officer & Soldier in the foregoing Establishment” (Minorca and Gibraltar); it lists due wages for fifteen ranks of personnel, from Colonel to Private.
Overall very interesting documents detailing military matters in the recently annexed British possessions in the Mediterranean. "Under the terms of the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht Gibraltar was ceded to Britain in perpetuity, [and] Britain took possession [of Minorca] under the terms of the Article XI of the [same treaty]" (Wikipedia).


CHARLAND, Louis (1772-1813); CHABOILLER, Louis (1766-1813); RICHARDSON, John (1755?-1831).
[Manuscript Signed Document in French of Charland’s Request for Payment of his Salary at the District of Montreal and Signed by Him, and two Justices of Peace, Chaboiller and Richardson].

[Montreal, at the weekly session of the District de Montreal], 10-11 June 1800. Folio (ca. 32,5x20 cm). 1 p., with an integral blank leaf. Brown ink on watermarked Hayes & Wise paper, docketed on verso of the second leaf. Fold marks, paper age toned, otherwise a very good letter.
Charland was an architect and cartographer and in 1799 became the first road surveyor of Montreal. This document records Charland’s request for and payment of his salary of 50 pounds until June 10th, 1800. The document is also signed by local justices of peace who later became prominent politicians of Lower Canada i.e., Louis Chaboiller (notary, member of the Lower Canadian House of Assembly in 1803-08) and John Richardson (merchant, member of the Legislative Assembly, Executive Councillor of Lower Canada).


RYLAND, Herman Witsius (1760-1838)
[Autograph Letter Signed “H.W. Ryland” to John Reid, Esq., Clerk of the Peace, Montreal].

Quebec, 13 July 1807. Folio (ca. 32x20,5 cm). 1 p., with an integral blank leaf. Brown ink on G. Pike laid paper watermarked “1805.” Fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
“The President having been informed that several Deserters from the Frigate now in this Harbour are endeavoring to make their way by land to the United States, his Honor desires you will apprize the Magistrates of Montreal of this Circumstance in order that every legal Means may be taken for apprehending such Seamen should they happen to be met with.”
Ryland came to Canada in 1793 as secretary to Governor-General Carleton, Lord Dorchester, and was civil secretary and clerk of the executive council of Lower Canada. Also he was adviser for several years to Sir James Henry Craig, Governor-in-Chief of Canada (1807-1811).


69. [MOSCOW]
DOLGORUKOV, Vladimir Andreevich, prince (1810-1891)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Prince Vladimir Dolgorouki,” written when he was the General Governor of Moscow].

Moscow, 18/30 December 1873. Octavo (ca. 21x13 cm). 2 pp. Black ink on blue paper, with two period or slightly later ink notes in a different hand (Dolgorukov’s title, in English and in Russian). Slightly worn on folds, a small hole in the left upper corner after detaching the letter from an old mount, but overall a very good letter.
A social letter by influential Russian statesman Vladimir Dolgorukov, general of the cavalry, General Governor of Moscow in 1865-1891, and a member of the State Council after 1881. As the General Governor of Moscow Dolgorukov achieved wide popularity for his generosity, hospitality and charitable activities. During the Russian-Turkish war (1877-78) he actively supported the Red Cross, having assembled over 3 million roubles for the society’s hospitals, sanitary ships and trains. In 1874 Dolgorukov was awarded with the Order of St. Andrew the Apostle the First Called; in 1875 during the celebration of his 10th anniversary as the General Governor of Moscow the City Council bestowed him the title of the honorary citizen of Moscow.
In the letter Dolgorukov thanks his correspondent (“Monsieur”) for the souvenir and the intention to “take care of my watch. I will use the way you’ll show me to pay the amount of my debt. <…> I have got one regret to express to you – your letter didn’t show me the prospect of your return to Moscow. I don’t despair the pleasure to meet you somewhere else”.


PALLU DE LA BARRIERE, Léopold Augustine Charles, Rear Admiral (1828-1891)
[Autograph Note Signed ‘Pallu’ Written when he was the Governor of French New Caledonia].

Noumea [New Caledonia], 30 January 1884. Small Octavo bifolium (ca. 17,5x11 cm). 1 p. Black ink on watermarked laid paper, text in French. A very good note.
A short note making an appointment by Léopold Augustine Charles Pallu de La Barriere written in Noumea, the capital of the French New Caledonia, during his service there as its governor (29 September 1882 - 22 July 1884). Pallu de la Barrierwas a French naval officer, ‘capitaine de vaisseau’ (1870), rear admiral (1887); he participated in the military actions in the Crimea, China and Cochinchina and was the author of several books including ‘Histoire de L’Expedition de Cochinchine en 1861’ (Paris, 1864). During his governance of New Caledonia, Pallu de la Barriere tried to settle numerous convicts by giving them land concessions and actively employing them for road construction in the interior, and “if he was not absolutely the best, was, at any rate, the most popular Governor who ever administered New Caledonia. While ruling with a firm hand - and it needs a firm hand in Noumea generally - Admiral de la Barriere had a tender spot in his heart, and both peccant officials and obstreperous convicts felt the softness of his official touch at times” (The Colonies and India, 21 February 1891, p. 9).
New Caledonia became the French colony in 1853 and is nowadays a special collectivity of France. In the 19th century it was known as a penal colony and a major centre of nickel and gold mining.


GUILLEMARD, Francis Henry Hill (1852-1933)
[Autograph Letter Signed with Interesting Notes about South African Tsama (Citron Melon) and a Gratitude to His Correspondent for “your kindly criticism of the Marchesa”].

Old Mill House, Trumpington, Cambridge, 15 September 1902. Octavo (ca. 20,5x12,5 cm). Brown ink on paper, letterhead of the Mandeville Hotel. Fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
An interesting letter by British traveller, writer and naturalist Francis Guillemard, written to a fellow colleague, with some noteworthy details about tsama, or citron melon. Tsama is native to the Kalahari Desert of South Africa, where it has been traditionally used as a source of water during dry seasons. Guillemard obviously got acquainted with tsama when serving in South Africa as a doctor during the First Boer War (1880-1881).
“I was most interested in your information that the tsama grows as far south as Graaf-Reinet [Eastern Cape Province, South Africa]: I had no idea it flourished away from the true desert. I must turn up your reference to Livingstone when I get back to Cambridge. I had forgotten that he mentioned it. My boys could tell at once which were bitter and which sweet melons. As you say, our cucumbers are sometimes bitter (I have an idea that both sweet and bitter come off the same plant, but am not sure of this) but the difference of degree in bitterness is astonishing in the tsama. The fruit seems to be either as bitter as gall or quite tasteless”. In the end Guillemard thanks his correspondent “for your kindly criticism of the Marchesa: it is pleasant to get these little appreciatory words”.
Guillemard “travelled widely, visiting Lapland, the Southern African interior, Madeira and the Canaries, South-East Asia and throughout Europe. He was present at the first Boer War, 1881, and also made visits to Cyprus, founding the Cyprus Exploration Fund. He was elected University Reader in Geography, Cambridge, in 1888, and served as Geographical Editor of the Cambridge University Press. His published works include 'The Life of Ferdinand Magellan and the First Circumnavigation of the Globe, 1480-1521' (London, 1890).” (F.H.H. Guillemard/ Janus: Online catalogue of Cambridge archives and manuscripts). In 1882-1884 he participated in a zoological expedition in the yacht Marchesa‚ visiting the Far East, the Philippines, New Guinea and most of the chief islands of the Malay Archipelago. He brought back large zoological collections from the voyage and published “The cruise of the Marchesa” in 1886.


PARRY, William Edward, Sir (1790-1855)
[Autograph Letter Signed “W. Parry” to “My dear Buxton” regarding the Ale Supply for the Niger Expedition 1841-42; With: Lithographed Portrait of William Parry].

Admiralty, 8 December 4[1]. Small Octavo (ca. 17,5x10,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Written on verso of the official note from the Controller of Victualling Department of the Royal Navy, dated “Admiralty, Somerset House, 6 December 1841.” Paper aged toned, mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter. Portrait: lithograph on paper, ca. 1830-s, ca. 9,5x7,5 cm; lithographed titled and printer’s address on the lower margin.
An interesting item of the Niger Expedition 1841-1842, this letter from the famous Arctic explorer Sir Edward Parry, was written when he was a high ranking Admiralty official. The letter is addressed to Charles Buxton (1823-1871), English brewer, philanthropist, and Member of Parliament, the letter concerns the ale supplies for the participating steamers. It was Charles’ father, Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton (1786–1845), a noted British politician and abolitionist, who was the initiator of the expedition.
Parry forwards Buxton the official answer from the Royal Navy “Controller of Victualling” which says that “the Ale required for the Niger Expedition has been ordered from the Parties who supplied it on the last occasion, namely Mr.s Hodgson & Abbott, Captain Trotter having written favorably respecting the former supplies made by the same parties” [Henry Dundas Trotter (1802-1859) – the commander of the Niger Expedition]. Parry further notes “I have great hopes of receiving better accounts from the Niger, when we next hear <…> I hope to write to your father today”.
“The Niger expedition of 1841 was a largely unsuccessful journey in 1841 and 1842 of three British iron steam vessels to Lokoja, at the confluence of the Niger River and Benue River, in what is now Nigeria. It was mounted by British missionary and activist groups, with the backing of the British government. The crews of the boats suffered a high mortality from disease” (Wikipedia).
“In mid-August 1841 the expedition entered one of the mouths of the Niger. Early in October the last of its ships was limping back, its commander prostrated by fever, the cabins crammed with sick and dying, the geologist working the engines with the aid of a textbook. Those seven weeks cost forty-one European lives” (Dictionary of African Christian Biography on-line).


73. [NIGER]
LUGARD, Frederick John Dealtry, Baron (1858-1945)
[Two Autograph Letters Signed "F.J.D. Lugard" to "Thomas" and "Fagan" (of Natural History Museum) Dated 1 Sept. 1895 and 15 Feb. 1896 Respectively].

[South Africa], 1895-6. Octavo. 3 pages each. Octavo letters each ca. 18x11 cm (7 x 4 ½ in). The letters are written in a legible hand and are in near fine condition.
The two interesting letters are full of content and in the 1895 letter Lugard discusses what "Thomas" has in his collections (especially the horns and skin of a hartebeest) and asks for a spare Kobus Kob skin. He has immature Kobus Kob horns if he wants them from "South of Lokoja on Niger bank." Perhaps he is discussing the results of his expedition to Borgu.
In the 1896 letter Lugard describes in detail the sort of man he wishes to employ looking after stores and doing "miscellaneous work", a taxidermist or collector. Presumably he is preparing for the expedition to Lake Ngami (1896-7).
"West Africa, 1894-1895:
Despite any disenchantment over his experience of two companies and his longed for but dwindling hope of returning to east Africa in senior government service, Lugard now embarked, however hesitatingly, on another roving company expedition. An offer of service came from Sir George Goldie, who had obtained a charter for his Royal Niger Company and in 1894 was busily concluding treaties with local chiefs so as to strengthen the company's capacity to repel the encroachments of the French in the Niger region. Aware that they were preparing an expedition to Borgu, Goldie wanted Lugard to proceed to Nikki, its chief town, and to forestall the French and Germans by securing a treaty from the ruler. In a rapid and remarkable march through unexplored country, Lugard won the so-called ‘steeplechase to Nikki’, to the dismay of the French, who had no doubt about the motives of one whom they stigmatized as ‘the conqueror of Uganda’.
Southern Africa, 1896-1897:
A brief interlude in southern Africa followed. Lugard left the Niger in April 1895, still hoping that the government would ask for his services in Africa. Agonizingly, his appointment as CB brought nothing more with it, so he accepted an offer from yet another African company, the new British West Charterland Company, and set off to explore a mineral commission near Lake Ngami in Bechuanaland. Here the main problem was not fighting but transport. The journey involved 700 miles across the Kalahari Desert, and a rinderpest epidemic had emptied the country of trek cattle. Nevertheless, the journey was accomplished by September 1896. In the following August, Lugard received an urgent and surprise message from the new colonial secretary, Joseph Chamberlain, inviting him to take up work in west Africa. It was an imperial appointment at last. What Lugard called his ‘destiny to Africa’ entered its third phase: after central and east Africa, henceforth it was to be west Africa. It turned out to be the longest connection of them all" (Oxford DNB).


74. [NILE]
BAKER, Samuel White (1821-1893)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Samuel Baker,” to “Dear Sir”].

Sandford Orleigh, Newton Abbot (blind stamped letterhead), 5 August 1877. 12mo (ca. 15,5x10 cm). 2 pp., with an integral blank leaf. Brown ink on laid paper. Mild fold marks, traces of old mount on verso of the second blank leaf, but overall a very good letter.
A private letter by famous African explorer Samuel Baker written in his Sandford Orleigh estate in Newton Abbot, Devon. Baker writes that “it is most kind of Sir Charles and Lady Graves Sawle to extend their hospitality to me (to them a stranger,) and if I should be honored with an invitation from them I shall accept it with pleasure.” The persons mentioned by Baker are Sir Charles Brune Graves Sawle, 2nd Baronet of Penrice (1816-1903) and his wife Lady Rose (1818-1914), a friend of the poet Walter Savage Landor. The couple made a trip up the Nile in 1875-1876, which could explain their friendship with Baker. Lady Rose mentioned in her memoire that Samuel Baker and his wife visited Graves-Sawle’s estate in Penrice (Cornwall) several times (Grawes Sawle, R. Sketches from Memories, 1833-1896. London, 1908, p. 125-128).


GIOVIO, Giulio‚ Bishop of Nocera (ca. 1510-ca. 1563)
[Official Letter Signed by Giovio to “Molto Magnifico Signor” Solomeo Solomei in Florence‚ Introducing his Nephew Passing through Florence on his way to Rome].

Como, 19 March 1560. Folio (ca. 31x21 cm). 1 pp. With the integral blank leaf. Brown ink on laid paper, text in Italian in secretarial hand, signed by Giovio, addressed and docketed on verso of the second blank leaf. Fold marks, second leaf with the lower blank corner clipped and minor staining from the removed seal, but overall a very good letter.
Letter by Giulio Giovio‚ the bishop of Nocera, Campania (1552-1560), writer and nephew of noted prelate, historian and physician Paolo Giovio (1483-1552). Giulio Giovio inherited the title of the bishop of Nocera from his uncle (Paolo Giovio held the seat in 1528-1552). Among poetical works of Giulio Giovio is an extensive poem, a part of which is dedicated to Giovanni da Verrazzano who travelled to North America in 1524, thus becoming “the first European since the Norse expeditions to North America around AD 1000 to explore the Atlantic coast of North America between the Carolinas and Newfoundland, including New York Bay and Narragansett Bay.” A contemporary of the events, Giulio Giovio collected news about the voyage directly from the testimony of Verrazzano’s brother, Jerome. The eleven octaves of Giovio’s poem related to Giovanni da Verrazzano were published by A. Bacchiani under title “I fratelli da Verrazzano e l'eccidio di una spedizione italo-francese in America (1528)” (Boll. Della Società geografica italiana, s. 4, II (1925), pp. 395-399). The later years of Giulio's life he spent at his uncle’s villa, called Museo because of a large collection of painting and antiquities, including one of the first collection of artefacts from the New World, where he sorted the unpublished works of his uncle.


BUCKINGHAM, James Silk (1786-1855)
[Autograph Letter Signed “J. S. Buckingham” to 'J. Upcott Esq' (English librarian and antiquary William Upcott) regarding his lectures at the Library of the London Institution].

12 February 1830. On a folded Octavo leaf (ca. 21x12,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on aged paper. Text complete and legible, addressed on verso of the second leaf. Traces of the old mount and minor holes on the last page, caused by removal of the letter from a stub, otherwise a very good letter.
Autograph signed letter by James Silk Buckingham, a noted British traveller, journalist and politician (MP in 1832-37), author of “Travels in Palestine” (London, 1821) and “Travels among the Arab Tribes Inhabiting the Countries East of Syria and Palestine” (London, 1825).
The letter obviously relates to the twelve lectures on “the Countries of the Eastern World” given by Buckingham in 1830 in the Library of the London Institution [for the advancement of Literature and the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge] (see: A Catalogue of the Library of the London Institution. London, 1835, vol. 1, p. Xi). Addressing William Upcott (1779-1845), a sub-librarian in the London Institution at the time, Buckingham is sending him the paragraphs, which he would 'be glad to have written out in some other hand than my own if it were possible'. He will be 'infinitely obliged to the kindness of Mrs. Phillipps if she can procure their insertion in any of the Papers'. In a long postscript covering the whole of the second page Buckingham invites Upcott and Mrs Phillipps 'to attend the Public Lectures on the Indian Question' which he is giving. He is sending half a dozen tickets 'as a very poor return for your great civility.'


[Official Passport Given to Prussian Photographer Friedrich Karl August Kühnemann for Travels to Russia, with the Translation into Russian and a Dozen Notes by Various Consular and Border Officers on Verso].

Berlin: Königl. Preuss. Ministere des Innern, 10 February 1857. Elephant Folio broadside (ca. 45x33 cm), with the additional leaf for border officers’ entries attached to the bottom (ca. 20,5x33 cm). 1 p. Official woodcut passport form filled in brown ink. With over a dozen officials’ entries and stamps on verso. Fold marks, paper age toned, worn on extremities, but overall a very good document.
Interesting example of a 19th century European travel passport. It was given to a “portrait maker and photographer” Friedrich Karl August Kühnemann, a native and resident of Berlin, for his work in Russia and was valid for one year. There is an interesting description of Kühnemann’s appearance: “26 years old, of medium height, hair and eyebrows fair, eyes brown, nose and mouth ordinary, chin and face oblong”. The notes left by consular or border officials range from 29 January/10 February to 25 October/3 November 1857. According to them, Kühnemann travelled via Austria and Breslau, crossed the Russian border at Brody, and proceeded to Husiatin, Kamenets-Podolsky and Odessa.


FREDERICK WILLIAM III, King of Prussia (1770-1840)
[Letter Signed "Friedrich Wilhelm" From Exile in Konigsberg Dated Christmas Day 1808 to Colonel von Criwitz (1741-1814) in Berlin. Criwitz had returned to Berlin to take over his former position (assessor) again. However, the King feels that Criwitz is too old and so asks him to retire and grants him a pension at half pay].

25 December 1808. Quarto (25.5 x 21cm). One page of a bifolium written in dark brown ink on laid paper. Biographical sketch of von Criwitz in ball point pen on the verso of last blank leaf. Overall a very good letter.
A good example of a letter from Frederick William III from exile in East Prussia after the Prussian defeat at the Battle of Jena-Auerstädt. "At first Frederick William and his advisors attempted to pursue a policy of neutrality in the Napoleonic Wars. Although they succeeded in keeping out of the Third Coalition in 1805, eventually Frederick William was swayed by the belligerent attitude of the queen, who led Prussia's pro-war party, and entered into war in October 1806. On 14 October 1806, at the Battle of Jena-Auerstädt, the French defeated the Prussian army led by Frederick William, and the Prussian army collapsed. The royal family fled to Memel, East Prussia, where they fell on the mercy of Emperor Alexander I of Russia. Docile and slow to recognize the growing French threat, Frederick's decision for war in 1806 ended in national humiliation. Alexander, too, suffered defeat at the hands of the French, and at Tilsit on the Niemen France made peace with Russia and Prussia. Napoleon dealt with Prussia very harshly, despite the pregnant Queen's personal interview with the French emperor. Prussia lost many of its Polish territories, as well as all territory west of the Elbe, and had to finance a large indemnity and to pay for French troops to occupy key strong points within the Kingdom.
Although the ineffectual King himself seemed resigned to Prussia's fate, various reforming ministers, such as Baron vom Stein, Prince von Hardenberg, Scharnhorst, and Count Gneisenau, set about reforming Prussia's administration and military, with the encouragement of Queen Luise (who died, greatly mourned, in 1810)" (Wikipedia).


FREDERICK WILLIAM IV, King of Prussia (1795-1861)
[Letter Signed "Friedrich Wilhelm" from Potsdam Dated 29 April 1844 Addressed to the Art Dealer Kortmann in Berlin. "I have received with thanks on the 27th of March the wall maps submitted by you and am happy to accept the offered dedication to me on the yet to be published general map of the Prussian State."]

29 April 1844. Quarto (26 x 22cm). Quarter page written in dark brown ink of a wove paper bifolium. Original fold marks, a few minor splits at folds, some very mild staining but overall a very good letter.
"Frederick William IV, the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. Also referred to as the "romanticist on the throne", he is best remembered for the many buildings he had constructed in Berlin and Potsdam, as well as for the completion of the Gothic Cologne cathedral. In politics, he was a conservative, and in 1849 he rejected the title of German Emperor offered to him by the Frankfurt parliament, considering that it was not in the parliament's gift" (Wikipedia).


[PATTERSON (?), Charles William, Admiral RN (1756-1841)]
[Early Manuscript Report on the Navigation in the Caribbean, in Particular near Isabela, Aguada Bay, Mona Island (Puerto Rico), and Saona Island (Dominican Republic)].

1787 (entry on the Mona Island is dated “13 June, 1787”). Folio (ca. 32x20 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Manuscript is written in a very legible hand; paper aged and lightly-stained, with two neat stab holes in the margins, otherwise a very good manuscript.
Apparently compiled for the use of the British mariners sailing in the Caribbean, the manuscript gives a detailed and captivating account of navigation near the coasts of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola. There are complete descriptions of the waters of Aguada Bay and Mona Island, and incomplete texts regarding Isabela (Puerto Rico) and Saona Island (Dominican Republic). The manuscript derives from the family archives of Captain George Anthony Tonyn and his nephew, Admiral Charles William Paterson (1756-1841).
The manuscript is written with particular reference to navigation and thoroughly marks distances, geographical coordinates of the islands, bays et al., points of good anchoring sites, sea depths and currents, as well as all sorts of supplies available on shore. Thus the note on Aguada Bay starts: 'An open Bay and deep, requires no particular directions, coming from the North and Eastwd. You may round the North point at 1 Miles distance and keep as near the North Shore as you please, you do not get Soundings till you are within a Mile of the Town in 40 faths.'
About the provisions on Mona Island: “There are abundance of Wild Bullocks, which the Turtlers who come here occasionally hunt with dogs and shoot, also abundance of Goats which they hunt and shoot in the same manner. Very good line fishing, but no place sits to haul the seine”.
"Aguada is a municipality of Puerto Rico, located in the western coastal valley region bordering the Atlantic Ocean, west of Rincón, Aguadilla and Moca; and north of Anasco. Mona is the third largest island of the archipelago of Puerto Rico, after the main island of Puerto Rico and Vieques. Saona Island is located a short distance from the mainland on the south-east tip of the Dominican Republic, near La Altagracia Province" (Wikipedia).


81. [QUEBEC]
D’ESTREES, Jean; Vice Admiral of Ponant, (1624-1707)
[Autograph Letter Signed ‘Le Comte d’Estrees’ to Jean Descloreaux, General Intendant of the French Navy in Brest].

On board the Sceptre, 10 July 1692. 1 p. Quarto bifolium (ca. 23x17 cm), addressed and sealed on the 4th page. Text in French. Round hole on the 4th page after opening, not affecting the text, mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
An interesting letter from Jean D’Estrees, an important naval commander of Louis XIV. Written in the aftermath of France’s defeat at the battle of La Hougue (29 May1692) in the Cotentin peninsula, the letter mainly hints at one of Estrees's poorly orchestrated tactical manoeuvres when in charge of a fleet of 45 vessels. Assigned to the protection of the port city of Brest, he chose for an unknown reason to sail out to the Landevenec River and hide his fleet in its meanders. Strongly rebuked by French naval minister Pontchartrain, he finally sailed back to his previous position in the port of Brest.
The letter is addressed to the general intendant of the French navy in Brest and informs him that “I have no doubt that Mr. de Pontchartrain had let you know about the King's intentions regarding the river Landevenec; he does not want these vessels to remain there, so there is no time to waste and leave those vessels stranded in the harbour [...] we will all sail out of here with a silent tide[...] [...] there are manifold of appearances so that within twenty-four hours, we will [...] them in the same order as we were before”. He asks his correspondent to provide the fleet with a few masts and rafts, “please be kind to tow them across to the headland as soon as all ships have sailed out of harbour. We will have to think about getting some seamen to replace the missing ones and hiring new crew members.”
Jean II d'Estrées was a Marshal of France (1681), and an important naval commander of Louis XIV. His aunt was Gabrielle d'Estrées, lover of King Henry IV of France. He joined the navy in 1668, and took part in the campaigns in the Caribbean, and the Franco-Dutch War; he served as the Vice Roy of the New France in 1681-1687.
A letter of D’Estrees also written on board the “Sceptre” (25 July 1692) is included in the “Inventaire des dessins et estampes relatifs au Département de l’Aisne” of the National Library of France (Catalogue by E. Fleury, Paris, 1887, p. 127, # 2077).


82. [QUEBEC]
STUART, Rev. John (1740-1811)
[Autograph Letter Signed "Jn. Stuart" to His Son, James Stuart, then Personal Secretary of Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada Sir Robert Milnes].

Kingston [Upper Canada], 8 November 1803. Folio (ca. 32,5x20 cm). 1 p. (with three lines on verso). Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Fold marks and minor separation on folds, paper age toned at extremities, but overall a very good letter.
An interesting document from one of the prominent loyalist families of the Upper Canada. This is a private letter from the first Anglican missionary in Upper Canada John Stuart to his son James Stuart, then a secretary of Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada, and subsequently Attorney General and Chief Justice of Lower Canada.
Stuart’s main concern in the letter is the fate of his second daughter Mary (then 16 years old), who was to move to Montreal, so James as her older brother was to take care of her: “A sudden opportunity offers today to send Mary to Montreal, under the car of Mr. & Mrs. Hamilton, late Publicans in Queenstown <…> Of course she must remain with Mrs. Reid till she can with Conveniency and Propriety be delivered into Mrs. Mountain’s hands <…> I must depend wholly on you to have her moved to Quebec, when and how you find most expedient and proper <…> I happened to be almost without cash; but I have given her a couple of Half Joes, which will serve her Purpose, till you receive her. I need not say that her Expenditures at Quebec must be regulated by you. Therefore, whatever small Articles of Dress Mrs. Mountain recommends, you will procure and have them charged to me.”
John Stuart also mentions that his sons Charles and George (with his new wife) arrived “in good Health and Spirits.” It’s interesting to see Stuart’s notes about his new daughter-in-law (Lucy Brooks, whose father was to become a governor of Massachusetts in 1816): “She is very small, but I think he has made a judicious choice. The Family is respectable; and if I may judge by the Baggage (two Cart Loads) he must have made a pretty good Bargain in a worldly sense. Indeed, we have every reason to approve of his choice.”
The Reverend John Stuart was the first Anglican missionary in Upper Canada. He was raised and educated in Philadelphia, and came to Canada in 1781 as Chaplain to Sir John Johnson’s Royal Yorkers. He was a schoolmaster in Montreal in 1781-85; Missionary to the Mohawks at the Bay of Quinte and to the Whites in Kingston in 1785-1811; Bishop’s Official for Upper Canada in 1789-1811; Chaplain to the Legislative Council of Upper Canada in 1792-1807. He was the first school master in Upper Canada and he induced Lieutenant-Governor Hope to erect a school house in Kingston.
Sir James Stuart,1st Baronet of Oxford (1780-1853), an important figure in the law and politics of the Upper Canada. He was called to the bar in 1801, served as a secretary for Lieutenant Governor Sir Robert Shore Milnes, was a member of the Legislative Assembly of the Lower Canada for a number of terms in 1808-1816. He supported the Union of Upper and Lower Canada and served as Attorney General for the Lower Canada in 1825-1831. In 1838 he was appointed Chief Justice of Lower Canada; in 1839-1841 was a member of the Special Council to govern the province after the Lower Canada Rebellion.
Mary Stuart (1787-1812), seventh child and second daughter of the Revd. John Stuart and Jane Okill. Married in Kingston on 8 June 1807 the Hon. Charles Jones (1781-1840), M.L.C. Of Brockville, a businessman and politician of the Upper Canada.
George-Okill Stuart (1776-1862), and Anglican clergyman and educator, a Bishop’s Official for Upper Canada (1812-21), archdeacon of Upper Canada (1821-27), archdeacon of Kingston (1827-62), a member of the council for Trinity College (1851), the first dean for the district of Ontario (1862). In October 1803 he married Lucy (1775-1813), the daughter of John Brooks, later governor of Massachusetts (1816-1823).
Charles Stuart (1782-1816), Sheriff of the Midland District (1811?-1815).
For the detailed entries on different members of John Stuart’s family see: Young, A.H. The Revd. John Stuart, D.D., U.E.L. Of Kingston, U.C. And His Family: A Genealogical Study. Kingston, [1920].


SILVESTRE DE SACY, Antoine-Isaac, baron (1758-1838)
[Autograph Letter Signed “le B[ar]on Silvestre de Sacy” to a French Orientalist Charles-Hippolyte de Paravey, ‘officier du Corps Royal du Génie,’ with a Critical Review of the Latter’s New Book].

9 March 1827. Small Octavo (ca. 20x15,5 cm). 2 pp., with an integral leaf. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper, addressed and sealed on verso of the second leaf. Mild fold marks, a small chip on the second leaf after opening not affecting the text, otherwise a very good letter.
An interesting example of scientific correspondence, this letter was written by noted French linguist and orientalist Antoine Silvestre de Sacy and addressed to his younger colleague Charles-Hippolyte de Paravey (1787-1871). The letter contains criticism of Paravey’s new book ‘Essai sur l’origine unique et hiéroglyphique des chiffres et des lettres de tous les peoples’ (Paris, 1826), with the main object of the criticism being, most likely, Paravey’s traditional “biblical” view on the history of civilization. Apparently, both orientalists were acquaintances from the French Asiatic Society (Société asiatique, founded in 1822), which they both were the founding members of.
Silvestre de Sacy: “Monsieur, I am not responsible for assessing your work in the Journal des Savants and I am pleased with it, as it would have been impossible to present your system from a favourable view point. Far from sharing your conviction about what you deem a finding, I only see an endless assertion of principles, which can be opposed with as much assertiveness as you show defending them. <…> In science principles are facts; if asserted without solid ground, the construct theory is weak and those principles are deceptive <…> I may be wrong, Monsieur, [but] imagination played a major role in your work <…> Please, Monsieur, forgive a candid expression of opinion, I thought I owed it to your honourable character and to the truth” [in translation].
Antoine Isaac, Baron Silvestre de Sacy was a French linguist and orientalist, a specialist in Semitic languages. He was a professor of Arabic and Persian in the School of living oriental languages (École speciale des langues orientales vivantes), a secretary of the Academy of Inscriptions, the first president of the French Asiatic Society; he studied the Pahlavi inscriptions of the Sassanid kings, the religion of the Druze, and issued a number of works, including three Arabic textbooks. Silvestre de Sacy was a contemporary and teacher of Jean-François Champollion and took part in deciphering the Rosetta stone.
Charles-Hippolyte de Paravey was a French engineer and orientalist, a representative of the biblical view on the history of civilization. In his ‘Essai sur l’origine unique et hiéroglyphique des chiffres et des lettres de tous les peoples’ (Paris, 1826) he tried to prove the existence of a "single center of civilization" that would have existed before and after the flood, and therefore, a single source of human race which later spread across the globe.


OUSELEY, Gore, Sir (1770-1844)
[Autograph Letter Signed, Regarding Ouseley Activities in the Royal Asiatic Society and Mentioning George FitzClarence and the First Edition of "The Travels of Ibn Batuta"].

Woolmers, Hertford, 22 October 1829. Octavo (ca. 20,5x16 cm). 1 pp. Brown ink on paper. Mild folds, light toning, remains of guards, but overall a very good letter.
An interesting letter from Sir Gore Ouseley, British diplomat and orientalist, noted for preparing the Treaty of Gulistan (1814) between Russia and Persia while serving as ambassador in Persia in 1810-1815. The letter relates to the Royal Asiatic Society which was founded in 1823 with the close participation of Ouseley:
"He was one of those responsible for the founding of the Royal Asiatic Society in London in 1823 and was associated with the formation of the oriental translation committee, of which he was elected chairman. He became president of the Society for the Publication of Oriental Texts, formed in 1842" (Oxford DNB).
In the letter Ouseley thanks his addressee for "information about Col. FitzClarence" - obviously, meaning George Augustus Frederick FitzClarence (1794-1842), a military officer who served in India and also became an orientalist and a founder of the Royal Asiatic Society. Noteworthy is the fact, that FitzClarence "was a member of the society's committee preparing plans for publishing translations of oriental works, and was subsequently deputy chairman and vice-president of the Oriental Translation Fund" (Oxford DNB). It explains Ouseley writing that "in the course of a day or two I shall have a letter ready for the Ambassador at Constantinople to accompany the Copy of Ibn Batuta for the Sultan." He obviously meant "The travels of Ibn Batuta" - a history of travels of a famous Medieval Muslim explorer Ibn Battuta (1304-1368 or 1369) which has just been published by John Murray "for the Oriental Translation Committee" where Ouseley and FitzClarence were both members .
At the end of the letter Ouseley gives his opinion on the circulation of the reports, probably of the Society: "I think 40 or 50 might be selected to have them sent to, but certainly not more! And I [?] find that the number I have mentioned is much greater that those who would take the trouble of reading them." A nice letter revealing details of the history of the Royal Asiatic Society.


BAUDIN, Auguste Laurent François (1800-1877)
[Official Autograph Letter Signed “A. Baudin,” written when he was the Commander-in-Chief of the French Navy on the West Coast of Africa, and addressed to the Minister of the French Navy and the Colonies].

Eldorado, rade de Gorée, 27 July 1848. Folio (ca. 30x20 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on paper, official manuscript letterhead of the “Direction du personnel. Bureau des Corps organises” in the upper left corner. Text in secretarial hand, signed by Baudin. Docketed and stamped in the Ministry of the French Navy (stamp dated 9 September 1848) on the upper margin. Later pencil notes on the lower margin, mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
Written on board French steam-powered frigate “Eldorado” (1843), this official letter from Auguste Baudin, Commander-in-chief of the French navy on the coast of West Africa (Goree Island, Senegal) is addressed to the Minister of the French Navy Raymond-Jean-Baptiste de Verninac Saint-Maur (17 July – 20 December 1848). Baudin forwards to the minister the report by “captaine Protet du brig le Dupetit-Thouars” and distinguishes two naval officers who have been exposed to the areas where sharks abound. “Capitaine Protet” was actually Auguste Léopold Protet (1808-1862), future governor of Senegal (1850-54) and the founder of the city of Dakar (1857). He fought in the Second Opium War, became the commander of a naval division in China and a rear admiral in 1860, and was killed in the Taiping Rebellion in 1862. The French aviso (corvette) Protet (F742) was named after him.
Auguste Laurent François Baudin was a French rear admiral (1855) and a colonial administrator. He spent most of his career as a naval officer in the French colonies, serving as the governor of Senegal and commander of French naval station on the West African Coast (Côtes occidentales d'Afrique) in 1847-50. During his service there he proclaimed the abolition of slavery in Senegal, decreed by the Second French Republic on 27 April 1848. Later he was the governor and commander in chief of the naval division of French Guyana (1855-59), and the commander of the navy in Algeria (1860-62). He was made a grand officer of the Legion of Honour on 19 September 1860 (Wikipedia).


[Official Indenture of a Land Transfer]: Conveyance of one Sixth part of a Customary Estate called Skirreth held of the Mansion of Ingleton (Lancashire); between William Gillison Bell the Younger Esq. Of the City of Saint Petersburg in Russia merchant, and Thomas Graven Esq.

Saint Petersburg, 2 June 1816. Six leaves, all Elephant Folio (ca. 63x77 cm or 20 ¼ x 24 ¾ in). With a notary stamp, a small wax seal and six revenue stamps. Leaves stitched through on the bottom and folded. Brown ink on vellum, filled in on one side. Fold marks, outer leaf soiled and slightly rubbed, otherwise a very good document.
Interesting original real estate document written and certified in Saint Petersburg. Concluded between British merchants in Saint Petersburg, William Gillison Bell (of Melling Hall) and Thomas Graven, the contract was witnessed by local merchants James Liddell and John Ledderdale. William Gillison Bell was later listed as a member of the United Company of Merchants of England (see: A List of the Names of the Members of the United Company of Merchants of England, Trading to the East Indies… London, 1825, p. 10). John Ledderdale (1782-1845) was the father William Lidderdale (1832-1902), Director (1870), Deputy Governor (1887) and the Governor of the Bank of England (1889-1892). The contract was certified, signed and sealed by Saint Petersburg public notary Stephen Sasonoff on June 2, 1816, and further certified by the British Consul General in Russia Sir Daniel Bayley (1766-1834) on June 7, 1816.
“For two centuries after the foundation of St Petersburg in 1703, the British merchant community exercised a remarkable influence over the city's economic relations with the wider world. This community operated as a 'City of London' in miniature, and where the merchants led others - diplomats, travellers, soldiers, sailors, engineers, craftsmen and others - followed. As the new capital grew in splendour, Britons acquired or rented some of the city's finest residences. At the end of Catherine II's reign the city's first grand embankment along the Neva between the Senate (later Decembrist) Square and the New Admiralty Canal came to be known as the English Embankment” (Thompstone, S. On the Banks of the Neva: British Merchants in St Petersburg before the Russian Revolution// History Today, Vol. 53, No. 12).
Sir Daniel Bayley “became a merchant at St, Petersburg, being a partner in the great Russian house of Thorntons and Bayley (firm dissolved 30th April, 1810). He was appointed, 9th October 1812, His Britannic Majesty’s Consul-General at St. Petersburg, and was also agent to the Russia company. He was knighted 20th June 1815, and his services as chargé d’affaires, during the absence of the English ambassador, were also rewarded by the knighthood of the Hanoverian Guelphic Order” (Axon, E. The Family of Bayley of Manchester and Hope. Manchester, 1894, p. 19-20).


87. [TABOOS]
WESTERMARCK, Edward Alexander (1862-1939)
[Two Autograph Letters Signed‚ Discussing Publication of a Chapter from his Latest Book, Apparently, “The Origin and Development of Moral Ideas” (London, 1906-1908, 2 vols.), and Mentioning His Recent Return from Morocco].

Two letters: London‚ 10 October 1908; Helsingfors‚ 26 April 1909. Each Small Octavo (ca. 17,5x11 cm); black ink on watermarked laid paper. In all 6 pp. of text in English. Mild fold marks, otherwise near fine letters.
Two letters to fellow scientists from a Finnish philosopher and sociologist Edward Alexander Westermarck, who at the time worked as a professor of sociology at the London School of Economics and Political Science (1907-1931), and a professor of practical philosophy at the University of Helsinki (1906-1918). In the first letter Westermarck notes that he has just returned from Morocco and discusses his recent publication: “The article in Sexual Problems is a translation of the chapter in my book (which will be out at the end of this month or in the beginning of November), but I could not tell whether the translator has given all the footnotes. I thank you for your Chronique and for your kind appreciation of my article with contribution to the subject. The material is of course extremely defective, and the score of my work compelled me to be brief <…>. P.S. There is no foundation for the statement made by the editor of Sexual Problems that I consider the chapter in question to be the most important part of my book. I cannot understand from where he has got this notion.” This letter most likely refers to Westermarck’s “The Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas” (London, 1906-08, 2 vols.). The second letter states that Westermarck is in Helsinki and thus is not able meet his correspondent in London.
“Edvard Alexander Westermarck was a Finnish philosopher and sociologist. Among other subjects, he studied exogamy and the incest taboo. The phenomenon of reverse sexual imprinting (when two people live in close domestic proximity during the first few years in the life of either one, both are desensitized to later close sexual attraction), now known as the Westermarck effect, was first formally described by him in his book The History of Human Marriage (1891). He has been described as "first Darwinian sociologist" or "the first sociobiologist." He helped found academic sociology in the United Kingdom, becoming the first professor of sociology (with Leonard Trelawny Hobhouse) in 1907 in the University of London” (Wikipedia).


[Original Manuscript Document Validating the Sale of a Labore [sic!] of Land in the Republic of Taxas [sic!] by a Local Woman Hannah Earl].

Republic of Taxas [sic!], County of San Augustine, 17 February 1837. Folio (ca. 32x19 cm). 2 pp. Paper age toned, fold marks, weak and with a couple of very minor chips and splits, partly strengthened on folds, otherwise a very good document.
Rare early land transaction documenting the attempted sale of a tract of land by one Hannah Earl. The sale was rejected on 22 March 1838 by the land commissioners Alexander Horton and Nathaniel Hunt and is signed by them at the bottom of second page. A "Labor of Land" (177 acres) was granted to "all persons except Africans and their descendants, and Indians, living in Texas on the day of the Declaration of Independence". Manuscript Texas documents from this period are extremely scarce, especially those pertaining to women.


READE, Sir Thomas (1785-1849)
[Official Decree by the Bey of Tunis Appointing George William Crowe His Plenipotentiary in Order to Compile a Treaty of Friendship and Commerce with the City of Hamburg; With: Separate Document Containing the Italian Translation of the Decree Signed by Hassuna Morali, First Interpreter of the Court of Basha Bey of Tunis; Both Documents are Certified as Genuine by the British Consul General, Sir Thomas Reade (on verso of the leaf with the Italian text)].

Two documents, both Tunis, 1828. On two folded Elephant Folio leaves, each ca. 33x22 cm (when folded). Fold marks, paper aged and slightly soiled, otherwise very good documents. Each folded and consisting of two leaves. The Documents are in good condition.
Official decree of the Bey of Tunis: 1 p. Brown ink on French paper watermarked “Louis XVIII, Roi de France”. Text in Arabic, with the official ink seal of the Bey of Tunis.
Italian translation: 2 pp. Dated “9 Muharram, year 1244” [1828]. Brown ink on laid paper. Text in Italian and English (on verso), with the impressed seal of British Consul General in Tunis.
Rare and very interesting document from the time of establishment of diplomatic relations between Tunis and Germany.
Original decree with the seal of the Bey of Tunis (Hussein II Bey, ruled in 1824-1835) authorising certain George William Crowe to negotiate with the “Regno de Amburgo” in establishing friendship and commerce. Crowe is supposed to compile a treaty which needs to be presented to the Bey for examination, and “if God will, to be granted”. In the English certificate written on verso of the Italian translation of the decree, British Consul General in Tunis Sir Thomas Reade (1785-1849) extends Crowe’s rights, which “are not restricted to the specific object therein set forth, but that he instructed to act on behalf of His Highness as Charge of Affaires in all such matters as may be for the service of His Highness & particularly to treat for a loan for his use". The certificate is dated 11 August, 1828.
George William Crowe was later mentioned as British consul general in Tripoli (The Royal Calendar and Court and City Register for England, Scotland, Ireland and the Colonies. London, 1852, p. 193). Sir Thomas Reade, British Consul in Tunis, played an important role in the abolition of slavery. Reade was Deputy Adjutant-General on St. Helena during Napoleon’s captivity, was present at Napoleon’s post-mortem and left a valuable account of it preserved in the Lowe Papers.


[WETMORE, William Shepard] (1801-1862)
[Four Autograph Signed Letters to William Wetmore from His Business Partners Regarding Market Conditions and Wetmore’s Business Affairs in South America and New York].

Valparaiso, Cadiz and New York, 1832-1837. Four autograph signed letters, all Quartos (ca. 27x20 cm or slightly smaller). In all 10 pp. of text. Brown ink on folded, all addressed, stamped and docketed on the last blank pages. Fold marks, minor holes on three letters after opening, in one case slightly affecting the text, otherwise a very good collection.
Four interesting letters addressed to noted American merchant William Shepard Wetmore, concerning his business dealings and market conditions in South America and New York. Two letters are written by his business partners in Chile “Alsop and Co” (Valparaiso, 25 April and 29 November 1832); one – by a Cadiz merchant A. Burton “on the instruction of Mr. John Cryder,” another partner of Wetmore (12 February 1833), and one – by a New York merchant Thomas P. Bucklin.
The letters discuss various matters of Wetmore’s trade, including arrival and departure of ships with his cargo, market fluctuations, business climate, quarantines, latest deals etc. The correspondents relate to a number of goods and articles which Wetmore traded with, including silk, copper, mercury (in other letters – quicksilver); the market conditions are reported about flour, sugars, various textiles (shirtings, cotton, silk etc.), tea, soap, gun powder, rice and others. Overall a nice collection of informative business letters regarding the dealings of an important American merchant.
William Shepard Wetmore entered the mercantile business at the age of 14, as an employee of Edward Carrington & Co. Of Providence, Rhode Island. In the 1820s he conducted active trade with the United States, England and South America, in partnership with Valparaiso import merchant Richard Alsop. In 1825 they were joined by Philadelphia native John Cryder. Four years later Wetmore retired and returned to the United States with a large fortune. In 1833-1839 he ran a successful business in Canton, as Wetmore & Co., trading in Chinese tea, silk, opium and other goods. His partners were Samuel Archer and John Cryder. In the 1840s Wetmore worked in New Your, having established a commission merchant firm of Wetmore, Cryder & Co. He retired in 1847 and permanently lived in his famous mansion Chateau-sur-Mer, the first of the Gilded Age mansions in Newport, Rhode Island.


FARRAGUT, David Glasgow (1801-1870)
[Secretarial Copy of an Autographed Letter Signed by David Glasgow Farragut Concerning a Seized Whaler, Copied by his Clerk and Signed by him: "D.E. Farragut, Comd'g."]

La Paz, Mexico, 20 November 1855. Small Folio (ca. 29 x 20cm). One page. Brown ink on light blue wove paper. With fold marks and remnants of mounts on recto and verso, but overall a very good letter in a legible hand.
The original letter had been written by United States consular agent Thomas Sprague, addressed to "the commanding officer of any American Man of War." Sprague complained that "General Blancarte has seized the American whale-ship Rebecca Adams, removed the officers and crew on shore, and put them in prison, without any lawful cause. I have demanded their release, but as yet have not been able to procure it. There are also several females among these sufferers. The presence of an armed vessel is required instantly at this Port." The Rebecca Adams had left San Francisco in April 1855, and Starbuck makes no note of this incident or the vessel's eventual return to port (page 532). Farragut's clerk copied out the present copy at the Mare Island Navy Yard in California April 1st 1856, where it was signed by Farragut and forwarded to another officer for response.


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