April 2014 - Exploration, Travel & Voyages: Archives, Collections, Journals, Letters & Manuscripts
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1. [ABYSSINIAN EXPEDITION 1868]
[Historically Important Manuscript Journal with Period Copies of Official Despatches, Lists of Vessels, Captives and Other Information Related to the British Expedition to Abyssinia in 1868].
Ca. 1868. Folio (ca. 32,5x20 cm). In all 52 leaves of text, brown ink on watermarked laid paper, legible hand writing. Filled from both ends. The watermarks are “Dorling & Gregory, London” and a rampant lion with the date “1867”. Original album with marbled boards and cloth spine, worn and damaged. A number of leaves loosely inserted, some with tears and corner loss. Overall a very good internally clean manuscript.
The journal contains the following documents:
1) Lists of Arrivals & Departure of Transports in and from Annesley Bay. From 3rd January 1868 to 20th June 1868. Alphabetically arranged (41 pp.); 2) List of “The Abyssinian Captives” (1 p.); 3) [Napier, R.] Copy of the letter of congratulation from His Excellency to the soldiers & sailors of the army of Abyssinia” (3 pp.); 4) A copy of the first letter sent from Theodore to General Sir R. Napier Commander-in Chief of the Forces Abyssinia; [with] A Copy of the 2nd letter sent to Sir R. Napier Lt. Genl. (4 pp.); 5) Dr. Blanc, to whom the public have been repeatedly indebted for interesting accounts from Magdala says... (3 pp.); 6) Arrival of His Excellency Sir Robert Napier at Toulla (2 pp.); 7) Statistics relating to the Transport Service... Supplied by Capt. Tryon R.N., the able Director of Transport (6 pp.).
From the reverse of the volume: 1) A List of Vessels Chartered in Bombay for the Abyssinian Expedition (14 pp.); 2) Transports Chartered at Calcutta; [with] Transports Chartered in England (10 pp.); 3) [List of departures and arrivals of vessels at the Bombay port, 19 Sept. - 3 Oct. 1867], including “Fort Saluted Genl. Sir Robert Napier with 15 Guns... Genl. Sir R. Napier & Suite came on board,” (3 pp.); 4) Date of Departure [and] Arrival of H.M.S. Octavia during the Commission [1865-1869] (6 pp.).
The compiler of the journal remains anonymous, but apparently was an eye-witness involved in the events. The fact that the lists are started from both ends suggests that this journal was in use at the time, and not compiled later from printed records.
“The British Expedition to Abyssinia was a rescue mission and punitive expedition carried out in 1868 by the armed forces of the British Empire against the Ethiopian Empire. Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia, also known as "Theodore," imprisoned several missionaries and two representatives of the British government in an attempt to get the attention of the British government, which had been ignoring his requests for military assistance. The punitive expedition launched by the British in response required the transportation of a sizable military force hundreds of miles across mountainous terrain lacking any road system. Harold G. Marcus described the action as "one of the most expensive affairs of honour in history"” (Wikipedia).
2. [AMERICAN CIVIL WAR]
JACOBS, John S. (1838-1912)
[Archive of Nine Autograph Letters Signed by Pennsylvania Private John S. Jacobs (1838-1912) to Parents and Siblings, all on Colour Patriotic Letter Sheets Discussing Various Aspects of the War Including Battle of Bolivar Heights (18 October 1861) etc.]
Various Places, 1861-62. Octavo (20x12,5 cm). Total 29 Pages. Brown ink on beige and blue colour patriotic letter sheets. One letter in pencil. Two letters worn with slight loss, two others stained but overall a very good archive.
John S. Jacobs of Hazleton, PA served in the 28th Pennsylvania Infantry, known as the "Goldstream Regiment." Their colonel was a temperance fanatic who prohibited alcohol in camp. Two of the letter sheets feature the regiment's name and a colored flag emblazoned with the slogan "Warranted not to run." Jacobs discusses the Battle of Bolivar Heights near Harper's Ferry (18 October 1861) and a skirmish at Point of Rocks (21 December 1861). He survived the war, married, and became a court constable in Wilkes-Barre. "The Battle of Harpers Ferry was fought September 12–15, 1862, as part of the Maryland Campaign of the American Civil War. As Gen. Robert E. Lee's Confederate army invaded Maryland, a portion of his army under Maj. Gen. Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson surrounded, bombarded, and captured the Union garrison at Harpers Ferry, Virginia (now West Virginia), a major victory at relatively minor cost" (Wikipedia).
3. [AMERICAN CIVIL WAR]
ROBERTSON, George R. (circa 1829-1862)
Archive of Four Autograph Letters Signed "George D. Robertson, John Cosgrove" Lincoln Cavalry Letters to Matthew Cosgrove, all on Colour Patriotic Letter Sheets Discussing Life in the 1st New York Cavalry.
Various Places, Jan.-Mar. 1862. Octavo (20x12,5 cm). Total 14 pages. Brown ink on beige colour patriotic letter sheets, including one Magnus "For the Union" sheet depicting the Massachusetts. Some mild damp staining but overall a very good archive.
This archive describes life in the 1st New York Cavalry, the "Lincoln Cavalry" formed in New York City by Carl Schurz. All of the letters are written in the first-person singular, but bear the same unusual closing in one hand: "Your friend and brother, George D. Robertson, John Cosgrove." The letters make frequent reference to "Jack," and one bears a postscript from G.D.R. Apparently, Robertson wrote these often humorous letters at the behest of John Cosgrove, an Irish immigrant who was presumably illiterate. The last of these letters offers a perhaps exaggerated account of an action near Manassas: "Drove in the Reble pickets, 14 of our boys charged on about 150 rebles, routed them & took 13 prisoners... We scared them so bad that they did not stop running till they were 20 miles beyond Manassas" (16 March 1862).
John Cosgrove (born ca. 1836) and George D. Robertson (ca. 1829-1862) both served in the 1st New York Cavalry, Company A, with Private Cosgrove surviving his three-year enlistment. Robertson reached the rank of sergeant before being fatally wounded; he died in a hospital in Chambersburg, PA in October 1862. "The First Battle of Bull Run, also known as First Manassas (the name used by Confederate forces), was fought on July 21, 1861, in Prince William County, Virginia, near the city of Manassas, not far from Washington. The Union forces were slow in positioning themselves, allowing Confederate reinforcements to arrive by rail. Each side had about 18,000 poorly trained and poorly led troops in their first battle. It was a Confederate victory followed by an embarrassing retreat of the Union forces. It was the first major land battle of the American Civil War" (Wikipedia).
4. [AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR]
HARVEY, Edward, Adjutant-General of the British Force
[Autograph Letter Signed, by an Officer of the British Force, with the Latest Report on the Military Actions in Canada in June 1776].
Cleveland [?] Court, 4th June 1776. Quarto bifolium (ca. 24x18,5 cm), 1 p. Brown ink on Whatman laid paper, docketed on verso of the second blank leaf. Fold marks, overall a very good letter.
An interesting commentary on the latest events of the American Revolutionary war, by a direct participant: “Dear Hoper [?], on my former enquiry I found that it was settled for the whole Regiment to Remain at York, while the Horses were at Gress [?]. Another attack, at Quebec. Repulsed with Great Loss. Howe at Halifax and all well. A Report that Lee is taken by Clinton in my opinion, not very probable”. Harvey mentions Americans’ attacks during the invasion of Quebec, General Sir William Howe and Fort Halifax, just before the beginning of the New York Campaign, and the siege of Charlestown by British troops under command of General Henry Clinton, with General Charles Lee being a commander of the American defenders.
5. [ANDAMAN ISLANDS, INDIAN OCEAN]
D’OYLY, Sir Hastings Hadley (1864-1948)
[Two Original Watercolours of the Andaman Islands, Titled on Verso]: 1) Ross Islands from the Aberdeen District Officers’ House, Port Blair; and 2) Government Rest House, Mount Harriet – Port Blair.
Ca. 1890s. Two watercolours on paper, each ca. 14x22,5 cm (5 ½ x 8 ¾ in). Period manuscript captions in pencil on verso. Later matting. A very good pair.
Interesting original watercolour views of Port Blair, the capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) and the centre of the infamous penal colony during the British rule. Apart from an unsuccessful attempt to establish a colony on the islands in 1789, Britain hadn’t risen territorial claims to the Andamans until the 1850s. In 1858 a British penal colony was set up for dissenters and independence fighters from the Indian subcontinent. Since 1972 the Andaman and Nicobar islands were administered by a chief commissioner at Port Blair. The infamous Cellular Jail was constructed in Point Blair in 1896-1906.
Drawn in the midst of the colonial period, the watercolours present interesting views of the Andaman Islands, including “Government Rest House” – summer headquarters of the British administration located on a beautiful Mount Harriet, the third highest peak of the islands. Another watercolour is taken from the Aberdeen District Officers’ House and has a great view of the Ross Island where the British administrative headquarters were settled. The artist, Sir Hastings Hadley D’Oyly, 11th Baronet of Shottisham (succeeded in 1921) lived and served in the British India. He gained the rank of Captain in the service of the Bihar Light Horse and later served as a deputy commissioner of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.
6. [ARABIAN PENINSULA]
DRUMMOND, Augusta (1842-1908)
[Three Original Watercolour Views of the Coast of Arabian Peninsula near Aden and Suez].
1878. Three watercolours on paper, from ca. 15x22 cm (5 ¾ x 8 ¾ in) to ca. 10x17,5 cm (4 x 6 ¾ in), mounted on larger album leaves, each ca. 25,5x33 cm (10x13 in). Each watercolour signed “A.D.” in the right or left lower corner, and captioned and dated on the lower margin of the mount. Minor mild foxing of the mounts, otherwise very good watercolours.
Three attractive watercolour views of Aden and Suez, with mountainous shorelines and dahabiyas sailing in the foreground. Dated October 1878, the views were taken from the board of “SS Sindh”, a steamer of the French “Compagnie des Messageries Maritimes” during the height of French colonial expansion in the Middle and Far East. The artist took the views returning from her honeymoon trip to India in summer-autumn 1878. The watercolours originate from an album titled “Sketches from Nature. Augusta Drummond, 1878-82” and are captioned: “Approaching Aden from on board S.S. Singh, Oct. 20th 1878”; “Aden from S.S. Singh, Oct. 21st 1878”; “Suez from S.S. Singh, Oct. 26th 1878”.
The artist was Irish watercolourist Augusta Drummond, an acquaintance of renowned poet and artist Edward Lear (1812-1888). She was born in Kilberry, Kildare, Ireland to Robert Verschoyle and Catherine Curtis. On 5th July 1878 she married Captain Alfred Manners Drummond, nephew of 6th Duke of Rutland, Captain of the Rifle Brigade, discriminating art collector, acquaintance and client of Edward Lear. The couple had a honeymoon trip to India in 1878, and subsequently travelled to continental Europe and Australia; the travel impressions were realized by Augusta in a series of skillful watercolours. One of them depicting Tasmania and titled “Browns River near Hobart Town” is now in the collection of the National Library of Australia.
7. [ARCTIC COMPASS]
[OLIVE OF CUMBERLAND, PRINCESS], SERRES [née WILMOT] Olivia (1772–1834)
[Official Printed Letter to the “President of Trinity College &c, &c, &c, Cambridge” Regarding the Princess’ Invention – “North and South Compass”]: To the Naval and Maritime Officers of Great Britain.., to ascertain the cause of the Mariner’s Compasses in modern use having so greatly vacillated in the Arctic regions..,
[London, August 29 1828]. On a folded leaf, size when folded: Quarto (ca. 24x19 cm). 1 p. With a hand written address, postal stamps and the princess’ wax seal on the last page. Manuscript text on the same page (probably written by the princess): “With the Princess Olive’s respects for the Knowledge of the University of Oxford”. Fold marks, paper aged, minor chip on the last page caused by opening, otherwise a very good document.
The letter addressed to all naval and maritime officers of Great Britain presents Princess Olive’s invention – North and South Compass “adapted for each side of the Equator; such being upon an entire new principle, and different to any compasses hitherto made, have been appointed of by the highest scientific and naval characters”. She “has been enabled, through her philosophical researches, to ascertain the cause of the Mariner’s Compasses in modern use having so greatly vacillated in the Arctic regions. The Princess Olive also has discovered, that a distinct and separate Mariner’s Compass is required in the North West and South East passages of the Ocean”. The Princess expresses hope that her inventions “which, in all their bearings, will be found so importantly useful to Mariners in general, will experience the patronage of the naval world”. At the end follows the schedule of public presentation of the models which will take place at the Princess’ residence, “No. 2, Park Row, Mills Buildings, Knightsbridge”.
Not much is known about this “invention” which most likely was a way to establish the Princess’ social status or to pay off some debts. An article with similar content has been published in the Morning Herald (1 August 1828). Although our letter is addressed to the President of the Cambridge Trinity College, the handwritten text expresses “Princess Olive’s respects for the knowledge of the University of Oxford” [sic!].
Olivia Serres, a British painter and writer, was also known as an impostor, who claimed the title of Princess Olive of Cumberland. “Born Olivia Wilmot, a daughter of a house painter Robert Wilmot, she married John Thomas Serres (1759-1825), marine painter to George III, in 1791. Financially reckless, she was several times imprisoned for debt. In 1817 she wrote a letter to the Prince Regent, claiming that she was the natural daughter of Prince Henry, Duke of Cumberland by Mrs. Olive Payne (who was her actual aunt). In 1821, she had herself rebaptized as the daughter of the Duke of Cumberland at Islington Church, and "announced" her parentage in several letters to the newspapers and in pamphlets. The same year, however, she was arrested again for debt and placed in the King's Bench Prison. She appealed to the public for contributions, placing posters reading "The Princess of Cumberland in Captivity!" all over London, and publishing, in 1822, further details of her claims.
Olive managed to persuade Sir Gerard Noel, a Member of Parliament, to make inquiry into her claims, but by this time the royal family was fighting back. In 1823 Sir Robert Peel, then Home Secretary, speaking in parliament, responded to Noel's speech in Olive's favour with a denunciation of her documents as forgeries and her story as a fabrication. It was concluded that her claims were false, but Olive escaped prosecution for forgery. Olive continued to have economical problems and was for the rest of her life in and out of debtors' prisons” (Wikipedia).
8. [ARCTIC EXPLORERS]
[Album Sheet with the Signatures of Naval Commander Admiral Northesk, and the Arctic Explorers: James Clark Ross, his Uncle John Ross, and William Parry]. "Northesk Admiral; Left London on the 23 May 1829 and returned from the Arctic Regions on the 19th Oct 1833 Ja. Clark Ross; John Ross; W. Parry, hydrographer."
[London?], ca. 1833. Album sheet, Quarto ca. 27 x 22cm (10½ x 8¾ inches) The signatures on paper mounted on a light blue album leaf. Signatures and album leaf in fine condition.
"Admiral William Carnegie GCB, 7th Earl of Northesk (1756-1831) was born in Hampshire to Admiral George Carnegie, 6th Earl of Northesk and Anne Melville..,
Sir James Clark Ross (1800-1862), was a British naval officer and explorer. He explored the Arctic with his uncle Sir John Ross and Sir William Parry, and later led his own expedition to Antarctica..,
Sir John Ross, CB, (1777-1856) was a Scottish rear admiral and Arctic explorer..,
Sir William Edward Parry (1790-1855) was an English rear-admiral and Arctic explorer, who in 1827 attempted one of the earliest expeditions to the North Pole. He reached 82°45′ North latitude, setting the record for human exploration farthest North that stood for nearly five decades before being surpassed at 83°20′26″ by Albert Hastings Markham in 1875-1876" (Wikipedia)
[Four Unsigned Watercolours After the Australian Views from the "Tracks of McKinlay and Party across Australia" by John Davis, London, 1863].
April - 12 May 1874. Four watercolours on paper, each ca. 11x16,5 cm (4 ¼ x 6 ½ in). Period ink captions and dates on verso of each watercolour. Minor mount residues in the corners on versos, otherwise a very good collection.
Four attractive watercolour after the Australian views from "Tracks of McKinlay and Party across Australia" by John Davis, London, 1863. The watercolours are after the following views, originally depicted by W. Wyatt Jun. And the author of the book: View of Lake Hope, or Pando (p. 88); View of Lake Camel (p. 95); Sketch of the Gilbert [River] (p. 362); A Camp of the Burdekin [River] (p. 376). Each watercolour with an accurate manuscript caption and date on verso. A very nice collection.
“John McKinlay was a grazier and explorer of Australia and leader of one of the search parties for the Burke and Wills expedition. In September 1865 he was sent to explore the Northern Territory and to report on the best sites for settlement. The town of McKinlay in north western Queensland was named for him” (Wikipedia). “He was an excellent bushman, making little of his privations, knowing when to push on and when to be cautious, and though he made only two expeditions, he ranks among the great explorers of Australia” (Australian Dictionary of National Biography).
10. [BEGUM OF BHOPAL]
[An Historically Important Archive of over Fifty Items Relating to Sultan Shah Jahan, Begum of Bhopal (July 29, 1838 – June 16, 1901) and Bhopal's Relations to the British Raj after the Mutiny of 1857 Including: The Canning 1862 Sunnad on Bhopal Succession, Formal 1862 Letters of Introduction and Departure by the First and Second Viceroys, Viceroy Lord Northbrook's 1873 Letter to the Begum About her Attendance at a Ceremony of the Order of the Star of India, Viceroy Lord Northbrook's 1874 Letter to the Begum Congratulating her on her Financial Management, two 1879 Letters from Viceroy Lord Lytton on the Conclusion of the Afghan War and a Cabinet Portrait Photograph of the Begum of Bhopal ca. 1876].
The "Bhopal State was an independent state of 18th century India, a princely salute state in a subsidiary alliance with British India from 1818 to 1947, and an independent state from 1947 to 1949. Islamnagar served as the State's first capital, which was later shifted to the city of Bhopal. The state was founded by Dost Mohammad Khan, an Afghan soldier in the Mughal army who became a mercenary after the Emperor Aurangzeb's death and annexed several territories to his feudal territory" (Wikipedia).
The contents of this archive include:
1. Earl Canning (Governor General 1856-1858, First Viceroy 1858-1862). The historically significant Canning Sunnad of 1862 concerning the Bhopal Succession.
A single large sheet of parchment headed by the large inked seal of the Supreme Government of British India, written in fine palace script, setting out the British policy to secure the succession of Princely Houses ruling in the various states. It promises that, “in failure of natural heirs any succession to the Government of your State which may be legitimate according to Mahomedan Law will be upheld. Be assured that nothing shall disturb this agreement here made to you so long as your House remains loyal to the Crown, and faithful to the conditions of the treaties, grants and agreements which record its obligations to the British Government.” The Sunnad is signed “Canning” at the foot. Bound by stab stitching into a half cloth with patterned papered boards folder together with some dozen related pages of letters and documents in Persian script. One of these has some gold leaf additions and is additionally signed by the Political Agent A R E Hutchinson. A covering document is a true copy of a circular from Major R I Meade, Agent to the Governor General at Indore, to Major Hutchinson which accompanied the Sunnad as it was sent from the Viceroy. Some of the other documents are counter signed by Major Hutchinson.
In the light of future problems over disputed succession this document proved to be highly important and equally contentious, especially in the 1920’s when Nawab Sultan Begum named her only surviving son Hamidullah as her successor in conflict with accepted laws of primogeniture. The reference to remaining faithful, as Bhopal always had been, is particularly important in this early post Mutiny period when the Crown had just taken over all the East India Company’s powers. This document is one example of the close British attention to matters of succession in Indian states. In Bhopal the British wished to maintain the succession within the Orakzai tribe which had been so loyal to the Company and the Crown. Marriage and succession were to loom large in the relations between the Viceroy and the rulers of Bhopal during the rest of the century.
2. Earl Canning (Viceroy 1858-1862) & Earl of Elgin & Kincardine (Viceroy 1862-1863). Formal letters of introduction and departure signed by the first and second Viceroys.
A formal letter written on a single folio sheet of watermarked paper in a neat secretarial hand addressed Nawab Sekunder Begum, Knight of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India – Bhopal dated Fort William 1st March 1862 and signed Canning. This first formal Viceregal letter of departure from office notes the friendly relations that have been maintained during a period which had covered the Mutiny. The paper of this letter is less strong than that used later and it has a strengthening repair to the fore edge and some chipping at the edges. Bound with it is a Persian copy, certified True Translation signed C U Aitchison, Under Secy to the Govt of India in the Foreign Dept. Together with a similarly addressed letter on a single folio sheet of paper in the same hand dated Fort William 3rd April 1862 and signed Elgin & Kincardine. He writes to inform the Begum “that on the 12th March I arrived at Calcutta and assumed charge of my Office.” The paper is somewhat fragile and there is a single tear at the bottom without loss. This has a formal Persian translation with gold leaf decoration, signed by the Political Agent at Bhopal A R E Hutchinson. Stab stitched into a half cloth with marbled papered boards folder with two other related Persian letters.
Although in less than perfect condition these two formal letters from the first two Viceroys set the tone for future relations between the Crown and the ruler. The use of the Begum’s British Order in full seems to be a way of recognising her importance at the same time as stressing that it derives from the Crown. Elgin died in office and was buried at Dharamsala.
3. Lord Northbrook (Viceroy 1872-1876). Letter of 1873 signed by Viceroy Lord Northbrook thanking the Begum for her loyal address after her attendance at a Chapter of the Order of the Star of India.
A formal letter written in fine palace script on two side of a plain bifolium addressed to Nawab Shah Jehan Begum, Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, Bhopal dated Fort William The 13th January 1873 and signed Northbrook, thanking the Begum for her letter to his Agent in Central India regarding her pleasure in the ceremonials attached to her investiture as GCSI. He promises to forward her “expressions of attachment and loyalty” to the Secretary of State for India for delivery to Her Majesty with her “Petition and accompanying address.” The letter shows the precise etiquette observed by Viceroys when dealing with letters from rulers. The letter has needle holes in the gutter margin where it has been stab sewn and stitched into a half cloth with marbled papered boards folder. Together with a Persian translation, certified true and countersigned C U Aitchison, Secretary to the Govt of India Foreign Deptt. With a further ten Persian letters [not researched], some with inked seals and signatures of Political Officers, one – like the Persian document above – decorated with gold leaf.
4. Letter of 1874 signed by Viceroy Lord Northbrook congratulating the Begum on her management of financial affairs.
A formal letter written in fine palace script on a single folio sheet of parchment embossed with the Viceroy’s royal arms in gold addressed to Nawab Shah Jehan Begum, Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, Bhopal dated Fort William The 10th April 1874 and signed Northbrook, acknowledging a Khureeta [letter] informing him that debt of 7 lakhs of Rupees on the Begum’s accession  has been liquidated. Northbrook notes approvingly that these debts partly represented “increased expenditure that has been entailed by the introduction of certain administrative reforms in Your Highness’ State.” This is bound by stab sewing into a half cloth with marbled papered boards folder with two Persian translations [probably of this letter and of the Khureeta] on gold leaf decorated paper, one signed as a “True Translation H Le P Wynne Secy to the Govt of India in the Foreign Dept”. Together with four other related Persian letters, one with an ink stamped seal and a British signature and another with an indistinct signature.
5. Two 1879 Letters signed by Lord Lytton (Viceroy 1876-1880) on the Conclusion of the Afghan War.
A manuscript letter written in palace script on both sides of a single sheet of parchment, embossed in gold with the Viceroy’s royal coat of arms, addressed to Her Highness Nawab Kudsia Begam, M.C.I. Dated Simla 30th July 1879 and signed Lytton. The letter thanks the Begum for her congratulations on “the termination of hostilities with the Amir of Afghanistan” and promises to convey them to the Queen. This letter is folded at foot and fore-edge to fit the binding and is accompanied by another letter using the same wording and also signed Lytton but addressed to Her Highness Nawab Shah Jahan Begam, G.C.S.I., together with true copies in Persian on gold leaf decorated paper, certified and signed by the Secretary to the Government of India. Sewn into a simple binding, the card covers with decorative local printed paper. The binding also includes an official copy on a folio sheet embossed with the small arms of the Govt of India, of a letter to the 1st Asst Agent to the Governor General for Central India [D W K Barr] from the Under Secretary to the Govt of India [Thomas Hope] thanking the Begum for her offer of sending the Bhopal Battalion for “employment in Afghanistan”, together with a copy of Barr’s letter to Hope and approximately 20 other related letters and documents in Persian, some bearing the inked seal of the AGG for Central India and with gold leaf decoration all housed in a half cloth with marbled papered boards folder.
A number of Indian rulers offered the British Government their troops on occasions such as the Second Afghan War. In the case of the Bhopal State this was particularly poignant as the ruling house derived its origins from a tribe living in the Tochi area on the Afghan border.
6. Cabinet portrait photograph of the Begum of Bhopal ca. 1876 by the Bourne & Shepherd ca. 13,5x10 cm (5 ½ x 4 in). In fine condition.
DRUMMOND, Augusta (1842-1908)
[Two Original Watercolour Views of Biarritz].
February 1881. Two watercolours on paper: ca. 17,5x28 cm (7x11 in) and ca. 12x17,5 (4 ¾ x 7 in), mounted on larger album leaves, ca. 25,5x33 cm (10x13 in). Signed “A.D.” in the lower corners, captioned and dated on the lower margins of the mounts. Minor mild foxing and chipping of the mounts, otherwise very good watercolours.
Two attractive watercolours of Biarritz dated February 1881 depict a vivid sunset over the mountainous skyline and calm turquoise waters, and an old lighthouse on Cape Hainsart towering over the crashing surf. The watercolours originate from an album titled “Sketches from Nature. Augusta Drummond, 1878-82”.
The artist was Irish watercolourist Augusta Drummond, an acquaintance of renowned poet and artist Edward Lear (1812-1888). She was born in Kilberry, Kildare, Ireland to Robert Verschoyle and Catherine Curtis. On 5th July 1878 she married Captain Alfred Manners Drummond, nephew of 6th Duke of Rutland, Captain of the Rifle Brigade, discriminating art collector, acquaintance and client of Edward Lear. The couple had a honeymoon trip to India in 1878, and subsequently travelled to continental Europe and Australia; the travel impressions were realized by Augusta in a series of skillful watercolours. One of them depicting Tasmania and titled “Browns River near Hobart Town” is now in the collection of the National Library of Australia.
12. [BRITISH GARRISONS ON MINORCA AND GIBRALTAR]
[Two Certified Period Manuscript Copies of the Financial Statements Regarding Wages of the Staff of the British Garrisons in Minorca and Gibraltar]: 1) Establishment of the Forces and Garrison in the Island of Minorca; 2) Regulation of Subsistance [sic!] to be paid to every Officer & Soldier in the foregoing Establishment.
Ca. 1730. Two leaves, both Folio (ca. 27,5x46,5 cm or 18 ½ x 11 in). Filled in on both sides. Brown ink on laid paper. Paper slightly browned, with some staining and tears on margins; both documents rolled. Overall in good condition
Two 18th century manuscript copies of historically important documents regarding the wages of the staff of the British garrisons in Minorca and Gibraltar. The papers contain copies of the signatures of George II, and politicians William Clayton, Sir George Oxenden, and Sir William Yonge; they are both certified as “A true copy” by government official. Richard Arnold.
The first document lists the wages for the garrison of Minorca, showing per diem and annual figures separately. The document accounts for wages for a regiment of foot (commanded by Col. Cosby), including field and staff officers, for a company of infantry, and a company of grenadiers. The final figure which includes wages for eight more infantry companies and three more regiments of foot (commanded by Col. Kane, Brig. Tyrrell, and Col. Handasyd) adds up to 51,136 per year.
On verso are "The Charge of the Garrison of Minorca" which accounts daily and annual payments to the officials and servants, from Governor to Signal Man; and gives separate lists of wages for the staff of Fort St. Anne and Fort St. Phillip. There is also a total figure (57,336 per year).
The second document contains a “Warrant for deducting one day's pay yearly” from the British forces in Minorca and Gibraltar for the “Royal hospital near Chelsea”, for the reason of "maintenance of such Superannuated & disabled Officers and Soldiers as shall be provided for therein". The official document under the signature of George II was “Given to Our Court at St. James this 4th May 1730”. On verso there is a "Regulation of Subsistance [sic!] to be paid to every Officer & Soldier in the foregoing Establishment” (Minorca and Gibraltar); it lists due wages for fifteen ranks of personnel, from Colonel to Private.
Overall very interesting documents detailing military matters in the recently annexed British possessions in the Mediterranean. "Under the terms of the 1713 Treaty of Utrecht Gibraltar was ceded to Britain in perpetuity, [and] Britain took possession [of Minorca] under the terms of the Article XI of the [same treaty]" (Wikipedia).
13. [BRITISH MERCHANTS IN SAINT PETERSBURG]
[Official Indenture of a Land Transfer]: Conveyance of one Sixth part of a Customary Estate called Skirreth held of the Mansion of Ingleton (Lancashire); between William Gillison Bell the Younger Esq. Of the City of Saint Petersburg in Russia merchant, and Thomas Graven Esq.
Saint Petersburg, 2 June 1816. Six leaves, all Elephant Folio (ca. 63x77 cm or 20 ¼ x 24 ¾ in). With a notary stamp, a small wax seal and six revenue stamps. Leaves stitched through on the bottom and folded. Brown ink on vellum, filled in on one side. Fold marks, outer leaf soiled and slightly rubbed, otherwise a very good document.
Interesting original real estate document written and certified in Saint Petersburg. Concluded between British merchants in Saint Petersburg, William Gillison Bell (of Melling Hall) and Thomas Graven, the contract was witnessed by local merchants James Liddell and John Ledderdale. William Gillison Bell was later listed as a member of the United Company of Merchants of England (see: A List of the Names of the Members of the United Company of Merchants of England, Trading to the East Indies… London, 1825, p. 10). John Ledderdale (1782-1845) was the father William Lidderdale (1832-1902), Director (1870), Deputy Governor (1887) and the Governor of the Bank of England (1889-1892). The contract was certified, signed and sealed by Saint Petersburg public notary Stephen Sasonoff on June 2, 1816, and further certified by the British Consul General in Russia Sir Daniel Bayley (1766-1834) on June 7, 1816.
“For two centuries after the foundation of St Petersburg in 1703, the British merchant community exercised a remarkable influence over the city's economic relations with the wider world. This community operated as a 'City of London' in miniature, and where the merchants led others - diplomats, travellers, soldiers, sailors, engineers, craftsmen and others - followed. As the new capital grew in splendour, Britons acquired or rented some of the city's finest residences. At the end of Catherine II's reign the city's first grand embankment along the Neva between the Senate (later Decembrist) Square and the New Admiralty Canal came to be known as the English Embankment” (Thompstone, S. On the Banks of the Neva: British Merchants in St Petersburg before the Russian Revolution// History Today, Vol. 53, No. 12).
Sir Daniel Bayley “became a merchant at St, Petersburg, being a partner in the great Russian house of Thorntons and Bayley (firm dissolved 30th April, 1810). He was appointed, 9th October 1812, His Britannic Majesty’s Consul-General at St. Petersburg, and was also agent to the Russia company. He was knighted 20th June 1815, and his services as chargé d’affaires, during the absence of the English ambassador, were also rewarded by the knighthood of the Hanoverian Guelphic Order” (Axon, E. The Family of Bayley of Manchester and Hope. Manchester, 1894, p. 19-20).
14. [BRITISH TRANS-ANTARCTIC EXPEDITION 1955-1958]
[A Stationary with the Letterhead of "The Trans-Antarctic Expedition" and Ink Signatures of Nineteen Expedition Members, Including the Two Leaders, Vivian Fuchs and Edmund Hillary].
Ca. 1955-1958. Octavo (ca. 21,5x19,5 cm). Printed blue letterhead of the Trans-Antarctic Expedition. Nineteen original signatures in blue and brown ink. Mild centrefold, otherwise a fine item.
The document bears signatures of the expedition leaders Vivian Fuchs (1908-1999) and Edmund Hillary (1919-2008), the leader of the topographical survey party in Victoria Land Joseph Holmes Miller; mountaineer Wallace George Lowe, John H. Lewis and Ellis Williams (RAF), J.J. (Hannes) La Grande, Kenneth Blaiklock, Rainier Goldsmith, David G. Stratton, Peter H. Jeffreys, R.A. Lenton, Desmond E.L. Homard, the expedition cameraman Derek Williams and others.
The 1955-58 Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition (CTAE) “successfully completed the first overland crossing of Antarctica, via the South Pole. It was the first expedition to reach the South Pole overland for 46 years, preceded only by Amundsen's and Scott's respective parties in 1911 and 1912.
In keeping with the tradition of polar expeditions of the 'heroic age' the CTAE was a private venture, though it was supported by the governments of the United Kingdom, New Zealand, United States, Australia and South Africa, as well as many corporate and individual donations, under the patronage of Queen Elizabeth II. It was headed by British explorer Dr. Vivian Fuchs, with New Zealander Sir Edmund Hillary leading the New Zealand Ross Sea Support team. The New Zealand party included scientists participating in International Geophysical Year (IGY) research while the UK IGY team were separately based at Halley Bay. Fuchs was knighted for his accomplishment. The second crossing of the continent did not happen until 1981, during the Transglobe Expedition led by Ranulph Fiennes” (Wikipedia).
15. [CHILEAN WAR OF INDEPENDENCE]
[Historically Significant and Important Period Manuscript Report of the Naval and Military Actions in Chile and Peru]: Estado que en el dia de la fecha tiene el Vireinato de Lima; Provincias del de Buenos Ayres recuperadas y concervadas por el Ejercito del alto Peru; y finalmente en el que ce halla el Reyno de Chile [The State at this date of the Viceroyalty of Lima, the Provinces of Buenos Aires, taken back by the Army of Alto Peru; and finally the State of the Kingdom of Chile].
Lima, 1 November 1818. Small folio (ca. 31x21 cm). 6 pp. Brown ink on laid paper with watermarks ‘A’ and ‘PLA’. Text in Spanish in legible hand writing. Later marbled paper wrappers. Manuscript in very good condition.
Historically significant and important period report of the final stage of the Chilean (1810-1826) and Peruvian (1811-1824) Wars of Independence, compiled by Spanish colonial authorities. Our copy apparently belonged to Joaquín de la Pezuela, 1st Marquis of Viluma (1761–1830) who was a viceroy of Peru during the War of Independence: there is a handwritten remark “Es copia Pezuela” in the end of the text.
The document is divided into three parts (“Vireinato de Lima”, “Egéreito del Perú”, and “Reyno de Chile”) and starts with the report of advance of the Royalist forces (3400 men under command of General Mariano de Osorio) from Callao to Talcahuano in order to regain Chile. Then follow the descriptions of Battle of Cancha Rayada (18 March 1818), Battle of Maipú (5 April 1818), San Martín’s famous Crossing of the Andes (January-February 1817) et al. A large part of the text is dedicated to the actions of the Royalists’ army in Alto Peru under command of José de la Serna e Hinojosa (1770-1832). The author reports on the numbers of armed forces in different provinces of the Vireinato de Lima and gives a picture of the wartime Peru from north to south.
Very important is the extensive material on the naval war near the coast of Chile and Peru, and the actions of the First Chilean Navy Squadron which was formed in 1817-1818 and eventually “terminated Spanish colonial rule on the south-west coast of South America” (Wikipedia). The report lists 12 vessels of the Royalists’ naval forces (Las fuerzas de mar): frigates Esmeralda, Cleopatra, Presidenta and Venganza, brigantines Pezuela and Potrillo, corvet Sebastiano et al. There are notes on the condition and amount of guns of each vessel. A separate list is dedicated to the enemy vessels and also details their artillery: Lautaro and Cumberland (bought from the British East India Company); corvette Coquimbo (bought from the US), four brigantines, and seven corsairs (Anglo-American and French).
The document reports on the blockade of Valparaiso in March-April 1818, and naval actions, e.g. The attack on Spanish corvette Resolution near Callao by the corsair force consisting of the British, American, Portuguese and Irish sailors (19 October). The text is concluding with the news that the naval reinforcement for the Royalists has departed from Spain: frigate Especulation left Cadiz on the 21st of May with 6 officials and 200 men from the Regiment of Cantabria, a part of a larger force which will embark in Callao and will go immediately to reinforce the army of Alto Peru. Frigate Maria Isabel will increase the maritime forces destined to blockade Valparaiso. The author has no doubt that “Our maritime force should succeed in destroying the rebels and will give us advantage in the reconquista de Chile”.
16. [CHRISTCHURCH PIONEER BICYCLE CLUB]
NORRIS, Joseph Gee Foxley (1857-1931)
[Manuscript Diary Kept during his Voyage to and Residence in New Zealand in 1880-1882, with Interesting Notes About his Cycling Activities as a Member of the Christchurch Pioneer Bicycle Club; With an Albumen Print Portrait, apparently of Him]: This is the Diary of Your most Obedient Servant Joseph Gee Foxley Norris, otherwise Foxley Norris during a very important and ever to be remembered portion of his life, commencing 1st April 1880.
1 April 1880 - 29 April 1882. Small Octavo (ca. 17,5x11,5 cm). Brown ink on paper, with insertions of violet ink and occasional under linings in red and blue pencil. [2 – blank], 90 leaves. With several ink sketches in text and an albumen print (a man’s portrait, most likely Norris, ca. 15x10,5 cm) loosely inserted. Original full limp morocco with gilt ruled borders and marbled endpapers. Norris’s carte-de-visite attached to the front pastedown. Spine slightly rubbed, one leaf with the upper half torn off, but otherwise a very good journal, internally clean and written in a very legible hand. With a 16 pp. Typescript of the diary embracing 1 April-8 June 1880.
A Victorian private diary with interesting and important first-hand account of the early years of the Pioneer Bicycle Club in Christchurch, the first of its kind in New Zealand (founded in 1879). The diary belonged to the Club’s member and “committeeman”, a keen bicyclist Joseph Foxley Norris, who immigrated to Christchurch from England in 1880. It embraces two years (1 April 1880 - 29 April 1882) and contains some lively notes illustrating the life of a bicyclist in the legendary era of the penny-farthings. The diary is supplemented with an albumen print portrait of a man, apparently of Norris himself.
The diary starts in London a few days before Norris’s wedding with Elizabeth Henrietta Thomas or “Poppy” (5 April 1880), and follows the couple on their short honeymoon trip to the Isle of Wight and subsequent travel to New Zealand on SS Norfolk (17 April - 12 June 1880). This first “pre-New Zealand” part occupies about one third of a diary and contains lively observations of society life on board SS Norfolk, and descriptions of her ports of call – Sao Vicente (Cape Verde) and Cape Town, with ink drawn sketches of the city of Mindelo and its inhabitants, and Cape Town.
After the couple had arrived to Christchurch (via Lyttleton) Norris, then in his early 20-es, started his career as a solicitor. The diary entries for this period are generally concise, with notes about his wages, letters received and sent, visits paid, newspapers and magazines taken etc. In spite of this brevity the diary is full of information about Norris’s cycling hobby, starting with the note that he had taken his bicycle out of crate on 23 June. Then come records of his numerous rides around Christchurch (along Papanui road, Riccarton, Colombo Street, Governor’s Bay et al.), with obligatory information about mileage; notes on special books and periodicals received, including “Cyclist”, “Wheelworld” and “Wheelman’s Year book;” special equipment bought: a helmet (18 December 1880) and a perambulator (16 April 1881). Even when his wife was in labour, he used his favourite mode of transportation to seek help: “At 2 am on her becoming worse I dressed in bicycling toggery and rode to Salisbury Street for Mrs. Barsby, who came directly she got her clothes on” (7 January 1881)”.
Norris joined the Pioneer Bicycle Club on 3 September 1880 and later became its “committeeman”. The diary notes about him participating in the club’s committee meetings, dinners and tours, including a strenuous Christchurch-Dunedin marathon which lasted for a week (7-12 April 1882) and covered impressive 242 miles. Since January 1882 he started riding tricycle. Racing is a topic of its own in the diary; with Norris having participated in both 1881 and 1882 anniversary races of the Pioneer Bicycle Club. The diary lists the names of winners of all races (Norris among them), their results and prizes received. Norris even records his training program for the races: “6 December 1880. Program this week: Rise 6 am. Practise on course 2 or 3 miles. Bathe in River, back to Breakfast. Practice again 5.15 pm, 2 or 3 miles”.
An entry for the 1881 annual race gives a dramatic description of the harsh reality of pioneer cycling: “March 4 1881: Pioneer Bicycle Races. Meeting of bicyclists & photo taken in Cathedral square; then procession up Papanui Road to North Belt & entered park from N.W. Gate. 1 Mile Club Handicap. W. Quirk, scratch; Dalton 250, Norris 275. I managed to win by a yard <…> In this race I was leading about two miles when a greyhound got on the path & upset me bending left handle. I mounted & set chase & about another lap a child wondered on to the path just in front of me causing another spill bending right handle & buckling wheel, tearing breeches, grazing arm & leg & bruising shoulder & arm. Of course I could not ride longer as handles turned round and would not steer properly. I walked machine home, fetched new [?] & and arrived back just in time for 10 Miles [Norris came second]. Having a heavier machine & being shaken in previous encounter I was continually on the lookout & therefore Dalton passed me in 8th mile & won by 150 yds”.
Overall a fascinating firsthand account. Norris was later a member of the Pickwick Bicycling Club; a record about him is in the National Cycle Archive (University of Warwick Library).
The Pioneer Bicycle Club was formed in Christchurch in 1879, and the Dunedin Bicycle Club in 1880. “These clubs abided by an amateur ethos, and were typically enclaves for young middle-class men who were keen to race their novel machines. But it is also true that a complex web of commercial activity surrounded race meetings during this period” (Cycling, Australia and New Zealand// Nauright, J., Parrish, Ch., ed. Sports around the World: History, Culture and Practice. Vol. 1, 2012, p. 382).
17. [CRIMEAN WAR, BALTIC THEATRE]
DUNDAS, Richard Saunders, Rear-Admiral (1802-1861) & PELHAM, Frederick Thomas, Captain of the Fleet (1808-1861)
[Original Journal with Period Manuscript Copies of over Seventy Official Orders by Admiral Dundas and Captain of the Fleet Pelham aboard HMS Duke Of Wellington and HMS Nile during the Second Baltic Campaign, March-September 1855].
Various locations on the Baltic Sea, 13 March-11 September 1855. Folio. Original journal, ca. 130 leaves. 139 pages numbered in hand. Brown ink manuscript in two parts on pages 1-18, 92- (= 77 pp). Original marbled boards neatly rebacked and re-cornered with light brown half calf; gilt lettered morocco label on the spine. Housed in a blue cloth custom made clamshell box with gilt lettered title label on the spine. Pages 103-106 and 133-134 have been taken out, possibly with the orders being censored or suppressed. Overall a very good journal written in a very legible hand.
Original naval journal, thoroughly documenting the orders given to the British fleet during the Crimean War’s second campaign in the Baltic Sea, in March-September 1855. The journal consists of two parts: the first with sixteen standing orders of Admiral Dundas, commander of the British fleet during the campaign, and second with over fifty memorandums and general memos of Admiral Dundas and his second in command Frederick Pelham, the captain of the fleet. The journal was recorded in accordance with the General memo from 8 April 1855: “One General Standing Order Book is to be kept on board each ship under my command in addition to a Book for temporary Orders. The respective Flag Officers, Captains, Commanding Officers will therefore cause all General Standing Orders issued by me to be copied into the Book to be appropriated for that purpose and their order books are to be sent to my Flag ship by an Officer to be examined by my Order Book” (p. 115 of the journal). The compiler of the journal might have been Pelham himself, as the last pages of the journal are occupied with pencil notes about genealogy of the Pelham family.
The orders and memos were written on board of HMS Duke of Wellington, a flagship of the British Baltic fleet during the Crimean War, and HMS Nile, 2nd rate ship of the line. The places of the orders change with the progression of the fleet from England to the Baltic Sea: Spithead, the Downs (North Sea), “Fermern” (Fehmarn) Belt (Baltic Sea), Kiel, Lubeck, Nargen (Naissaar Island, Estonia), Faro [Island] (Sweden), Tolboukin (Tolbukhin) lighthouse (near Kronstadt), [at sea] off Kronstadt, Seskar [Island] (the Gulf of Finland, Russia).
The standing orders include four notifications of “the strict blockade”, spreading further to the east with the movement of the British fleet and affecting: “Ports of Libau, Sackenbaun, Windau and the entrance to the Gulf of Riga” (19 April, supplement to the Standing order # 3); “Gulf of Finland from the Hango Island to the Dangerot Lighthouse” (3 May, SO # 5); “the Coast of Finland from Nystad to Hango Head, including especially the Port of Abo and including likewise all the Islands and Islets fronting the said coast” (15 June, suppl. To SO # 11); “the Gulf of Bothia from Tornea to Nystad” (12 July, suppl. To SO # 15).
A number of documents are dedicated to the Russian merchant vessels which were then in neutral ports and therefore could be captured at sea. The journal contains a list of Russian merchant ships laying in the harbour of Copenhagen (22 April), list of vessels in the Lubeck port under neutral flags “procured by sales which are considered to be fictitious” (22 April), information about ship “Ernest” under Belgian flag with “suspicious or fictitious papers” (29 April) et al.
Another issue that the British fleet had to deal with was the suspected transportation of arms for the Russians by ships of neutral countries. The memos contain information about Dutch ship “Tezlma” bound from Antwerp for Copenhagen with 12 chests “containing 352 Muskets, 131 Carbines, 150 Pistols” (p. 116); another Dutch vessel “Youthaudel” transporting “Muskets from Belgium” (29 April); brig “Otto” from Hamburg “nominally cleared for Brazil”, which “is suspected of having shipped Muskets and other munitions of War for a Russian Port” (30 April); two vessels in the Lubeck port “which are considered liable to capture or detention” (3 May) et al. A note from 11 July warns the British officers that "a large quantity of Colts Revolver Pistols have been lately packed at New York in Cotton Bales, and intended to be shipped on account of the Russian government."
Historically important is the General memo from 27 August informing about the bombardment of the Sveaborg fortress on 9-10 August – the main engagement of the 1855 Baltic campaign. Admiral Dundas informs the “Officers, Seamen and Marines” about the Lords’ of the Admiralty “entire approbation of their conduct on the occasion, as well as of the skill and gallantry with which the service was executed."
The other documents detail different aspects of the British fleet service during the Baltic Campaign: regulations of work of the mortar vessels, weapon use (“heavy Lancaster shells”, “Fuze for Boats Guns”, ammunition for the rifles), maintenance of the machinery of steamships, daily routines for ships’ crews "at sea" and "in harbour," rules of keeping of official ships’ documentation, specific instructions for the safe communication of H.M. Ships with enemy fleets under a "Flag of Truce" and others. Last two pages contain a later general memo from rear Admiral Fremantle, commander of the Channel Squadron, dated “Spithead, 24 August 185[8?]”.
Overall a captivating and historically important first-hand account of the actions of the British fleet in the Baltic theatre of the Crimean War.
18. [DALMATIA, TRANSYLVANIA]
DANFORD, Charles George (fl. 1870s-1890s)
[Collection of Twenty-Seven Original Watercolour Views of Dalmatia and Transylvania, Modern Croatia and Romania].
Ca. 1870-es. Watercolour and pencil on paper: one ca. 17,5x23 cm (6 ¾ x 9 ¼ in), seven ca. 19,5x14 cm (7 ¾ x 5 ½ in), four ca. 12x16 cm (4 ¾ x 6 ½ in) or slightly smaller, and four smaller ones, ca. 8,5x13,5 cm (3 ¼ x 5 ¼ in). Each signed by the artist in one of the lower corners; the majority with pencil captions underneath. Mounted on both sides of three large album leaves. Mounts slightly soiled, but the watercolours are bright and in very good condition.
Nice collection of watercolour views of Dalmatia and Transylvania, by Scottish artist, sportsman and ornithologist Charles George Danford. The drawings taken from life reflect Danford’s extensive travels across the Balkans and Southern Europe in the 1870-1880-es. Dalmatia is represented with large watercolours showing the environs of Dubrovnik (Ragusa): one of the city’s narrow streets and the cathedral and then ‘Castello nuovo’ in Katar (Cattaro), a street in Cetinje (Cettigne), Katar’s panorama with a serpentine road leading to Cetinje et al. A group of smaller images show Zadar (Zara), Neretva (Narenta) Gorge, small ‘Hotel Europa’ on the ‘Montenegrin frontier’, a distant view of Ogulin town with surrounding mountains et al. A series of watercolours is dedicated to the Pâclişa village in Transylvania (now a neighbourhood of Alba Iulia, Romania). Overall a beautiful collection of attractive views of the Dinaric Alps, the Adriatic Sea, and Dalmatian villages and towns with bright red-roofed houses.
“Charles G. Danford (fl. 1870s-1890s), born in Scotland, was an accomplished artist, sportsman and ornithologist. He was elected as a Fellow of the Zoological Society of London in 1874. In the 1870s Danford travelled extensively in the Near East. Some of these watercolours may have been painted on his travels with Crown Prince Rudolf of Austria (1858-1889), whose book, Jagden und Beobachtungen (Vienna, 1887) Danford translated into English as Notes on Sport and Ornithology (London, 1889)” (Sotheby’s).
[Beautiful Manuscript Account of a School Trip to Dresden in the 1920s, with Eight Large Pencil Drawings on Separate Leaves and Seven Lively Ink Sketches in Text, Titled]: Dresdenfahrt.
Ca. 1925. Quarto (ca. 25x21,5 cm). Black ink on laid paper. [T.p.],  leaves,  blank leaf. With eight pencil drawings ca. 17,5x13,5 cm (ca. 7 x 5 ¼ in) mounted on separate leaves, and seven small ink sketches in text. All pencil drawing and most of the ink drawings signed in the lower corners “W. Wehrs”, most pencil drawings are also dated 1925 or 1926. Period black quarter cloth with papered boards, an ink drawn silhouette of the Dresden Frauenkirche on the front board. Text block is split between leaves  and , otherwise a very good manuscript.
A lively manuscript journal of a school trip to Dresden, compiled apparently by a native of Hamburg, Saxony (the party took a train to Dresden via Harburg upon Elbe and Leipzig). The narration is divided into twelve “chapters” describing Dresden’s Frauenkirche and baroque architecture, Kurländische and Zwinger Palaces, paintings in the Dresden picture gallery and Sistine Madonna, Dresden’s Great Garden in comparison to Hamburg Stadtpark et al. Three chapters are about the group’s side trip to Meissen and climbing in Saxon Switzerland. The last chapter is dedicated to their excursion to the Seidell & Naumann factory (Dresden) – the largest sewing machine and typewriter manufacturers in the early 20th century Germany. The narration is illustrated with eight large pencil views of Dresden, Meissen and rocky landscapes of the Saxon Switzerland. Lively and humorous ink drawings add a nice touch to the journal.
The journal is supplemented with a large gelatin silver print of the Dresden historic centre near the Elbe River (ca. 17x23 cm, printed by Ratsdruckerei, Dresden), and a collection of eight views of Dresden titled “Der Dresdener Zwinger” (Ohlenroth’sche Buchdruckerei, Erfurt).
20. [ENGLISH LAKE DISTRICT AND SCOTLAND]
[Album of Twenty-Two Watercolours of the English Lake District and Western Scotland].
Ca. 1870-es. Oblong Folio (ca. 31x43 cm). 23 leaves. With 22 mounted watercolours, the majority ca. 17x25 cm (6 ½ x 10 in), others slightly larger or smaller. All watercolours with period ink captions in the lower corners of the album leaves. Period dark green gilt tooled half morocco with green pebble-grain cloth boards and moire endpapers. A very good album.
Album of excellent watercolour drawings made on the spot by an anonymous 19th century artist showing the natural beauty of the English Lake District and western Scotland. The majority of the watercolours show different views of the famous English lakes – Coniston Water, Rhydal Water, Grasmere, Easedale Tarn, Grisedale Tarn, Thirlmere, Derwent Water, Patterdale, Ullswater – with occasional islands, churches, cottages or rural fences on shore, boats in water et al. There are also impressive pictures of the surrounding hills and mountains: a view of Langdale Pikes taken from Lowood hotel, Mt. Helvellyn, St. Sunday’s Craig, colourful picture of Dungeon Ghyll Force waterfall, interesting view of the Bowder Stone depicted without a staircase (it was added not earlier than 1890) et al. The ‘Scottish’ views include a stunning view of the renowned bay of the Oban town with Kerrera and Mull Islands, several mountainous panoramas showing Ben Cruachan, ‘The Shepherds, Glen Etive’ (or ‘The Herdsmen of Etive’), pictures of the mountain pass of “Murford”(?) and of the magnificent Falls of Foyers.
“The Lake District is a mountainous region in North West England, a National Park of the United Kingdom (since 1951). All the land in England higher than three thousand feet above sea level lays within the National Park, including Scafell Pike, the highest mountain in England. It also contains the deepest and longest lakes in England, Wastwater and Windermere, respectively. A popular holiday destination, it is famous not only for its lakes, forests, and mountains (or fells), but also for its associations with the early nineteenth-century poetry and writings of William Wordsworth and the other Lake Poets” (Wikipedia).
21. [ESQUIMALT LAND TRANSACTION]
[Original Receipt of Land Purchase in the Esquimalt District, Signed by Colonial Surveyor J.D. Pemberton]: VANCOUVER’S ISLAND COLONY. ESQUIMALT DISTRICT. Received, this 9th day of August 1859, from John Matthias Ollis…
9 August 1859. Folio (ca. 33x19,5 cm). Printed document on blue paper, completed in brown ink. Signed “Joseph Pemberton”, docketed in brown ink on verso and signed “Graham Elson, ”. Fold marks, slightly browned at extremities, otherwise a very good document.
Very early original receipt of a land transaction on Vancouver Island given to John Matthias Ollis who bought a parcel of land in the Esquimalt District, lots LXI-LXII, for $196.00. The form is signed by Joseph Despard Pemberton (1821-1893), Surveyor General of the Colony of Vancouver Island, and docketed on verso by Graham Alston in 1865 registering the land in Absolute [Fees Book?].
J.M. Ollis was an Engineer in the Royal Navy, apparently stationed in Esquimalt; the “First Victoria Directory” (Victoria: E. Mallandaine, 1869, 3rd issue), listed a certain “Ollis John R. No fixed residence, freehold, Esquimalt district” in the district’s list of voters (p. 68).
22. [ESQUIMALT, PORT ALBERNI & HONOLULU]
CHEVALLIER, Barrington Henry (1851-1930)
[Historically Interesting Manuscript British Navy Logbook, Containing the Logs of Eight Separate Voyages, Including Voyages in the North Pacific, with Stops at Esquimalt and Port Alberni on Vancouver Island and Honolulu, Hawaii].
[Various places at sea], 1865-1870. Folio (33x21,5 cm). [Ca. 500] pp. Logbook in English, with twenty manuscript charts and four watercolours tipped in, five of the logs have manuscript title-pages, two in colour, four with flags and one with a printed picture of the ship pasted on the leaf. Period black blind-tooled half sheep, brown cloth boards, gilt-tooled morocco title-label on front cover. Housed in a modern cloth clamshell box with a black gilt morocco label. Extremities rubbed, front upper hinge with a crack but overall in very good condition.
Manuscript logs of eight ships: HMS Victory, Terrible, Victoria, Urgent, Malacca, Scout, Duke of Wellington and Bellerophon. The logs were kept by midshipman Barrington Henry Chevallier (1851-1930) from what was probably his first tour of duty in 1865 (after joining the navy in 1864 and training on HMS Britannia) to 1870, when he was promoted to sub-Lieutenant.
For the most part, the logs record the typical duties of a seaman of his rank. The numerous folding charts are excellent, as are the four watercolours. On his first two voyages, on board the Victory and then the Terrible, he sailed in the Mediterranean, with stops at Malta, Corinth, Patras, Cephalonia and Gibraltar. He then made a longer voyage on board the Urgent to the West Indies, with an initial stop at Bermuda and visits to Jamaica and Colombia. Chevallier then transferred to the Malacca, which was at anchor off Panama. After a brief trip to the Pearl Islands in April 1868, Chevallier was sent aboard HMS Scout, commanded by J.A.P. Price. It was aboard this ship that he undertook his first Pacific voyage, which took him from Panama to Esquimalt on Vancouver Island. On Vancouver Island the crew of the Scout met with the USS Pensacola. The voyage continued from Esquimalt to Honolulu, where the ship arrived in September. A second log for the Scout records a voyage from Honolulu to Tahiti, then to Valparaiso, through Tierra del Fuego, on to the Falkland Islands and then the return home to Spithead (15 October 1868 - 5 May 1869). The final two logs, of the Duke of Wellington and the Bellerophon, record coastal trips around Portsmouth and further Mediterranean travels. Chevallier rose through the ranks, moved to an office job in Naval Ordinance in 1887, married and settled in Kent, eventually becoming a Captain.
A very interesting well illustrated volume of ships' logs, including carefully plotted voyages with nice watercolours of Esquimalt and Kingston and interesting charts of the Pacific including the Galapagos Islands and a plan of Honolulu Harbour. Additionally, Chevallier describes communications with three Indian Canoes, the visit of an American Minister and British Consul to the ship, a 21-gun salute of the Tahitian Flag, the sighting of a Chilean Men of War (one bearing the flag of Adl. Blanca) and a Peruvian iron clad, etc.
23. [EUROPEAN TRAVELS]
SMITH, Charlotte J.
[Collection of Thirteen Watercolours and Drawings Made on a Trip to the Rhine Castles, Tagus River in Spain, Moreton Hall in Cheshire, Ghent, and Italy].
1827-1829. Oblong Folio (ca. 26,5x37,5 cm). 57 leaves. With 13 mounted watercolours and drawings (five within hand drawn ink frames), the majority ca. 17x25 cm (6 ½ x 10 in), others slightly larger or smaller. Watercolour, ink and pencil on paper. Six works captioned, signed or dated by the artist; also with her ink inscription on the front pastedown endpaper “Charlotte Smith. Nov. 30th 1829”. Album with period marble papered boards, neatly rebacked (gilt tooled brown red half straight grained morocco). A near fine album.
An attractive collection of watercolours and drawings by a skilled artist, showing preciseness and attention to the smallest details. The pencil drawings include three impressive views of the German Rhine castles – ‘Vautsberg’ (Burg Rheinstein) and the castle of Heidelberg (general panorama and a view of the inner yard); there are also two large ink drawings of the Tagus River with fishermen's’ boats, and a serene ink drawn view of Moreton Hall, a 16th century half-timbered manor in Cheshire. The watercolours are represented with a sketch of a baroque building in Ghent, two large views of an Italian city, probably Venice, with gondolas on water, locals lazily strolling down the street and laundry drying outside; an interior of an Italian (?) courtyard with impressive columns, a scene with two men in Turkish costumes taking water from a street fountain, an architectural style drawing of a reception hall, and a colourful sketch of a manor.
24. [FORT VICTORIA]
DOUGLAS, James, Sir (1803-1877)
[TRADE BETWEEN RUSSIAN AMERICAN COMPANY & HUDSON’S BAY COMPANY; Original Manuscript Account of Transactions between the Hudson’s Bay Company in Fort Victoria and Fort Vancouver, and the Russian American Company in “Sitika”, Titled]: Russian Amern. Fur Company. Outfit 1843.
1844. Brown ink on single Elephant Folio sheet (ca. 36,5x45 cm). 2 pp. Watermarked lined paper Ruse & Turners 1842”. Handwriting apparently in James Douglas’ hand, docketed and signed on verso “Russn. Am. Fur Compy. Ot. 1843, James Douglas”. Fold marks, otherwise a very good manuscript.
This historically important foundation document for BC and one of the first to mention Fort Victoria, details the trade and transactions between the largest fur companies in the Northwest Coast of America – the Russian American Company and the Hudson’s Bay Company. These companies were the main rivals for influence and trade in the region during most of the 19th century. A commercial treaty was made in 1839 with the active participation of James Douglas, then the head of the HBC’s Columbia District. “In return for the leasing of fur trading territory on the northern coast from Mount Fairweather south to 54°40′, the Russian-American Company received 2000 otter pelts and a number of other supplies” (Wikipedia).
The document compiled in May 1844 – apparently by Douglas himself – summarizes the transactions between the companies in 1843, an important year for BC as Fort Victoria was founded. The “Debit” page lists the amount of income for the freight on HBC’s barques Columbia and Diamond, maps of British North America sent to Nicholas von Freymann from London, and for the 1843 land otter returns – “East Side 3000, West Side 1408”. The “Credit” page contains entries on the bills receivable, drawn “on the Directors of the Russian American Fur Company by A. Etholene” [A.A. Etholen (1799-1876) – Chief Manager of the Russian American Company in 1840-1845]; supplies landed at “Sitika” [sic] for Ft. Victoria (28 pairs of Russian boots) and Ft. Vancouver, freight on Beaver and Cadboro (boots, a rudder, nails, iron, wood, fish and deer), as well as payment for Indians. The final balance of accounts is £13,789. 2s. 10d.
25. [FRENCH COCHINCHINA]
LA GRANDIERE, Pierre Paul Marie de, Vice Admiral (1807-1876)
[Five Official Despatches Signed “de La Grandière” Written while a Governor of French Cochinchina].
Saigon, 1863. 5 May - 21 August 1863. Five letters, each on a Quarto leaf (ca. 25,5x21 cm), each 1 p. Brown ink on watermarked paper; Written and numbered in secretarial hand, and signed by La Grandière; four on the official printed forms of “Expédition de Cochinchine” and one of the form of “Cochinchine francaise.” Very good letters.
Historically important official correspondence from the early days of French Cochinchina (1862-1954). La Grandière, a French vice-admiral (1865), served as the governor of Cochinchina and commander of the French Navy stationed in the Far East in May 1863 - April 1868. “His governorship <…> was the longest of all the naval officers who presided at Saigon during the 1860s and 1870s, the so-called “era of the admirals” in the history of French Indochina. La Grandiere acted decisively to stabilize the French position at Saigon and to expand French influence up the Mekong” (Taylor, K. A History of the Vietnamese. Cambridge University Press, 2013, p. 453). It was during his governorship that a punitive French campaign against Korea took place in 1866 under command of Admiral Roze. In 1867 la Grandiere consolidated under the French rule three Vietnamese provinces (Vihn Long, Chaudoc and Hatien), thus becoming the true founder of French Cochinchina.
The letters dated 5th and 8th of May, 10th and 23rd of July and 21st of August 1863, are addressed to French chiefs of naval and administrative staff in Hong Kong (Chef du Service de la Marine and Chef du Service Administratif). La Grandiere discusses orders for various equipment for the French navy in Saigon, including buoy anchors and galvanized silver chains to mark the channels of Cochinchina (5 May), and evaporation control devices for sloops Allon-Prah and Shamrock (8 May). The next two letters reveal the state of progress on the orders, with Grandiere cancelling the order for evaporation control devices, as the Minister of the Navy was to send them directly from France. The last letter confirms the cancellation of the contract with the Hong Kong firm (Cooper and Co.). He also discussed the issue of circulation and exchange of so-called “chop dollars” (American trade dollars) and their supply in the Caisse de la Marine in Saigon.
26. [GORDON OF KHARTOUM, Charles George, Major-General] (1833-1885)
[Two Items Relating to General Gordon Including: Printed Pamphlet]: SULLIVAN, Edward. The Truth About Gordon; [With: Signatures of Gordon's Sister ('M. A. Gordon') and Sister-in-Law ('M. F. M. Gordon'). Pamphlet: [London: National Union of Conservative and Constitutional Associations, 1885]. Series A. - No. 1.]
1885. Octavo (ca. 21,5x13,5 cm). 4 pp. Paper worn, with creases, stains and tears on extremities. Overall a good pamphlet. The signatures are cut from letters, and laid down on part of an octavo leaf from an autograph album, ca. 17,5x15 cm. The signatures are captioned in a contemporary hand. Both aged, but in good condition.
The very rare pamphlet is by Sir Edward Robert Sullivan (1826-1899), Lord Chancellor of Ireland, with only one electronic copy found in Worldcat. The pamphlet is a sharp criticism of the government of William Gladstone which is blamed for the death of Gordon. The initial paragraph reads: 'Before the British Elector makes up his mind as to whom he will entrust the honour of his country at the General Election, it will be well for him to "read, mark, learn, and inwardly digest" a plain, unvarnished history of the betrayal and death of one of the noblest heroes of this or any other age - GENERAL GORDON.' The text consists of several paragraphs, namely: 'Why he was sent', 'What he demanded', 'The hope that ended in despair', 'The end', 'Interest before duty' and 'Our duty and interest'.
The autograph note by Gordon's sister is on a slip ca. 4x10,5 cm, and reads 'Believe me yours very truly – M.A. Gordon'. The autograph of his sister-in-law (the wife of his brother General Samuel Enderby Gordon, 1824-1883) is on a slip ca. 4,5x7 cm, and reads 'Believe me Truly yours M. F. M. Gordon'.
"Gordon withstood a siege of 317 days supported by two white officers with native troops wasted by famine and disease. Then, on 26 January 1885, a fall in the level of the Nile enabled the Mahdists to succeed in a final assault on Khartoum. Gordon was speared by dervishes in his palace, and his dissevered head was displayed in the Mahdists' camp. Wolseley's river steamers came in sight of Khartoum on 28 January, then withdrew. Gordon's body was never found" (Oxford DNB).
27. [GOREE ISLAND]
[Period Manuscript Copy of]: An Address from the [Principal] Inhabitants of Goree to Lieut. Colonel Chisholm.
Goree Island, 26 May 1816. Folio (ca. 32x20,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Legible handwriting in secretarial hand. Mild fold marks, otherwise a near fine document.
Farewell gratitude letter to Lieutenant-Colonel James Chrisholm (ca. 1765 - 1821) of the Royal African Corps who has been the Commandant of Goree for seven years. British garrison was quartered in Goree during the last British occupation of the island of 1800-1817 (French reoccupied the colony on 25 January 1817). The letter is signed by twelve citizens of Goree, mostly French (Reni Dupuy, Pierre Lapolicett, Cader Francio, Martin Terranjou, Armond Laport, James Bradley, Ja. Lanim, Nicolas Jonga, Jn. Baudin, Pierre Louis, Fs. Defontnoy, Pierre Jurpin, Mayor).
“It is with sincere regret we the undersigned being the principal inhabitants of Goree, learn that you are about leaving this island, we cannot in Justice to our feeling allow you to depart without offering our most grateful thanks for your fatherly care and constant attention to forward our welfare”. The letter praises “the great improvements you have made in this Island”, “the state of defence you put the garrison in when surrounded by the Enemy’s Ships of War”, “the impartiality and moderation of your decisions in the Administration of Justice” and notes that “the high state of discipline you have maintained over the Troops under your Command not only secured to us our Property, but kept the most perfect harmony between the Soldiers and all Classes of Inhabitants.”
“The Friends of the African Institution are greatly indebted to you for your in remitted Exertions in carrying their humane and liberal views into execution. As a token of our regard and gratitude we beg you to accept of few Gold Rings and wear them in remembrance of us”.
James Chisholm was a British army officer who served in the Guzerat and Upper Bengal provinces of India (since 1796). In 1807 he took part in the British attack on Buenos Aires. “In 1808 he was promoted to a majority in the Royal African Corps, with which he served on the coast of Africa, and, during a part of that time, as Commandant of Goree. While thus employed, he uniformly and determinedly opposed the abominable and inhuman traffic in slaves, many of whom he rescued from their oppressors, and restored to their families and to freedom. On his departure from the Island in 1816, the inhabitants of Goree, French as well as English, voted him a gold medal, and an affectionate address, as a flattering testimony of the sense they entertained of his services, and as a mark of gratitude for the zeal with which he watched over the safety and interests of the Settlement. The Reports of the Royal African Institution contain abundant proofs of his cordial exertions in favour of the unhappy natives of Africa…” (Obituary/ Gentleman’s Magazine. February 1822. P. 182).
28. [HUDSON’S BAY COMPANY IN VICTORIA]
[Two receipts issued by the HBC to Mr. W. Wootton [?] for Rum, Sherry and Ale bought in the Victoria Store]: Bought of the Hudson’s Bay Co...
Victoria, V.I. 21 and 28 October 1859. Printed receipts on pale blue lined paper completed in brown ink. First receipt ca. 17x20 cm (half legal size), signed by C. Thorne and J.W. McKay; second receipt ca. 33,5x20 cm (full legal size), signed by J.W. McKay. Fold marks, otherwise the receipts are in very good condition.
Rare Hudson’s Bay Company receipts on the forms of its Victoria store. The receipt from 21 October is for Sherry and Ale, and is signed by famous fur trader and HBC associate Joseph William McKay (1829-1900); with manuscript text on verso: “David Cameron, Receipt HBC $ 30.50, 21st October 1859”. The receipt from 28 October lists two gallons of rum, signed by the store associate Cornelius Thorne; and two gallons of sherry - signed by Joseph McKay; with manuscript text on verso “David Cameron HBC $ 10.40, Oct 28th 1859”.
McKAY JOSEPH WILLIAM, fur trader, explorer, businessman, politician, jp, and office holder; he worked for the Hudson’s Bay Company for over 30 years (1844-1878). Mackay took part in negotiations with Indians near Fort Victoria, explored the Cowichan and Comox valleys, took possession of the coalfields of Nanaimo for the HBC; established sawmills; administered auriferous Thompson’s river district, Fort Yale, managed a salmon cannery et al. In 1856-59 he was a representative of the Victoria District in the First House of Assembly of Vancouver Island (see more: Dictionary of Canadian Biography on-line).
29. [ILE DE CUPIDON, MARINERS’ EROTIC JOKE]
[Humorous Erotic Manuscript Patent Given to “M. Pantelm” to Travel through the Cupid Island with Extensive Description of his Rights in the Domain of Legs and other Seductive Parts].
[France], 1843. Folio (ca. 32x19,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on white paper. Signed by four “officials” and with four “official” stamps. Worn and mildly soiled, fold marks, overall a very good document.
A humorous fictional patent given to a young mariner “Pantelm” by “Us, Ministers and Officers of Equatorial parties” allows him to travel like a butterfly (parcourir en papillon) in their domain of legs and other seductive parts. Other paragraphs “enjoin all individuals of female sex between 18 and 26 years old to shelter him properly and to go with him with or without a candle”; and “pray the janissaires les regime to let the bearer of this certificate to circulate freely in our cities”.
The patent is written in “Our fortress of the Line and sealed on March 1843”. The “Officials” are: “Minister-protector of pregnant women and orphans” (La Chaleur), “Chief Intendant of the Pleasures of the Line” (Lajoie); “Extraordinary courier, the Chief of country roads the Line” (Brule pave), and “Monsier en chef of the Line” (Pousse moulin).
A very unusual document.
CASPARI, Chrétien Edouard (1840-1918).
[Eleven Original Watercolour Views of Saigon, Bangkok and Scenes of Everyday life in French Indochina].
1877-1878. Watercolour and ink on paper; seven larger sketches, ca. 13x21 cm (5x8 in), and four smaller ones, ca. 10,5x14 cm (4 x 5 ½ in). All captioned and dated in ink in the lower margins of the images, with additional pencil captions or notes on the mounts. Watercolours mounted on ten period watermarked laid paper leaves. Mounts slightly soiled and stained, but the watercolours are bright and in very good condition.
Beautiful sketches taken from life by a skilful amateur artist, a French colonial engineer, while serving in Indochina. The collection includes several interesting views of Saigon showing the La Sainte Enfance School, St. Joseph Seminary (‘Seminaire annamite’), the house of the director of the French arsenal, a horse-driven carriage or ‘Malabar’ et al. The watercolours include some nice portraits of the locals, including a sketch of a Chinese merchant followed by a servant carrying his goods, portraits of Vietnamese women with children, people driving oxen carts, villagers et al. There is also a great view of Dong Nai River near Bien Hoa city (32 km east from Saigon) – a peaceful picture of a river with two people paddling in a boat and several village houses amidst lush tropical greenery on shore. The earliest watercolour in the collection, dated 1877, is a view of Bangkok. One sketch shows local plants – mango tree, bamboo and an Erythrina tree covered with bright red flowers.
Chrétien Édouard Caspari was a French hydrographer and astronomer. He graduated from École polytechnique in 1860, and in 1862-1902 he worked as a hydrographer and engineer in France, the Caribbean and French Indochina (the Gulf of Siam, Annam and Tonkin). Caspari was the author of an astronomy textbook for the Service Hydrographique de la Marine, and of numerous scientific papers, some relating to Indochina. He was awarded with the Prix Montijon of the French Academy of Sciences (1878), and in 1905 he became President of the Astronomical Society of France.
31. [ITALIAN MANUSCRIPT BOOK OF RINGS]
[Illustrated Manuscript in Italian Titled]: "Libro degli Anelli. Co. So. Ms. Pe."
1810. Duodecimo (ca. 13,5x8,5 cm).  leaves. Black ink on laid paper. With ten hand coloured ink drawings, including three double-page. Period full vellum stitched through with a vellum string. Binding slightly soiled, with minor worm holes on the first three and the last two leaves, otherwise a very good manuscript.
Interesting Italian manuscript of the Napoleonic era, illustrated with ten amusing colour drawings, including a double-page panorama and pair of French (?) military officers dressed in official uniform and cocked hats. The manuscript starts with three pages of Italian verses, followed by lengthy numeric tables titled “Libro degli Anelli” and “Lavori”. Although the purpose of the manuscript remains uncertain, it is an attractive illustration of the Napoleonic times.
32. [JAMAICA SHIPWRECK]
[Two Detailed Manuscript Testimonials of a Voyage of the Merchant brig Jane to the West Indies in 1780, and the Circumstances of Her Shipwreck during the Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane, Notarially Certified in Montego Bay and London; With a Period Copy of Jane’s Portledge Bill for 1781].
Montego Bay (Jamaica) - London, 1780-1781. Three Folio Manuscripts (ca. 44x28 cm, ca. 40x26 cm and ca. 36,5x22 cm) folded to Octavos. 3, 1 and 3 pp each. Each brown ink on watermarked laid paper, each docketed on the last blank page. Two signed by deponents and notaries, one with two tax stamps and a notarial seal. Fold marks, but overall very good and legible documents.
Interesting collection of three original manuscripts revealing the story of the voyage of British merchant brig Jane to the West Indies in 1780 and her experience of the Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane on 3 October 1780, during which she was considerably damaged and a large part of her cargo was lost. The documents include an affidavit, compiled in Montego Bay (Jamaica) on 10 January 1781 and signed by Jane’s Commander James Jones, first mate William Barrey and boatswain Sever Brown. The affidavit was witnessed before Samuel Mottershed, Esq., a Justice for the parish of Saint James; and certified by Ralph Montague, Notary Public in Montego Bay (St. James parish, Cornwall County, Jamaica). The other document is a notarially certified “Declaration of a protest”, compiled after Jane’s return to Britain. The document is signed by James Jones and William Barrey and certified by a London notary on 31 August 1781. The last document is a period copy of Jane’s portledge bill, for the period from 30 January to September 1781, listing twenty-six crew members (including captain), their station, length of service, and amount of wages due and paid.
The affidavit and declaration of protest give a detailed account of Jane’s voyage to the Caribbean and the circumstances of her damage during the notorious Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane which struck Montego Bay where Jane had been moored, on 3 October 1780. Jane arrived to Kingston from London on 1 August 1780, under the escort of HMS Thunderer and other men-of-war; later that month she sailed for the Black River where she received a cargo of logwood, mahogany and pimento. In Montego Bay she was additionally loaded with sugar and rum. Whilst there Jane experienced a severe storm, and in spite of the attempt to find asylum in the mouth of the Great River, the brig drag both anchors and was driven to a reef where she was struck against the rocks many times. The ship was a wreck and couldn’t be taken off the reef for another three weeks. The cargo, anchors and guns were reloaded in order to lighten the ship, and when the time came to reload, it turned out that a large part of the cargo had been “washed about the beach owing to sundry gales of wind <…> and many pieces buried in the sand.” In spite of the “utmost endeavours” some part of cargo were never recovered.
Jane returned to Montego Bay on 27 January 1781 and on 17 March left the West Indies for London, in a convoy of ninety merchantmen, protected by HMS Edmont Graffton, Trident Bristol and Endymion. The long, five-month return trip was perilous, with her taking “a great deal of water <…> so as to keep the pump almost constantly going.” The next day after arrival the captain filed the present declaration of protest at the office of a London notary which solemnly stated: “I do protest against the Seas and bad weather, and particularly against the Violent Hurricane which the said Ship met with in Jamaica when taking on board her said Cargo as above mentioned for all Loss and Damage happened to the said Brig and Cargo;” he declared “that when the said Brig begun to take in her said Cargo at Jamaica aforesaid She was tight Staunch and Strong <…> and provided with all things needful for such a Brig and Voyage. That as well During the time the said Brig was on Shore in Jamaica as aforesaid, as at all other times, he this appearer and the Rest of the said Brig’s Company Exorted [sic!] themselves to the utmost of their Power and used their utmost Endeavours to preserve the said Brig and Cargo from Damage, so that what Loss and Damage hath happened to the said Brig and Cargo was intirely [sic!] occasioned by the means aforesaid and not through any insufficiency in the said Brig neglect of him appearer or any of his mariners.”
WILLIAMSON, Adam, Sir (1736-1798)
[Manuscript Permit, Allowing Lieutenant Colonel John Perry "to go to Europe and to be absent from this Island for Twelve Months," signed by Adam Williamson, "Lieutenant Governor and Commander in Chief of His Majesty’s Island of Jamaica & Territories thereon depending on America, Chancellor & Vice Admiral of the same." Countersigned by William Shaw, Secretary].
Saint Jago de la Vega [Jamaica], 20 July 1794. 1 pp. On a folded double folio leaf (ca. 32,5x20 cm). Brown ink on laid paper, water seal affixed. Short period note on verso on the contents of the document "Lieutenant Colonel Perry. Twelve months leave of absence." Horizontal folds, paper slightly browned, but overall in very good condition.
Sir Adam Williamson, Governor of Jamaica and St. Domingo, fought in America in 1755-57, at the siege of Quebec (1759), at the capture of Martinique and Guadeloupe (1762), and at the Battle of Bunker Hill (1775). This official document was written in his office in Saint Jago de la Vega (now Spanish Town), the capital of English Jamaica in 1665-1872. At the time the British had invaded St. Domingo, then a French colony, to establish a protectorate there, which resulted in a five-year military occupation (1793-1798). Port-au-Prince had been captured a month earlier (4 June 1794), and Williamson to be made a knight of the Bath on 18 November and the governor of St Domingo.
The permit concerns Williamson’s aide-de-camp, Lieut.-Col. John Perry, who was later a judge in Jamaica and died there in 1809 (American Vital Records from the Gentleman’s Magazine, 1731-1868; reprint, Baltimore, 2007, p. 222).
34. [KANCHENJUNGA EXPEDITION 1955]
EVANS, Charles (1918-1995)
[Two Typewritten Letters Signed by Charles Evans, the Leader of the 1955 British Kanchenjunga Expedition, on Official "Kanchenjunga Expedition 1955" Letterhead, and Addressed to the Manager of the Swiss Watchmaking Company Baume & Mercier, with a Carbon Copy of the Answer].
1955. Three letters, 28, 29 & 31 December 1955. Two Quartos (ca. 25,5x20 cm) and one letter with the blank lower margin cut off, ca. 17,5x20 cm. Each 1 p. Two letters on printed blue letterheads of the Kanchenjunga Expedition, signed by Charles Evans; the letter by Baume unsigned. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good collection.
An interesting collection of three letters about the supply of the 1995 British Kanchenjunga expedition with chronometers. Charles Evans, the expedition leader, writes to L.C. Baume, the head of the London branch of Baume & Mercier watchmaking company, saying that he had received Baume’s offer to supply the expedition with watches. Evans declines the offer with regret since he had already agreed to take wrist watches from Rolex and “to regard them as our exclusive suppliers.” Nevertheless he would like to have “alarm of travelling clocks, which that company does not supply” and which “do not come under this agreement.” In his reply written the next day L.C. Baume says that “apart from electrical timing systems and industrial clocks, I can only supply ordinary wrist and pocket watches, sundry stop watches and navigational instruments. I do not manufacture either alarm or travelling clocks but if you have any difficulty in obtaining some of these, I could no doubt get some for you.” He also wishes Happy New Year and a success expedition to Evans and all other members.
“Charles Evans was John Hunt's deputy leader on the 1953 British Mount Everest Expedition which made the first ascent of Everest in 1953. With Tom Bourdillon, he made the first ascent of the South Summit, coming within three hundred feet of the main summit of Everest on 26 May 1953, but was forced to turn back. Everest was summited by their teammates Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay three days later, on 29 May 1953. Evans was the leader of the expedition which first climbed Kangchenjunga, the world's third highest peak, in 1955. He served as the Principal of the University College of North Wales (now called Bangor University), from 1958 to 1984. He was President of the Alpine Club from 1967 to 1970” (Wikipedia).
35. [LA PEROUSE, SECOND IN COMMAND]
CLONARD, Robert Sutton de (1751 - ca. 1788)
[Autograph Letter Signed to “Madame” Regarding the Mining Enterprise in Guadalcanal, Spain].
Paris, 24 November 1774. Quarto (ca. 23,5x18,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper, period ink inscription in another hand on the first page. Fold marks, slightly worn, overall a very good letter.
Early letter by a prominent member the ill-fated expedition of La Perouse to the Pacific (1785-1788). Clonard served as a second-in-command on board the “Boussole” and apparently died after both expedition ships wrecked near Vanikoro in 1788.
The letter is dedicated to the Guadalcanal mining enterprise which was founded and administered by Clonard in the 1760-1770s and involved investments from a number of French aristocrats and high ranking officials. The mine turned to be unproductive, and the company declared bankruptcy. Our letter is addressed to one of the shareholders, a French noble woman, and relates to the last phase of the company’s existence. Clonard informs the lady that he has just returned from the mines, supposes that she is already aware of the abuses of the administration and tells her about the measures he undertook to fix the situation: “M. Le Camus resigned the next day after my arrival to Guadalcanal, and M. Besnier resigned the day before my departure”. M. Geffrier was appointed the new general director of the mines. He proceeds: “After careful examination of all the circumstances of our enterprise, I assure you on my honour that my hopes are very strong and even beyond what they were before my departure from Paris. I can boast that they will fulfil in the course of the next month by the certainty of rich and abundant mineral. At least it is my opinion and that of our two engineers”.
“The Guadalcanal Company was run by the comte de Clonard, a naturalised Irish Jacobite, and brought together a range of ducs (Harcourt, du Châtelet, La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt), numerous great lords (the marquis de Bussy, de Lévis, des Réaux, d`Houdetot, d’Hérissy), aristocratic ladies of the industry (the marquises de Marboeuf, de Cambot, de Boursonne), comtes de Blagny, de Payre, de Custinem du Hautoy, a foreign noble Count Doria, the comtesses de Ruffey, de la Suze, de Coustin, the vicomte de La Rouchefoucald and president de Vaudreuil. In 1778 the Guadalcanal Company had absorbed over three million livres” (Chaussinand-Nogaret. The French Nobility in the Eighteenth Century. 1995. p. 108)
“In 1768 <…> Thomas Sutton, comte de Clonard, a member of the Jacobite trading aristocracy and a syndic of the Indies Company, secured a silver mining concession from the king of Spain at Guadalcanal in the Sierra Morena mountains. Among the shareholders of the new company, capitalized at three million livres, were the duc d’Harcourt, the duc de Châtelet, the duc de Liancourt, and the marquise de Marboeuf. When the company broke up a few years later, Sutton, who speculated on his shares, seems to have been the only shareholder to turn a profit” (Shovlin, J. The political economy of virtue: luxury, patriotism, and the origins of the French revolution. New York, 2006. p. 158).
RYAN, Rt. Rev. Vincent William (1816-1888)
[Autograph Letter Written as Bishop of Mauritius to “The Lord Bishop of Carlisle”].
St. James’s [Cathedral?], Port Louis, 12 May 1856. Octavo (ca. 20,5x12,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on blue laid paper, docketed on top of the first page. Fold marks, minor tears and loss of paper on top and bottom of the centrefold after removing from a stab, repaired on the bottom with tape. Overall a very good letter.
An interesting letter from the first Anglican bishop of Mauritius Vincent William Ryan, written about a year after the beginning of his service on the island. It is addressed to the “Bishop of Carlisle”, then Samuel Waldegrave (1817-1869) who held this rank from 1860 until his death.
The letter expresses Ryan’s “sympathy, encouragement & earnest interception <…> in the midst of much infirmity” and continues with the latest news of the Mauritius diocese: “Many things here continue to impress the need of spiritual help. 128,550 Indians form the chief subject of my thoughts - 800 Chinese are ready for a working Missionary. The descendants of Madagascar & Mozambique slaves are located all over the Island. Romanism here is very repressive. A Major honoured by the whole island buried without any Christian Rites because he was a Freemason; a large church building from the products of a lottery are [?] the old story of arrogance and meanness <…> The Tamil congregation in Town meets in our school room near the cathedral church <…> On Friday of last week I visited an inland missionary station where our small schools are succeeding admirably and the palisaded church was full of parents and friends, all creole or Malegashe & Mozambique <…> The cholera had been very severe amidst them <…> There are 1600 soldiers here. The general & the several colonels very ready to forward our wishes. Last year 15,000 sailors visited the port”.
In 1854 Ryan “was nominated bishop of Mauritius, a post for which his knowledge of French particularly suited him. He set sail for Mauritius on 15 March 1855, and landed at Port Louis on 12 June, accompanied by a catechist from the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. Although the London Missionary Society was represented in other ports of Mauritius, Ryan found only two clergymen in Port Louis, along with one missionary in the country districts. Notwithstanding, he took full advantage of the awakening interest in evangelical Christianity there. On 8 January 1856 he consecrated a new church at Mahébourg. Later in the year (on 11 October) he made his first visit to the Seychelles, which were included in his diocese. In 1859 he visited the islands again, and consecrated the new church at Mahé. He was particularly interested in the schools in his diocese and in the Hindu population. <…>
On 12 July 1862 he went with the special commissioner to Madagascar, to explore the possibility of establishing a new mission there. He visited the capital and the scene of the massacres of Christians, and returned to Mauritius in poor health. In October 1862 he revisited the Seychelles after the hurricane of that year. <…> In 1867 he finally left Mauritius” (Oxford DNB).
Ryan published and account of his service in Mauritius titled “Mauritius & Madagascar, Journals of an Eight Years’ Residence in the Diocese of Mauritius, and of a Visit to Madagascar” (London, 1864).
37. [MESOPOTAMIA - TURKEY AND IRAQ]
ESTCOURT, James Bucknall (1802-1855)
[Seven Watercolour and Ink Drawings of the Euphrates Valley and the Environs of Baghdad After Plates from J. Buckingham’s “Travels in Mesopotamia” and R. Mignan’s “Travels in Chaldaea”].
1828-1830. Watercolour, ink and pencil on grey and white paper, from ca. 11,5x18,5 cm (ca. 4 ½ x 7 ¼ in) to ca. 10x10,5 cm (ca. 4 x 4 ¼ in). Five drawings mounted on two larger album leaves, each ca. 28x22,5 cm (11x8 ¾ in); two are loose, with the traces on the old mounts visible on verso. All drawings either signed, dated or captioned, in ink or in pencil, on the lower margins or on versos. One drawing slightly soiled, with the pencil captions faded, otherwise a very good collection.
Skillful watercolour and ink drawings after the plates from “Travels in Mesopotamia, including a Journey from Aleppo to Bagdad” by J.S. Buckingham (2 vols., London, 1827) and “Travels in Chaldaea” by R. Mignan (London, 1829). Made shortly after both books had been published, the sketches were produced by British military officer and MP James Bucknall Estcourt. He was second in command on Liet.-Colonel F.R. Chesney famous Euphrates Valley Expedition 1834-37, an important survey of the navigability of the Euphrates River undertaken in order to ascertain a new overland route to India. The present drawings reveal Estcourt’s long interest in the subject which resulted in his senior position in the expedition several years later.
After the plates from Buckingham’s “Travels in Mesopotamia” include:
Halt of the Caravan and diversions of the guards by Moonlight – near Orfah (vol. 1, p. 68).
Approach to Mardin, a city seated on a Rock. Dated: Sept. 12th 1828, signed on verso: M.J.E. (vol. 1, p. 314).
Crossing the Tigris, and first approach to Drarbekr Dated: 20 Sept. 1828. Noted: “Horribly done, <…> try again” (vol. 1, p. 364).
Rocky Defile between Kara Tuppee and Delhi Abass, near Bagdad (vol. 2, p. 147).
Akkerkoof, or the Castle of Nimrod, 12 miles from Bagdad. Signed on verso: M.J.B. Estcourt. September (vol. 2, p. 217).
Tower of Babel & plain of Shinar near the banks of the Euphrates. Signed on verso: M.J. Estcourt, February 21st 1828 (vol. 2, p. 359).
The plate after Mignan’s “Travels in Chaldaea” is: Birs Nemrood from the N.N.W. Signed on verso: M.J.E. April 30th 1830 (p. 202).
With a small pencil drawing of a pyramid, ca. 8,5x12,5 (3 ½ x 5 in) mounted on verso of one of the leaves. Ink caption on verso of the drawing: View from the top of the Piramid [sic!] from M. Wyld’s Travels. C.A.W. July 18, 1842.
Estcourt "purchased a commission as ensign in the 44th foot on 13 July 1820, exchanging on 7 June 1821 into the 43rd foot (Monmouthshire light infantry) before purchasing promotion to lieutenant (9 December 1824) and captain (5 November 1825). Estcourt served with the regiment, which formed part of Lieutenant-General Sir William Clinton's division sent to garrison towns in Portugal (1826-7) during disruption over the succession to the throne. He appears then to have returned with the 43rd to Gibraltar, before sailing for Plymouth and, in 1832, Ireland. From January 1835 until June 1837, he was second in command to Colonel F. R. Chesney during his expedition to the Euphrates valley, which sought to prove that the river was navigable from within overland reach of the Mediterranean to its mouth on the Persian Gulf, thus shortening the journey to India. Despite a torrid period, during which one steamer was wrecked and twenty lives lost at Basrah on 31 August 1836, Estcourt produced a detailed report for Chesney, anticipating ‘no difficulties’ in passage during the ‘season of high water’, provided that accurate knowledge of the deep channel and a vessel of suitable length were acquired. He was less sure about the ‘low season’, owing to lack of information, though he was confident that local Arabs would not be hostile, once they became used to the steamers" (Oxford DNB).
38. [MEXICAN WAR]
MCCALL, Mary Dickinson
[Autograph Letter Signed Mary Dickinson McCall to her Renowned Brother George McCall in the 4th Infantry care of the Quartermaster in New Orleans, Recounting his Recent Heroism.]
Philadelphia, 15 June . Quarto (ca. 27 x 21cm). Five Pages. Brown ink on light blue very thin wove paper. Address panel with Philadelphia postmark on verso of last leaf. With fold marks and minor wear but overall a very good letter in a legible hand.
George Archibald McCall (1802-1868) was a career Army officer who had just distinguished himself in the Battle of Palo Alto, the first major battle of the Mexican War. Here his sister reports that he was now "decidedly the most distinguished man in the Army, and more talked about in Washington than anyone else." A freshman representative from Mississippi named Jefferson Davis stated on the floor of Congress that McCall's "cool courage did so much to set a noble example before his men... a more gallant spirit never entered the field." McCall went on to serve as a Union general in the Civil War.
39. [NAVIGATION IN THE CARIBBEAN]
[PATTERSON?, Charles William, Admiral RN] (1756-1841)
[Early Manuscript Report on the Navigation in the Caribbean, in Particular near Isabela, Aguada Bay, Mona Island (Puerto Rico), and Saona Island (Dominican Republic)].
1787 (entry on the Mona Island is dated “13 June, 1787”). Folio (ca. 32x20 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Manuscript is written in a very legible hand; paper aged and lightly-stained, with two neat stab holes in the margins, otherwise a very good manuscript.
Apparently compiled for the use of the British mariners sailing in the Caribbean, the manuscript gives a detailed and captivating account of navigation near the coasts of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola. There are complete descriptions of the waters of Aguada Bay and Mona Island, and incomplete texts regarding Isabela (Puerto Rico) and Saona Island (Dominican Republic). The manuscript derives from the family archives of Captain George Anthony Tonyn and his nephew, Admiral Charles William Paterson (1756-1841).
The manuscript is written with particular reference to navigation and thoroughly marks distances, geographical coordinates of the islands, bays et al., points of good anchoring sites, sea depths and currents, as well as all sorts of supplies available on shore. Thus the note on Aguada Bay starts: 'An open Bay and deep, requires no particular directions, coming from the North and Eastwd. You may round the North point at 1 Miles distance and keep as near the North Shore as you please, you do not get Soundings till you are within a Mile of the Town in 40 faths.'
About the provisions on Mona Island: “There are abundance of Wild Bullocks, which the Turtlers who come here occasionally hunt with dogs and shoot, also abundance of Goats which they hunt and shoot in the same manner. Very good line fishing, but no place sits to haul the seine”.
"Aguada is a municipality of Puerto Rico, located in the western coastal valley region bordering the Atlantic Ocean, west of Rincón, Aguadilla and Moca; and north of Anasco. Mona is the third largest island of the archipelago of Puerto Rico, after the main island of Puerto Rico and Vieques. Saona Island is located a short distance from the mainland on the south-east tip of the Dominican Republic, near La Altagracia Province" (Wikipedia).
40. [NEAR EAST]
MONRO, Vere, Reverend (1801/2-1842)
[Two Autograph Letters Signed “V. Monro” to the Rev. John Richard Errington Talking about Monro’s travels from Constantinople to Belgrade and Various Private Matters].
N.p., n.d. (postal stamp “Sept, 1836[?]”), and Breding Priory, 2 January 1837. Two letters Quarto (ca. 23x18,5 cm or 8 ¾ x 7 ¼ in), each four pages. Brown ink on Whatman paper, watermarked “1834” and “1835” respectively. Both letters addressed, sealed and with the postal stamps on the 4th page. Fold marks, minor tears on folds neatly repaired, minor holes on the 4th pages after opening, but otherwise very good letters with legible text and important content.
Two autograph signed letters by Reverend Vere Monro, a traveller to the Near East and author of "A Summer Ramble in Syria, with a Tartar trip from Aleppo to Stamboul" (2 vols., London, 1835). Addressed to his friend Reverend John Richard Errington (1808-1882), Monro informs him about his new project – to write an account of his travel to Asia Minor – and asks Errington’s help in it: “I am just new employed in working up my Tartar journey from Constantinople to Belgrade, & very much want some local information about the places through which our route lay. These are chiefly Adrianople - Sophia - Nyssa Phillippopoli. The late history of Nyssa the capital of Servia [sic!] must be specially interesting, from the monuments of slaughter still extant near the town. I conclude the Xtians have always been in a state of rebellion there against the Turkish government. Georgio Milosch is their chief. If you chance to be idling about the Musee you might hit upon some book containing information about these countries, or you may perhaps learn from some quarter what are the books to apply to for information of which I am at present entirely ignorant & without some local aid, I fear I shall break down. Pray let me hear from you shortly & say if you can help me”.
Monro also notes his new assignment as a contributing author of the “Bentley’s Miscellany” magazine: “Bentley applied to me not long since, to write for his Miscellany which comes out this month. I am not clear that the subject I have chosen will suit it, but if not I think it may be disposed of elsewhere”. He gives a positive feedback on the Errington’s “paper upon the Vase [?]” which “will be very useful to me as the subject is an interesting [one] & some knowledge of their formation indispensable”; remarks on the situation in France calling Louis Philippe “a wretched being”; tries to arrange Errington’s visit to Breding and discusses the latest social news.
“Vere Monro entered University College, Oxford in 1819 and graduated B.A in 1823 and M.A in 1826. He was ordained in 1825 and in 1826 was appointed curate of Stokesley, Diocese of York” (Wikipedia). After that he extensively travelled in the Near East and upon return became curate of Upper Beeding (1834). The account of his travels was published by Richard Bentley in 1835 under the title “A Ramble in Syria, with a Tartar trip from Aleppe to Stamboul”. Extracts from his manuscript journal were also published in J.A. St. John’s book “Egypt and Mohammed Ali” (2 vols., London, 1834) which was dedicated to Monro: first about Monro’s confinement in the Lazzaretto of Alexandria during the quarantine period (vol. 1, pp. 535-542) and second about the Temple of Kalabsha (pp. 550-552). Reverend John Richard Errington was a vicar in Ashbourne, Derbyshire, a member of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (1859) and the National Society for promoting education of the poor.
41. [NIAGARA FALLS]
EDMINSTON, John, Baptist Missionary
[Autograph Letter to his Baptist Fellow, Mr. Parsons P. Meacham from the Town of Cato, Cayuga County, New York, with the First Impressions on His Missionary Work in the Oregon City, Illinois and a Description of a Visit to Niagara Falls].
Oregon City [Illinois], 19 July 1850. Folio (ca. 25x19,5 cm). 3 pp. Brown ink on paper, addressed and docketed on the last blank page. Fold marks and minor separation on folds, two small holes on the second leaf after opening, but overall a very good letter.
An interesting letter by a young missionary of the Baptist Home Missionary Society. He was sent to Oregon City, Illinois in 1850, and, according to the Society’s report preached for 39 weeks in the Oregon City and for 53 weeks in the nearby town of Byron (Thirty-Ninth Annual Report of the American Baptist Home Mission Society. New York, 1871, p. 72). The letter was written shortly after his arrival to the Oregon City and vividly reflects on his first impressions.
“Ogle County is a promising field of labor. My prospects for usefulness have never been more flattering. This is a very wicked place, but the fruits of our Short Stay among them has been decidedly favourable. This is the Shire Town, Byron village 10 miles up the river, & a most beautiful location, & a number of Baptists scattered in the vicinity. Grand De Tour (deriving its name from a great bend in the river) in 10 miles below this place, decidedly the most business place in the Co. A number of Baptists here & a favourable opening for good. <…> There is so much to be done, I scarcely know where to begin. My reception has been quite flattering, & I hope much good will be the result. No country on earth is going to yield so rich returns, with a small amount of labor, wither in religion or temporal affairs. But it is going to cost sacrifice. We have good schools, but morals rather lax. The restraints of home and eastern society in a great measure have been thrown off & Society has felt it very sensibly. Will you pray for us. I never have felt the importance of being deeply pious as since my arrival in this wicked place. I am the first minister that ever resided here.”
Edminston also tells of the hardships during his travel with wife and children to the Oregon City from Buffalo, via Detroit and Chicago, and modesty of their first home in the Oregon City: “I write on one of my boxes, all the table we have yet; <…> bro. Hall is going to get us one for a donation, so we have not bought”. There is also an interesting description of his visit to the Niagara Falls “where the great God gethers a Contenant of water in his fist & dashes it down till the earth trembles,” with topographical details of the Niagara course and Goat Island.
The letter is addressed to Mr. Parson P. Meacham from the town of Cato, Cayuga County, New York. He was “from Massachusetts and came [to the town of Cato] in 1815. He is now living, aged eighty-three years, about a mile east of Meridian at what is known as Meacham’s Corners. He joined the Baptist Church in Meridian in 1831, since which time he has acted as its clerk” (Storke, E.G. History of Cayuga County, Syracuse, 1879, p. 290).
TAVENOR-PERRY, John (1842-1915)
[Manuscript with Thirty Superb Ink Drawings Titled]: "A Corner of Normandy."
1904. Quarto (ca. 28 x 21,5 cm). [ii], 88 numbered pp.with thirty plates of original drawings, including the frontispiece and title page. Text: brown ink on creamy laid paper. Drawings: black and brown ink on thick album or laid paper, all within red ink border, with handwritten titles. Occasional period pencil corrections in text. Original custom made quarter cloth with stiff card boards and two manuscript labels on the spine. Binding worn and rubbed, loose on hinges, but internally very good clean copy with bright drawings.
Beautiful handwritten manuscript most likely made with the intent of publishing a book, with thirty charming ink drawings made by a renowned British architect and medievalist John Tavenor-Perry. The manuscript is about the pastoral Pays de Bray region of Upper Normandy, “the dairy of Paris”, which is known for its medieval churches and historical buildings. The territory of the English Duchy of Normandy in the 12th century, Pays de Bray became the area where French and English architectural traditions merged, thus producing some unique examples of Gothic architecture.
Perry’s book consists of five chapters dedicated to several small towns and villages on the banks of the Béthune River – Neufchâtel-en-Bray, Mesnières (Mesnières-en-Bray), Bures-en-Bray, Saint-Valery-sous-Bures, Osmoy and Dieppe. The illustrations include attractive views of exteriors and interiors of the churches, with skillful sketches of the architectural details (windows, roofs, spires, pinnacles, entrances, columns) or church articles, like a consecration cross or an eagle lectern. There are also images of the town’s coats of arms and several secular buildings, e.g. Maison des Templiers and Grand Café in Neufchâtel-en-Bray, and the Castle in Mesnières-en-Bray.
The design of Perry’s appealing manuscript: ‘A Corner of Normandy’ is composed as a typical art book of its time and contains a half title, a title page, a table of contents, Introduction, List of Plates , and five chapters. The text of the first chapter, dedicated to Neufchâtel-en-Bray, was published as an independent article in “The Builder” (January 14, 1905. P. 33-34).
John Tavenor-Perry was a British architect and specialist on medieval architecture and crafts, a member of the British Archaeological Association. He wrote over ten books and numerous articles on the subject, including “Dinanderie; a history and description of mediæval art work in copper, brass and bronze” (London, 1910), “The chronology of medieval and renaissance architecture” (London, 1893), “Memorials of old Middlesex” (London, 1909) et al.
43. [NORTH-WEST FRONTIER & KHYBER PASS]
RICH, Edmund Tillotson, Colonel, C.I.E., R.E. (1874-1937)
[Unique Extensive & Historically Important Photograph and Document Archive of Edmund Rich, Summarizing his Service as the Official Surveyor of the British Colonial Forces in the North-West Frontier in 1905-1909, and Containing Excellent First-Hand Accounts of the Bazar Valley and Mohmand Campaigns of 1908, as well as a Detailed Survey of the Khyber Pass for the Planned Kabul River Railway and of the District between Malakand, Swat River and Dir.
The Archive Includes Four Photographs Albums with over 500 Original Photographs; A Custom Made Volume of Bound Orders, Reports, Maps, Telegrams, Autograph Letters, Newspaper Clippings etc. related to the Bazar Valley and Mohmand Campaigns; as well as 19 Loose Documents related to the Bazar Valley Expedition and Kabul River Railway Survey.
The collection is supplemented with a typewritten obituary of Rich, titled “Colonel E.T. Rich. Indian Frontier services”, and his photograph portrait in the uniform of the lieutenant of the Royal Engineers taken in the beginning of his service].
The collection includes:
Photograph album with the printed title 'Views of the Bazar Valley Field Force, 1908. Photographed by Captain E.T. Rich, R.E.' Peshawar: Mela Ram Photographer, . Oblong Folio (ca. 28x37,5 cm). 25 card leaves (numbered from 1 to 24). 63 gelatin silver prints of various size, including panoramas, mounted mostly two or three to a page; detailed printed captions pasted onto mounts. Map of the Bazar Valley printed on the rear paste-down endpaper. Original red cloth album.
Very rare Peshawar imprint. Collection of the official photographs illustrating the Bazar Valley Campaign (13 February - 13 March 1908) under command of General James Willcocks. The photos are placed in the following order (as in the Index prepared by E. Rich): Khaibar Pass, Chora, Walai, China, Halwai, Miscellaneous; and include large panoramas of the Bazar Valley, Walai camp, China; battle scenes, photos of destruction of Zakka Khel fortifications; portraits of soldiers at bivouac, sepoys in trenches, staff of the Bazar Valley Field force et al.
The album is supplemented with eleven loose documents related to the Bazar Valley Campaign: seven mimeographed copies of General Willcocks’ field orders (12-28 February 1908) and four autograph signed letters to Rich: from the Surveyor’s General Office (Calcutta, 9 February 1908) and from the Office of the Frontier Services (Dehra Dun, 13, 14 February, 4 March 1908).
Photograph album titled in manuscript 'Views of the Mohmand Campaign 1908 taken by Captain E.T. Rich R.E.' Oblong Folio (ca. 31x41 cm). 24 card leaves (numbered on both sides from 1 to 33), tissue guards. Ca. 127 gelatin silver prints of various size, including panoramas, mounted mostly four or five to a page; detailed manuscript captions on the mounts. Original black half roan album with green pebbled cloth boards.
The images give an invaluable first-hand account of the Mohmand Campaign (24 April-28 May 1908), showing British military camps, troops on the march, command post (General Willcocks and his staff), war correspondents (Lionel James from “The Times”); burning Mohmand villages and destroyed fortifications, jirgas (assemblies of elders) et al. There are also several interesting photos of the working survey team under Rich’s command, and some vivid snapshots, showing British soldiers “Bathing at Mulla Killi”, or “the swords of the 21st cavalry being sharpened at Shabkadar just before the Expedition started”. Nineteen images at rear are inserted as a memorial to Rich's younger brother, John Easton Rich (1879?-1907), Captain of the 2nd Battery of the Royal Field Artillery who died at Kirkee (Khadki, India). The photos show his hunting trophies, regiment, house and grave in Kirkee, et al.
Custom Made Volume of Bound Orders, Reports, Maps, Telegrams, Autograph Letters, Newspaper Clippings etc. with the printed title “Despatches, Views etc. of Bazar Valley and Mohmand Campaigns 1908”. Folio custom made half cloth folder with marbled paper boards (ca. 37x27 cm).
Includes: copies of field orders and official despatches, Rich’s survey reports, maps (including those cyclostyled by Rich in the field), relevant extracts from the Gazette of India, original photo of Rich with his survey team taken during the Mohmand Campaign, autograph letters and telegrams of congratulation on Rich's mention in the official despatches, and his brevet, newspaper clippings et al.
Photograph album titled in manuscript 'Views of the Khyber Pass, N.W. Frontier of India, taken chiefly by E.T. Rich when surveying there 1905-1909’. Oblong Folio (ca. 31x41 cm). 26 card leaves (numbered on both sides from 1 to 52), tissue guards. Ca. 176 gelatin silver prints of various size, including panoramas, mounted mostly four or five to a page; detailed manuscript captions on the mounts. Original black half roan album with green pebbled cloth boards.
The photos are placed in the following order (as in the Index prepared by E. Rich): Peshawar Plain and Jamrud; Khyber Pass from Jamrud to Torkham; Kabul River, Smatzai and Dakka (Afghanistan); Shilman Valley and Mullagori Road; Types of Tribesmen and Personal. Interesting images include a group photograph portrait commemorating the visit of the Prince and Princess of Wales to the Khyber Pass in 1905; photos from the Emir of Afghanistan’s visit to Peshawar in 1906; Jamrud fort and railway station, caravans near Ali Masjid fort, “A railway camp on the Kabul River, 3 miles from Warsak”, large panoramas of the Khyber pass in summer and winter, remote parts of the Kabul River et al. Over 30 photos at rear are vivid “Snapshots of E.T. Rich at work and play”.
The album is supplemented with seven loose documents related to the survey of the Kabul River Railroad: typewritten copy of Rich’s report of the survey results “Note on alternative Alignments proposed for the K.R.R.”, a draft of Rich’s letter to his superior with the analysis of his expedition; three telegrams with instructions from the India Survey office in Shimla, autograph letter with instructions from the Chief Engineer’s Office of the North Western Railway (Lahore, 8 May 1906); and a handwritten menu of a luncheon held in Landi Kotal on 4 December 1905 (on the printed form with the coat of arms of the Northwestern Province).
Photograph album titled in manuscript 'Views in Malakand, Swat & Dir Photographed and Compiled by Captain E.T. Rich, R.E.' [1905-1909]. Oblong Folio (ca. 31x41 cm). 26 card leaves (numbered on both sides from 1 to 48), tissue guards. Ca. 185 gelatin silver prints of various size, including panoramas, mounted mostly four or five to a page; detailed manuscript captions on the mounts. With folding manuscript map on linen mounted at rear. Original black half roan album with green pebbled cloth boards.
The photos are placed in the following order (as in the Index prepared by E. Rich): Peshawar plain, Abazai to Dargai; Malakand; Chakdara Fort; Swat Valley; Swat River Gorge and Agra; Chitral Road from Chakdara to Dir. Manuscript ‘Index map’ mounted at rear delineates the area of survey and marks the spots where photos were taken. Interesting images include frontier forts (Abazai, Malakand, Chakdara et al.), stations of the Nowshera-Dargai narrow gauge railway, river bridges, roads, wide-angle mountain panoramas, group portraits of the natives, surveyors with their instruments, British officers, their field camps et al. Last 13 photos depict the 1909 ‘Jehangira manoeuvres’ under command of General Willcocks which Rich took part in as the official photographer (images of the British troops, firing cannons, breaches in the Afridi fortifications, General Willcocks with staff, visiting ladies including Lady Willcocks et al).
The album is supplemented with a large folding linen backed map titled by Rich “Frontier near Mardan. 1 inch map carried by E.T. Rich in 1909[?]-1908, showing his survey for that year in red”.
Edmund Tillotson Rich was a British military engineer and surveyor, Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. He graduated from Sandhurst with the Pollock Medal and was gazetted as 2nd Lieutenant in the Royal Engineers. In 1895 he went out to India and was posted to railway survey work in Burma. In 1905-1909 Rich worked as survey officer on the Indian North-West Frontier, and took part in the Bazar Valley and Mohmand Campaigns of 1908 (as a divisional and a chief survey officer respectively). During the latter he was slightly wounded and for his services was promoted brevet-major. In 1911 Rich was appointed the head of the survey office on the Burma frontier post at Myitkyina, where he carried out the survey of the border with Tibet and Yunnan. In 1916-1917 he was in charge of the survey party looking for the alternative routes between Bandar Abbas and Kirman in South Persia; in 1918 – in charge of the North West Persia Survey Detachment which accompanied British intervention in the Caspian under command of General Dunsterville. Rich carried out important surveys in Baku, Batum and Tiflis.
After the WW1 Rich returned to Burma where he became the head of the Burma Circle of the Survey of India. In 1920-22 while surveying the unadministered territory between Burma and Assam he encountered slavery and human sacrifices still practiced there; in 1925 he took part in the Sir Harcourt Butler’s Mission to the Hukawng Valley to suppress slavery. Rich retired with the rank of Colonel and C.I.E. In 1929.
“Colonel Rich was a great linguist, and besides his knowledge of Urdu, Pushtu, and Persian, he was able to converse in Yunnanese and several dialects of Burma – Kachin, Maru, and Lisaw. <…> He was a keen explorer throughout his career and did much to encourage a spirit of adventure in younger officers who served under him” (Obituary/ The Geographical Journal, Vol. 91, No. 1 . Jan. 1938, p. 96).
44. [PACIFIC STEAM NAVIGATION COMPANY]
[An Official Despatch Signed “John Bidwell” to Mr. Walter Cope, Esq., British Consul in Guayaquil regarding the Project of “Direct Communication between Great Britain and the Western Coast of South America” via Panama].
London, Foreign Office, 15 February 1836. Folio (ca. 31x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on blueish watermarked laid paper. Secretarial ink numbers on top of the recto. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
An official despatch from the senior clerk of the Foreign Office John Bidwell to the British Consul in Guayaquil Walter Cope regarding the establishment of a new line of communication between the Great Britain and the Pacific coast of South America via Panama, instead of the long route around Cape Horn. This project was vividly discussed by the British merchants and residents of Lima, Callao and Valparaiso in 1836; and eventually a project of William Wheelwright won, with a proposal of a steamship line between Valparaiso and the Isthmus of Darien, and a mule and canoe transportation further to Chagres on the Atlantic coast. Wheelwright’s Pacific Steam Navigation Company was founded in 1838, becoming the first commercial steamship line in the Pacific.
In the despatch Bidwell refers to a copy of the letter sent by Viscount Palmerston to the British Consul at Panama on "the subject of opening through that Point, a direct communication between Great Britain and the Western Coast of South America", asking Cope for a report on the "general expediency and practicability of the arrangement and upon the several points enumerated in the enclosure, so far as the same are applicable to the place of your residence, and the district within your jurisdiction". Cope was also required to communicate with “Mr. Consul Turner, with whom will rest in a great measure the carrying this plain into operation”.
A detailed description the project of the steamship communication along the Pacific Coast of South America, together with texts of the original supplementary documents was published in P.C. Scarlett’s “South America and the Pacific, Comprising a Journey across the Pampas and the Andes <…> to which are annexed Plans and Statements for establishing Steam Navigation on the Pacific” (London, 1838, 2 vols.).
45. [PAKISTAN - GREAT GAME]
GORDON, George Huntley, Major
[Three Original Watercolour Views of the North-West Frontier of British India, including Peshawar and Waziristan].
1853-1860. Three watercolour and pencil works on paper, each ca. 25x35 cm (10 x 13 ¾ in). One work unmounted, two recently mounted on cardboard; one work with a manuscript caption in the lower margin, another with a pencil caption on verso. Very good bright watercolours.
Spectacular watercolour views of the mountainous country of the North-West Frontier of the British India, a volatile region of continuous raids by the local tribes. “Tribal raiding into British-ruled territory was a constant problem for the British, requiring frequent punitive expeditions between 1860 and 1945. Troops of the British Raj coined a name for this region "Hell's Door Knocker" in recognition of the fearsome reputation of the local fighters and inhospitable terrain” (Wikipedia).
The earliest view is dated 1853 and shows the formidable walls of the Peshawar fort, or Bala Hisar, lit by the summer sun. The fort was a winter residence of the Afghan Durrani Empire and became a British possession in 1849. Another watercolour shows a night scene on the North-West frontier, showing a fortress in a mountain valley with three men in traditional Afghan dress standing by a river bank in the foreground. The fortress is most likely also Bala Hisar, which in the 19th century was located beyond the city limits of Peshawar, and the river in the foreground is the Kabul River.
The third watercolour is an impressive view of the Derwesta Mountain in modern North Waziristan, a tribal administrated area of Pakistan. The watercolour was created during the First Mahsud, or Waziri Expedition (1860) under the command of colonel Sir Henry (Harry) Lumsden (1821-1896). The punitive expedition was eventually successful for the British troops, although the contemporary press reported of some serious losses: “The second expedition against the freebooting tribes of the Punjah frontier has not yet met with any brilliant success. Colonel Lumsden’s column has been surprised in a night attack by Wuzerees, and 200 of our men killed and wounded before the enemy was driven off” (Wellington Independent. Vol. XIV. Issue 1438, 3 July 1860, p. 5). The watercolour is captioned ‘Summit of Durwishta. Wuz-e-ree expedition 1860’.
The artist, George Huntley Gordon, is first mentioned as a Captain, and then as a Major; obviously a participant of the Wasiri Expedition 1860.
46. [PALESTINE EXPLORATION FUND]
HANSON, Joseph, Lance-Corporal, Royal Engineers
[Autograph Letter Signed 'J. A. Hanson, Explorer for the Palestine Exploration Fund' to his Parents Regarding the Excavations in Old Jerusalem].
Jerusalem, Palestine, 31 May 1868. Quarto (ca. 26,5x21 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on paper. 105 lines of text, clear and complete. Paper aged and sometimes mildly worn on folds, otherwise a very good letter.
Important eye witness account of the first major excavation of Jerusalem’s Temple Mount undertaken in 1867-1870 by Captain Charles Warren (1840-1927) on assignment of the Palestine Exploration Fund. This is a private letter by a member of the excavation party Lance Corporal J. Hanson who was mentioned in Warren’s account of the mission “The recovery of Jerusalem: a narrative of exploration and discovery in the city and the Holy Land” (New York, 1871). The letter is semi-literate, and all quotations are given according to the original.
First of all, Hanson witnesses the troubles caused to the Warren’s party by the Muslim Governor of Jerusalem who often stopped the excavations. The permission letter from Constantinople authorized Warren “to excavate anywhere, except in the Haram Area, and sites sacred to Christians and Moslems” (See: Our work in Palestine: an account of the different expeditions sent out to the Holy land by the committee of the Palestine exploration fund. London, 1873, p. 97), which in fact didn’t allow any works on the Temple Mount (Haram Ash-Sharif). Hanson reports that Warren had embarked for England “also to make a complant against the Governor, the "Pasha" of this City who is interfering with our Excavations without us Giveing Him Any couse whatsowever. He couse us a very great del of trouble in trying to stop our works […] I trust he [Warren] will gain us permit ‘that is the Palestine Exploration Fun [sic] is atplieing to Constantinoble for permission from the "Sulton" to proceed further in our Excavation within the "Walls" of this "Holy City"”.
Hanson gives very interesting notes about the progress of the excavation: “I am now excavatin to the west of mount "Sion" and also out Side of the east Walles of the City. I have found a great number of peaces of Pottery also carved Stones Marble Glass of all colors also a number of ancient Monny &c. Those ar found at the depth of 60 feet and apward and at this depth from the Surface it is very dangerious Work”. Hanson reports that he is excavating “the ancion wall of the city of Jerusalem […] with 40 [or 70?] Laborers”, many of whom he has lost to “the ferver”. He also notes that he has '”dellings with a great Number of Criston Jews” and has them employed “as overseers on the works”.
Hanson vividly describes the new harvest in Jerusalem: “Ere this Avineyard is looking most Magnificence also the apricots Trees this Fruit is very plentifull in Palestine you can by apricots 14lb. For one penny very fine the Figs also is very fine. Vegtable-Marrow and cucumbers come into this City in cartlodes from Jaffa, and the surrounding Villigis”. He mentions a “Great fested with the "Jewes" of all nacsions in this City on the 27th. Of this Month”, complains about the heat, and bright sun in Jerusalem, so strong that there are “a very great number of people of all nactions totally Blind in this city”; as well as about “confounded Miscakco” [moscitos?] who “bit very hard”.
Overall a very interesting historical document adding nice details to the history of the first major excavation in Jerusalem.
47. [PASSPORT, THE KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA]
[Official Passport Given to Prussian Photographer Friedrich Karl August Kühnemann for Travels to Russia, with the Translation into Russian and a Dozen Notes by Various Consular and Border Officers on Verso].
Berlin: Königl. Preuss. Ministere des Innern, 10 February 1857. Elephant Folio broadside (ca. 45x33 cm), with the additional leaf for border officers’ entries attached to the bottom (ca. 20,5x33 cm). 1 p. Official woodcut passport form filled in brown ink. With over a dozen officials’ entries and stamps on verso. Fold marks, paper age toned, worn on extremities, but overall a very good document.
Interesting example of a 19th century European travel passport. It was given to a “portrait maker and photographer” Friedrich Karl August Kühnemann, a native and resident of Berlin, for his work in Russia and was valid for one year. The passport features a description of Kühnemann’s appearance: “26 years old, of medium height, hair and eyebrows fair, eyes brown, nose and mouth ordinary, chin and face oblong”. The notes left by consular or border officials range from 29 January/10 February to 25 October/3 November 1857. According to them, Kühnemann travelled via Austria and Breslau, crossed the Russian border at Brody, and proceeded to Husiatin, Kamenets-Podolsky and Odessa.
48. [PORTUGUESE ROYAL FAMILY EVACUATION TO BRAZIL]
[Printed Broadside Announcing the Evacuation of the Portuguese Royal Family, as well as Naval and Military Personnel to Brazil on British Naval Vessels]: Proclamacao do Commandante Britannico.
Ca. 1807. Folio broadside (ca. 31,5x21 cm). 1 p. Watermarked British laid paper. A very good document.
An interesting rare broadside, quite possibly issued by Sir Sidney Smith from his flagship HMS Bedford on the Tagus, regarding the evacuation of the Portuguese royal family, as well as military and naval personnel to Brazil. The “Commandante Britannico” states that vessels from the British squadron will be made available to take refugees to Falmouth where they can await further ships to take them to Brazil.
“The transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil refers to the escape of the Braganza royal family and its court of nearly 15,000 people from Lisbon on November 29, 1807. The Braganza royal family departed for the Portuguese colony of Brazil just days before Napoleonic forces invaded Lisbon on December 1. The royal party navigated under the protection of the British Royal Navy, under the command of Admiral Sir Sidney Smith. The Portuguese crown remained in Brazil from 1808 until the Liberal Revolution of 1820 led to the return of John VI of Portugal on April 26, 1821. For thirteen years, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, functioned as the capital of the Kingdom of Portugal in what some historians call a "metropolitan reversal" (i.e., a colony exercising governance over the entirety of the Portuguese empire)” (Wikipedia).
49. [ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY OF GREAT BRITAIN & IRELAND]
Founding Documents of the Royal Asiatic Society, Including: In Manuscript: The Asiatic Society Prospectus. [With] Printed List of Members of the Asiatic Society of London; with Inscriptions by Henry Thomas Colebrooke (1765-1837), the Marquis of Lansdowne and poet Rev. George Crabbe (1754-1832).
London, Jan./Feb. 1823. List of Members: Quarto ca. 23 x 18 cm (9x7 in). Two pages. Folded, weak on folds, red seal with chip to blank of left margin. Prospectus: Quarto ca. 23 x 19 cm (9x 7 ½ in). Four pages. Watermarked laid paper; small tear and chipping at centrefold, text complete and clear. Overall both in very good condition.
A pair of important documents relating to the founding of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Printed list "Original Members of the Asiatic Society of
London" contains 27 names including Sinologist Sir George Thomas Staunton (1781-1859), colonial official in Ceylon Sir Alexander Johnston (1775-1849), Orientalist and Society’s mastermind Henry Thomas Colebrooke, administrator in India Sir John Malcolm (1769-1833), et al. The list has a manuscript note by Colebrooke "with Major Colebrooke's sincere regards 24 Jany 1823" likely from one of the first Society’s preliminary meetings. There’s also a superscription to the Rev. G. Crabbe by the Earl of Lansdowne dated 1823, and manuscript poetical jottings by Crabbe, a total of 37 lines. A later note on reverse describes the item: "On the outside is written in the handwriting of the Marquis of Lansdowne the address of the Revd George Crabbe, the poet, who filled up the vacant space with a short unpublished piece of poetry (in his own handwriting)".
The prospectus informs about the date, place and agenda of the Society’s first General Meeting (15 March 1823); describes the procedure of Election of a Council and Officers, Council’s composition; the ballot; resolutions (name, designation of members, evolution of statutes and next general meeting). Noteworthy is the description of the functions of the Director’ Office, which is "proposed to be instituted expressly for the purpose of effectually sustaining and promoting Oriental Literature <..,> one of the leading objects, which the Society has in view." It was Henry Thomas Colebrooke who became the first Director of the Society.
"Colebrooke was the individual who played the greatest part in founding and establishing the (later Royal) Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland. He took the chair at all the preliminary meetings; the first, on 9 January 1823, was held at his house. It was evidently felt that the president should be someone of higher rank and greater influence; but it was unanimously decided to appoint, immediately below the president, a director, ‘under whose particular care and protection Asiatic literature should be placed’. In this capacity Colebrooke was ‘called to the chair’ at the society's first general meeting on 15 March 1823. In his address he said that England had a special mission to repay a debt of gratitude to India. For the next three years he presided at most meetings both of the society and of its governing council; evidently it was he who really ran the society" (Oxford DNB).
50. [ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY]
OUSELEY, Gore, Sir (1770-1844)
[Autograph Letter Signed, Regarding Ouseley Activities in the Royal Asiatic Society and Mentioning George FitzClarence and the First Edition of "The Travels of Ibn Batuta"].
Woolmers, Hertford, 22 October 1829. Octavo (ca. 20,5x16 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on paper. Mild folds, light toning, remains of guards, but overall a very good letter.
An interesting letter from Sir Gore Ouseley, British diplomat and orientalist, noted for preparing the Treaty of Gulistan (1814) between Russia and Persia while serving as ambassador in Persia in 1810-1815. The letter relates to the Royal Asiatic Society which was founded in 1823 with the close participation of Ouseley. "He was one of those responsible for the founding of the Royal Asiatic Society in London in 1823 and was associated with the formation of the oriental translation committee, of which he was elected chairman. He became president of the Society for the Publication of Oriental Texts, formed in 1842" (Oxford DNB).
In the letter Ouseley thanks his addressee for "information about Col. FitzClarence" - obviously, meaning George Augustus Frederick FitzClarence (1794-1842), a military officer who served in India and also became an orientalist and a founder of the Royal Asiatic Society. Noteworthy is the fact, that FitzClarence "was a member of the society's committee preparing plans for publishing translations of oriental works, and was subsequently deputy chairman and vice-president of the Oriental Translation Fund" (Oxford DNB). It explains Ouseley writing that "in the course of a day or two I shall have a letter ready for the Ambassador at Constantinople to accompany the Copy of Ibn Batuta for the Sultan." He obviously meant "The travels of Ibn Batuta" - a history of travels of a famous Medieval Muslim explorer Ibn Battuta (1304-1368 or 1369) which has just been published by John Murray "for the Oriental Translation Committee" where Ouseley and FitzClarence were both members .
At the end of the letter Ouseley gives his opinion on the circulation of the reports, probably of the Society: "I think 40 or 50 might be selected to have them sent to, but certainly not more! And I [?] find that the number I have mentioned is much greater that those who would take the trouble of reading them." A nice letter revealing details of the history of the Royal Asiatic Society.
51. [ROYAL GEOGRAPHICAL SOCIETY]
[Official Diploma Acknowledging Professor Jean Du Fief an Honorary Corresponding Member of the Royal Geographical Society; Signed by the Society President the Marquess of Lorne, and Secretaries Clements R. Markham and Douglas W. Freshfied].
[London], 12 April 1886. 1 p. Elephant Folio (ca. 55,5x40 cm). On the official engraved form of the Society, with the obverse and the reverse sides of the Founder’s Medal reproduced above the text. Finished in brown ink, signed on foot. Slightly soiled, Lorne’s signature smudged, minor creases, otherwise a very good document.
This diploma, signed by the President of the Royal Geographical Society John Campbell (“Lorne”), and the secretaries Clements Markham and Douglas Freshfield, recognises the services of Belgian Professor Jean du Fief (1829-1908) to geography. Du Fief was one of the founders and the general secretary of the Belgian Royal Geographical Society (Société belge de géographie, Bruxelles). While on service he was closely involved with the Belgian exploration of Congo and promoted Henry Morton Stanley’s expeditions to the region. Du Fief compiled “Carte de l'État indépendant du Congo et de l'Afrique centrale” (Brussels, 1892). He also contributed significantly to the organization of the Belgian Antarctic expedition (1897-99) lead by Adrien de Gerlache, and the Sierra DuFief, or Fief Mountains, in the south part of Wiencke Island off the Antarctic peninsula, was named after him.
The diploma states that it had been given to du Fief “in order to mark the high estimation which they [the Society] entertain” of his services “in promoting the science of Geography”.
52. [RUSSIAN EMBASSY TO VENICE, 1656-1657]
[REMARKABLE PRIMARY SOURCE ON 17TH CENTURY RUSSIAN-WESTERN EUROPEAN RELATIONS]. Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi de’Sig.i Ambasc. Moscoviti, che ora si trovano in Livorno per passare all’Ambasciata di Venezia [Autograph Letter by an Anonymous Author from Livorno Witnessing the Muscovite Embassy to Venice (1656-1657) and Containing Vivid Observations and Remarks About Russians].
Livorno, ca. 1656. Quarto, ca. 27x19,5 cm (10 ½ x 7 ¾ in). Four pages; brown ink on cream laid paper with fleur-de-lis watermark, written in a legible hand. Paper aged and slightly faded, with fold marks, but the text is still bright and easy distinguishable. Beautiful period style crimson elaborately gilt tooled custom made full morocco clamshell box with cloth chemise. The letter in very good condition.
Remarkable and Very Important Primary Source for Russian-Western European relations in the 17th century, an anonymous letter: “Curiosissimi Costumi de’Sig.i Ambasciatori Moscoviti, che ora si trovano in Livorno per passare all’Ambasciata di Venezia.” According to the historians who worked with two other known copies of the letter (see below: Attribution of “Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi”) it was written by a first-hand witness of the embassy, somehow involved with it, most likely between the 19th and 23rd of December, 1656. The written dialect of the letter’s language indicates that the author was a common person from Livorno, possibly of Sicilian origin.
The letter vividly describes the Muscovite diplomatic delegation, staying in Livorno on its way to Venice in the winter of 1656. It was an official embassy to the Doge of Venice from the Russian Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich (1629-1676) sent in 1656-57 and headed by the Pereyaslavl governor Ivan Ivanovich Chemodanov (before 1618 - after 1657) and Deacon A. Postnikov. The goal of the embassy was to strengthen political and commercial relations with Venice, to negotiate the joint struggle against the Turks, to give Venetians the permission to trade in Archangelsk, and to borrow money from the Doge. A small “side task” was to: “to sell a hundred poods (1600kgs) of rhubarb and some sable furs for a thousand roubles.” Overall the embassy didn’t achieve its goals as it didn’t manage to get the money from the Doge and to successfully sell the state rhubarb and the sable furs (some of which were damaged during the voyage to Italy and some were sold to feed the embassy itself). The embassy left Venice in March 1657 and went back to Russia through Switzerland, Germany and Holland.
In spite of a lack of diplomatic skills, Chemodanov’s embassy left its trace in history. Its members became the first Russians to travel to Italy by sea, around northern Europe. They left Archangelsk on the 12th of September, 1656; passed the “Northern Nose” (North Cape), the “land of the Danish king,” “Icelant, or Icy island (Iceland),” “the lands of Hamburg and Bremen,” Scotland, Holland, “possessions of the English King,” French and Spanish lands - “all those countries we passed from the left,” and arrived in Livorno on the 24th of November the same year. During the voyage they suffered from storms in the Atlantic, when most of the state goods were damaged.
The embassy’s appearance in Italy was met with great interest and curiosity; the official relations from both the Russian and Italian sides noted crowds of people accompanying the Muscovites wherever they went. Our letter “Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi” reveals what impression the Russian diplomats made on the Italians, e.g. “they are dressed in cloth of cotton wool as they are afraid of cold, which is very common in their country”; “they beat their servants with their own hands, and so brutally that four of five of them was on the verge of death, and one ran away and is still not found”; “they have sable skins for 100 thousand skudi and also a big amount of rhubarb, caviar and salted fish, and it stinks so much, that people get sick, and where they were for one hour it stinks afterwards for twelve hours.”
The Muscovites often seemed barbaric to the inhabitants of Livorno, as they all slept together, “and the Ambassador with them too, as he was afraid to fall off the bed”; they liked wine, but “put it all in one barrel, not distinguishing whether it is white or red or any sort of wine”; when the Governor took them around the city in a carriage, local people were astonished to see that the Muscovites didn’t open the doors, but climbed over them. There are also descriptions of their table manners which indicate that the Muscovites didn’t know how to use forks, also descriptions of how balls and festivities amused them, how “all small houses seemed to them as Gran Palazzos.” Amusing also is the note that the Muscovites liked “Belle Donne” a lot, and spent many sable furs on them. A separate story describes how the chief Ambassador got attracted to the wife of a local doctor and tried to get her attention.
The letter concludes with a note of the embassy’s coming departure to Florence, where they will be met as Royal ambassadors, and “comedia redecolosa” and that a big feast will be given in their honour, as “they like it more than anything else.”
Attribution of “Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi”:
There are two other known copies of “Curiosissimi Costumi,” the older one is found in the Vatican Library (Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana) as a part of “Codex Vaticanus Latinus” № 8891. It was first published in printed form in 1890 as a part of “Spicilegio Vaticano di Documenti Inediti e Rari, Estratti Dagli Archivi e Dalla Biblioteca della Sede Apostolica” (Roma 1890, p. 381-383). The editor of the book, Monsignor I. Carini attributed that the Vatican letter was written in the middle of the 17th century by a first-hand witness of the Muscovite Embassy. Based on the written dialect of the letter’s language, Carini attributed the author as one of Livorno’s common people, a Sicilian by origin.
The second of the two other known copies of “Curiosissimi Costumi” is deposited in Russia, in the archive of the Saint Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The text of the letter is included in the Italian manuscript collection titled “Storie Diverse.” Soviet historians also published a printed version of their copy of the letter and thoroughly analysed it (see special articles by S. Anninskii, 1934, and I. Sharkova, 1972); The Saint Petersburg copy was attributed to be written slightly later than the Vatican copy, at the end of the 17th or in the very beginning of the 18th century.
A thorough analysis of the texts of our letter and the Vatican and Saint Petersburg copies reveal several minor differences between all three, but also show a strong resemblance between our “Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi” and the Vatican copy. They are very similar in regards to the completeness and spelling of the text, whereas the Saint Petersburg copy often has some words replaced or removed, and also has spelling patterns different from the Vatican and our copies. This allows us the to state, that our copy was written at the same time with the Vatican copy or close to it. It’s remarkable, on the other hand, that the text of our copy is more extensive, than the Vatican one: there are additional lines in several places supplementing the contents of the Vatican copy. It could mean either that our copy is earlier - making it the earliest known copy of “Curiosissimi Costumi,” or that the author of our copy knew more about the events described in the letter, and decided to enrich it with more details.
[Ambasceria Russa in Italia] / [Ed. By I. Carini] // Spicilegio Vaticano di Documenti Inediti e Rari, Estratti Dagli Archivi e Dalla Biblioteca della Sede Apostolica. – Roma 1890. – P. 376-383.
[Anninskii] Аннинский, С.А. Пребывание в Ливорно Царского посольства в 1656 г. (Впечатления иностранца) // ИРЛИ. Сборник статей, посвященных академику А.С. Орлову. – 1934. – С. 201-207.
[Kazakova] Казакова, Н.А. Статейные списки русских послов в Италию как памятники литературы путешествий (середина XVII века) // Труды Отдела древнерусской литературы. — Л.: Наука. Ленингр. Отд-ние, 1988. – T. XLI. – С. 268-288.
[Liubopytneishie nravy…] Любопытнейшие нравы господ послов московских, которые находятся теперь в Ливорно, проездом в Венецию / Публ. И перевод К. Шварсалон // Русская старина, 1894. – Т. 81. - № 1. – С. 197-203.
[Sharkova] Шаркова, И.С. Посольство И.И. Чемоданова и отклики на него в Италии // Проблемы истории международных отношений. – Л., 1972. – С. 207-223.
53. [RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR]
[Collection of Three Official Reports Regarding the Reconnaissance and Communication Services of the 1st and 2nd Russian Manchurian Armies during the Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905: Reconnaissance Report “Strength and Organisation of the Japanese Army” (1905); Report of the Communication Services of the 2nd Manchurian Army (1906); and Original Manuscript of the Lecture about “Foot Reconnaissance” (ca. 1910s)].
[1905, 1906, ca. 1910s]. Three documents, all Folio, housed in the original archival folder of the pre-revolutionary 4th Finnish Rifle Regiment. Folder slightly faded and worn and documents with minor tears on extremities, but overall a very good collection. 1) Mimeographed report “Strength and Organisation of the Japanese Army”. 22 August 1905.  pp.; 2) Typewritten Report “Communication Services”.  pp. Dated in pencil on the first page “25/7 1906”; occasional pencil marks in text. Pencil inscription in Russian on the last blank page: “For handing over to Count Kamensky from Riga”; 3) Manuscript lecture “Reconnaissance on Foot”. [2 – typewritten table of contents], 35, [2 - blank] pp.
Interesting collection of military archival documents uncovering the work of reconnaissance and communication of the 1st and 2nd Manchurian Armies during the Russo-Japanese War (27 January/9 February 1904 – 23 August/5 September 1905). Both armies were formed in October 1904; 1st Manchurian Army under command of General Linevich took part in the Battles of Shasho and Mukden; 2nd Manchurian Army under command of General Grippenberg took part in the Battles of Port Arthur, Shasho, Sandepu and Mukden.
First document is a mimeographed copy of the report by colonel Rozanov of the reconnaissance department of the Staff of the 2nd Manchurian army. Dated 9 January 1905 O.S., the report relates to the second phase of the war, after the fall of Port Arthur on 20 December 1904/2 January 1905, when the frontline transferred to the area around Mukden. The report titled "Strength and Organisation of the Japanese Army” was specially prepared for the planned advance of the Russian army which resulted in the battle of Sandepu (12-16/25-29 January 1905). The report thoroughly analyses the positions, number and equipment of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Japanese armies (under command of generals Kuroki, Oku, Nogi and Nozu); and gives several probable scenarios of their actions during the advance. Our copy was prepared on 22 August 1905 O.S. (a day before the end of the war) and was verified by “Shtab-rotmistr [Staff Captain of Cavalry] F. Krusenstern [?]”.
The second document is a “Report of the Communication Service of the Administration of the Quarter-Master of the 2nd Manchurian Army” (25 July 1906), covering the period “from the formation of the 2nd army to 20 September 1905” (with the main attention paid to the activity after 10 January 1905). The report is finishes with the “Main conclusions about the organisation and use of particular types of communication”, emphasizing the importance of telegraph and telephone lines, wireless telegraph, and recommends the establishment of the special Communications Cavalry Regiment, and improvement of work of orderly officers (ordinartsy). “It is necessary, that not only senior officers and the General Staff, but all troops, regular officers and lower ranks (especially in cavalry) realise all futility of their best intentions to defeat the enemy, if there is no communication, in the mean of the complete mutual awareness of the battle order throughout the whole front”.
The third document is an original manuscript text of the lecture about the “Reconnaissance on foot”, apparently prepared in the 1910s for the staff and reconnaissance officers. The manuscript with several inserts and corrections occupies 35 pages and is supplemented with a typewritten table of contents. The author was obviously a veteran of the Russo-Japanese war, and the lecture gives examples of work of the reconnaissance service of the 1st Manchurian Army. The lecture explains the goals and significance of military reconnaissance and gives a detailed characteristic of the reconnaissance on foot, divided into R. With the close approach to the enemy, R. From different dislocations, and R. During the battle. Separate paragraphs analyse foot reconnaissance of the Russian and Japanese armies during the war.
54. [SPANISH COSTUMES]
[Eight Very Attractive Original Watercolours of Seventeen Spanish Costumes].
[Warwickshire?], ca. 1829-31. Folio (ca. 39,5 x 25 cm). Five leaves of Whatman paper watermarked “1821” with three large drawings directly on the leaves, and five smaller mounted drawings (ca. 15,5x15,5 cm and 12x7 cm or slightly smaller), all in pencil, ink and gouache. Period ink captions in French and English, dated 1829-31. Period style red straight-grained half morocco with gilt tooled spine and marbled boards and endpapers. A very good collection of watercolours.
Charming collection of eight colourful watercolours showing seventeen costumes of the Spanish county of Aragon, including Vallée de Gistain (de Chistau), Valle de Broto and Riviere de Broto. Details are shown in a masterly manner; the gouaches show peasants, musicians, a mountain shepherd, a water bearer, a woman with a child, and even a contrabandist from Gavarni with a gun.
Apparently (from a note which was included with other items from this estate) drawn by Avarilla Willoughby after she was 46 for her affectionate daughter Cecilia.
55. [SPEKE FAMILY PAPERS]
[Manuscript Poetry Book of Frances Speke, an Aunt of the Famous African Explorer John Hanning Speke, Written Mostly in Jordans, Ilminster, the Ancestral Home of the Speke Family].
Ca. 1822-1834. Octavo (ca. 18,5 x12 cm). Brown ink on paper. Presentation inscription on the first leaf "Frances Speke from Her Papa, February 16th, 1822", many entries noting the place as Jordans (Ilminster, Somerset) and date. Period green gilt tooled half sheep notebook with marbled boards and endpapers. Binding slightly rubbed on extremities, otherwise a very good manuscript.
Nice manuscript book of poems and quotations which belonged to Frances Speke, an aunt of the famous African explorer John Hanning Speke (1827-1864). She was a daughter from the second marriage of John Speke’s grandfather, William Speke (1798-1886). The book contains a presentation inscription on the first leaf: “Frances Speke from Her Papa, February 16th, 1822.” There are over a hundred poems or sentences in the book, either written by Frances Speke and her acquaintances or copied from Byron, Thomas Moore and other poets, with occasional ink drawn vignettes. A number of entries was written in Jordans, Ilminster (Somerset) - the hereditary seat of the Speke family.
“The tiny village of Dowlish Wake lies in the heart of Somersetshire, some two miles south-east of Ilminster and about 45 miles from Bath: and here, in the presence of his old travelling companion Grant, of Dr. Livingstone (who had returned to England two months before) and of Sir Roderick Murchinson, Speke was buried. The parish church is the shrine of many generations of the Speke family, and a window and monument have been erected to the explorer’s memory. Jordans, the ancestral home and still in the hands of the Speke family, is in a neighbourhood parish, Ashill, lying about 2 miles to the north of Ilminster” (Thomas, H.B. Notes on the death of Speke in 1864// The Uganda Journal. Vol. 13, 1949. P. 106-107).
56. [STATE CONTROL OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE]
[KAMPENHAUSEN, Balthasar von (1772-1823);
KHITROVO, Alexey Zakharovich (1776-1854), and others]
[Historically Important Massive Collection of over 1300 Russian Juridical Documents from the Archive of the State Control of the Russian Empire, Containing Imperial Orders and Decrees, Statutes and Regulations, Treaties, Lists of Staff; Printed and Manuscript Correspondence between the State Control Officials and the Imperial Ministries, including Documents Signed (possibly in a secretarial hand) by the First and Second Directors of the State Control – Balthasar von Campenhausen and Alexey Khitrovo].
The Archive also Includes: [The Internal Reference Collection of one of the Departments of the State Control with Over Two Hundred Imperial Decrees and Other Legislative Documents (1794-1825), Printed or Copied in Manuscript and Organized into Fourteen Thematic Collections (Letters N-O)].
Saint Petersburg-Moscow, 1792-1847. Folio; two bound collections (period Russian half calf), with the rest of the documents disbound and housed in five 20th century green custom made cloth portfolios.
Overwhelmingly extensive collection of original juridical papers of the State Control of the Russian Empire, the main body of revision and control over the Empire’s state budget from 1811 to 1917 (nowadays the same function is carried by the Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation). The responsibilities of the State Control included the audit of budgets of all state institutions and revision of their internal documentation which had to be done according to all rules and regulations. To accomplish these tasks the main office of the State Control received copies of financial reports and other related documents of all Russian state institutions, as well as copies of all Imperial decrees and other legislative documents issued by the government.
The first part of our archive consists of two “yearly” folders compiled in the office of the State Control – for 1821 (November 1820 – December 1821) and 1829 (May-October). Each folder contains over 400 leaves of official documentation, including Imperial decrees with various supplementary papers (resolutions of the State Council, texts of treaties, regulations, statutes, privileges, lists of staff), and internal correspondence between the office of the State Control and different statesmen or institutions. Many documents are numbered and signed by several officials (directors of departments, secretaries, head clerks et al); ca. ten documents apparently bear signature of the first head of the State Control - Balthasar von Kampenhausen (in office: 1811-1823), and one document apparently is signed by its second head - Alexey Khitrovo (in office: 1827-1854). Both folders are supplemented with manuscript tables of contents (according to them, the first folder is missing two items on eighteen leaves, and the second folder is missing eight items on eleven leaves).
The second part contains over 500 Russian legislative documents used for reference by the State Control associates. The documents are dated 1792-1847, with the majority belonging to the time of Alexander I (over 340) and Paul I (over 120). The main types of documents are Imperial decrees, statutes and regulations (see more on the classification below).
The third part of the archive is a unique custom made collection of legislative papers prepared for everyday office use, apparently in one of the departments of the State Control. The collection is a fantastic example of reference material which Russian lawyers had to use before the codification of laws by M. Speransky in 1830-1832. With the absence of unified chronological and subject collections of laws, lawyers had to find and compile all necessary materials on their own, using incomplete and rare 18th century editions of the Sobornoe Ulozhenie (1649), printed collections of the Imperial decrees, and expensive and incomplete privately printed law collections (by A. Fialkovsky, M. Chulkov, L. Maksimovich et al.). Another option was to collect all separately printed decrees and other legislative documents related to the sphere of their activity. Since this was not an easy task, even state officials often didn’t know about the laws currently in force, and that naturally lead to the spread of corruption and abuses in the legal system.
Our collection is organized into fourteen departments, in alphabetical order, and includes letters N and O (see the classification below). The topics follow the classification from “Novyi pamiatnik zakonov Imperii Rossisskoi” (SPb., 1825-1832, 10 parts) - one of the most popular privately compiled Russian law codes of the early 19th century. The documents include printed Imperial and Senate decrees, their manuscript copies or extracts, and pages or clippings from the 18th century editions of decrees. The documents are often annotated with extensive comments, additions, and notes by office associates; many leaves are with internal numeration in ink showing that they were originally bound together. The collection is supplemented with a manuscript index listing all laws in effect for letters N and O from the Sobornoe Ulozhenie (1649) to 31 October 1821.
Some of the historically important documents from the archive:
• Two decrees of Catherine the Great confirming break of diplomatic and commercial relations with revolutionary France (with the list of French goods forbidden to be imported to Russia, and the text of oath in loyalty to be taken by all French people staying in Russia, 1793); Treaty of Alliance and Defence with Sweden (1799), two manifests of Nicolas I declaring war to Turkey (1828), Imperial decree commemorating Russian brig Mercury for the courage of her crew during the battle with Turkish ships on May 14, 1829 (August 1829); Russian-Swedish Trade Convention (1828); declaration between Russia and Denmark about mutual naval salutes (1829); Imperial Decree Printed in Polish Regarding Military Actions during the Russian-Polish War (June 1831).
• Printed despatch from Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich confirming his abdication (dated 8 December 1825); Imperial decree about the coronation of Nicolas I as the King of Poland (1829)
• Statutes of the Office of the State Economy (future Ministry of Agriculture, 1803), Imperial Treasury (1821), Imperial Court of Arbitrage (1831), Statute of Administration of Kalmyk in parallel Russian and Kalmyk languages (1835); Estimate of income of Saint Petersburg Duma in 1829.
• Lists of staff (ranks and salaries) of departments of Ministries of Internal Affairs, Commerce, Finance, Military, Justice, Education (all - 1803); several provinces of the Russian Empire (Moscow and Saint Petersburg governments, Tobolsk and Tomsk, Novgorod et al.), navigation facilities on the Neman River (1804); Russian Consulate in Persia (1821), Kerch port (1821), Kiakhta Customs House (1821).
• Regulations of rights and responsibilities of Jews in the Russian Empire (1804), Oath of loyalty for rabbis and Jews (1838), Imperial decree introducing kosher tax or “Korobochny Sbor” for Jews in the Russian Empire (1839).
• Revised Tax Regulations for the alcohol sellers (for 1807-1811, 1811-1815, 1815-1819), Reglament of restaurants, coffee houses and taverns in Saint Petersburg and Moscow (1821), Reglament of taverns and enterprises selling alcohol in Saint Petersburg (1835).
• Regulations of the Astrakhan fisheries (1803); Regulations of crimes dealing with illegal gold prospecting and trading, and punishments associated with them (1829); Statutes of the civil uniform and women’ gowns for appearance at the Emperor’s court on ceremonial days (1834).
• Statutes and Regulations of the Imperial Academy of Arts (1802), Imperial Academy of Sciences (1803), Moscow and Saint Petersburg Schools of Commerce (1804), Saint Petersburg Theatre College (1829), Rumyantsev Museum (now Russian State Library) (1831), Constantine Land Surveying Institute (1835), General Statute of all Russian universities (1835).
• Imperial decree establishing the Charity House of Count Nikolai Sheremetev in Moscow (now the Moscow Institute of Emergency First Aid named after N. Sklifosofsky), with its statute, list of staff and four folding engraved plans (1803); project of the “Institute of Noble Girls” (finishing school) in Odessa (1829); statute of the Kaluga Orphanage (1835).
• Statutes of the School of Medical Attendants at the Obukhov Hospital in Saint Petersburg (1831), Vilno Medical-Surgical Academy (1832), Saint Petersburg Medical-Surgical Academy (1835), Saint Petersburg Syphilis Hospital (first in Russia, 1836), Saint Petersburg Mariinskaya Hospital (1839); new Imperial Drug Tariff (1834).
• Privileges to run carriages on the road from Saint Petersburg to Polangen through Riga and Mitau (1821); patents for new type of glasses, flour mill, steam engine machine, new device helping to cure stammering (all - 1829).
The archive as a whole is a rich and invaluable source of original material about the early years of the State Control of the Russian Empire, as well as about the Russian legal system before the law codification in the 1830s.
The archive includes:
I. TWO “YEARLY FOLDERS” OF THE STATE CONTROL OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE
(over 800 leaves; 1820-1821, 1829)
II. RUSSIAN LEGISLATIVE DOCUMENTS
II.1. IMPERIAL DECREES AND EDICTS
CATHERINE II THE GREAT (4 items, 1792-1793)
PAUL I (bound volume with 88 decrees and 14 loose documents, 1798-1801)
ALEXANDER I (bound volume with 64 decrees and 85 loose documents, 1802-1825)
NICHOLAS I (2 items, 1831, 1847)
II.2. STATUTES AND REGULATIONS
PROVINCES OF THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE (7 items: 1802, 1804, 1835)
STATE INSTITUTIONS (13 items, 1804, 1830-1835)
EDUCATIONAL AND CULTURAL INSTITUTIONS (7 items, 1802, 1804, 1831, 1835)
STATUTES OF MEDICAL INSTITUTIONS AND OTHER REGULATIONS IN MEDICINE (10 items, 1797, 1831-1839)
II.3. LEGISLATIVE DOCUMENTS ON DIFFERENT SUBJECTS
ALCOHOL REGULATIONS (5 documents, ca. 1806, 1814, 1835)
FOREIGN RELATIONS (3 documents, 1828-1831)
JEWS IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE (47 documents, 1804-1847)
ARMY RECRUITS (6 documents, 1803, 1828, 1831)
CHURCHES IN THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE (5 documents, 1796-1802)
III. CUSTOM MADE COLLECTION OF JURIDICAL MATERIALS FOR THE OFFICE USE
Over 200 documents, ca. 1794-1825. The collection includes printed and manuscript texts of Imperial decrees, pages from the 18th century editions of laws, with extensive period handwritten comments and notes). Consists of fourteen main departments:
NAKAZANIYA (Punishments; 19 documents, 1797-1821);
NASLEDOVANIE PRESTOLA (Throne Succession; 4 documents, 1792, 1825);
NASLEDSTVO (Inheritance; 30 documents, 1802-1818);
NEDOIMKI (Arrears; 18 documents, 1802-1818);
OBIDA I BESCHESTIE (Offence and Dishonour; 24 leaves of manuscripts and clippings from 18th century editions);
OBYSK (Search; 6 leaves of manuscripts and clippings from 18th century editions);
ODNODVORTSY (Historical “Odnodvortsy” class of Russians; 22 documents, 1794-1820);
OPEKA (Guardianship; 11 documents, 1801-1817);
ORDENA (Imperial Orders; 42 documents, 1795-1820);
OTKUPY (Leases; 36 documents, 1798-1818);
OTPUSKI (Vacations; 11 documents, 1797-1816);
OTSTAVKA (Dismissal; 12 documents, 1801-1816);
OT’YEZZHAIUSHCHIE ZA GRANITSU (Persons Going Abroad; 7 documents, 1802-1809);
OCHNYE STAVKI (Confrontations; 6 leaves of manuscripts and clippings from 18th century editions).
With: handwritten Index of laws of the 7th part of the “Novyi pamiatnik zakonov” (Folio, 60 leaves numbered in hand from 13 to 72). It almost complexly coincides with the fourteen departments and lists all laws in effect for subjects from “Nakazaniya” (Punishments) to “Ochnye Stavki” (Confrontations).
For a full description please contact us.
57. [SWAZILAND, MINE CONCESSIONS]
[Large Folding Hand Drawn and Coloured Plan of Mineral Concessions in Swaziland, Titled]: General Plan Showing the relative positions & boundaries of the Mineral Concessions in Conflict with Mineral Concession № 44, Swaziland. Scale 400 Cape Rds = 1 inch.
Ca. 1880. Ink and watercolour on parchment ca. 80x95,5 cm. Ink drawn title and the plan’s legend in the left lower corner. Parchment with mild yellowing in the central area, otherwise a very good plan.
Important documentary evidence illustrating the notorious “concession” period in the history of Swaziland. The plan gives a detailed layout of the numerous claims on the mineral resources in the western Swaziland made by a group of British and Boer entrepreneurs. The main purpose of the plan is to ascertain the borders of the mine concession № 44, which is marked as belonging to “T. Shepstone”, or Theophilus (Offy) Shepstone. Younger son of a noted South African statesman Sir Theophilius Shepstone (1817-1893), Offy was a resident adviser and agent to the Swazi king Mbandzeni in 1886-1889 and took an active part in the concessions to white settlers of different background.
The plan details the area between the Little Usuto (Lushushwana) and Umbeloos (Umpilusi) Rivers in northwestern Swaziland (modern Nhohho district). It marks the territories of over 10 concessions belonging to Elisha King, L. Albu and Davis, A.H. Neumann, David Purcocks, William Bird, G. Halle, David Forbes, Charles Lennox Stretch, J.G. Pullen, Hemerson & Forbes and others. Borders between the lots are outlined in colour, with blue lines marking grounds not claimed by Shepstone, brown lines showing undisputed borders, and red, yellow and green – disputed territories belonging to other owners, but claimed by Shepstone.
The settlements shown on the plan include Mbabane, the present capital of Swaziland, marked as “Mbabane Township” on the bank of Mbabane River, and several kraals scattered across the region: Didmi, Mbabanes, Embekelweni Hanskraal et al. The plan borders on the northwest with the Transvaal Colony and with the Great Usutu River and its tributary Umtuchan on the south. Other topographical landmarks shown include tributaries of the Little Usuto (Motjan, Tambono, Impaca, Umtilaan) and Umpilusi Rivers; waterfalls on the rivers; roads, a store in the Transvaal colony on the border with Swaziland, and three peaks used as a basis of the topographical survey: Mshange (3960 ft), Nyonyan (3580 ft) and Kalagalame (3670 ft).
58. [SWISS ALPS]
DRUMMOND, Augusta (1842-1908)
[Two Original Watercolour Views of the Jungfrau and Monte Rosa Mountains in the Swiss Alps].
June 1882 - May 1884. Two watercolours on paper: ca. 17x25,5 cm (6 ¾ 10 in) and ca. 12x17 (4 ¾ x 6 ¾ in), mounted on larger album leaves, ca. 25,5x33 cm (10x13 in). Signed “A.D.” in the lower corners, captioned and dated on the lower margins of the mounts. Minor mild foxing of the mounts, otherwise very good watercolours.
Two attractive watercolours of the Swiss Alps include a large blue-tone sketch of the ruined Unspunnen Castle in the Bernese Alps, with the summit of Jungfrau in the background. Dated June 12 1882, the watercolour was created just eight years after the first winter ascent of Jungfrau by American mountaineers Meta Brevoort and her nephew W.A.B. Coolidge. Another watercolour depicts a serene sunset over Monte Rosa, the highest peak in Switzerland, taken from Varese, Italy in May 1884.
The artist was Irish watercolourist Augusta Drummond, an acquaintance of renowned poet and artist Edward Lear (1812-1888). She was born in Kilberry, Kildare, Ireland to Robert Verschoyle and Catherine Curtis. On 5th July 1878 she married Captain Alfred Manners Drummond, nephew of 6th Duke of Rutland, Captain of the Rifle Brigade, discriminating art collector, acquaintance and client of Edward Lear. The couple had a honeymoon trip to India in 1878, and subsequently travelled to continental Europe and Australia; the travel impressions were realized by Augusta in a series of skillful watercolours. One of them depicting Tasmania and titled “Browns River near Hobart Town” is now in the collection of the National Library of Australia.
59. [TEUTONIC KNIGHTS' RULES]
[List of Rules of the Teutonic Order] Die Capitula vn[d] das Registrum der Regule der Brudere des Dütschen Ordens. Des Spitales Sante Marine: [Beautiful Medieval Manuscript on Vellum in Large Gothic Type, 19 lines per Page, With Red Ink Titles, Headlines, Numbers and Minor Initial Decorations].
[Warmia?]. First half of the 15th century. Octavo (ca. 20,5x15,7 cm). pp. With ten vellum stitched leaves, all but the first leaf are used for the text; leaves unnumbered. Manuscript ruled and written in black ink, with wide margins, written area ca. 15,5x10 cm. Manuscript housed in a nineteenth century brown full morocco clamshell box with a red velvet lining. Boards with blind tooled decorative borders, spine with raised bands and a gilt tooled title "The Rules of the Order of Teutonic Knights." Upper stitch loose, but overall a beautiful internally clean manuscript in very good condition.
Very important original medieval manuscript, a striking first-hand account of the history of the famous Teutonic order (1190-1806). A brotherhood of German crusaders, the order was formed to protect and shelter Christian pilgrims in the Holy Land, but became famous in the 13th century as the moving force of the Prussian and Baltic Crusade. The wealth and power of Teutonic Knights was at its peak in the end of the 14th century when they not only ruled Christianized Prussia and Lithuania, but ruled a large sovereign monastic state covering East Prussia and Livonia (modern Baltic States). The Order’s power started to decline after the famous Battle of Grunwald in 1410, but it was not until 1525 that the Teutonic Knights lost control over their Prussian domain and concentrated on their possessions in the Holy Roman Empire. Our manuscript most likely was created in the first half of the 15th century, when the Teutonic Order was still in their ancient castle Marienburg in East Prussia.
The manuscript contains the complete list of rules (Regule), laws (Gesetze) and customs (Gewohnheiten) of the Teutonic Order; apparently a table of contents of a larger manuscript. The list is divided into three parts, each with a traditional medieval descriptive title: "Hie hebent sich an die capitula vn(d) das registrum der regule der brudere des dütschen ordens. Des spitales sante marien" (Rules); "Hie hebet sich an das registrum der gesetzede" (Laws); "Hie hebent sich an das registrum von den gewonheiten" (Customs). There are 39 Rules, 70 Laws (numbered 71) and 64 Customs.
The document regulates all aspects of life of the Teutonic Knights, defining their main principles: "chastity, obedience and living without property," and describing the main rules of establishing hospitals and taking care of sick and old people, the order of praying and attending divine service, having food in regular days and fasting, keeping silence; special rules are dedicated to how and where the brethren shall sleep, how women shall be received into the service of the house etc. A big attention is paid to the brethren’s looks and uniform; the ways of community living and of the "heedful discretion of the master."
The verso of the last leaf houses the beginning of the Order’s Calendar, decorated with a large blue initial. The calendar completely embraces January and marks Christian holidays and days of commemoration of saints and martyrs. It differs though from the calendar reproduced in the first fundamental printed edition of the Statutes of Teutonic Knights by Max Perlbach (1890, see below) by inclusion of commemoration of "Erhardi episcopi" on the January 8 (St. Erhard of Bavaria).
The manuscripts of the Statutes of the Teutonic Knights are very rare. Max Perlbach in 1890 counted 34 extant manuscripts dated from 13th to 15th centuries (Perlbach, x-xxx): twenty-four in German, five in Latin, four in Dutch and one in French; the oldest being dated 1264 (Middle German Manuscript in the State Library in Berlin). All manuscripts were stored in Germany or Austria. This number though could be decreased as six manuscripts were housed in Konigsberg, and two in Berlin, both cities which were significantly damaged during WWII.
Another 15th century manuscript of the Order’s Statutes written in a German cursive hand is now in the Rare Book department of University of Pennsylvania library. It was thoroughly described by Indrikis Stern, the author of a dissertation specially dedicated to the Rules and Statutes of the Teutonic Knights (see below).
Brief history of the Statutes of the Teutonic Knights
The Statutes of the Teutonic Knights were most likely formulated in the first half of the 13th century, with the oldest extant manuscript copy dating 1264 (Stern, 197). They were widely based on the Statutes of the Templars and Hospitallers, with necessary alterations and additions. The "statutes" meant "a complex of statutory regulations for the use and observance of the brethren of the Teutonic Order. They themselves called this collection the Ordenbuch - the Book of the Order" (Stern 48-49, Perlbach xvi).
"The fact remains, that the Teutonic Knights themselves regarded the statutes, as preserved in the copy of 1264, as unchangeable, for later editions to the statutes were never organically incorporated into the existing regulations, but were added as supplements, as new laws, by the ruling master, leaving unchanged the original Book of Order" (Stern 50-51). The Statutes of 1264 comprised: "the Calendar, the Easter Tables, the Prologue, the Titles of the Rule, the Rule, the Laws, the Customs, the Vigils, and the Genuflections" (Perlbach, xv-xvi).
The original language of the Statutes most likely was Latin, as the document need to be approved by the Pope, but it was German that quickly became the most common language of the Statutes because the majority of the brethren didn’t speak Latin. "The extant German manuscripts number well over thirty, in various dialects, for every commandery had to have a copy of the Ordenbuch. Naturally, as more and more copies were made, they began to differ not only in language, but also in accuracy, and various supplements were made. Therefore in 1442 the chapter of the order decided to revise the Book of the Order and make three master copies, one to be kept in Marienburg, another in the German Master’s residence in Horneck, and a third in the Livonian branch in Riga. All further copies were to be made only from these three master copies. Thus, in 1442 the German version was legally made the official version of the Statutes of the Teutonic Knights" (Stern, 57).
Die Statuten des Deutschen Ordens. Nach dem Original-Exemplar, mit sinnerläuternden Anmerkungen, einigen historisch-diplomatish Beylagen, und einem vollstandigen historisch-etymologischen Glossarium/ Herausgegeben von Dr. Ernst Hennig; Vorrede von dem Herrn Kollegienrath v. Kotzebue. Königsberg, 1806.
Die Statuten des Deutsche Ordens nach den ältesten handschriften/ Herausgegeben von Max Perlbach. Halle am Saale: Max Neimayer, 1890.
Stern, Indrikis. The Statutes of the Teutonic Knights: A Study of Religious Chivalry: Dissertation/ Univ. Of Pennsylvania. 1969. 359
60. [THE SECOND BOER WAR]
[Collection of five items, including: Two Typewritten Manuscript Memoirs about the Second Boer War: Unpublished Text “A Remarkable Trek. 17 Days with De Wet” by “Prisoner of War”, and Typescript Titled “Bloemfontein, Friday December 14th 1900”; With a Photographic Portrait, Most Likely of Menzies, and two Reference Letters Highly Recommending him].
Ca. 1896-1900. The collection is in aged but very good condition.
Five items, including two vivid and informative accounts of a little-known incident in the Second Boer War, by a highly educated English army officer. Both typescripts date from the first half of the 20th century.
Prisoner of War. A remarkable trek. 17 days with De Wet. Quarto (ca. 25,5x20 cm). 22 numbered leaves. Typewritten manuscript with a number of minor corrections in text. Text of cropped last leaf legible, despite some damage and loss.
The narration describes the events from 23 November to 9 December 1900. Menzies explains how he was 'one of a garrison in a village about 40 miles from Bloemfontein, when De Wet and Steyn collected six different Commandos in the immediate neighbourhood and swooped down on us'. Garrison casualties, after 'three days desperate fighting', stood at twenty per cent on surrender. There followed 'a most disgusting scene of robbery and pillage'. 'De Wet is a short, thick-set man with a dark beard, he was riding then a white horse and was wearing a dark tail coat and a square topped "bowler", a great characteristic of his, and armed with a revolver. I had occasion to speak to De Wet and drew his attention to the way his men were looting and smashing up some mess stores of ours [...] De Wet answered me in English and said he would have them taken away; I am merely quoting this, as it seems to have been the prevailing opinion that De Wet does not talk English.'
After crossing the Caledon River the 'trek' ended with 'the Boers being obviously surprised' when 'the British guns a 15 pounder and a pom pom opened on the Column' near Helvetia Farm. 'My indignation knows no bounds when I reflect that enemies of Great Britain from all countries are now successfully urging the Boers to carry on a hopeless struggle which is bringing untold misery and ruin to the country. [...] the curious thing is too that they do not like De Wet, [...] not a single Boer spoke well of him, one Commandant going so far as to describe him as a "Heartless Brute", and I can conceive no better description of this successful guerrilla leader; I cannot call a man who countenances the disgraceful treatment of prisoners-of-war as he did, a soldier'.
Bloemfontein, Friday December 14th. 1900. Quarto (ca. 25x20 cm). 15 leaves, numbered 73-87. Typewritten manuscript, docketed at head of first page 'Letter from Alfred during the South African War reprinted from "The Times"'.
A different account, filling in some gaps in Typescript One, e.g. 'just fancy De Wet with over 3,000 men being round us for 5 days within 8 hours' ride of Bloemfontein!! [...] We had 92 casualties out of about 400 and they took 30 wounded men prisoners with us. [...] At the end we all fixed bayonets to charge down the hill, but the Commandant would not allow it, not a man would have survived it and, although magnificent, it would have been useless and served no purpose except making the tremendous fight we had look better on paper.'
The two letters relate to Menzies application for the position of Assistant Registrar at the University of London four years before, and allow us to evaluate Menzies' trustworthiness as a narrator.
Letter one: BRODRICK, George C. (1831-1903). To the Senate of the University of London. 21 March 1896, Merton College, Oxford. 3 pp., 12mo. 'I have known Mr Alfred Menzies since he came up to Merton as a "Postmaster" in 1882, and have a high opinion of his capacity & character. He was in all respects an excellent member of the College, and stood well in the estimation of his fellows, as he did in that of the Tutors.' Brodrick recommended Menzies to family members as a private tutor. 'He is essentially a gentleman, [...] I should feel great confidence in his conscientious performance of [the position's] duties.'
Letter two: GRANT, Charles. To 'My Lords and Gentlemen'. 21 March 1896, on letterhead of Drove, Chichester. 3 pp., 12mo. 'My boys have had several holiday-tutors at different times - all men of high standing and character; but I considered none of the others at all equal to Mr Menzies in some practical qualities which would fit him as well for a much more responsible post [...] He had a rare combination of strength of character with tact, sense and temper [...] I consider Mr. Menzies eminently qualified for any position, in which firmness, tact and knowledge of the world are essentials.'
The photograph: oval, ca. 10x8 cm, with the label of C. Vandyk of 125 Gloucester Road, Queens Gate, S.W. The photo shows the head and shoulders of a military man [Menzies no doubt], with close-cropped hair and bushy moustache, dressed in fatigues.
61. [THE WAR OF TWO BROTHERS, PORTUGAL]
WEST, Charles Augustus, Lt.-Col. (1766-1854)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Augustus West” to Lord Beresford concerning the Latest Affairs of the War of Two Brothers in Portugal].
Paris, 15 May 1829. Quarto (ca. 23x18,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Fold marks and centre folds with small tears on the outer margins (on folds) not affecting the text, otherwise a very good letter.
A letter with an important diplomatic report on the development of the conflict between the liberal and absolutist parties in Portugal during the War of Two Brothers (1828-1834). The author, Lt. Col. Charles Augustus West was a British military officer who saw active service in Ireland, Holland, Egypt, Germany, Denmark, Portugal and Spain, winning an additional clasp for his bravery at the Battle of Talavera (1809). In 1811 he became Lieut. Governor of Landguard Fort (near Harwich) and since then seems to have been engaged in the affairs of Europe.
“William Carr Beresford, Viscount Beresford (1768-1854) was a British general and Portuguese marshal prominent in the (Iberian) Peninsular War of 1808-14. General Sir Arthur Wellesley, the future Duke of Wellington, chose him to reorganize the Portuguese army, in which Beresford was given the rank of marshal (March 7, 1809). He served Portugal until 1819, being successively created count, marquess, and duke in that country’s peerage. During Wellington’s first prime ministry he was master general of the ordnance (1828-30)” (Encyclopaedia Britannica).
“The M. De Palmella called on me yesterday to thank me for my attention to his unfortunate sister - he talked a good deal about Portugal of times past and present and he wanted to know how things were now going on there and particularly in the Palace and alluding to the quarrel between D.M. [Dom Miguel] and his sister [infanta Isabel Maria]. It appears to me that the plan was to get the Princess to escape, either in a French or in an English vessel and I have reason to believe that the great emigration from Portugal of many of the families and others was a planned thing from the beginning and all done by the same party - but now I see that a great many would be rejoiced to return to Portugal tomorrow and would return if there was an amnesty - many of those that are here are in great distress and Parati will in a few days be without a soul. Abrantes denies me to say anything to gain Lordship for him, but he is as violent as ever. Villa Flor is again returned to London – he merely came here with his wife & I suppose to receive instructions. I am told he goes as Governor to Terceira. The M. De Valenca has also left Paris for London & in great want of money. Joao Carlos de Saldanha is gone to Calais for his wife & it appears he and his family are completely opposed now to the M. De Palmella. I have called on poor Alva but I have not seen him since the death of his wife his head is not right & he wanders a good deal…”.
The War of the Two Brothers was between Dom Pedro & Dom Miguel, sons of Dom John king of Brazil and Portugal. Leaving his eldest son to govern Brazil, Dom John reluctantly returned to Portugal having fled to Brazil during the Napoleonic Campaigns. His wife Carlota Joaquina and younger son Dom Miguel refused to swear an oath to uphold the constitution. Dom John died in 1826 having made no provision for the succession, his daughter Maria Isabel was named Regent. When his older brother refused to return to the throne of Portugal, declaring Brazil independent and himself as the first Emperor, renouncing the Portuguese throne in favour of his daughter Maria da Gloria provided she marry her uncle, Dom Miguel took that opportunity to foment the feeling against his brother. In 1827 he was appointed Regent and King in 1828. Only the island of Terceira in the Azores remained loyal to Maria da Gloria and declared a Regency in June 1829. West gives notice in this letter, dated the month before, that Villa Flor, later Duke of Terceira, is off to the island presumably to effect that declaration.
62. [TUBUAI, FRENCH POLYNESIA]
GOFF, Isaac Frank (1869 -1961)
Eight Manuscript Journals of Isaac Frank Goff, Mormon Missionary sent from Salt Lake City to Tahiti, and then on to Tubuai, in the Austral Islands of French Polynesia. The Journals start with his Departure from Salt Lake City to Tahiti on the 25th February 1893 and Ending 3rd of February 1897 after his return home.
1893-7. Octavo, 8 vols. Period burgundy gilt titled "Record" full sheep. Mildly rubbed at extremities but otherwise very good journals.
Seven volumes consist of daily diary entries, totaling approximately 1000 total pages in a highly legible hand. The eighth volume is in part a scrapbook, containing cuttings from the newspapers Goff received from home, and in part a ledger recording all of the sermons he preached and testimonies given (with subject matter, date, and location); administrations to the sick performed (with name of patient, who anointed and who sealed the anointing, date, and location); baptisms, marriages, and ordinations to the priesthood performed, children blessed (all with names and dates); cash accounting; distances traveled; letters sent and received (with name of all correspondents); and books read.
Tubuai was the site of the first Mormon mission to the Pacific, established in 1844. The early missionaries were well-received, baptizing 1500 to 2000 people before French rule was established in 1848. However the French severely restricted missionary activity by all non-French groups, and in 1852 the Mormons departed the islands—leaving the native converts to keep the church alive for the next 4 decades.
Elder Issac Francis “Frank” Goff (b. 1869 in West Jordan, UT) was among the first LDS missionaries sent to re-establish a formal mission in French Polynesia. The journals begin with his departure from Salt Lake City in March 1893 and includes a brief account of his journey from San Francisco to Tahiti on the brigantine Galilee. His first several months are spent engaged in the arduous task of learning the language. In November 1893 he travels to his official field of labor, the island of Tabuai, where he remains for more than two years, before traveling to establish missions on the neighboring islands of Rurutu and Raivavae. His journals offer a compelling portrait of the missionary experience, capturing the fear, uncertainty, and loneliness of a young man settling in a foreign land as well as his determination to succeed at the task that has been set for him. He assiduously records all of his missionary labors -preaching to and instructing the natives - for whom he expresses both frustration (primarily with their drunkenness and sexual promiscuity) and affection - anointing the sick, performing baptisms and marriages, and trying to make inroads against the Josephite” (Reorganized Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints), who had established a strong presence on the island during the decades that the “true” LDS were away. He also records the minutiae of daily life - food (and often the lack of it), washing and mending of clothing, sleep disturbed by insects, etc - and describes, and occasionally participates in, native festivals and customs. Of particular interest his account of the interaction of the Mormon missionaries with the French, who continued to perceive the Mormons as a nuisance at best, accused them of vagrancy and taking advantage of the natives, and frequently threatened to banish them from the islands. Also noteworthy are his descriptions of the topography, laws, and customs of Rurutu and Raivavae. The final journal describes Goff’s departure from Tahiti in October 1896, return voyage, and first month or so back in Utah. Later in life he became a justice of the peace.
An example of Goff's writing, here describing Rorutu:
"Lying some 400 miles south west of Tahiti in latitude 22⁰ 29’ south of the equator, in longitude 151⁰ 20’ west from Greenwich, is the island of Rurutu. It belongs to the Austral group and is but a mere speck in the vast ocean, being no more than 13 miles in circumference. It is a parallelogram in shape, much longer than wide. It is of volcanic origin, and like other islands of the Pacific is surrounded by a coral reef, though this one is very near the shore. No haven of rest is afforded the ships here and but very small passes for boats to get ashore. This island has towering mountains, two of which… extend to an altitude of 1300 ft above the level of the sea… Unlike Tubuai has abrupt cliffs of rocks standing perpendicular to the water’s edge. Upon these the wild goat, though few in number, roam. Against these gigantic walls of solid rock the turbulent breakers in their wild and restless commotion dash with tremendous force and with the roar of thunder forming a continuous cataract of foam.
Lying between these abrupt cliffs are small valleys circular in shape and in these the produce of the islands grow. Most all kinds of fruit such as grow on the adjacent islands are to be found here, the chestnut in abundance. Nice clear streams of water running through these valleys find their way into the vast ocean, and there lost forever. In three of these flats or valleys is a quite little laid out town nestling at the foot of the mountains. Each of these has a population of from 3 to 500 persons.
The towns are irregularly laid out in square blocks that are enclosed with good substantial rock walls in order to keep out the herds of swine that are turned loose at large to help to supply themselves with food. These inhuman and the filthiest of beasts monopolize the narrow streets which are carpeted with excrement of these intruding creatures and the result is a very offensive smell. The towns are connected with each other by deep narrow trails that lead over the mountains and so steep that it seems almost next to impossible for a horse to climb them owing to their narrowness and deepness and steepness. They, however, do, according to reports.
The houses are constructed both after the European and the native styles. Each family having one of each and the cooking is down in the ancient one. Each town is blessed with a nice commodious church built of rock and seating from 500 and upwards. Having three rows of benches in the main floor and a very respectable gallery extending ¾ ways around the house, which is decorated with fancy colored window panes, stylish chandeliers and lamps, a respectable pulpit and other necessary accommodations, and the building and seats and etc. nicely painted. Puoro is the name of the minister at Moerae. There is also a schoolhouse at each town and the one at this village has over 100 scholars.
The whole island is converted into Protestantism and are ruled over by a king. His name is Epatiana. He is a son of the late king, who the people say was a very good monarch. His son the present king is a large boy or about 18 summers and is very boyish besides ignorant looking and one of the worst rowdies on the islands, both for drinking and whoring The first time we met him he was just landing here from a voyage to Rimatara, an island some 90 or 000 miles west from here. And I need not write my feelings of surprise when we were informed that he was the king. For instead of being dressed in a garb of rich apparel of some kind with a crown about his head as I had expected, he had nothing whatever on to indicate his supreme power and his apparel was nothing more than a red breechclout, a red woolen shirt, and an old withered wreath of faded flowers such as is worn by all the rowdies about his bare head. And when we spoke to him about his island and etc. he dropped his head as he set on the sand and blushingly answered us in a low tone. We told him who we were and where we were from, saluted him, and left him with very different idea formed about the king of Rurutu than we had before we met him. He is the first monarch of this kind we ever saw and the first time we were ever under the reign of a king.
The king has governors under him who manage and rule and regulate all affairs of the kingdom while the king is so young and ignorant. There are also police in each town and apparent or seemingly they have very strict laws, though very strange to me. For instance, if a single man has intercourse with some married woman without first getting married to her himself he will be fined $25. $5 of which goes to the king and $20 to the women’s husband while she is required to pay $2 to the king. If the man is married and the woman single then she shall pay $5 to the king and $2 to the man’s wife. Should they be both married, though to other persons, then they both shall pay $5 each to the king and $20 to the man’s wife and $20 to the woman’s husband. But should they both be single persons they will be required to pay $2 each to the king and thereby they all live in peace and harmony one with another.
Unlike the other islands they can leave their husbands or wives and marry another at their will but cannot live in an unmarried state. When a couple living in an unmarried state comes here from some other island they are not allowed to land unless they are willing to appear before one of the Gov. and there be united in the blissful state of matrimony. Therefore many whose former companions have forsaken them and are still living come here to get married to someone else… The court sits each Monday, and all cases of offense during the week are tried and fined on that day. They also have a curfew in each town which is nothing more than an old rattle-headed drum that gets struck twice each night, 1/5 apart and all are supposed to retire at the last sounding of the drum.
The people here appear to be very reticent and will hardly talk with us as they know that we are Mormon elders and they being Protestants causes them to be or act such, for no doubt they are warned by their ministers to be aware of us, as we they think are wolves come to them in sheep’s clothing to destroy them and therefore we cannot have as much influence them or as much encouragement as we otherwise would, were they not so reserved. In fact, they are the worst, impotent, obstinate and unfascinating class I ever met. It is impossible to give them any literature as they will not accept of it. Their excuse is that it is out of the Bible and they have the Bible and can read what we write out of the bible for themselves and therefore do not need our literature."
"Tubuai or Tupua'i is the main island of the Tubuai Island group, 640 km (400 mi) south of Tahiti. In addition to Tubuai, the group of islands include Rimatara, Rurutu, Raivavae and the uninhabited Îles Maria. They are part of the Austral Islands in the far southwest of French Polynesia in the south Pacific Ocean" (Wikipedia)
63. [TUNIS-HAMBURG TREATY OF FRIENDSHIP]
READE, Sir Thomas (1785-1849)
[Official Decree by the Bey of Tunis Appointing George William Crowe His Plenipotentiary in Order to Compile a Treaty of Friendship and Commerce with the City of Hamburg; With: Separate Document Containing the Italian Translation of the Decree Signed by Hassuna Morali, First Interpreter of the Court of Basha Bey of Tunis; Both Documents are Certified as Genuine by the British Consul General, Sir Thomas Reade (on verso of the leaf with the Italian text)].
Two documents, both Tunis, 1828. On two folded Elephant Folio leaves, each ca. 33x22 cm (when folded). Fold marks, paper aged and slightly soiled, otherwise very good documents. Each folded and consisting of two leaves. The Documents are in good condition.
Official decree of the Bey of Tunis: 1 p. Brown ink on French paper watermarked “Louis XVIII, Roi de France”. Text in Arabic, with the official ink seal of the Bey of Tunis.
Italian translation: 2 pp. Dated “9 Muharram, year 1244” . Brown ink on laid paper. Text in Italian and English (on verso), with the impressed seal of British Consul General in Tunis.
Rare and very interesting document from the time of establishment of diplomatic relations between Tunis and Germany.
Original decree with the seal of the Bey of Tunis (Hussein II Bey, ruled in 1824-1835) authorising certain George William Crowe to negotiate with the “Regno de Amburgo” in establishing friendship and commerce. Crowe is supposed to compile a treaty which needs to be presented to the Bey for examination, and “if God will, to be granted”. In the English certificate written on verso of the Italian translation of the decree, British Consul General in Tunis Sir Thomas Reade (1785-1849) extends Crowe’s rights, which “are not restricted to the specific object therein set forth, but that he instructed to act on behalf of His Highness as Charge of Affaires in all such matters as may be for the service of His Highness & particularly to treat for a loan for his use". The certificate is dated 11 August, 1828.
George William Crowe was later mentioned as British consul general in Tripoli (The Royal Calendar and Court and City Register for England, Scotland, Ireland and the Colonies. London, 1852, p. 193). Sir Thomas Reade, British Consul in Tunis, played an important role in the abolition of slavery. Reade was Deputy Adjutant-General on St. Helena during Napoleon’s captivity, was present at Napoleon’s post-mortem and left a valuable account of it preserved in the Lowe Papers.
64. [VIDOCQ, Eugène François] (1775-1857)
[A Page from a Private Diary with the Latest News on the Case of the Famous Private Detective Eugene Vidocq: Vidoeq in Jail. French Ministry of War Found Their Associates Leaking Important Documents to a Russian Agent].
6 February 1838. Octavo (ca. 19,5x12 cm). 1 pp. A stationary sheet with a printed letterhead “Tuesday, February 1838”. Text written in brown ink in a legible hand. Minor tears on the extremities, repaired with archival tape on verso, overall a very good document.
A page from a diary of apparently a British resident in Paris, with the latest news on the famous Vidocq - an ex-criminal, the first private detective, the founder of the modern French police and an inspiration for a number of the 19th century detective novels. The text reads “Vidoeq has been some months in Prison. <…> When taken into custody his Papers were seized and examined. They led to the discovery of Clerks in the Home department who corresponded with or assisted him. Those persons also were arrested, but there were also other Clerks and Employes [sic!] in another important department - the Ministry of War equally detected. They too were arrested and their papers seized,” the discoveries revealed that they had communicated “to a Russian Agent documents and information of much importance”.
Eugène François Vidocq was a French criminal and criminalist whose life story inspired several writers, including Victor Hugo and Honoré de Balzac. The former criminal became the founder and first director of the crime-detection Sûreté Nationale as well as the head of the first known private detective agency, Vidocq is considered to be the father of modern criminology and of the French police department. He is also regarded as the first private detective.
In 1833, Vidocq founded Le bureau des renseignements ("Office of Information"), a company that was a mixture of detective agency and private police. It is considered to be the first known detective agency. Once again, he predominantly hired ex-convicts. <…> From 1837, Vidocq quarreled constantly with the official police because of his activities and his questionable relations with various government agencies such as the War Department. On 28 November 1837, the police executed a search and seizure and confiscated over 3,500 files and documents. A few days later, Vidocq was arrested and spent Christmas and New Year in jail. He was charged with three crimes, namely the acquisition of money by deception, corruption of civil servants, and the pretension of public functions]. In February 1838, after numerous witnesses had testified, the judge dismissed all three charges. Vidocq was free again” (Wikipedia).
[Three Original Watercolours Showing a Vietnamese Carrier, a Palanquin and a Porter].
Ca. 1919. Three works, watercolour and pencil on French watermarked bluish album paper, two ca. 31x23,5 cm (12 ¼ x 9 ¼ in), one slightly smaller. Mounted on period slightly larger brown paper leaves. Pencil captions under the images, and pencil notes on the mounts. Overall a very good collection.
The collection includes interesting images of a Vietnamese palanquin carrier, dressed in traditional red ao-dai (robe) with yellow mount, and a head dress; one of the watercolours shows him while holding the carcass of a palanquin. The third picture presents a colourful red palanquin with green decorations and yellow ornaments. Overall a nice collection illustrating the traditional transport of Vietnam.
66. [VISIT TO CRIMEA AFTER THE WAR]
[Fascinating Manuscript Account of the Travels of Two Englishmen to the Crimean Battlefields, Thirty Years after the Crimean War, Illustrated with Superb Humorous Ink Drawings]: Yarn and the Major Visit the Crimea. 8 August 1883 – 6 April 1884.
Quarto. 136 pp. Brown ink manuscript on watermarked laid paper. With forty-nine original drawings and three sketch maps in text. Period green moiré cloth boards rebacked with light brown half sheep with gilt lettered title on the spine. Bookplate of John Duck on the first pastedown endpaper. Very good journal.
Interesting historical commentary of the events of the Crimean War, compiled almost thirty years after the war’s end. This travel journal is written in a witty and humorous manner narrates two British gentlemen’s travels to Crimea in summer 1883 during which they visited the famous battlefields of Inkerman, Sevastopol and Balaklava. The manuscript consists of eight chapters, with four of them titled: “Sebastopol” (Chapter 4), “Inkerman” (Chapter 5), “Sebastopol. The pleasure garden” (Chapter 6), “The Malakhoff Redan, the Cemeteries & Balaklava” (Chapter 7). The full names of travellers remain unknown, but they call each other “Johnnie”, “Yarn” or “Commodore”, and “Jack” “Mayor” or “Kanard”. Their notes and observations of the Crimean sites reveal a good knowledge of the history of the Crimean War: with names and dates being remembered quickly and several referrals to Kinglake’s monumental “The Invasion of the Crimea” (London, 1863-1887, 8 vols.) which they regret not to have with them.
Thus, at the site of the Battle of Inkerman: “they thought of the cold drizzly rain, the damp obscuring fog, the dismal features & gloomy surroundings of that never to be forgotten morning in November 1854 <…> though the minds of both passed visions of the fighting soldiers of the 41st, the 49th, 77th, 88th & the other meager battalions brought up to confront the enemy, <…> visions of the Guards in the Sandbag Battery as they fought tooth & nail against the dense mosses of the grey coated Muscovites; of the advance and death of the gallant Cathcart, of the grim humour of Pennefather & the antique heroism of Lord Raglan” (p. 68-69).
In Sevastopol the travellers were surprised to that the city still remained in ruins: “there were houses along the route here & there, evidently not very ancient, but the rest of the town was simply one mass of ruins. All was a roofless chaotic mass, broken columns, walls half or wholly down, & the debris of what were once stately buildings scattered about in all directions. <…> with the exception of the sunken ships having been raised & the entrance to the harbour cleared, very little appears to have been done” (p. 50-51).
The Malakoff Kurgan “was a natural hill fortified by art, and though its ditch, its riveted slopes, scarp & counterscarp; its banquets, its terrepleine & ramparts were somewhat ruined by explosions, & thirty years of neglect had jumbled up its shape & caused its lines to be [?] & confused; though grass & wild flowers now overran its ramparts, & as if in mockery at man’s work held up their humble heads & flourished in the sunshine, yet the modern fortification was plainly visible” (p. 91). The travellers got some bullets and fragments of shells picked from around the Malakhov by a farmer whose house was nearby.
The Malakhov Redan “was scarcely distinguishable as a Fort, being simply a mound with little or nothing in the shape of masonry about it, tho’ the general outline of the work & its ditch could be traced. From here it was at once seen that the Malakoff was the true Key to the position.” It was here that they found the collection of unburied bones, which provoked comments on death and the circle of life.
Furthermore, during the course of their travels they talk about the Crimean Tartars (p. 54), St. Vladimir’s Cathedral, which they called “the Church of the four Admirals” (M. Lazarev, V. Kornilov, V. Istomin, P. Nakhimov); Count’s Landing (Grafskaya Pristan) with notes about Count Vorotsov, spend an evening in the Sevastopol pleasure garden, are surprised to discover that there is a railway from Sevastopol to Moscow; pass the Korabelnaya Storona and see the ruins of the Russian “Karabel Barracks”; visit the British Cemetery, read inscriptions on the graves, one being of Brigadier General Goldie killed in the battle of Inkerman – a monument to him had been seen by the travellers on the Isle of Man.
Additionally they constantly get into funny incidents because nobody understands English, and barely speaks French; examples include: Enjoying the Crimean wine (p. 26-27); Tea drinking: The tea was served in glasses, with a slice of lemon in it. It was a trifle different to our ideas of tea, which are always associated with tea cups & so on, no one took cream, but everyone just put as much sugar in his glass as he thought proper (p. 37); Humorous description of buying the Russian cigars; Refresh with vodka in a small hotel in Balaklava which reminds them of Bourbon etc.
Overall all an interesting lively account illustrated with evocative drawings.
67. [WALKER, Henry, Captain]
[Manuscript Journal of the Ship Ida From Boston Voyage to Valparaiso, San Blas, Guayaquil and back to Boston in 1821-23, Titled]: Journal kept on board the Ship Ida of Boston <...> from Boston towards N.W. Coast of America.
[Primarily at sea], 1821-1823. Folio (31x19 cm).  pp. With two manuscript deeds, and four other sheets of manuscript laid in. Period brown quarter sheep with marbled boards, housed in a new light brown cloth clamshell box with green gilt lettered sheep label. Rubbed at extremities, lightly soiled. Some minor scattered foxing, else text is clean and very legible. Deeds chipped and lightly foxed. Old fold lines; one reinforced along folds, the other with a hole one inch by two, affecting text. Overall a very good Manuscript.
The journal details Ida’s voyage in 1821-23 from Boston to San Blas in Mexico around Cape Horn, with stops in Valparaiso (Chile) and Guayaquil (Ecuador), and the return journey to the United States. The voyage went in several stages: at first, from Boston to Valparaiso (December 7th, 1821 - February 14th, 1822); then after a two-month furlough from Valparaiso to San Blas (April 12th - May 24th, 1822); then back to South America, to Guayaquil (August 2nd - September 4th of the same year); from there back to Valparaiso (October 11th - November 24th, 1822), and a return journey to the US (June 1st - July 6th, 1823).
The journal methodically records the nautical details of Ida’s voyage: wind and weather conditions, daily mileage, speed of the ship each hour, latitude and longitude, and geographical objects encountered and passed on the way. Captain Walker notes that he departed on the Ida from Boston harbor "with a heavy heart and thoughts of home," crossed the Equator on the 30th of December, and the next day passed the archipelago of Fernando Noronha (354 km offshore from the Brazilian coast). On the 25th of January she passed the Falkland Islands, and went through the Drake Passage: along Terra del Fuego "for eight leagues making in sharp peaks like steeples," Staten Land (Isla de los Estados) and Diego Ramirez Islands. On the 4th of February Ida rounded Cape Horn, and on that day Walker "saw a Rain Bow at midnight caused by the moon", two days later he observed a moon eclipse. Santiago’s port San Antonio was sighted on the 13th of February, and the next day Ida arrived in Valparaiso.
During the sailing to San Blas Walker noted the ship passing the Galapagos Islands, Cabo Corrientes (Mexico) et al; on return journey to Guayaquil - Islas Marias (Mexico) and Isla de la Plata (Ecuador). Ida arrived to Puna island at the head of Gulf of Guayaquil on the 4th of September. On the way back to Valparaiso she passed Juan Fernandez Island and stayed in port San Antonio, at the mouth of Maipo River for several days. During this part of the voyage Ida got caught in many storms, the note from 24th of October witnesses "Strong gales, squalls and rough sea; ship requires pumping every two hours."
The journal contains an impressive entry describing the Valparaiso earthquake on the 20th of November 1822: "At 11 P.M. We was sudenly [sic] alarmed by a violent shock that effected the ship as if she had struck the bottom, all hands sprung on deck and cried out the ship ashore...on reflection knew it was impossible for her to have struck any bottom in so heavy a sea as was on at the time without bilging the bottom in. I then thought of a wreck of a vessel but lastly I imputed it to an earth quake." Aftershocks wrack the sea periodically for the next few days. On the 22nd of November they got word about the effects of the quake: "They <..,> informed us that there had been a heavy shock of an earth quake on shore and that Valparaiso had been nearly destroyed and had lost 23 lives in the fall of a Castle. St. Jago & several of the towns in the interior had suffered severely the inhabitants about the sea coast fled to the mountains for safety fearing that the sea would flow in upon them, animals of every kind on shore appeared to be affected by the shock."
There is also an interesting note about the ship Emerald of London coming from New South Wales to Rio de Janeiro with a cargo of oil which Ida encountered in the South Atlantic on the 20th of January, 1822. She provided Emerald with provisions, including "6 barrels of flour, 6 of beef, one of pork and two of bread and two cases of gin," but the next day the sailors "found a strange man on board that had secreted himself under one of the forecastle berths; he said he came from the Emerald in the second boat - he is supposed to be a convict from New Holland." No hint is given as to the fate of the stowaway. The journal also keeps track of wildlife seen at sea, including dolphins, sharks, turtles, flying fish, and albatrosses, boobies and various other birds.
One of the later notes records the sale of Ida: "I was informed by Capt. Scott that the ship Ida was sold this day" (1st of March, 1823). There is no record of the interim period, and Walker's entries are both brief and incomplete about a return journey to Boston in summer 1823. There are notes in a later hand throughout the volume which give pieces of information about Walker, and a paragraph on the last page gives an account of Walker's return, indicating that Walker returned on a whaling vessel to Nantucket and thence to Boston.
The two deeds pertain to land. They are marked as "Deed, Walker to Woodbury," and "Nancy Walker's share in the estate of Luke Woodbury - Copy." The other manuscript sheets are in the same later hand as in the journal and elaborate further on Walker's life and career.
Overall an interesting collection related to 19th century US commercial maritime voyages.
68. [WAR OF 1812, THE LAST NAVAL ENGAGEMENT]
[Original Manuscript Titled]: Copy of the Log of His Majesty’s Brig "Penguin" from September 1st 1814 to March 23rd 1815.
Ca. 1845. Octavo (ca. 20,5x13 cm). [13, 3] pp. Brown ink on folded stationary leaves with the printed letterheads of "Liverpool & Bolton Direct Railway. Secretary’s Office". Started on both ends. Original paper wrappers, slightly soiled; fold marks in the centre of the leaves, but overall a very good manuscript.
An interesting manuscript account of the last seven months of HM Brig "Penguin’s" service in the Atlantic, including its ill-fated engagement with the USS Hornet on 23 March 1815 when she was taken and scuttled. The engagement in fact took place after the peace Treaty of Ghent had been signed (24 December 1814), and thus is considered the last naval engagement of the War of 1812.
The manuscript is a copy of the "Penguin’s" logbook, most likely compiled in the 1840s by its surviving crew member Peter Grant, who has been listed as “severely wounded” in the battle with the USS Hornet. The logbook occupies thirteen pages and is supplemented with the verse titled “Lines suggested by seeing a Bunch of Daisies laying upon a grave in Bromley Churchyard, March 31/66” and signed “P. Grant.”
The log entries are concise and report on "Penguin’s" movements between Saint Helena, Ascension Island, Saint Salvadore (Bahia), Rio de Janeiro, and Madeira; meetings with the other British men-of-war (HMS Alpheus, HMS Indefatigable, HMS Achilles et al.); chasing suspicious vessels; impressing new crew members and carrying out everyday duties. On January 13 the brig arrived to Table Bay to refit the crew and replenish supplies, leaving for Saint Helena in the beginning of February. Having visited Saint Helena and Ascension Island, “Penguin” arrived to Tristan de Cunha on March 18 and was informed that “an Enemy supposed to be amongst the Islands”. The chase for the stranger started the next day.
The extensive entry for March 23 gives a detailed description of the engagement, “brisk and warm on both sides”, with exact timing of the events from 11:50 am to 3 pm. “At 2.17 bore up with an intent to board, but our ship being much cut up in sails and rigging, both masts severely wounded, at 2.35 succeeded in passing our Bowsprit through the Enemy’s starboard quarter, and at this moment the Foremast & Bowsprit fell, the former inwards, which render’d our larboard foremost guns entirely useless. The vessels then separated. Every exertion was made to bring the starboard guns to bear, but without effect. H.M.S. Was now a perfect wreck…” The author briefly describes the arms and crew of the enemy vessel, and gives a full list of 14 killed and 28 wounded crew members of the “Penguin.” The rest of the crew were taken on board the “Hornet” as prisoners of war and transferred to Salvador, Bahia (and from there on board a merchant ship to Liverpool). The last entry from 18 September 1815 informs that “A Court of Enquiry was held on the loss of H.M.S. “Penguin” when the Court was pleased to honourable acquit the surviving Lieutenant McDonald & crew.”
FARRAGUT, David Glasgow (1801-1870)
[Secretarial Copy of an Autographed Letter Signed by David Glasgow Farragut Concerning a Seized Whaler, Copied by his Clerk and Signed by him: "D.E. Farragut, Comd'g."].
La Paz, Mexico, 20 November 1855. Small Folio (ca. 29 x 20cm). One page. Brown ink on light blue wove paper. With fold marks and remnants of mounts on recto and verso, but overall a very good letter in a legible hand.
The original letter had been written by United States consular agent Thomas Sprague, addressed to "the commanding officer of any American Man of War." Sprague complained that "General Blancarte has seized the American whale-ship Rebecca Adams, removed the officers and crew on shore, and put them in prison, without any lawful cause. I have demanded their release, but as yet have not been able to procure it. There are also several females among these sufferers. The presence of an armed vessel is required instantly at this Port." The Rebecca Adams had left San Francisco in April 1855, and Starbuck makes no note of this incident or the vessel's eventual return to port (page 532). Farragut's clerk copied out the present copy at the Mare Island Navy Yard in California April 1st 1856, where it was signed by Farragut and forwarded to another officer for response.
70. [WOMAN TRAVELLER IN EGYPT & THE HOLY LAND]
[Extensive Manuscript Journal of an English Woman’s Travels to Egypt and the Holy Land in the Early 1860s; With Two Period Albumen Prints, Including a Group Portrait of the Travelling Party Posing in Front of the Ruins of a Temple in Karnak, and a Map of Egypt, Published by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge].
4 December 1860 – 26 April 1861. Folio (ca. 29,5x23 cm). Brown ink on paper. 268 numbered pages. With two albumen prints: 1) large one, ca. 26x36 cm, with a centrefold and minor creases; and 2) smaller one, ca. 20x11,5 cm, with creases and tears on the margins. With a folding hand coloured engraved map of Egypt, ca. 37x29,5 cm (London: Edward Stanford, ca. 1840-es). Period black half sheep notebook with marbled endpapers. Leather on the spine and corners dry and detaching, binding rubbed, but otherwise a very good internally clean journal.
Historically interesting account of an English woman’s travels to Egypt and the Holy Land in the early 1860s, before the opening of the Suez Canal and transformation of the region into a popular destination for European tourists. The diary’s author travelled with her husband and a group of other British tourists which would leave and join the party on different legs of the trip. The travellers left Southampton on 4 December 1860 and reached Alexandria in two weeks, calling at Gibraltar and Malta. They visited the famous sites of Alexandria and Cairo, including the pyramids, went on a Nile cruise as far as the Second Cataract and the Great Temple of Abu Simbel, and three and a half months later sailed to Jaffa in order the visit the Holy Land. The diary records their stay in Jerusalem and trips to Bethany, Bethlehem, Jericho, Hebron and the hills of Samaria. The larger part of the diary is dedicated to Egypt. The diary gives an interesting personal female perspective on the sites visited, interspersed with references to historical works and guide books; the overall amount of information presented is impressive. A devoted Christian, apparently, Anglican, she spends a lot of time discussing Christian Holy Places and Biblical history. The diary is illustrated with over twenty sketches of landscapes and interesting objects.
Some of the passages from the diary: “The Sphinx is much less exposed to view than formerly but enough is seen to impress the beholder with the magnitude of the work. Force or power indeed seems the sacred element of the ancient Egyptian architecture and it struck me as I looked on the majestic matter cut out against the clear blue sky” (p. 56).
[Impressions upon entering the Great Pyramid]: “the interior passages are disagreeable to a degree – some so low you have to bend almost double, some slippery, some ascending at a very acute angle, some barely leaving space to avoid a dangerous chasm, & all after the first 20 yards filled with an atmosphere of dust & heat, so stifling & oppressive that I thought I should have fainted before I had got half way & was strongly minded to return. However I managed to arrive to the King’s Chamber – a curious memento of past ages. An empty sarcophagus stands on the further end. Having seen this, you have seen all. But to indulge reflections in such an atmosphere is impossible and I could think of nothing but how to get out again into the free air of Heaven. On our return the Arabs clamoured & coaxed for bakshish, assuring us their Sheik would give them nothing. I showed them my empty pockets, which silenced their importunities as far as I was concerned, but hearing the same demands pressed on my husband at a critical & dangerous spot not far from the entrance. I shouted for Hassan who had not accompanied us. Before he arrived however we were in safety. But if I had to take my choice between entering & ascending, I would certainly ascend. Haste is not needful & steps can be supplied while nothing can render the subterranean passages more tolerable. The ladies whose ascent we watched however, were as decided in advising us on no account to go up, as we were in advising them on no account to go in” (pp. 54-55).
“The Easterns must have a natural facility in acquiring languages. Waiters as well as Dragomen often speak English, French and Italian, in addition to their own Arabic, which they are perhaps scarcely able to read or write - their English especially being wonderfully pure.”
[About the Karnak Temple]: “there is no Egyptian monument which I have a greater desire to revisit. The “columns in the firm of living things” of which ancient authors speak; but above all the fallen Colossus awakened sensations which it is impossible to describe. So immense are the head, neck and arms of this statue that it was sometime before I realized what I was looking at & than I was lost in wonder not so much at the expense of power required to raise it, as to throw it down. It was seated in calm repose with its hands on its knees after the fashion of its granite brethren, but now lies prostrate on its back, the throne & legs having been broken up. One foot is to be found not far off. Its toes measure a yard in length. With great difficulty we climbed up on to the neck & there we sat awhile, marvelling & observing <…> I suppose Cambyses must have been the destroyer, though how he could have effected his purpose without the aid of gunpowder, it is hard to conceive” (pp. 86-87).
[View of Jerusalem]: “Rising abruptly from the steep valley of the Kedron are the walls above which the eye is immediately attached by the Haram el Sheriff or sacred Enclosure of the Mosk of Oman. <…> the green sward around it, dotted with cypress & olive trees, admirably relieves the mass of white domed roofs which rise behind it & on either side” (p. 224)
Looking at Jerusalem “I imagined the solemn shadow climbing the heights & veiling the skies & we had not far to look for masses of rock dislodged by no human [?], which may be the vestiges of the earthquake which helped to express the tremendous character of that consummate hour” (pp. 231-232).
The journal finishes abruptly as she is traveling in the valley of Shechem in Palestine.
71. ARTHY, E.
[Original Manuscript]: List of Death Among the Late African Company Officers in the Settlements on the Gold Coast from the 1st of January 1812, to 1st of January 1822 Being a Period of Ten Years.
Gold Coast, 1822. 4 pages. Folio manuscript ca. 34x21 cm (13x8 in). Manuscript with tears but no loss of text housed in a blue cloth custom made portfolio with a red gilt morocco cover label. In very good condition.
The author was Assistant Surgeon in the late African Company. The manuscript gives an annual account of the deaths of the officers of the company including their names and then a 1 1/2 page remarks section comparing the mortality of Europeans in the Gold coast and other colonies. "The African Company Establishment when fully appointed consisted of forty-five commissioned and non commissioned European officers but during the period of time stated above, there was not more than thirty-five residing in the Settlements on a yearly average & the deaths among them being five annually on an average..,"
"The African Company of Merchants was a Chartered Company in the Gold Coast area of modern Ghana, in the coastal area where the Fante people lived. It was founded in 1752 and replaced the Royal African Company which was dissolved in that year.
In 1817 the Company had signed a treaty of friendship that recognized Asante claims to sovereignty over large areas of the coast, including areas claimed by the Fante. The Company was abolished in 1821, as the slave trade had not been suppressed in these privately held areas. Authority over the area was given to Governor Charles MacCarthy, the governor of Sierra Leone, who was subsequently killed in the First Anglo-Asante War" (Wikipedia).
72. ATTWOOD-MATHEWS, Mrs., Of Llanvihangel Court, Monmouthshire, Florence Blakiston
[Important Archive of Watercolours and Memorabilia Related to British Egypt and Sudan, Including]:
[“The Book of Egyptian Fame”: Unique Keepsake Album with 38 Original Watercolour Views of Egypt and the Nile, Autographs, Letters, Inscriptions and Cartes-de-visite of Over a Hundred Important Military Officers, Civil Administrators, Scientists, Adventurers and Travellers in Colonial Egypt and Sudan; With: Three Original Photos, including a Photo of a Plane above an Egyptian Crowd, and Two Portraits of the Rebel Dervishes Captured by the British-Egyptian Forces at the end of the Mahdist War].
Ca. 1898-1914. Oblong Octavo (ca. 13x20,5 cm). 54 leaves. With 38 original watercolour and pencil drawings, all but one: 23 January – 5 March 1898 (one – 6 January 1901); all watercolours with pencil captions on the adjacent leaves. With numerous signatures, inscriptions, mounted cartes-de-visite, newspaper clippings, and three original photographs captioned by Mrs. Attwood-Mathews. Original white cloth album by “L. Cornelissen & Son”, decorated with hand drawn Egyptian hieroglyphs and a scarab on the front cover. Album soiled and worn, weak on hinges, some leaves loosely inserted, but overall a very good album.
[With: Album of 19 Watercolour Views and Scenes in Egypt and Sudan].
Ca. November 1913 – July 1914. Oblong Folio (ca. 23,5 x 27,5 cm). 32 leaves. With 16 full page watercolour views, a leaf with two sketches of a Sudanese boy; one small sketch of a Nile boat in Khartoum, and a view of the Beni Hassan ancient Egyptian Cemetery (on a smaller leaf, presumably from another album). All watercolours are with pencil captions on the adjacent leaves. The album is signed by the artist on the inner front cover. Original white cloth album by “L. Cornelissen & Son." A very good album with beautiful watercolours.
A fantastic private archive containing rich first-hand material on the history of the British rule in the 19th century Egypt and Sudan. The first album starts with a series of watercolours taken by Mrs. Attwood-Mathews during her travel up the Nile in January-March 1898. This journey was obviously closely connected with the final offense of the British-Egyptian forces towards the Mahdist Sudan in the spring 1898. The military expedition under command of Horatio Herbert Kitchener defeated the Mahdist army at the Battle of Omdurman on 2 September 1898 and completely conquered the Sudan by November 1899.
The watercolours taken from the “post boat ‘Amenartas’” comprise a series of Nile panoramas, often taken on sunrise or sunset and showing the pyramids of Giza, Saqqara and Meidum, minarets of Hawara, Assirit and Sohag; bright, almost electric colours of Aswan and Beni Hassan; and “Libyan Hills” coloured in tender pink by the morning sun. Wartime reality becomes obvious with the portrait of six British military officers travelling with Mrs. Attwood on board “Amenartas”: they are dressed in the uniform of different regiments (Royal Horse Guards, Cameron Highlanders, and A.M. Staff), with a pencil caption: “Field Service Cup, side view”. Another watercolour shows “the boat towed behind the post boat “Amenartas” with the troops on board: Cameron Highlanders, Lincolns & A.M.S.” There are also beautiful scenes of a sand storm in Sheikh Fadl, a street view in Nag Hammadi; pictures of Nile feluccas and boats “with ripen sugarcane”, papyrus reeds, windmills, local women “filling water jars in the Nile” and others.
The idea to collect autographs and inscriptions of interesting contemporaries in Egypt and the Sudan might have come to Mrs. Attwood “in the train from Aswan to Shellah, en route for Omdurman”, as the caption says to over a dozen signatures of British military officers in the album. However, it was this idea that eventually transformed the small album into a real “Book of Egyptian fame” (nicknamed so by one of the contributors), with hundreds of inscriptions and signatures by famous figures of the colonial Egypt and Sudan, supplemented with original letters, photographs and newspaper clippings.
Mrs. Attwood-Mathews seems to have been in the centre of the social life of the upper class of the British colonial administration in Egypt and Sudan where she obviously resided in 1898-1906 and travelled in 1914 (according to the dates of inscriptions). Her album represents almost an exhaustively full record of everyone more or less important who resided in or visited the region in the period of 1900-1910. The signatures (to name only a few) include those of: Colonel E.S. Stanton, the Governor of Khartoum; Governor-General of Sudan Sir Reginald Wingate (curious note about the books taken from the hotel library in Luxor); John Evans, President of the Egypt Exploration Fund; Sir Colin Scott-Moncrieff killed in Sudan in 1916; G.E. Matthews, Governor of the Upper Nile Province; Butler, Governor of the White Nile Province; Rudolph von Slatin Pasha; Carl Neufeld, famous “Khalifa’s Prisoner”; British MP Daniel Ford Goddard; Ernest St. George Tucker, “Chief Engineer” of gunboat “El Fateh” who “had the honour of bringing Major Marchand from Fashoda to Atbara, the first time he came to Cairo, early in 1900” (relates to the famous Fashoda Incident, summer-autumn 1898) et al.
The inscriptions include those of many British military officers, e.g. F. Burghes who “afterwards captured Osman Digna” (Digna – renowned military commander of the Mahdi forces), Herbert Ravescroft from the “Slavery Department, Khartoum”, several managers of the National bank of Egypt, inspector of Postal Service in Upper Egypt; judge of the Aswan Court and many others. A collection of its own is a group of signatures and inscriptions of renowned Egyptologists, which include: Howard Carter, the famous discoverer of Tutankhamun’s tomb; Sir Ernest A. T. Wallis Budge who wrote his inscription in Egyptian hieroglyphs; Walter L. Nash whose “visit to Egypt this year has been made specially agreeable by the acquaintance of so many who are interested in Egyptology”; A. H. Sayce, a pioneering British Assyriologist and linguist, and a close friend of Mrs. Attwood-Mathews; Georges Legrain (1865-1917), “Inspecteur dessinateur du Service des Antiquites, Temple de Karnak”; visiting staff members of Columbia University and Harvard, et al.
Interesting items also include a note by Colonel James J. Harrison who made a sensation in Britain when in 1905 he was the first to bring six Pygmies from Congo. In a note dated 16 January 1905, Harrison wrote: “en route after Pygmies and okapi”. There is also a note by another traveller, Burchard Heinrich Jessen, F.R.G.S., attached to “W.N. Mc.Millan’s Expedition in the Sudan and Abyssinia." Another note from Philae by American painter Henry Roderick Newman (Feb. 6, 1902), and in the same place, but four years later - British painter Frederick Ogilvie (“Feb. 12, 1906 – painting on Philae”). The inscriptions are supplemented with numerous newspaper clippings mounted in by Mrs. Attwood-Mathews with short biographies or notes about the inscribers.
Original photos include a picture of a plane flying over a crowd in Egypt – most likely, piloted by famous early aviator John-Herbert Spottiswood who also left his inscription in the album; there is also Mrs. Attwood’s note: “came to Aswan in the hydroplane and Khartoum by rail on March 5th, 1914." Additionally there are two original portraits of the Dervish leaders who continued to struggle against the British-Egyptian forces after Mahdi’s death in 1885. Among the portrayed are Emir Mahmoud - “the Dervish leader at the famous battle of El Atbara”, Emir Abou Zeid, and son of famous general Khalifa. The caption says: “The Dervishes brought down the Nile by Captain Elgood & photographed at the railway station at Luxor. The Khalifa’s son has his face partly covered up”. The entry is supplemented by an extensive inscription by “captain Elgood” himself, who called himself “Lieut.-Col. Percival G. Elgood, Commandant, Aswan Province, Upper Egypt” (1900), and modestly noted: “My sole title to a niche in this book of Egyptian fame is that I was the conductor of “the last of the Derwishes” (Mahmoud, Sheikh Addis et cet.) in their […?] official journey from Kordofan to Rosetta!”
Among several letters or notes from the album is a letter to Mrs. Attwood-Mathews from the bishop of Khartoum Llewellyn Henry Gwynne who “should much like to see some of your paintings of the Cathedral of Khartoum” (23 February, 1914), and a fragment of the letter by major Hugh Watson Channer of the Egyptian army with a humorous picture of a man going in the direction of a “Hareem” (maybe, a self-portrait?).
The beautiful large watercolours from the second album include several Nile panoramas taken in Abu Girgeh, Nagh Hammadi, Denderch, and Khartoum; a view of the city of Aswan; interiors of the Shepherd’s Hotel in Cairo, garden views of the Grand Hotel in Khartoum (with some expressive notes, e.g. “100 Farengheit in the shade!!”) and others. Two interesting views of the ancient Egyptian temples in the Lower Nubia - Wadi es-Sebua Temple and Amada Temple - give a good picture of their original location, as both temples were relocated in 1964 during the construction of the Aswan Dam project. Two other watercolours refer to the events of the Mahdist War (1881-1899): e.g. A serene panorama of the Nile with the distant hills in the background, taken from the hotel balcony in Khartoum; it is supplemented with a caption “Sand dunes where our troops lay the night before the battle of Omdurrman” (sic!). Another Nile view shows the spot “Where the battle of Toski was fought, under these hills” (the Battle of Toski (Tushkan), near Abu-Simbel, was fought on August 3, 1899, between the Anglo-Egyptian forces and the Mahdist Sudanese).
Florence Blakiston Attwood Matthews was the second daughter of a British Swedenborgian writer and homeopathic doctor James John Garth Wilkinson (1812-1899). She was a noted watercolour painter of the time, and her watercolour view of Pontrilas Court (Herefordshire) is now in the National Library of New Zealand. In 1860 she married Benjamin St. John Attwood Mathews, a J.P. And D.L. For Herefordshire (High Sheriff 1891), and one of the Founders of the Alpine Club. In 1857 he took part in the first British accent of the Finsteraarhorn (Bernese Alps), together with his cousin, famous mountaineer Charles Mathews (1834-1905).
73. BARROW, John, Sir, 1st Baronet (1764-1848)
[Autograph Letter Signed "John Barrow" to "Mr. James Mayning, Boatswain, HSM Talavera, Gibraltar" Informing Him About His Promotion; With a Rare Lithographed Proof Plate of Barrow’s Portrait]: Sir John Barrow. F.R.S. &c., &c.
Letter: Admiralty, 8 March 1838. Folio (ca. 31,5x20 cm). 1 p. (bifolium, with a second blank leaf). Brown ink in secretarial hand on J. Green & Son laid paper watermarked "1837"; signed by Barrow at the bottom. Fold marks, otherwise a very good letter. Portrait: ca. 1840s, ca. 25x20 cm. Lith. By T. Bridgford A.R.H.A. A printed note "Proof" on the lower margin. Minor edge wear not affecting image. Overall a very good portrait.
An official letter signed by John Barrow as the second Secretary of the Admiralty informed that "My Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty having been pleased to advance you from the Pay of a Third Rate to that of the First Class". The letter is addressed to a Royal Navy boatswain James Mayning. He was in the naval service for over 46 years, being stationed in the Caribbean, North America and East Indies, and was slightly wounded "at the reduction of the island of Cheduba" (Burma) while serving on HMS Slaney (The Oriental Herald and Colonial Review. London. Vol. Viii, September-December 1824, p. 576). Mayning served on HMS Talavera, a 74-gun third rate ship of the line of the Royal Navy, in 1836-1840. The letter is supplemented with a rare proof lithographed portrait of John Barrow.
John Barrow was a renowned English statesman, traveller and promoter of exploration; a member of the Royal Society (1805), a founding member and a president (1835-1837) of the Royal Geographical Society. He accompanied Lord Macartney’s embassy to China (1792-4), and served during the latter’s governorship in South Africa (1797-9) "collecting much of the commercial and strategic intelligence about the eastern seas and southern Africa" (Oxford DNB). Barrow was the auditor general to Cape Colony 1798-1803 and the second Secretary of the Admiralty in 1804-1845 (except for the period between 10 February 1806 and 7 April 1807).
"In his position at the Admiralty, Barrow was a great promoter of Arctic voyages of discovery, including those of John Ross, William Edward Parry, James Clark Ross, and John Franklin. The Barrow Strait in the Canadian Arctic as well as Point Barrow and the city of Barrow in Alaska are named after him. He is reputed to have been the initial proposer of St Helena as the new place of exile for Napoleon Bonaparte following the Battle of Waterloo in 1815" (Wikipedia).
74. BOWERS, Alexander
[Autograph Manuscript of a Detailed Report to "The Chairman of the Chamber of Commerce Glasgow," on Burma and the Sladen Mission sent from Mandalay to the Chinese Frontier to Establish "Overland Communication with Western China," with Detailed Descriptions of People and Places and on the Goods Available in the Region and the Trade Possibilities].
[Glasgow], ca. 1870. Quarto (ca. 25x19 cm). 32 leaves. Brown ink on beige wove paper. Text mainly on recto of leaves. With minor edge wear, very minor foxing and with small pieces of tape on left outer leaf edges, with corrections and additions in pencil and ink. Overall a very good manuscript.
In 1868, Edward Bosc Sladen (1827-1890) "was placed in charge of a political mission sent to the Chinese frontier to inquire into the causes of the cessation of overland trade between Burma and China, and to obtain information respecting the Shans, Kakyens, and Panthays. Leaving Mandalay on 13 January, he proceeded via Bhamo to Momein (Tengyue), the frontier town of the Chinese province of Yunnan, where he stayed six weeks, but was prevented from proceeding further by the disturbed state of the country. The mission reached Bhamo, on its return journey, on 3 September, having acquired much valuable information about an almost unknown country" (Oxford DNB). "The journey proved for the first time the navigability of the river beyond Mandalay, and charts were drawn up by Captain Bowers who accompanied the expedition" (Howgego, Continental Exploration 1850-1940, S39).
The present manuscript is a detailed report including the historical and political background with mentions of "the Panthay Rebellion (1856-1873), a rebellion of the Muslim Hui people and other (non-Muslim) ethnic minorities against the Manchu rulers of the Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province" (Wikipedia) and the relationship between Burma and Western China. It includes details and findings of the Sladen expedition to Yunnan to explore re-opening ancient trade routes, descriptions of cities such as Talifu (the headquarters of the Mohammedan "Sultan" during the rebellion), and the influence of political and religious factors on trade and the workforce, with descriptions of goods traded (such as gold and cotton). Bowers describes the governor of the city and district of Momein ""Ja Su Kone?" [as] a man of most liberal ideas, and generous impulses was anxious to reciprocate trade relations with us, and entered heartily into a treaty of commerce with Major Sladen." Further, Bowers says of the capital of the Panthay's "Talifoo [Dali]," is described as a city of the first class, it is situated on the banks of an immense lake [Erhai Lake] or inland sea, and is the seat of the Panthay Govt., their King "Suliman the first" has his courts there, it is described as being 12 days march in "N" direction from Momein. The city has sixteen gates to it, and is about 3 miles long." Bowers descriptions of the people and places of this Burmese-Chinese border region is supplemented with much detail on the products and trade possibilities available there.
75. CHARCOT, Jean-Baptiste (1867-1936)
[A PAIR ITEMS RELATED TO CHARCOT’S LAST EXPEDITION 1934-1936].
Autograph Letter Signed ‘J. Charcot’ to ‘Un Monsieur’ About Latter’s Son’s Desire to Join the ‘Pourquoi-Pas?’ Crew. Neuilly-s-Seine, 5 May 1933. Quarto ca. 27 x 21 cm (10 ½ x 8 ¼ in). One page. Laid paper, folded twice, the text is written in ink in a legible hand, with the address printed on top. Very minor tear on fold, otherwise in very good condition.
[With]: An Original Press Photograph Dated 24 June 1934 Showing "Polar Explorer Honoured O.P.S.: Dr. Charcot, the famous French polar explorer, receiving a medal from Marshal Franchet d'Esperey at the Geographical Society today. On right is Mme Charcot, the servant's wife, on left Mme Waldeck-Rousseau, sister of Dr.Charcot." Oblong Octavo ca. 13x18 cm (5x7 in). Photograph annotated in Spanish and with several stamps and pasted on notes in English and Spanish. A very good photograph.
These two items are related to the last expedition of the famous French Antarctic Explorer Jean-Baptist Charcot. Conducting an ethnographic survey of Greenland and Iceland in partnership with the French explorer Paul-Émile Victor, the crew of the ‘Pourquoi-Pas?' also mapped the region. The expedition ended with tragedy, when on 16 September 1936 the ship was caught in a violent cyclonic storm and was lost on the reefs off the coast of Iceland. Twenty-three of the crew were lost in the wreck and 17 survivors died before rescue came, leaving only one survivor, Eugène Gonidec, master steersman. Jean-Baptiste Charcot was one of the dead, aged 69 (Wikipedia).
The letter is from Charcot to an unidentified recipient whose son wished to join the crew of the expedition ship 'Pourquoi pas?.' Charcot would have liked to respond positively, but: "Le 'Pourquoi pas?' est armé par la Marine Nationale et son équipage ne peut être formé que par des marins d'Etat en activité. Si votre fils s'était trouvé sous les drapeaux au moment de la désignation de l'équipage j'aurais pu tenter une démarche au Ministère mais dans les conditions actuelles il n'y a malheureusement rien à faire." [The 'Pourquoi pas?' is outfitted by the Marine Nationale and its crew can only be formed from currently working Marine's servicemen. If your son was doing his national service at the time the crew was chosen, I could have tried and queried the Ministère. However, owing to these circumstances, there is nothing much that I can do]. Charcot also mentioned Doctor Louis Gain (1883-1963), the naturalist of the French Antarctic Expedition 1908-10, who directed the request to him. Regarding the date of the letter it’s likely related to Charcot’s last expedition departed for Greenland in 1934. In that case the letter is not only an interesting historical witness of the last Charcot’s expedition, but also a document which might have saved the life of a young French mariner.
The accompanying press photograph was taken shortly before Charcot left on this, his last expedition.
76. CHAUMONT, Alexandre, Chevalier de (1640-1710)
[Receipt from the Paris City Hall (Quittance des Rentes de Hotel de Ville) for 500 Livres given to Monsieur Alexandre de Chaumont, Chevalier, Marquis and the King’s Ambassador to the Kingdom of Siam].
Paris, 13 February 1700. Oblong Octavo, ca. 13,5x19,5 cm (5 ½ x 7 ¾ in). Printed on vellum with manuscript completions, signed by Chaumont and two officials. Minor chips of two upper corners, a very small round punch hole in the centre, vellum age toned, but overall a very good document.
An official receipt given to Alexander de Chaumont from the Paris City Hall for 500 livres, as a part of the payment for the last months of 1699, being altogether 2000 livres. The receipt bears a signature of Chaumont and two government officials. "Alexandre, Chevalier de Chaumont was the first French ambassador for King Louis XIV in Siam. He was accompanied on his mission by Abbé de Choisy, the Jesuit Guy Tachard, and Father Bénigne Vachet of the Société des Missions Étrangères de Paris. He tried without success to convert King Narai the Great to Catholicism and to conclude significant commercial treaties. He is, above all, remembered for his memoirs describing life in 17th century Siam" (Wikipedia).
77. COLQUHOUN, Archibald Ross (1848-1914)
[Autograph Letter Signed "Archie Colquh[oun]" to Mrs MacGregor and Discussing Work on his Book "Across Chrysê: Being the Narrative of a Journey of Exploration through the South China Border Lands, from Canton to Mandalay" (London, 1883)].
Edinburgh: 11, St. Bernard Court, 19 November 1882. Octavo ca. 18x11,5 cm (7 x 4 ½ in). Two pages; ink on laid paper, written in a legible hand. The text of the letter is clear, despite parts of three words on verso having been trimmed away in detaching the leaf from the second leaf of what was previously a bifolium. These include the last three letters of Colquhoun's signature. Letter with folds but overall in a very good condition.
In his letter Archibald Ross Colquhoun, an explorer, colonial administrator and author, talks about his work on a prospective book, dedicated to his travels in China and Burma in 1881-1882: the "narrative is to be 2 vols: and to be entitled | ACROSS CHRYSÊ | being the narrative of an exploration Through the South China Borderlands from Canton to Mandalay." In a short footnote he describes the derivation of "Chrysê" and afterwards asks Mrs MacGregor to "tell all yr. Friends to make certain of securing tickets for a certain lecture by a certain distinguished Ind<o> China traveller!" Seeing Mr MacGregor "amongst the audience at the c/commerce [i.e. Chamber of Commerce] on Wedy." brought back to him "days wh. Seem very far off now <..,> and indeed hardly part of my own life!" Colquhoun's book was published shortly afterwards under the same title by Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington (London, 18830.)
Colquhoun "joined the Indian Public Works Department in 1871 as an assistant surveyor. In 1879 he was secretary and second in command of a government mission to Siam and the Shan States, and in 1881-2 he travelled from Canton (Guangzhou) to Bhamo to find the best railway route between China and Burma. Widely regarded as an explorer of the first rank, his Indian administrative obligations prevented him from accepting an offer from Henry Morton Stanley to act as second in command of his Congo expedition <..,> He was in reality an accomplished writer of more than fourteen scholarly books and numerous articles on colonial administration, comparative ethnography, railway and canal construction, land settlement, trade prospects, and geopolitics and defence in the European colonial empires, Russia, China, east Asia, and the Americas. He was a regular contributor on these subjects to British, North American, and German journals and newspapers. He was one of the most widely respected travel authors of his time and he built up a series of influential friendships, counting sometime American presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Taft, and the Canadian imperialist Sir George Parkin, among his friends" (Oxford DNB).
78. DIX, Arthur Joseph (1861-1917)
[Album of 103 Original Watercolour Designs for Stained Glass Windows].
Ca. 1900. Oblong Quarto (ca. 20x28 cm). 16 card stock leaves. One hundred and three watercolour sketches on paper from ca. 2x2 cm (1x1 in) to ca. 5,5x12,5 cm (2x5 in), mounted on the album leaves. All watercolours numbered in pencil, with the ink captions on the opposite leaves. Artist’s carte-de-visite mounted on the first pastedown. Period brown cloth album with gilt tooled initials “A.J.D.” on the front cover. Binding rubbed on extremities, with the spine recased. Overall a very good album with beautiful bright watercolours.
Valuable collection of 103 original watercolour designs for stained glass windows produced by the firm of Arthur J. Dix (101 Gower St., London). The designs, drawn and compiled by Dix himself, include fine examples of coat of arms, royal shields, seals and insignia, with the time frame from the Medieval English kings, to British 20th century institutions and societies. Among the designs are royal shields of kings Ethelbert, Oswald of Northumberland, Harold I, Alfred the Great, Richard II, Henry VIII; seals of Edward the Confessor, King John, the Duke of Burgundy, the City of London, the town of Hartlepool etc. There are also coats of arms of the cities of York, Leeds, Liverpool, Chester, Plymouth, Borough of Kensington, county of Lancashire et al.; Oxford and Cambridge Universities; emblems of the Company of Musicians, Society of Antiquaries, Institute of British Architects et al.
“Stained glass artist. Arthur J. Dix was based in Gower Street, London, and active from the 1890s. He, or his studio, also made work by other designers as late as 1940” (Stained Glass of Wales online). His advertising published in the “Debrett’s House of Commons and the Judicial Bench” for 1916 stated: “Designs prepared and submitted with estimates for memorial and heraldic stained glass windows, church decorations, mosaics and brasses. Arthur J. Dix, worker in stained glass, 101, Gower St., London” (p. Xix).
Dix carved stained glass windows for a number of buildings in Buckinghampshire, including town hall in his native Wycombe, churches of All Saints (Marlow), St. Peter and Paul (Medmenham), St. Mary (Slough), and St. John the Baptist (The Lee). His stained glass windows also decorate the church of St. John the Baptist (Ightfield, Shropshire), St. Dunstan’s church (Cranford, London) and others.
See more: Little, J. Stained Glass Marks and Monograms. London: National Association of Decorative and Fine Art Societies, 2002, p. 42.
79. DRUMMOND, Sir William (1770-1828)
[Autograph Letter Signed‚ Reporting on the Latest Actions between the Ottoman Army and Mamluks in Egypt].
Boucarest, 13 December 1803. Large Octavo (ca. 23,5x18,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on laid paper. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
Interesting historical commentary to the struggle between the Ottomans and Mamluks in the early 19th century Egypt which consequently brought to power famous Muhammad Ali, the founder of modern Egypt. The letter was written by a British scholar and diplomat Sir William Drummond who at the time was the ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (1803-1806).
Drummond notes: “When I left Constantinople there were no news of any importance‚ unless it were that the Beys had raised the siege of Alexandria and had retired to Cairo. This event is attributed to a mutinous spirit‚ which had manifested itself among the Albanian troops‚ the new allies of the Mamelukes. I am sorry to add‚ that the French interest among the Beys has taken a decided ascendancy.” He also complains that he has been delayed in Bucharest for ten days “by the bad state of the roads, and must wait here until another fall of snow will enable me to put my carriage on a sledge”; after that he plans to reach Berlin via Jassy and Cracow.
80. DU CHAILLU, Paul Belloni (1831/35/39-1903)
[Autograph Letter Signed Regarding Du Chaillu’s Prospective Lectures in Leeds].
129 Mount Street (London), 2 October 1866. Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on Joynson laid paper with Du Chaillu’s monogram. Mild fold marks, overall a very good letter.
A letter by a noted African explorer and anthropologist Paul Belloni du Chaillu. In the course of his two major expeditions to West and Central Africa (1856-59, 1863-65) he became famous as “the first modern outsider to confirm the existence of gorillas, and later the Pygmy people” (Wikipedia).
“During his travels from 1856 to 1859, he observed numerous gorillas, known to non-locals in prior centuries only from an unreliable report by Hanno the Navigator of Carthage in the 5th century BC and known to scientists in the preceding years only by a few skeletons. He brought back dead specimens and presented himself as the first white person to have seen them. A subsequent expedition, from 1863 to 1865, enabled him to confirm the accounts given by the ancients of a pygmy people inhabiting the African forests. Du Chaillu sold his hunted gorillas to the Natural History Museum in London and his "cannibal skulls" to other European collections” (Wikipedia).
In the letter written just a year after his return from the second expedition, Du Chaillu turns down a proposal of his correspondent to give lectures at Leeds, saying that he is “not a professional lecturer. I do not seek such occupation and only can make such provincial visits at considerable personal inconvenience to myself and it will not be convenient for me to lecture at Leeds the coming winter”. Du Chaillu was in great demand at the time, giving public lectures in London, Paris and New York.
81. ESTCOURT, James Bucknall (1802-1855)
[Fine Collection of Thirteen Attractive Ink and Watercolour Sketches of Gibraltar. Some Views Dated 1824 & 1825].
Gibraltar, 1824-5. Recently matted, the watercolours are in near fine condition.
This fine collection of attractive watercolours and ink sketches includes:
Top of the Rock 19 x26cm (7.5 x 10.5 inches)
The Bay as seen from the Rock 19 x26cm (7.5 x 10.5 inch)
O'Hara's Tower 1 13 x 9.5 cm (5 x 4 inches)
O'Hara's Tower 2 9.5 x 13 cm (4 x 5.5 inches)
Castellar with Gibraltar in the Distance 19.5 x 27.5cm (7.5 x 11 inches)
Ferry Across the River Guadacorte and Algeciras in the Distance 16 x 23.5 cm (6.5 x 9.5 inches)
Gibraltar with the Moorish Castle 21 x 32.5 cm (8.5 x 13 inches)
British Soldiers in Gibraltar 16.5 x 23.5 cm (6.5 x 9.5 inches)
Interior of St. Geoge's Hall Gibraltar (Artist in the Foreground) 18 x 26 cm (7 x 10.5 inches)
South Part of Gibraltar from Ragged Staff 19.5 x 26.5cm (8 x 10.5 inches)
Interior of the Officer's Guard Room at Ragged Staff, Gibraltar 21.5 x 26.5cm (8.5 x 10.5 inches)
Tangier Bay in the Distance 15 x 26cm (6 x 10.5 inches)
View of O'Hara Tower 21 x 20.5 cm (8.5 x 8 inches).
Estcourt "purchased a commission as ensign in the 44th foot on 13 July 1820, exchanging on 7 June 1821 into the 43rd foot (Monmouthshire light infantry) before purchasing promotion to lieutenant (9 December 1824) and captain (5 November 1825). Estcourt served with the regiment, which formed part of Lieutenant-General Sir William Clinton's division sent to garrison towns in Portugal (1826-7) during disruption over the succession to the throne. He appears then to have returned with the 43rd to Gibraltar, before sailing for Plymouth and, in 1832, Ireland. From January 1835 until June 1837, he was second in command to Colonel F. R. Chesney during his expedition to the Euphrates valley, which sought to prove that the river was navigable from within overland reach of the Mediterranean to its mouth on the Persian Gulf, thus shortening the journey to India. Despite a torrid period, during which one steamer was wrecked and twenty lives lost at Basrah on 31 August 1836, Estcourt produced a detailed report for Chesney, anticipating ‘no difficulties’ in passage during the ‘season of high water’, provided that accurate knowledge of the deep channel and a vessel of suitable length were acquired. He was less sure about the ‘low season’, owing to lack of information, though he was confident that local Arabs would not be hostile, once they became used to the steamers" (Oxford DNB). This collection was obviously made from Estcourt first posting in Gibraltar.
82. FAWKES, H.C.
Photo Album with Forty-nine Original Photographs from a Voyage to Palermo and Naples, with Four Original Watercolours made during the Trip, and Numerous Ephemera, Including Dinner Menus, Advertising Leaflets, and Twenty-five Colour and Black and White Printed Postcards.
1905. Quarto (ca. 25x19,5 cm). 49 gelatin silver prints mounted on 30 stiff card leaves, including two large ones ca. 11,5x15,5 cm (4 ½ x 6 in); and the rest ca. 6x10 cm (2 ¼ x 4 in) or slightly smaller. With four original watercolours, including two larger ones, ca. 14x23 cm (5 ½ x 9 in), and two smaller ones, ca. 14x9 cm (5 ½ x 3 ½ in). With seven colour printed dinner menus of various sizes, two printed advertising leaflets, nine colour and fourteen black and white printed postcards. The majority of the images and printed materials are with period manuscript ink captions on the mounts. Period black half sheep album by “John J. Banks & Son” with cloth boards. Owner’s gilt stamp on the front board “H.C.F. 1905”. Album mildly rubbed and loosened at hinges, but overall a very good copy with a bright and interesting ephemera collection.
Beautiful keepsake album from the 1905 cruise of a group of English tourists along the Mediterranean coast of the southern Italy. The travelling party left London on the January 13th on board RMS “Orizaba” of the Orient Pacific Line and proceeded to Naples via Plymouth and Marseilles. They spent over a month in Palermo and afterwards visited Pompeii and a famous Flavian Amphitheater in Pozzuoli, before leaving from Naples on board SS “Ormuz” in the end of March. Most likely the album was compiled by “Miss H. Fawkes”: her name appears in the official printed list of passengers of RMS “Orizaba” mounted at the beginning of the album, and these initials coincide with the owner’s gilt stamp on the front cover of the album.
The majority of photographs show Palermo including its narrow streets and courtyards with laundry hanging out of the windows, old harbour with fishing boats, local shepherds and vegetable sellers. Several photos show views of the monastery of Santa Maria di Gesù and cloister of the abbey of Monreale. There are also images taken on a riding tour to Mount Pellegrino on the eastern side of the Bay of Palermo; the creator of the album apparently present on these pictures, together with her sister (?) “Miss V. Fawkes” and “Lady Esther Smith”. Among other images are portraits of lively “Nurses in the Villa Nationale, Naples”, views of the coast of Corsica and Sardinia, and the harbour of Naples.
The ephemera include seven colourful dinner menus finished in manuscript, and two advertising leaflets from RMS “Orizaba” and Italian hotels. Souvenir postcards show RMS “Orizaba”, Palermo and costumes of its inhabitants, ruins of Pompeii. Watercolours include views of the harbours of Gibraltar and Naples taken from deck of RMS “Orizaba”, and sketches of a boat in Marseille, and a flower from Monte Pellegrino. Overall a very attractive travel keepsake.
83. FORSTER, George (ca. 1752-1791)
[EAST INDIA COMPANY: Autograph Letter Signed to British Politician Henry Dundas Regarding Relations Between the British East India Company, the Maratha Empire and the Kingdom of Mysore, and the Company’s Commercial Activities on the Coromandel Coast, Dutch Settlements There etc.].
Fort St. George (Madras), April 22d, 1786. Folio (37x23 cm).  pp. On four numbered double-sheets (from "1st" to "4th"). Whatman watermarked laid paper. The letter is written in a legible hand; the text is on the column on the left side of the page, with sporadic comments on the right side. On verso of the 4th sheet the contents of the letter, written in a different hand. Fold marks, paper slightly browned on verso of the 4th sheet, otherwise a very good letter.
A significant letter witnessing the early political and commercial establishment of the British East India Company in southern and western India. The letter was written by the renowned Company representative, George Forster to the British politician Henry Dundas (1742-1811), who was involved with the British administration in India and the East India Company. The letter contains valuable political and commercial intelligence which "may effect us on the Choromandel Coast."
At first Forster proceeds with the report on the political situation in the region, still tense after the Second Anglo-Mysore War (1779-1784). He reports of the rumours of approaching hostilities and first engagements between the Maratha Empire, who were the British allies, and the Sippoo (Tipu) Sultan of the Kingdom of Mysore, an implacable enemy of the British. Forster goes into details reporting on the intrigues between the rivals and their neighbours, i.e. Meer Kummir ud Dein, a ruler of the Cuddapah (Kadapa) city, situated between the possessions of Marathas and Mysore. Meer Kummir ud Dein was taken prisoner in Seringapatam (a capital of Mysore), which caused "intrigue and speculation through all the lower parts of India, particularly in Bengal." and eventually the British embassy under Mr. Paul Benfield (d. 1810) was sent to Mysore on that occasion.
A large part of the letter is dedicated to the commercial affairs in the southern India, based on information taken from the Madras merchant Mr. John D’Fries. Regarding the situation with the port Negapatam on the Coromandel Coast which had been seized by the British East India Company from the Dutch in 1781, D’Fries emphasizes its political importance, as Negapatam "is one of the great gates into the Tanjore country, through which the French, their new the fast bound allies, may commodiously enter and injure us in a vulnerable part." But from a commercial point of view the reinstatement of the Dutch in Negapatam will enrich the southern territories of the Carnatic Coast of India and therefore could be restored to them: "They import 80,000 pounds in gold from their Malay factories, and to the same amount in Japan, Copper, camphine, tin, spices, sugar and Arrach; the whole produce of which was invested in plain and painted calicoes, manufactured in different parts of the coast, chiefly for the use of the inhabitants of their own settlements in India."
Forster also talks about the Dutch factories on the Coromandel Coast, such as Porto Novo, Sadras, Pulicat, Jaggernautporam (Jaggernaikpoeram) and Bimlipatam (Bheemunipatnam); describing their location and production (blue and white cloth, handkerchiefs et al). One of the notes gives an interesting detail on the development of Ceylon as a Dutch colony: "The Dutch also annually take off a large quantity of Grain from the Tanjore country for supplying the Ceylonese, who do not cultivate any in their own island and by their being hemmed in by their conquerors have no foreign connections."
D’Fries reports on the consequences of the Second Anglo-Mysore War for the subjects of the British East India Company, noting that the middle districts of the Carnatic region (lying between rivers Pennar and Coleroon) suffered the most, "one half at least of the peasants and artisans having been destroyed by the sword and famine or forcibly carried out of the country." The destruction caused a large need in agricultural and manufactured products (piece goods), and the Company developed "a brisk lucrative trade" with the Philippine islands in Spanish dollars.
According to D’Fries, British possessions of gold and silver in India were not less than 900,000 pounds. He also gives an extensive description of the Company’s current production of piece goods (up to 3000 bales during the last three years) and of the development of the foreign trade, noting:
"The English, being at this day the masters of the country, should not pursue that line of policy which governed their conduct while officiating, merely in character of merchants. Jealous of and watchful over the commercial progress of the other European nations settled in India, they want do wisely, in liberally encouraging foreign trade, particularly that species of it which introduces Specie into their dominions, being the most efficacious means of promoting its advancement and welfare. The white and painted callicoes may be computed to amount to 6 or 700,000 pounds for the last year and the demand is daily increasing."
In the end of the letter Forster mentions his hope to be appointed the successor to "Mr. Anderson" (David Anderson, 1751-1825) at the court of Mahadji Sindhia, one of the principal Maratha leaders, and notes that he is about to leave to Bengal to "solicit that appointment."
George Forster, "traveller and writer, was a civil servant of the East India Company appointed to the Madras establishment <..,> From 1782 to 1784 he made a remarkable overland journey from Calcutta to Europe, travelling through Jammu to Kashmir, Kabul, Herat, Persia, across the Caspian Sea, and thence to Russia. This journey traced back, to a large extent, the route of Alexander in his pursuit of Bessus. It also took Forster through districts of considerable commercial and political interest to the British. Adopting various disguises on his route, including those of a Georgian and a Mughal, he travelled in the company of local merchants. This clandestine mode of travel, through regions completely unfamiliar to contemporary Europeans, made it impossible for him to use any instruments to survey his route, although he was later described as an acute observer with a good knowledge of the languages of central Asia. Notwithstanding the absence of accurate measurements in his account of this journey, Forster's contribution to the revision of existing European maps of the region (notably that of the French cartographer J. B. B. D'Anville) was acknowledged by James Rennell, who illustrated his route from the banks of the Ganges to the Caspian Sea in the Memoir of a Map of Hindoostan (1788).
On his return to England in 1784 Forster became acquainted with Henry Dundas, who, impressed by his knowledge, encouraged him to write about the general political state of India. In 1785 he published Sketches of the Mythology and Customs of the Hindoos, a work which attracted considerable attention. Having returned to India, Forster was employed in 1787 by the governor-general and commander-in-chief Lord Cornwallis to conclude a defensive alliance with Mudhoji Bhonsla and the Nizam Shah against Tipu Sultan, ruler of Mysore. He was accompanied on the journey from Kalpi by the surveyor J. N. Rind, eventually reaching Nagpur on 15 July 1788. This combination of diplomacy and the business of surveying was not unusual: in fact, much of the British cartographic knowledge of the interior of India during this period was gained by officers attached to various political missions. Forster remained in Nagpur until he was recalled to Madras in February 1789. In June 1790 he returned to Nagpur as resident to the court of Raja Raghoji Bhonsla, and on this occasion his route from Cuttack to Nagpur was surveyed by James Davidson, the commander of his escort. He died at Nagpur on 5 January 1791" (Oxford DNB).
84. FRANCIS I, Holy Roman Emperor (1708-1765)
[HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE: Beautiful Manuscript Nobility Patent, Given to the Pomeranian Harder Brothers, Written in Calligraphy Fraktur on Vellum, Illustrated with a Large Watercolour of the Harder Coat of Arms, and Housed in the Official Imperial Velvet Portfolio]: Wir Franz, von Gottes Gnaden Erwehler Römischer Kayser, zu allen Zeiten Mehrer des Reichs in Germanien...
Vienna, 15 July 1756. Folio (ca. 34x25,5 cm). Ten unnumbered vellum leaves. Black ink calligraphic manuscript text in Fraktur within black ink decorative frames, calligraphic initials and first lines. With a full page watercolour of the coat of arms in colour and gold. Signed at the end by Francis I and the Imperial Vice-Chancellor Rudolph Joseph von Colloredo, countersigned by the councillor Paul Anton von Gundel, collated and registered by Andreas Xaver von Stock. Original faded crimson velvet binding with seal strings. Without the original seal, inner sides of the boards with minor worm tracks, but overall a beautiful document in very good condition.
Beautiful example of an official Holy Roman Empire nobility patent of the 18th century. The patent bears personal signatures of the Emperor – “Franz”, Imperial Vice-Chancellor Rudolph Joseph von Colloredo (1706-1788), has been countersigned by the councillor (Hofrat) Paul Anton von Gundel, and collated by Andreas Xaver von Stock.This patent was given to brothers Daniel, Carl and Johann Agath Harder from Swedish Pomerania. German 19th century genealogical directories record several representatives of the Harder family living in different parts of Pomerania: the Island of Rügen (Casselvitz, 1782; Gransdorf, 1836; Zolkvitz, 1861), Greifswald district (Reinkenhagen, 1861), Greifenberg district (Barkow and Neuzimmer, 1836). The Harder coat of arms features three golden stars on blue background and a watchtower on red background, the two fields being separated with a golden arrow.
This patent was given to brothers Daniel, Carl and Johann Agath Harder from Swedish Pomerania. German 19th century genealogical directories record several representatives of the Harder family living in different parts of Pomerania: the Island of Rügen (Casselvitz, 1782; Gransdorf, 1836; Zolkvitz, 1861), Greifswald district (Reinkenhagen, 1861), Greifenberg district (Barkow and Neuzimmer, 1836). The Harder coat of arms features three golden stars on blue background and a watchtower on red background, the two fields being separated with a golden arrow. “This family is one of the older Pomeranian nobility and is still wealthy. It is also considered amongst the nobility of Rügen, although not hereditary. Here the family owns Gransdorf and Zubehör estates. In the Greiffenberg district the von Harder family currently owns the Barkow estate on the way from Greiffenberg to Plate, with the adjacent hamlet Neuezimmer. To this family belongs v. H., Major of the 3rd Dragoon Regiment, previously of the Queen’s Dragoons Regiment, who was awarded with the Iron Cross 1st class for the Battle of Ligny. There is also Fräulein Andrina v.H., prioress of the girls’ institution in Bergen (Rügen Island)” (translated from: Zedlitz-Neukirch, L. V. Neues preussisches Adels-Lexicon oder genealogische und diplomatische Nachrichten. Leipzig, 1836, Bd. 2, S. 331).
See more: Ledebur, L. Von. Adelslexicon der Preussischen Monarchie. Berlin, 1855. Bd. 1, S. 319; Bd. 3, S. 271; Ledebur, L. Von. Archiv für Deutsche Adels-Geschichte. Genealogie, Heraldik und Sphragistik. II Theil. Berlin, 1865, S. 70-71; Kemplin, R., Kratz, G. Martikeln und Verzeichnisse der Pommerschen Ritterschaft von bis XIV bis in das XIX Jahrhundert. Berlin, 1863.
85. FRANKLIN, Jane, Lady [née Griffin] (1792-1875)
[Autograph Letter Signed to Lady Franklin from Fanny Kemble Mentioning Captain McClintock and Lady Franklin’s New House in Kensington].
Park Hotel, Park Place, Monday 2nd [ca. 1862]. 2 pp. On a folded quarto leaf (20,5x26,5 cm). Brown ink on laid paper. Mild fold marks, four minor tears on margins neatly repaired, a strip of paper attached to the centrefold as the letter had been tipped in a book or attached to a sheet of paper, otherwise a very good letter.
The letter was written to Lady Franklin by a prominent British actress, Frances Anne Kemble (1809-1893), who attended several dinners given by Lady Franklin in the hew house in Kensington.
“In 1862 when she was seventy years old, Jane Franklin moved into an exquisite jewel of house in the most fashionable district in London. Ashurst Majendie, serving as curator and controller general of Kensington Gardens, helped her acquire this “bijou recherché” in Kensington Gore, near present-day Royal Albert Hall. Secluded, charming, and blessed with a magical garden, the house had been built by John Wilkes, a controversial member of Parliament, in the mid-eighteenth century. <…>
At Gore Lodge, she entertained diverse luminaries, and delighted in creating unlikely combinations. She had a core group of Arctic aficionados, men like McClintock, Barrow, and Beaufort, and she added to these eminent explorers of Africa such as John Hanning Speke, who discovered the source of the Nile <…>. On more than one occasion, she hosted dinners whose guests included Fanny Kemble, the outspoken poet, author, and Shakespearean actress who had left her wealthy American husband over his support of slavery…” (McGoogan, K. Lady Franklin’s Revenge: A True Story of Ambition, Obsession and the Remaking of Arctic History. E-book, 2010).
“From 1862 Lady Franklin and her niece maintained a house in London, its walls hung with portraits of men who had shared the ordeal of the Franklin search. From here she supervised the preparation of memorials to her husband” (Oxford DNB).
Lady Jane Franklin was a traveler, a Tasmanian pioneer, second wife of the explorer John Franklin and a promoter of Arctic exploration. In 1836 Sir John was appointed lieutenant-governor of Van Diemen's Land, later renamed Tasmania, at Lady Franklin's suggestion, and they set sail, accompanied by her stepdaughter Eleanor and her niece by marriage Sophia (Sophy) Cracroft. Although Sir John's enlightened views on prison reform and his wife's ‘busyness’ had their critics, the couple were generally popular. They encouraged the social and intellectual development of Tasmania, establishing a scientific society, which became the Royal Society of Tasmania, and a school. Lady Franklin took every opportunity of exploring Australia and New Zealand as well as Tasmania.
Sir John was recalled in 1844, and critics of his progressive views may have prejudiced the further employment for which he and his ambitious wife were eager. After pressure from both, he was appointed commander of the Admiralty expedition to look for the north-west passage. He set sail in 1845. When two years had passed with no news, Lady Franklin demanded that steps be taken to find the missing ships. She bombarded the Admiralty with pleas and suggestions for routes. Her persistence and her willingness to court useful friends and spend the money she had inherited from her father won the respect of many at the Admiralty. Between 1850 and 1857 she helped fit out five ships for the search. The last, the yacht Fox (Captain Leopold McClintock), launched after the official search had been called off, traced the expedition's story to its tragic end. For her role in the search the Royal Geographical Society awarded Lady Franklin the patron's medal for 1860, the first and for many years the only woman it so honoured. Sir Roderick Murchison, president of the society, was one of the main champions of her cause, realizing that it coincided neatly with his wish to promote Arctic exploration for commercial as well as scientific ends.
After the ordeal of the search Lady Franklin disdained the expected retirement. With Sophy Cracroft, who had become as experienced a traveller and keeper of the record as herself, she travelled extensively, although her later journeys were more formal and less adventurous than her earlier ones. She was received with deference in America, Japan, India, and elsewhere. She had an audience with Pope Pius IX, ‘having ascertained that there would be no nonsense about it—no kneeling I mean’, recorded Miss Cracroft (Woodward, 349). She discussed Arctic research with the emperor of Brazil, met Brigham Young at Salt Lake City, and made friends with Queen Emma of Hawaii. She hoped through Murchison to persuade Queen Victoria to stand godmother (with herself as proxy) to Queen Emma's son, with the aim of asserting British influence and thus thwarting American and French designs on the islands. Although the child died before the elaborate ceremony planned could take place, the friendship persisted, and in 1865 Lady Franklin arranged for Queen Emma, now childless and a widow, to visit Britain (Oxford DNB).
86. FREDERICK THE GREAT, KING OF PRUSSIA (1712-1786)
[Letter in French, Written in Secretarial Hand and Signed "Frederic" to Ferdinand I (III/IV), King of Two Sicilies, Informing Him about the Marriage of Prince Frederick William of Prussia, Heir to the Throne and Future Prussian King Frederick William II].
Charlottenburg, 15 July 1769. Folio (ca. 32,5x20 cm). 1 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper; text in French, written in secretarial hand and signed by Frederick the Great. Period ink inscription in another hand on the bottom margin of the first page. With an opened laid paper envelope, addressed in secretarial hand to “Sa Majeste le Roi des deux Siciles Monsieur Mon Frere”; a black seal features Royal Prussian eagle. Fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
An official letter signed by Frederick the Great, a nice example of the correspondence between European monarchs in the 18th century. Frederick the Great informs his royal “Brother” Ferdinand that “yesterday” (14 July 1769) a wedding ceremony took place in Charlottenburg, between Prince Frederick of Prussia and Princess Frederica Louisa, a second daughter of Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. He hopes that his “Brother” will “enter the joy created by this union” and reassures in his “feelings of respect and perfect friendship.” The letter is addressed to “The King of Two Sicilies”, although at the time Ferdinand was officially styled as Ferdinand III of the Kingdom of Sicily and Ferdinand IV of the Kingdom of Naples. He officially became the King of Two Sicilies only in 1816, in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars.
"Frederick II was King in Prussia (1740–1786) of the Hohenzollern dynasty. He is best known for his military victories, his reorganization of Prussian armies, his innovative drills and tactics, and his final success against great odds in the Seven Years' War. He became known as Frederick the Great (Friedrich der Große) and was nicknamed Der Alte Fritz ("Old Fritz")" (Wikipedia).
87. FREYCINET, Louis Claude de Saulces de (1779-1841)
[Autograph Letter Signed "L. De Freycinet" to his Friend and Expedition Companion Joseph Paul Gaimard Mentioning the Latter’s Field Notebook].
9 January 1836. Octavo bifolium (ca. 20,5x13 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper, text in French, legible writing. With the address and postal stamps on the fourth page. Mild fold marks, small chip of the upper corner of the second blank leaf after opening, otherwise a very good letter.
A letter by a renowned French explorer and circumnavigator Louis Claude de Saulces de Freycinet addressed to his "dearest friend", French naval surgeon and naturalist Joseph Paul Gaimard (1796-1858). Gaimard took part in Freycinet’s circumnavigation on the Uranie in 1817-1820 and Dumont d’Urville’s voyage on the Astrolabe in 1826-1829 during which the fate of Laperouse’s lost expedition was ascertained.
The letter was written at the time of Gaimard’s active survey in the Arctic on corvette "La Recherche" undertaken on assignment of the French Admiralty. Gaimard was the scientific leader of the expedition, making voyages to coastal Iceland and Greenland from 27 April to 13 September 1835 and from 21 May to 26 September 1836. In his letter Freycinet informs Gaimard about his hasty departure to Paris the next day and says that "in any event, I will leave your field notebook with madame Lamothe; I would be delighted to tell you about it, but time is against me".
88. GAMBIER, James, Sir, Admiral of the Fleet (1756-1833)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Gambier” to Vice Admiral Sir John Duckworth “off Ushant”, About the Admiralty’s Orders that “Lieutenant Brompton to be discharged from St. George, without waiting to be superceded with directions to join the Neptune immediately”].
Caledonia in Hamoze, 21 September 1808. Folio (ca. 31,5x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on Whatman laid paper watermarked ‘1806’; numbered and docketed in secretarial hand on verso. Written in secretarial hand and signed by Gambier. A fine letter.
This official letter was signed by Admiral of the Fleet James Gambier, when he was the commander of the Channel Fleet of the Royal Navy (1808-1811), and addressed to Admiral Sir John Thomas Duckworth (1747–1817), then the second in command of the Mediterranean Fleet. The letter concerns the transfer of one of Gambier’s officers from his flagship HSM Royal George (1788) to HSM Neptune (1797), a 98-gun second rate ship of the line. She was just about to embark to the West Indies where she would become the flagship of the British invasion to the French colony of Martinique in January 1809 under command of Rear-Admiral Alexander Cochrane. Gambier wrote the letter on board HMS Caledonia (1808), a 120-gun first-rate ship of the line, which had been launched earlier that year at Plymouth.
Sir James Gambier also was the Governor of Newfoundland (1802-1804), and a Lord of the Admiralty. He participated in the American War of Independence, gained the distinction in the Glorious First of June in 1794, and commanded the naval forces in the campaign against Copenhagen (1807) and in the Battle of the Basque Roads (1809). Gambier was a founding benefactor of Kenyon College in the United States, so the town that was founded with it, Gambier, Ohio is named after him. Mount Gambier, South Australia, the extinct volcano and the later city, and the Gambier Island in British Columbia are also named after him (Wikipedia).
Sir John Thomas Duckworth “served during the American War of Independence, the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, as the Governor of Newfoundland during the War of 1812, and a member of the British House of Commons during his semi-retirement. Serving with most of the great names of the Royal Navy during the later 18th and early 19th centuries, he fought almost all of Britain's enemies on the seas at one time or another, including a Dardanelles operation that would be remembered a century later during the First World War. He commanded at the Battle of San Domingo, the last great fleet action of the Napoleonic Wars” (Wikipedia).
89. GOLDSMITH, George, Admiral RN (1806-1875)
[Album of Twenty-Eight Watercolour and Pencil Sketches of the Mediterranean, Including the Coast of Spain, Gibraltar, Majorca, Corfu and Alexandria Troas in Modern Turkey].
Ca. 1834-1839. Oblong Quarto (ca. 21x28 cm). 21 leaves. With twenty-seven watercolours and drawings, the majority in colour (only four solely in pencil), including eleven double-page panoramas. All but three (portraits) with period pencil or ink captions and notes. Period quarter vellum with green papered boards. Covers mildly rubbed and soiled, but the watercolours and drawings are bright. Overall a very good album.
Nice collection of watercolour views and panoramas of the Mediterranean coast, drawn by a skillful amateur artist, British naval officer George Goldsmith. The album was compiled during his service as a lieutenant on HMS brig-sloop Childers (commanded by Henry Keppel) near the coast of Spain in May 1834-April 1839. The vast majority of the views depict the north-eastern coast of Spain, with beautiful double-page panoramas of Barcelona “from the outer mole”, Valencia, Alicante and Malaga. The other views depict “Port Vendre, East Coast of Spain”, Cadiz, “Roland’s Gap” (Le Brèche de Roland), Altea, Tarragona, Cape St. Antono and Cartagena. The latter, dated 27 June 1836 is supplemented with an interesting commentary of a navigation matter: “N.B. Carthagena may be known at a distance by the high brown land marked with a cross to the left of the harbour which is rather a peculiar shape & her another hill line is a short distance to the left not included in the sketch. The land immediately in the neighbourhood of the harbour & town appears very low.”
The album also includes five interesting drawings taken on spot in the ruins of the ancient Greek city Alexandria Troas on the coast of the Aegean Sea (modern Turkey), with nice panoramas of the ruins “in a thickly wooded country”, “Interior of a Ruin at Alexandria Troas beneath the present level of the land”, and “Inscription on the ruined pedestal of a Statue at Alexandria Troas” (on the front pastedown).
The other views depict Bellver Castle of Majorca (Palma castle and Lazaretto), the embankment and the palace of Corfu, “Entrance to the Grotto of Antiparos” and entrance to “Salamis” (apparently, Salamis Bay, part of the Aegean Sea). There are also two sketches of HMS Childers, an image of a “trading lugger of SE coast of Spain” and three portraits (two women in Spanish costumes and a pencil study of a sleeping youth, apparently Goldsmith’s friend).
George Goldsmith joined the Royal Navy in 1821 and was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant (1828), Commander (1841), Captain (1842), Vice-Admiral (1867) and Admiral (1875). Goldsmith served in the Mediterranean, West Coast Africa and the East Indies. He took part in the 1st Anglo-Chinese War, with HMS Hyacinth; and the Crimean War, with HMS Sidon under his command. Upon return to Britain he became Superintendent of the dockyard at Chatham and was created Companion of the Bath for his services in the Crimea.
90. GOLDSWORTHY, Walter Tuckfield (1837-1911)
Large Archive of 138 Letters and Documents on 276 Pages Charting the Career of Walter Tuckfield Goldsworthy from Volunteer Trooper in the Indian Mutiny to Brigade Major in Abyssinia under Lord Napier in 1868 as well as Later Administrative and Regimental Postings.
1857-1909. The letters and documents are generally in very good to near fine condition.
The core of the archive is its copies of the many testimonials from commanding officers and of mentions in dispatches of particular actions which describe him as an ideal staff officer - zealous, understanding the nature of his many duties, and always tactful and resourceful. These are supplemented by original letters discussing or appointing him to particular posts. This archive charts Goldsworthy career from Volunteer Trooper with Havelock’s Mobile Column in 1857, 8th (the King’s Royal Irish) Hussars, 1857-1864, 91st Foot, 1864-1868 and finally Major-General, M.P. 1885-1900.
In mid-June 1857, Sir Henry Havelock set off from Calcutta to relieve Cawnpore and Lucknow with his ‘Mobile Column’, consisting of infantry and a few guns. His only cavalry were volunteers – civilians including the Goldsworthy brothers, with planters and officers whose regiments had mutinied, just 18 sabres in all. Havelock’s son testifies how, without them, his father and the column would have been “entirely crippled”, and how they endured in rain and burning sun often on outposts, when the regular soldiers had occasional rest in huts or tents. Though Havelock did not reach Lucknow till 25th September, on the way he won victories at Oonau (Unao, 29th July) and Busserutgunge (Busherutgunge, 29th July and 5th August), three of the nine occasions when Goldsworthy is mentioned in dispatches. Soon the volunteers were re-deployed, and in October Goldsworthy was gazetted Cornet in the 8th Hussars, which had charged in the Light Brigade at Balaklava. He was still Cornet the next summer at Gwalior, the last major stronghold of the rebels, and still Cornet with the Rajpootana Field Brigade operating in Central India, acting as its Brigade Major (senior staff officer) and being mentioned in dispatches by Sir Robert Napier (August 1858). Promoted Lieutenant on merit at the end of 1859, he held many responsible posts in his Regiment, including Adjutant for 3½ years. Despairing of advancement, in 1864 when the 8th Hussars were back home, he borrowed money to buy a Captaincy and then transfer to the 91st (Argyllshire) Foot, a cavalry Captaincy “in England” being too expensive. The 91st went out to India, and when Napier was preparing for Abyssinia (1867-1868) he telegraphed for Goldsworthy to join him once again as a Brigade Major of Cavalry, even though he was now with the Infantry. As a reward, Goldsworthy was made Brevet Major, but on half pay and unattached, and he spent the next seven years seeking employment.
The archive includes:
A. ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS AND LETTERS REGARDING APPOINTMENTS, 1857-1868 AND 1875. 40 items in 46 pages
B. SUMMARY OF ACTIONS AND MENTIONS IN DISPATCHES 1857-1859. 2 items in 4 pages
C. EXTRACTS FROM DISPATCHES AND COMMANDING OFFICERS’ LETTERS TO H.Q., 1857-1859. 9 items in 27 pages
D. COPIES OF CORRESPONDENCE BY COMMANDING OFFICERS WITH THE DUKE OF CAMBRIDGE, recommending Goldsworthy for Promotion, 1861-1865. 10 items in 17 pages
E. COPIES OF CERTIFICATES (TESTIMONIAL LETTERS) about Service in India and Abyssinia, 1857-1868. 14 items in 18 pages
F. GOLDSWORTHY’S STATEMENTS OF SERVICE, c.1865 and c. 1872. 4 items in 12 pages
G. POSSIBLE EMPLOYMENT, Correspondence with Horse Guards about, 1868-1875. 20 items in 28 pages
H. CARDWELL’S ARMY REFORMS, Effect on Goldsworthy, with drafts of his evidence to the Royal Commission, no date and 1873-1877. 16 items in 57 pages
I. MONEY and FAMILY LETTERS, 1863-1909. 23 items in 67 pages
A full detailed list of all documents and letters is available upon request.
91. GOPE, Bertha
[Album of Thirty-Six Watercolour Sketches of North Wales, Including Bangor, Aber Village, Llanberis, Menai Bridge et al.].
8 July – 2 September 1862. Oblong Duodecimo (ca. 9,5x13 cm). 37 leaves. Thirty-six watercolour views, including one double-page. All watercolours captioned and dated in ink on verso of the leaves. Artist’s signature on the first pastedown "Bertha Gope. July 8th/ 62." Period black gilt tooled quarter sheep with brown cloth boards and a label of the album maker “G. Rowney & Co. London” on the first pastedown. Binding rubbed and loose on hinges, with a tear on the bottom of the front hinge, four needle holes on the upper corner of the front board, otherwise a very good album.
Attractive miniature sketchbook by a skilled amateur artist, with thirty-six watercolour views of North Wales, opening with a beautiful double-page panorama of Bangor harbour. There are another twelve views of Bangor in the sketchbook, showing boats in the waters of Menai Strait, shores of the Anglesea Island in distance or stone walls of Pernhyn Castle. Nine sketches depict the small village of Aber (Gwynedd), ten km east of Bangor, with a view of the Aber Falls; seven sketches are dedicated to Llanberis, a village at the foot of Snowdon, including views of the Lake Llyn Padarn, a part of Snowdon and “Capel Curig from Llanberis Pass”. There are also two views of the Menai Bridge and a sketch of the Gorad Goch island showing the original box sections of the Britannia Bridge over the Menai Strait (built in 1852 and reconstructed in the 1970s). Overall a nice keepsake from a summer travel across North Wales.
The region of North Wales “is steeped in history and was for almost a millennium known as the Kingdom of Gwynedd. The mountainous stronghold of Snowdonia formed the nucleus of that realm and would become the last redoubt of independent Wales - only overcome in 1283. To this day it remains a stronghold of the Welsh language and a centre for Welsh national and cultural identity” (Wikipedia).
92. GORE, Vice-Admiral Sir John (1772-1836)
[Content Filled Autograph Letter Signed to Sir James Graham, First Lord of the Admiralty, and discusses Several Matters, Including the Methods of Defeating Pirates, the Amount of “Batta” or Payment for the Naval officers, Britsih East India Company’s Control over the British Navy in India and the Latest Book on Maritime Law].
Bombay, 17 January 1834. Quarto (ca. 23x18,5 cm). 6 pp. Brown ink on three large sheet of paper, folded and sewn together in the centrefold. Mild fold marks, paper slightly browned, otherwise a very good letter written in a very legible hand.
A detailed letter filled with interesting content from Sir John Gore when Commander-in-Chief of the East Indies and China Station to Sir James Graham (1792-1861), First Lord of the Admiralty.
Gore starts with his opinion on the best tactics of suppressing piracy in the Indian waters: "Boats, such as Ships can carry, are of no manner of use against them. Small Brigs or Schooners, that can be rowed and sail tolerably fast may effect something and keep them in check and there must be several of these to do much. Steamers would be effectual but are not yet attainable for want of coals."
Most part of the letter is occupied with his complaints about the Board of the East India Company, which, firstly, reduced the rate of exchange the “Naval Batta” (wages) for Rupees that lead to loss of a quarter of Gore’s “intended allowance”. Secondly, taking away Gore’s residences in Bombay and Penang caused his righteous indignation, and he wrote that he was supposed “to be lodged in Tents on the Esplanade of Bombay”. He angrily stated: “I can live on board my Flag Ship, and not land, as my Patron, Commodore Cornwallis did, but I cannot suffer the indignity and discomfort of ‘living in a Tent’.”
His main concern though is that the East India Company tries to get full control over the British Navy, and that subsequently “the Duty of an Admiral in India is not more that a junior Captain may execute”. Gore tells a story of the Marquis of Hastings as an example: he claimed the authority over the Navy as “Captain General of India”. Gore assures the correspondent that he is ready “to conform to what is thought to be good for the Public Service”, but “I shall heartily grieve to see His Majesty’s Navy placed under the control of any authority, but the Board of Admiralty”.
At the end of the letter he recommends to Sir Graham the latest book on the maritime law written by Mr. Christopher Biden which is “more flowery than could be wished, but replete in the substantial matter”. Overall a substantial letter.
93. GOUGH, Bloomfield, Captain (d. 1904)
[SECOND ANGLO-AFGHAN WAR, SIEGE OF THE SHERPUR CANTONMENT; Autograph Letter Signed Addressed to the Author's Father From Besieged Sherpur, Providing Vivid Details of the Siege].
Sherpur, Kabul, 20 December 1879. Octavo (ca. 21x13,5 cm). 14 pp. Brown ink on paper. Old folds with minor tears on margins, paper lightly browned, overall a very good letter.
Expressive first-hand account of the Siege of the Sherpur Cantonment (15-23 December 1879) during the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-1880). The Siege took place during the second phase of the war when in October 1879, Kabul was occupied by the British troops after the British Resident Sir Pierre Cavagnari had been murdered there. In November mutinous Afghan troops amassed to the north of Kabul and, on December 15 mounted a siege on British troops in the Sherpur Cantonment. The siege was raised with arrival on December 23 of the relief column under the command of Brigadier General Charles Gough.
Captain Bloomfield Gough was serving with the 9th Queen’s Royal Lancers cavalry regiment, and took active part in the defence of the Sherpur Cantonment. In his extensive and emotional letter written when the siege was still on, Gough gives a "full and true account of my battles and the siege of Sherpore as far as it has gone."
The account starts with the period from December 9, and describes at length the ferocious fight in Kabul’s neighbourhood Kila Kizi on December 11. Gough recreates all the events of the day in strict consistency, names all officers in command (Brig.-Gen. Macpherson (infantry), Capt. Stewart-Mackenzie and Lieut.-Col. Cleland (9th Queen’s Royal Lancers), Major Smith Widham (artillery) et al); and gives amounts of wounded and killed officers, men and horses.
Gough’s letter provides remarkable descriptions of battle scenes: "After going about 4 or 5 miles the advance partly were fired upon and soon afterwards we saw the enemy collecting in great numbers to our left front. I got my troop under cover of a hillock and the enemy numbering (I am told 1200) began advancing with standards and tom toms and great shouting. Our guns soon came into action and the enemy guns replied. As soon as they came within 800 yards, I opened fire with half my troop dismounted, and owing to our being under cover and the enemy advancing in the open, succeeded in stopping them on our right, however seeing the guns retire and fearing I should be cut off, I remounted my troops and retired over a lot of stony ground at a gallop, keeping my troop well in hand. [To?] turn upon then, if as I expected they (the enemy) would come after me. Well we retired about ¾ of a mile, and the enemy cavalry pursued, coming on with shouts of Allah and Bismillah, and as I hoped in very straggling order. When I thought they were far enough away from the enemy I got my troop into a trot and gave the order Right about Wheel - Charge! - Well I never seen such a scene of consternation [emphasis added]. My men came with a shout and the enemy who were at first so brave appeared thunder struck. Some came on, most stood still and some ran away <..,> The charge was a great success."
Gough is fascinated with an Afghan standard bearer, who "fought in a most desperate way and I never saw such a brave man. He had several lances through him before he fell off his horse and when they got down to take his standard away, though half dead and lying on the ground, he raised himself up and snatched a lance away from one of our men with which he thrust at anyone who came hear him as long as he had a drop of life left in him." He also notes the bravery of British officers who "were a long way in front in the charge and a long way behind in the retreat and every one of them do the same thing that Bill Beresford got the V.C. For." The battle description is illustrated with a nice little drawing in text (leave 2, inside) showing the lancers’ attack on the enemy positions.
Gough’s account of December 13 describes a fierce fight near Siah Sung Heights in which the 9th Lancers commander was killed: "Poor Batson shot dead with a bullet through his heart, Chrisholme being wounded with a shot through the leg and Trowers’ other horse, a very nice black whaler shot dead. 4 men dead and 9 wounded and about 30 dead Afghans lying in heaps. I am awfully sorry for Batson, poor fellow. We also lost several horses, killed or wounded."
Then follows the description of the Siege and the state of the British garrison: "The place is fortified and a desultory fire kept up all and every day from the walls <..,> Every night we have the whole regiment in picquet for fear of an attack. You must not suppose we are in a bad way, as we have plenty of ammunition to defend ourselves, only not enough to go out and drive off the enemy who are in the city and have been having great games looting it. We are perfectly safe here and are only waiting for Charley who is coming up with reinforcements and ammunition, when we shall go out and make an example of them."
In the end Gough states that "I am beginning to think war is not such good sport as people say and think hunting far better for fun and much less dangerous" [emphasis added], and describes the Afghans who "are quite different from those we met at first; <..,> mostly armed with Sniders, and are not out of the way cowards, though fortunately they are very bad shots," and notes that "it is terribly cold with snow on the ground wherever the sun cannot get at it”. He hopes that “Charley will arrive soon and that I shall give them a proper beating and then pursue them with all the cavalry, only the country is so hilly and so intersected with ditches and water that it is not an easy place for us to work on."
Bloomfield Gough came from a noted Irish noble family with a long military tradition. During the Second Afghan War he served as Aide-de-Camp to his relative, Brigadier General Sir Charles Gough (1832-1912) and was present at the taking of Ali Musjid (November 1878). Subsequent to this letter he took part in the march from Kabul to Kandahar and was present at the battle of Kandahar. He was twice mentioned in dispatches (January and September 1880).
Gough exchanged into the 9th Lancers from the Rifle Brigade in April 1873 and rose to command the regiment as Lieut. Colonel from December 1895. He accompanied the 9th Lancers to the Boer War in 1899 but was unjustly relieved of his command in the field in November. Gough retired in 1900 when commanding the regiment with the rank of Lieut. Colonel.
94. GRANDJEAN, J. S., Adjutant-General
[Signed Manuscript Regarding French Possessions in Africa]: Note Sur Les Possessions Francaises En Afrique.
Paris, 19 Pluviôse, 3rd Year of the Republic . Folio (ca. 31,5x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Manuscript in fine condition and housed in a custom made red gilt tooled quarter morocco portfolio.
Manuscript signed by the Adjutant-General J.S. Grandjean is a summary of the main points of the report submitted by him in 1766, on his return from Gorée, to minister Choiseul. The report discusses the gold mines at Galam (Senegal), gum arabic that should be shared with the Dutch, and special water resistant wood found on the Island of Boulam.
"The island of Gorée was one of the first places in Africa to be settled by Europeans.., After the French gained control in 1677, the island remained continuously French until 1960.., Gorée was principally a trading post, administratively attached to Saint-Louis, capital of the Colony of Senegal. Apart from slaves, beeswax, hides and grain were also traded..., Étienne-François, comte de Stainville, duc de Choiseul (1719-1785) was a French military officer, diplomat and statesman. Between 1758 and 1761, and 1766 and 1770, he was Foreign Minister of France and had a strong influence on France's global strategy throughout the period. He is closely associated with France's defeat in the Seven Years War and subsequent efforts to rebuild French prestige" (Wikipedia).
95. GUILLEMARD, Francis Henry Hill (1852-1933)
[Autograph Letter Signed with Interesting Notes about South African Tsama (Citron Melon) and a Gratitude to His Correspondent for “your kindly criticism of the Marchesa”].
Old Mill House, Trumpington, Cambridge, 15 September 1902. Octavo (ca. 20,5x12,5 cm). Brown ink on paper, letterhead of the Mandeville Hotel. Fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
An interesting letter by British traveller, writer and naturalist Francis Guillemard, written to a fellow colleague, with some noteworthy details about tsama, or citron melon. Tsama is native to the Kalahari Desert of South Africa, where it has been traditionally used as a source of water during dry seasons. Guillemard obviously got acquainted with tsama when serving in South Africa as a doctor during the First Boer War (1880-1881).
“I was most interested in your information that the tsama grows as far south as Graaf-Reinet [Eastern Cape Province, South Africa]: I had no idea it flourished away from the true desert. I must turn up your reference to Livingstone when I get back to Cambridge. I had forgotten that he mentioned it. My boys could tell at once which were bitter and which sweet melons. As you say, our cucumbers are sometimes bitter (I have an idea that both sweet and bitter come off the same plant, but am not sure of this) but the difference of degree in bitterness is astonishing in the tsama. The fruit seems to be either as bitter as gall or quite tasteless”. In the end Guillemard thanks his correspondent “for your kindly criticism of the Marchesa: it is pleasant to get these little appreciatory words”.
Guillemard “travelled widely, visiting Lapland, the Southern African interior, Madeira and the Canaries, South-East Asia and throughout Europe. He was present at the first Boer War, 1881, and also made visits to Cyprus, founding the Cyprus Exploration Fund. He was elected University Reader in Geography, Cambridge, in 1888, and served as Geographical Editor of the Cambridge University Press. His published works include 'The Life of Ferdinand Magellan and the First Circumnavigation of the Globe, 1480-1521' (London, 1890).” (F.H.H. Guillemard/ Janus: Online catalogue of Cambridge archives and manuscripts). In 1882-1884 he participated in a zoological expedition in the yacht Marchesa‚ visiting the Far East, the Philippines, New Guinea and most of the chief islands of the Malay Archipelago. He brought back large zoological collections from the voyage and published “The cruise of the Marchesa” in 1886.
96. HAMMER-PURGSTALL, Joseph Freiherr von (1774-1856)
[Autograph Letter in Secretarial Hand Signed by Hammer-Purgstall to “Charles Fellows, Esquire” Regarding the Latter’s Book.
Vienna, 12 January 1841. Quarto (ca. 25x20,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Clear and complete text in secretarial hand, signed by “Your obedient much servant J. Hammer-Purgstall”. Addressed, sealed and with the postal stamps on the 4th page. Paper soiled and slightly worn on folds, a hole on the 4th page after opening, not affecting the text, overall a very good letter.
Fine example of a scientific correspondence between two European Orientalists: Joseph Freiherr von Hammer-Purgstall, founder and the first president of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (1847-1849) and British archaeologist and traveller in Asia Minor Sir Charles Fellows (1799-1860).
In the letter Hammer-Purgstall informs his correspondent, that Mr Arneth, director of the Vienna Imperial Cabinet of Antics “has just transmitted to me in a small box sealed with the seal of the cabinet, the cast of all the coins which you desire and which the cabinet is possessed of. I’ll deliver this small box immediately at our Secretary of State’s office, to be forwarded with the next messenger”. He advices Fellows about the fastest way of the parcel’s delivery to London and later notes: “If you mention in our work the Vienna coins, be so good as to record Mr. Arneth’s name in order to encourage him to further communications of this kind. I am myself eager for the appearance of your work, of which I promise myself much pleasure and information”.
The letter most likely relates to one of the Fellows’ works about the archaeology of ancient Lycia: “An Account of Discoveries in Lycia, being a Journal kept during a Second Excursion in Asia Minor”, published later that year, or “Coins of Ancient Lycia before the Reign of Alexander; with an Essay on the Relative Dates of the Lycian Monuments in the British Museum” (1855).
97. HANWAY, Jonas, Sir, 1st baronet (1712-1786)
[Victualling Board Document Signed by Jonas Hanway, Joah Bates and John Slade, ordering a payment to William Wilkinson, owner of the Three Sisters Victualler, which had been chartered 27 December 1779 ‘to carry Provisions for the use of His Majesty’s Ships on the West Indies’].
London: Victualling Office, 15 November 1780. Folio (ca. 30,5x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink in secretarial hand on ‘R. Williams’ laid paper, numbered and docketed on verso. Signed ‘Bates’, ‘Jonas Hanway’, ‘J. Slade’. Fold marks, slightly trimmed on the upper and lower margins, otherwise a very good document.
Interesting document illustrating the posterior career of a renowned British traveller Jonas Hanway. He is most famous for his travel to Persia and Russia in 1743-45 which he undertook in order “to sell English broadcloth for Persian silk and to evaluate the potential of trade with Persia, then ruled by the last great steppe conqueror, Shah Nadir Kuli Khan (1688–1747). […] Hanway was robbed on the way to Persia, by the rebellious Khars on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea and was rescued by merchant colleagues. […] He was later partially compensated by Nadir Shah, who desired cordial relations with the British in order to enlist British artisans to construct a Persian navy for the Caspian. […] In 1753 he published the description of his adventures “An Historical Account of the British Trade over the Caspian Sea” (4 vols., 1753), the most original entertaining of all his books” (Oxford DNB).
Our document relates to Hanway’s activities as the chairman of the Marine Society (which he founded in 1756) and the Commissioner for victualling the British navy, the latter post he held for almost 20 years (1762-1783). The official paper of the Victualling Board orders to pay to a certain Wilkinson, the owner of a ship engaged in supplying British ships at the Caribbean Theatre of the American War of Independence (1775-1783). The document is signed by two other members of the board, Joah Bates (ca. 1741-1799) and John Slade (d. 1801).
98. HEDIN, Sven Anders 1865-1952
A Signed Photo Postcard of Hedin.
Stockholm: Paul Heckscher, ca. 1910. Ca. 13,5x8,5 cm (5 x3 ½ in). Postcard in very good condition.
"Between 1894 and 1908, in three daring expeditions through the mountains and deserts of Central Asia, he mapped and researched parts of Chinese Turkestan (officially Xinjiang) and Tibet which had been unexplored until then. Upon his return to Stockholm in 1909 he was received as triumphantly as Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld. In 1902, he became the last Swede (to date) to be raised to the untitled nobility and was considered one of Sweden’s most important personalities. As a member of two scientific academies, he had a voice in the selection of Nobel Prize winners for both science and literature. Hedin never married and had no children, rendering his family line now extinct.
Hedin's expedition notes laid the foundations for a precise mapping of Central Asia. He was one of the first European scientific explorers to employ indigenous scientists and research assistants on his expeditions. Although primarily an explorer, he was also the first to unearth the ruins of ancient Buddhist cities in Chinese Central Asia. However, as his main interest in archaeology was finding ancient cities, he had little interest in gathering data thorough scientific excavations. Of small stature, with a bookish, bespectacled appearance, Hedin nevertheless proved himself a determined explorer, surviving several close brushes with death from hostile forces and the elements over his long career. His scientific documentation and popular travelogues, illustrated with his own photographs, watercolor paintings and drawings, his adventure stories for young readers and his lecture tours abroad made him world famous" (Wikipedia).
99. HENRY, Jules, Captain of “Nouvelle Bretagne,” Governor of the Colony
[PAPUA NEW GUINEA, LA NOUVELLE FRANCE COLONY: Original Manuscript Account Book, Kept by French Captain Jules Henry on board “Nelusko” steamship during his travels across the Indian Ocean in 1876-1879, and on board “Nouvelle Bretagne” steamship during Marquis de Rays’ ill-fated 1881-1882 settling expedition in New Guinea]: Compte Exploitation Nelusko; Compte du Cap. J. Henry, Sujet Français, Cn. De V[apeur] Libérien “Nouvelle Bretagne”.
Folio (ca. 33,5x20 cm), over 170 lined leaves. Nelusko Account Book: 1876-1879. [11, 1], 38,  [=52] leaves. Nouvelle Bretagne Account Book: 1881-1882.  pages. In all 56 leaves of text in French, written in legible hand writing. Period brown panelled full sheep with blind stamped British Royal Crest on upper cover (revenue over stamped “4”). A very good manuscript.
Important document supplement to the history of the ill-fated Marquis de Rays’ New Guinea Expedition (1881), compiled by the captain of one of the expedition ships and provisional Governor of the new colony Jules Henry. This was the third and the last attempt of colonisation of the “Nouvelle France”, more commonly known as New Ireland (Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea).
Jules Henry on “Nouvelle Bretagne” and Captain Rabardy on “Genil” delivered the last batch of immigrants to the Marquis de Rays’ Nouvelle France. Henry left Barcelona in April 1881 with 180 emigrants, including several judicial and military officials. At Singapore he received a telegram from Marquis which nominated him provisional Governor of Port Breton. Upon arrival to Port Breton he discovered the residents suffering from starvation and malaria, with many already dead, and the rest fully disillusioned in the perspectives of the Nouvelle France. After a short stay, on the 16th of September Henry proceeded to Manila with a large group of the unfortunate settlers, hoping to obtain supplies and medicines for Port Breton in the Philippines. But in Manila the ship was placed under arrest together with the captain and the crew on the claim of one of Marquis’ creditors, and was put up for sale. Remembering the starving settlers of the Nouvelle France, Henry escaped from the Bay of Manila during a storm and went to Port Breton. He arrived to the settlement in the end of December, finding the survivors in an even more deplorable condition. On the 15th of January a Spanish man-of-war “Legaspi” arrived to Port Breton and arrested Henry with his crew and ship on charge of embargo violation and piracy (as he took with him several Spanish officials who were on the “Nouvelle Bretagne” when he escaped). On the 22nd of January both ships left for Manila where Henry went under trial (for more information see: The Sydney Morning Herald, 5 May 1882, p. 7; The Sidney Morning Herald, 7 December 1882, p. 4).
Jules Henry’s account book contains texts of three interesting documents about his service on the “Novelle Bretagne” which were obviously compiled during his trial in Manila in May 1882:“Compte du Cap. J. Henry, Sujet Français, Cn. De V[apeur] Libérien “Nouvelle Bretagne” (dated “Manille, 17 Mai 1882”), “Compte particulier du Cap. J. Henry Ct. Le Vapeur Libérien “Nouvelle Bretagne” dont il demande à poursuivre le recouvrement en justice avec privilège sur les biens en general “Du Marquis de Rays” et en particulier sur le Navire ‘Nouvelle Bretagne’”; and “Copie du Compte alimentation présenté à l’Avocat le 1er Mai” (dated “Manille, 1 Mai 1882”). All three documents are manuscript copies of the original accounts intended for the Spanish officials; they were obviously made by Henry for his own record at the same time with the originals, and placed into the journal which already contained accounts of his previous journeys. Henry gives a detailed account of his income and expenses when the captain of the “Nouvelle Bretagne”.
Charles du Breil, Marquis de Rays (1832-1893), an adventurous French nobleman, declared himself “King Charles I” of a Pacific empire located on the islands still unclaimed by European powers, and having fertile soils, a climate similar to that of the French Riviera and an already developed infrastructure. About 570 colonists from France, German and Italy immigrated to the newly established Port Breton in 1880-1881, but discovered no settlement, mountainous terrain and dense rainforest not suitable for fields or pastures. After about a hundred settlers had died from malaria and malnutrition, the rest fled to Australia, New Caledonia and the Philippines. In 1883 de Rays was sentenced by a French court to six years in prison for criminal negligence. Captain Henry was a witness against Marquise de Ray in the trial in Paris in November 1882.
The first account book records over twenty voyages of “Nelusko” steamship in the years 1876-1879 under Henry’s command from France (Marseille) to (and between) different ports of the Indian Ocean and the East Indies: Madagascar and neighbouring islets (Nosy Be, Mayotte), Seychelles (Mahé), Mauritius and Réunion, Zanzibar, India (Pondicherry, Negapatam, Karaikal, Madras et al.), Penang, Singapore and others. Nelusko transported post, consular goods, hospital supplies, and live cargo; several lists of passengers and crew are included.
100. HOOKER, Sir William Jackson, FRS (1785-1865)
[Autograph Note Signed "W.J. Hooker" Regarding the Identification of Centaurea Scabiosa (Greater Knapweed); with a Steel Engraved Portrait of Hooker, published by Fisher Son & Co., 1847].
Note: East Bourne, Sussex, 13 September 1850. Octavo bifolium (ca. 18x11 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter. Portrait: London: Fisher Son & Co, 1847. Ca. 11,5x9 cm. Engraved by H. Cook. A very good engraving.
An interesting note by a renowned British botanist Sir William Hooker, written as the director of the Royal Botanical Gardens in Kew. A part of Hooker’s scientific correspondence, the note concerns some previously unknown features of Greater Knapweed (Centaurea Scabiosa): “Sir, I have no Books by me here to refer to, & therefore can only say I have not myself met with Centaurea Scabiosa with purely white flowers. White flowers [?] so commonly in plants whose normal colouring is [?] otherwise, that I have not made a point in noticing such in many cases, but rather occupied the spare with other matter. Thank you for the information”. The note is supplemented with a steel engraved portrait of Hooker after an original painting by T. Phillips; the botanist is shown left three quarters, sitting with a book; a title underneath reads: “Sir William Jackson Hooker, L.L.D. F.R.A. & L.S., Regius Professor of Botany of the University of Glasgow.”
“Sir William Jackson Hooker, FRS, was an English systematic botanist and organiser, and botanical illustrator. He held the post of Regius Professor of Botany at Glasgow University, and was Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. He enjoyed the friendship and support of Sir Joseph Banks for his exploring, collecting and organising work” (Wikipedia).
101. HORSBURGH, James, F.R.S. (1762-1836)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Jas. Horsburgh” to B.S. Jones, Esq., Secretary of the India Board Introducing the Charts of the Java Sea Straits Recently Published by Horsburgh].
East India House [London], 16 January 1819. Quarto (ca. 22,5x18 cm). 4 pp. (text on page 1). Brown ink on watermarked laid paper, addressed on the 4th page. Legible handwriting. Mild fold marks, otherwise a near fine letter.
Interesting letter by James Horsburgh, noted Scottish navigator and chart maker, official hydrographer of the East India Company (since 1810) and Fellow of the Royal Society. He became known his precise maps and navigational directories of the East Indies, in particular around Singapore, including his famous “Directions for sailing to and from the East Indies, China, New Holland…” (2 parts, 1809-1811), which became the standard navigation guide for the area, known as the “East India Directory”. Horsburgh also supervised the engraving and publishing of the famous “Atlas of India” (London, 1827- …).
The letter, addressed to the secretary of the India Board B.S. Jones, regards Horsburgh’s recently published charts of Gaspar, Bangka and Sunda Straits adjacent to the Java Sea: “Having a few days ago published a Chart of the Straits of Banca and Gaspar on the same scale as my late Chart of the Strait of Sunda which I had the pleasure to forward you; permit me to send a copy of the above mentioned Chart also, in case yourself or any of the Gentlemen at the India Board should have occasion to advert to these places, as the delineation of the Coasts of Banca &c. Is more correct that in any former publication”.
The mentioned maps were published under the titles: “To Captain Krusenstern, of the Imperial Russian Navy, as a tribute for his laudable exertions to benefit navigation and maritime science, this chart of the Strait of Sunda is inscribed” (Jun. 1818) and" Chart of the Straits of Gaspar, Straits of Banca, and adjacent areas of the China and Java Seas” (Jan. 1819).
“East India House was the London headquarters of the East India Company, from which much of British India was governed until the British government took control of the Company's possessions in India in 1858” (Wikipedia). “The Right Honourable Board of Commissioners for the Affairs of India (commonly known as the India Board or the Board of Control) was an arm of the Government of the United Kingdom responsible for managing the Government's interest in British India and the East India Company between 1784 and 1858” (Wikipedia).
102. JOHNSTON, Sir Harry Hamilton (1858-1927)
[Autograph Letter Signed to Mr. Buckland Regarding Waste Land Regulations Intended for Use during Johnston’s Service in Central Africa].
Government House, Calcutta (printed letterhead), 14 February 1895. Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on paper. Small tears on the top and bottom of the left blank margin, paper age toned, otherwise a very good letter.
An interesting letter by a British African explorer and colonial administrator Sir Harry Johnson relates to his service as the first commissioner of Nyasaland (British Central African Protectorate, modern Malawi) in 1891-1896. The letter particularly refers to the land regulations which needed to be established in Africa: “Dear Mr. Buckland, I am much obliged to you for so very kindly sending me the Waste Land regulations which will I am sure be of much use to me for determining the policy to be pursued in Central Africa in regard to Land questions." A number of land property issues were later discussed in Johnston’s “British Central Africa: An attempt to give some account of a portion of the territories under British influence north of the Zambezi” (London, 1897).
Sir Harry Johnston was a “British explorer, botanist, linguist and colonial administrator, one of the key players in the "Scramble for Africa" that occurred at the end of the 19th century” (Wikipedia). In 1882-3 Johnston accompanied a geographical and sporting expedition to Angola‚ serving as artist‚ naturalist‚ and Portuguese interpreter. The party travelled slowly from Mossamedes to the upper Cunene‚ where Johnston left it‚ making his own way to the Congo estuary. There he was befriended by H. M. Stanley‚ who was then establishing the Congo Independent State for Leopold II of the Belgians. With Stanley's help‚ Johnston ascended the river as far as Bolobo‚ and spent some weeks collecting plants‚ birds‚ and insects‚ and vocabularies of the local Bantu languages. His books‚ The River Congo (1884) and The Kilimanjaro Expedition (1885) confirmed his reputation as an authority on Africa. He was resident in Nyasaland as British commissioner from 1891 to 1896. His other books were Liberia (1906) and The Negro in the New World (1910).
103. JOSEPH I, Holy Roman Emperor (1678-1711)
[HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE: Beautiful Manuscript Regulations for Shoemakers of the City of Grumberg, Moravia (Modern Podlesi, Czech Republic), Signed by the High Chancellor of Bohemia Count Johann Wenzel Wratislaw von Mirowitz]: Wir Joseph, von Gottes Gnaden Erwehler Römischer Kayser, zu allen Zeiten Mehrer des Reichs in Germanien...
Vienna, 14 January 1711. Folio (ca. 34x28 cm). Thirty-two unnumbered pages on eighteen vellum leaves, unsown. Black ink manuscript text in Fracture and calligraphic handwriting; calligraphic initials. Signed at the end by Count Johann Wenzel Wratislaw von Mirowitz and countersigned by three more officials. Bound in the original full vellum folder with gilt tooled floral ornamental borders and Austrian Imperial eagles on both boards. With a large masterly executed watercolour scene of Cain killing Abel (ca. 22,5x14,5 cm, within a gilt border) pasted to the front paste down. Without the original seal and fastening straps. Boards with some wear, the watercolour with some minor water damage (Cain’s face), but the manuscript is very good and sound.
Original 18th century manuscript regulations for shoemakers, granted by the Holy Roman Emperor Joseph I to the city of Grumberg in Moravia (modern Podlesi, Czech Republic). The regulations consist of twenty paragraphs and supplementary texts. "...Vigesimo und zum Letzten, Solle auf des Vatters Herberge in anwesenheyt zweyer beysitzer Maister, nebst zweyen alten Schuhknechten die gute Policey geliebt, und hingegen das Böße, nach Inhalt der Articulen, und derengebräuchen, abgestraffet werden..." The document is signed by the High Chancellor of Bohemia Count Johann Wenzel Wratislaw von Mirowitz (ca. 1670-1712) and countersigned by the Bohemian Vice Chancellor Franz Ferdinand Graf Kinsky (1678-1741), both important figures in the politics and diplomacy of the Bohemian kingdom. The original vellum covers adorned with the Austrian Imperial eagles and with a masterly executed watercolour depicting the scene of Cain killing Abel (attached to the front paste down).
A very nice document.
104. JUBELIN, Jean-Guillaume (1787-1860),
[Governor of Senegal 7 Jan 1828 - 11 May 1829]
[Official Order on the Printed Letterhead of “Gouveneur du Sénégal & de Ses Dependances” to Jean Clément Victor Dangles to Explore the Coast of West Africa, in particular the Bissagos Islands and Casamance River].
Saint-Louis, Senegal, 15 March 1828. Folio (ca. 31x20 cm). 2 pp. Text in French. Brown ink on the official form; signed by Jubelin, with the official ink stamp of the Government of Senegal. Paper aged, with minor creases, otherwise a very good document.
This is the official order for the second expedition to Casamance, under command of Jean Clément Victor Dangles (b. 1783). Jubelin served as governor of Senegal (7 January 1828 - 11 May 1829), French Guiana (1829-1836), and Guadeloupe (1837-1841). The Bissagos Islands are a group of 18 major islands and dozens more smaller ones in the Atlantic Ocean and are a part of Guinea-Bissau. The Casamance is the principal river of the Kolda, Sédhiou, and Ziguinchor Regions in the southern portion of Senegal between The Gambia and Guinea-Bissau (Wikipedia).
105. LISZT, Franz (1811-1886)
[Autograph Letter in German Signed “F. Liszt” Regarding Performances of Tännhauser and Variations of Berlioz’s Benvenuto Cellini].
Wednesday, the 6th, ca. 1851-1852. Octavo bifolium (ca. 21x13,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on pale blue paper. Ink faded, but the final paragraph and signature are darker, fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
The text (in translation) reads: “Dear Friend, I have just learned that many of the military marches from Tännhauser will be played on trial tomorrow morning very early until 2:30. Could you come to make a trial effort after 2:30 please? Herewith, I’m sending to you Cellini’s variations, which, I hope, will suit you. I think that I accomplished a masterpiece! [underline supplied by Liszt].” Possibly addressed to Karl Beck sometime in 1851-52, the tenor who performed in Liszt’s production of Lohengrin in Weimar, and for whom he adapted the score of Berlioz’s Benvenuto Cellini in 1852. Liszt published Elsa’s Bridal Procession along with the Entry of the Guests from Tannhäuser, as “Two Pieces from Tannhäuser and Lohengrin” in 1852, and numerous new productions of Tannhäuser were in preparation for 1852-53.
106. LUGARD, Frederick John Dealtry, Baron (1858-1945)
Two Autograph Letters Signed "F.J.D. Lugard" to "Thomas" and "Fagan" (of Natural History Museum) Dated 1 Sept. 1895 and 15 Feb. 1896 Respectively.
[South Africa], 1895-6. Octavo. 3 pages each. Octavo letters each ca. 18 x 11 cm (7 x 4 ½ in). The letters are written in a legible hand and are in near fine condition.
The two interesting letters are full of content and in the 1895 letter Lugard discusses what "Thomas" has in his collections (especially the horns and skin of a hartebeest) and asks for a spare Kobus Kob skin. He has immature Kobus Kob horns if he wants them from" South of Lokoja on Niger bank." Perhaps he is discussing the results of his expedition to Borgu.
In the 1896 letter Lugard describes in detail the sort of man he wishes to employ looking after stores and doing "miscellaneous work", a taxidermist or collector. Presumably he is preparing for the expedition to Lake Ngami (1896-7).
"West Africa, 1894-1895:
Despite any disenchantment over his experience of two companies and his longed for but dwindling hope of returning to east Africa in senior government service, Lugard now embarked, however hesitatingly, on another roving company expedition. An offer of service came from Sir George Goldie, who had obtained a charter for his Royal Niger Company and in 1894 was busily concluding treaties with local chiefs so as to strengthen the company's capacity to repel the encroachments of the French in the Niger region. Aware that they were preparing an expedition to Borgu, Goldie wanted Lugard to proceed to Nikki, its chief town, and to forestall the French and Germans by securing a treaty from the ruler. In a rapid and remarkable march through unexplored country, Lugard won the so-called ‘steeplechase to Nikki’, to the dismay of the French, who had no doubt about the motives of one whom they stigmatized as ‘the conqueror of Uganda’.
Southern Africa, 1896-1897:
A brief interlude in southern Africa followed. Lugard left the Niger in April 1895, still hoping that the government would ask for his services in Africa. Agonizingly, his appointment as CB brought nothing more with it, so he accepted an offer from yet another African company, the new British West Charterland Company, and set off to explore a mineral commission near Lake Ngami in Bechuanaland. Here the main problem was not fighting but transport. The journey involved 700 miles across the Kalahari Desert, and a rinderpest epidemic had emptied the country of trek cattle. Nevertheless, the journey was accomplished by September 1896. In the following August, Lugard received an urgent and surprise message from the new colonial secretary, Joseph Chamberlain, inviting him to take up work in west Africa. It was an imperial appointment at last. What Lugard called his ‘destiny to Africa’ entered its third phase: after central and east Africa, henceforth it was to be west Africa. It turned out to be the longest connection of them all" (Oxford DNB).
107. LUMSDEN, Sir Peter Stark (1829-1918)
[An Historically Important Archive of Twelve Items Relating to the Career of Sir Peter Stark Lumsden. The Archive Covers Lumsden's Career for the Period ca. 1870-1883].
Lumsden "served as quartermaster-general in India between 1868 and 1873. He was made a full colonel in March 1870 and became aide-de-camp to Queen Victoria. In 1872 he was appointed resident to Hyderabad, and CB the following year. He was created CSI, served as adjutant-general of India (1874-9), and became the chief of staff of India in September 1879, having been knighted in July. He was also extremely enterprising: when Sir Frederick Roberts led his column on Kandahar during the Second Afghan War (1878–80) he was approached by a foul-smelling fakir, an ‘extraordinary looking creature’, who claimed to have obtained valuable intelligence on the Afghan forces. Roberts did not realize the fakir was Lumsden, who had been on his own personal reconnaissance in an elaborate disguise with ‘decoration of peculiar sanctity … dirt, wig and all’. He was also known for his great physical fitness: recovering from scarlet fever, he was alerted to the presence nearby of a man who was drowning. He asked the crowd if someone would volunteer to rescue the man since he himself was quite ill, but, when no one stepped forward, he plunged in, and, with extraordinary effort, pulled the man to safety. Lumsden was promoted major-general in 1881, and in 1883 became a member of the Council of India, where he was thought of as someone with a ‘sturdy independence’ of mind"(Oxford DNB).The archive includes:
1. ALS from Lord Lawrence on cuts to the Indian Army, octavo, three pages, the first page black edged and embossed with a coronet and the address 26 Queen’s Gate addressed to Colonel Peter Lumsden, C.B., C.S.I., dated 19th May 1873, addressing him My dear Lumsden and signed Lawrence. The letter notes that Lawrence is to be examined by the Finance Committee and requests information on the various strengths of the Army in India and in each of the Presidencies. Lawrence seeks a meeting with Lumsden to discuss the proposed cuts in the army and observes “My idea generally is that both in Europeans & Natives we have cut down the Army as low as we ought to do. Madras might spare some Native Troops perhaps, but then these seem to be our only reserves.” The blank rear leaf of the letter is pasted to an old album leaf; the top third of the first page is browned but the whole is sound.
John Lawrence was asked to serve an extra year as Viceroy and, on his return to England, he was raised to the peerage as Lord Lawrence of the Punjaub. He died in 1879.
2. Group Portraits showing Viceroys: Sir John Lawrence and Lord Mayo. An old album leaf with on the one side a portrait of Sir John Lawrence seated at a table with members of his council and staff, circa 1865, including Gen Sir Robert Napier [later Lord Napier of Magdala], Gen. Sir Hugh Rose [later Lord Strathnairn], his military Secretary Col Sir Henry Durand, Col Henry Norman [in uniform], Sir Charles Trevelyan, Col Richard Strachey. The image strong and clear is ca. 16 x 22cm (6 x 8.5in.), The verso has a 19 x 18cm (7.5 x 7in.) group portrait of the succeeding Viceroy, Lord Mayo, with his senior military staff at Peshawar in 1870. The portrait includes Gen Lord Napier, Col Peter Lumsden (QMG), Col Henry Norman [Military Member]. There are two small tears without loss lower right. The majority of the sitters wear military uniform, some with medals; Lord Minto [the only Viceroy to be assassinated] wears a frock coat and the star and ribbon of the Grand Master of the Order of the Star of India.
Napier acted as Governor General during an interim period following the death of the Earl of Elgin in 1863 and Norman turned down the position of Viceroy in succession to Lord Lansdowne in 1894.
3. A manuscript letter, written in a neat secretarial hand on two sides of a single sheet of plain folio paper, addressed to Lieut. Colonel P. S. Lumsden, C.B., Quarter Master General, thanking Lumsden, on behalf of the Viceroy [Lord Mayo], for his trouble in connection with the investiture of H.R.H. The Duke of Edinburgh as an Extra Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. “Your exertions as Marshal of the Encampment were indefatigable. At great sacrifice of time and labour, you made a variety of complicated arrangements which resulted in the absence of everything in the shape of confusion or inconvenience either among those who took part in the ceremonial or among the large number of persons who attended as spectators.” The letter is dated Fort William, The 4th January 1870 and signed C. U. Aitchison Offg. Secretary to the Govt of India.
4. Notification of Award of C.S.I. To Colonel Peter Lumsden. A single folio sized sheet of paper written on both sides in a formal secretarial hand, noting that the Viceroy, Lord Mayo, is sending the grant from the Queen appointing Lumsden a Companion of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, together with a mention of a covenant concerning return of insignia, signed C. U. Aitchison by the Secretary to the Order, C U Aitchison, CSI and dated Simla 3rd June 1870.
The document also notes that the Badge of the Order has already been presented to Lumsden privately by the Junior Under Secretary to the Foreign Department .
5. Grant of Companion of the Order of the Star of India to Lumsden, Signed by the Sovereign of the Order, Victoria R. A manuscript document written in fine palace script on two sides of a bifolium, appointing Peter Stark Lumsden, Esquire Colonel in Our Army, Major in the Bengal Staff Corps and Quarter Master General to be a Companion of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, signed By Her Majesty’s Command Pagett, dated 22nd March 1870 and applied with the paper seal of the Order and signed at the head of the first page Victoria R. Excellent condition with the usual fold marks.
A fairly early award of the CSI, which had only been instituted in 1861. Lumsden was to go on to be awarded the CB, KCB and eventually the GCB.
6. Original photograph of Col Peter Lumsden, C.B., C.S.I. A carte de visite ca. 9 x 5.5 cm (3. 5 x 2 in.) bust length portrait showing the colonel in dress uniform wearing his CB and CSI with his campaign medals, circa 1870. With no sign of ever having been attached to a photographer’s card.
At this period the CB and the CSI were both worn as breast badges and not from the neck.
7. The appointment of Lumsden as Resident to the Court of Hyderabad. A formal letter of appointment written on two sides of a bifolium in palace script addressed to Colonel P. S. Lumsden, C.S.I. Of the Bengal Staff Corps appointing him to be the Viceroy’s Representative to the Court of His Highness Nawab Meer Muhboob Ali Khan, Bahadur during the three month absence of the Resident of Hyderabad, C.B. Saunders, C.B. On privilege leave. The document is dated Simla, this 28th day of June 1872 and signed by the Viceroy Northbrook above the large inked Seal of the Supreme Government of India. The document is in very good condition, with the usual folds and is pasted by the blank second sheet to an old album leaf. Together with a copy letter in manuscript similarly presented, certified as a true copy and signed by the Registrar Foreign Deptt. This is the letter sent by Lord Northbrook Simla The 28th June 1872 addressed His Highness Asuf Jah Muzufer-ool-Mumalik Nizam-ool-Moolk Nizam-ood Dowlah Nawab Meer Muhboob Ali Khan Bahadur Futteh Jung, Hyderabad and advises him that Col Lumsden, “an officer who possesses my full confidence, and of high standing and character in the service of the British Government, has been appointed to officiate as Resident....” Northbrook adds that this friendly letter will be delivered personally by Lumsden. Great care was attached to the appointment of Residents and Agents as they had the delicate task of interpreting government policy to the rulers.
8. The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. Ceremonial to be observed at The Grand Chapter of The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India to be held at Calcutta, on Saturday, the 1st January 1876. 14pp folio, sewn as issued but the sewing now loose. The first page is headed with the badge of the Order. The final unnumbered blank page is stuck to an old album leaf. The various headings, printed in red, are Object of the Grand Chapter, Formation and Arrangement of Encampment, Arrangement of Seats within the Chapter Tent, Arrival of Spectators and Members of the Order, Grand Procession to the Chapter Tent, Opening of the Chapter, Decoration of Companions of the Order, Closing of the Chapter. An appendix details the order of the carriage cortège for HRH The Prince of Wales and HE The Grand Master. This important chapter marked the Prince of Wales’s visit to India. The Raja of Jhind and the Maharaja of Jodhpur were invested as Knights Grand Commander. The KCSI’s to be invested were the Maharaja of Punna, the Raja of Nahun, Rao Holker Dad Sahib of Indore, Col the Hon H Ramsay, Gen Runnodeep Sing Rana Bahadur [C-in-c of the Nepalese Army], Rao Raja Gunput Rao Kirkee, & Mumtaz-ud-Dowlah Mahummad Faiz Ali Khan. Two civil servants and one other Indian were created CSI. Details of the elaborate procession and tented accommodation are given including the procession of existing Knights Grand Commander with their banner holders (Major Gen Dighton Probyn VC in the case of the Prince] and attendants. The reverse of the album leaf has a large scale plan of the tents with title and coloured badge of the Order. The Knights Grand Commander attending the ceremony were the Begum of Bhopal, H E Nawab Sir Salar Jung Bahadur of Nepal, the Maharajas of Patiala, Travancore, Rewah, Holkar of Indore, Cashmere, Sindia of Gwalior, and Sir Bartle Frere.
Provenance: Major General Sir Peter Lumsden, who is listed among the 29 Companions of the Order who attended.
9. Order of the Star of India: A small printed sheet [5 x 8ins] commanding the recipient to attend a chapter of the Order at Calcutta on 1st January 1876, for the Investiture of the Rulers of Jodhpore, Rampore, and Jheend as Knights Grand Commanders of the Order. Printed in blue and signed by the Secretary of the Order, “C. U. Aitchison”, Dated Simla 39th August 1875 and made out to Major Genl. P. S. Lumsden, C.S.I.. Pasted to part of an old album sheet, slightly soiled. Together with: Collar Days. A printed folio sized sheet of paper listing the Collar days for Orders from the era of Queen Victoria. 3 faint horizontal folds, otherwise clean.
10. ALS from John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley [1826-1902], two pages octavo with printed address 35 Lowndes Square, S.W., addressed to Maj Gen Sir P Lumsden, K.C.B.. The letter, dated Nov 18th 1883, expresses Kimberley’s pleasure in recommending Lumsden to the Queen for appointment to the Indian Council in the place of Sir Henry Norman and is signed Kimberley. First page a bit browned. The Earl of Kimberley was Secretary of State for India 1882-85. His endorsement would be almost certain to guarantee Lumsden’s appointment.
108. MASON, George Nelson Pomeroy, Commander, Indian Navy (1828-1890)
[Six Original Watercolour Views of Bombay Harbour and the Konkan Coast].
. Six watercolours on watermarked laid paper. Four watercolours ca. 11 to 14 x36,5 cm (4 ½ to 5 ½ x 14 ¼ in), one watercolour ca. 17,5x 25 cm (6 ¾ x 10 in), and a large sepia watercolour ca. 25,5x36 cm (10 x 14 ¼ in). One watercolour captioned in ink, one captioned and dated in pencil; one - with additional watercolour sketch on verso. Recently matted. A very good collection.
Six atmospheric watercolours of Bombay harbour and the surrounding Konkan coast, drawn by an officer of the Indian Navy George N.P. Mason. He served in the Bombay Presidency for over twenty years, starting as a midshipman in 1842 and retiring at the rank of Commander in the early 1860s. The “East India Register and Army List for 1854” reported of Mason as a midshipman on a steam packet vessel Feerooz (8 guns, launched in Bombay in 1846); and in 1858 he was already listed as a Lieutenant-Commander of a schooner Georgiana (launched 1855), tender to sloop Clive, Persian Gulf (Colburn’s United Service Magazine for 1858, p. 802).
The watercolours apparently created during Mason’s service as a midshipman on Feerooz include four panoramic views and a large black sepia watercolour of Bombay harbour and the coast, with native sail boats at sea and distant mountainous shoreline in the background. There is also a colourful view of the Funnel Hill (Karnala Fort) - a 13th-century Indian coastal fortification, in possession of the British East India Company since 1818. Dated 23 April 1855, the watercolour was drawn at “3 p.m., after a very rainy morning”. “For rounding the Prong and entering the harbour, a good mark in clean weather is the Funnel Hill, remarkable by a rock on it resembling a chimney, and is situated behind Caranja Island, about 18 miles eastward from Bombay Castle” (Bombay Harbour and the circumjacent land, with sailing directions// India Directory, or Directions for sailing to and from the East Indies… Vol. 1. London, 1826, p. 342).
109. MCCLURE, Sir Robert John Le Mesurier, R.N. (1807-1873)
[Autograph Note Accepting the Invitation of "Admiral and Mrs. Hamilton"; with a Portrait of McClure, Lithographed by James McGlashan, Dublin].
Note: 28 June 1865. Ca. 11x9 cm. 1 p. Brown ink on laid paper with a blind stamped monogram of the "United Service Club". Portrait: Dublin: James McGlashan, 1854. Ca. 22x13,5 cm. Both mounted on two grey album leaves. Portrait slightly age toned on the margins, otherwise a very good pair.
This short note by a famous Arctic explorer Sir Robert McClure is of a social nature: "Sir Robert McClure has much pleasure in accepting the invitation of Admiral & Mrs Hamilton for July 6th." The note is supplemented with a lithographed portrait of McClure after a drawing by John Smart. McClure is shown whole-length, standing, left profile, in uniform, with a sword in left hand and a facsimile of his autograph underneath (see another copy in the National Library of Ireland).
"Sir Robert John Le Mesurier McClure (or M'Clure) was an Irish explorer of the Arctic. In 1854, he was the first to transit the Northwest Passage (by boat and sledge), as well as the first to circumnavigate the Americas" (Wikipedia).
110. MOFFAT, John Smith, Reverend (1835-1918)
[Autograph Letter Signed “John Smith Moffat” to “Master Alfred William Gough” about Latter’s Desire to Become a Missionary in Africa].
Kuruman, [?] Hopetown, Cape of Good Hope, 25 January 1876. Quarto (ca. 27x21,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on blue laid paper. Paper aged, weak on folds and with minor tears neatly repaired, otherwise a very good letter, written in a very legible hand.
Historically interesting letter from Reverend John Smith Moffat, a noted British missionary in South Africa and a brother-in-law of David Livingstone. The letter written in a very personal manner, is addressed to a young boy and reveals Moffat’s thoughts on the essence and purpose of Christian missions. The letter was most likely addressed to Alfred William Gough (1862-1931), who was 14 at the time, and later became a renowned Christian activist and author, Prebendary of St. Paul’s Cathedral.
“My dear young Friend, I was glad to have your note, and to hear that you would like to be a missionary. It is much better to be missionary than to be anything else. A man who lives for himself may get rich and powerful and have a great many things that a missionary cannot have, but he can never have such happiness; and when the world has passed away he will have nothing to show for all the time he lived and enjoyed the world. But every act of love & kindness will then live; like the seeds which we bury and see no more for a time, and then we come back to find them beautiful fragrant flowers. <…> If you ever become missionary you must be prepared for a good many things that you are hardly like I think about now. Indeed I do not address you to become a missionary unless you are quite sure that God calls you <…> [when you are sure] that the Lord will be with you & that you will make a good missionary”.
“We are getting on very slowly here, but Africa is a slow country & patience is necessary for everything. It is a good thing however that when one set of missionaries dies, another is ready to take its place. <…> It is a pleasant thought to me that when I am gone there will be plenty of strong young fellows to come into my place. Perhaps this is not just the sort of letter you might have expected from me, but it does us all good, even jolly young cubs at school, sometimes to sit down and think about these things, which are just as real & true as the life you are now living & will all have to come to pass, so let us meet them bravely & pass away like heroes. Remember me to any of your schoolfellows who may know me. Perhaps someday I may be also to give you another letter like the last about the Bechuana or the Matebele”.
The letter was written in the famous Kuruman station of the London Missionary Society (modern Northern Cape, South Africa). Known as “the fountain of Christianity," it was founded in 1821 by Robert Moffat, the father of the author of this letter; and it was at Kuruman where David Livingstone arrived for his first position as a missionary in 1841. John Smith Moffat took over running the Kuruman station from his father in 1865 and worked there until 1879 when he joined the British Bechuanaland colonial service. An Interesting personal account on the Christian missionary activities in the 19th century Southern Africa by one its leading figures.
111. NARES, Sir George Strong, Vice-Admiral, R.N. (1831-1915)
[Autograph Note Signed "G. S. Nares"; with a Woodbury Printed Portrait of Nares and His Biography, both from the "Men of Mark: a Gallery of Contemporary Portraits…" by T. Cooper].
HMS Alert, Sheerness, 27 August 1878. 12mo bifolium (ca. 15x10 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on laid paper with a crossed letterhead of "Stoneham House, Winchester". Mild centrefold mark, otherwise a very good note. Portrait: woodbury print in oval, ca. 11,5x9 cm. By Loch & Whitfield.
A brief note written by Sir George Nares shortly before his departure for a survey of the Magellan Strait in 1878-1879 simply says “Dear Sir, I am pleased to grant your request”. The note was written on board of HMS Alert, one of the two ships from Nares’ 1875-76 Arctic expedition, recommissioned for a survey of the Strait of Magellan on 20 August 1878. The note is supplemented with a printed biography and a woodbury printed portrait of George Nares, from the third series (1878) of “Men of Mark: a gallery of contemporary portraits of men distinguished in the Senate, the Church, in science, literature and art, the army, navy, law, medicine, etc. Photographed from life by Lock and Whitfield, with brief biographical notices by Thompson Cooper” (London, 1876-1883).
112. OMMANNEY, Erasmus Austin, Commander, RN (1850-1938)
[Collection of Twelve Autograph Letters Signed to His Father and Mother (Including two letters by his Superiors), Related to His Naval Service in the West Indies and Quebec, and with Travel Notes about Halifax and Saint John’s, Newfoundland].
Various locations: Gosport Royal Academy, HMS Britannia, Chew Magna, HMS Aurora (at Port Royal and Quebec), SS Hibernian, Halifax, SS Alpha, St. Thomas (Barbados), 1 April 1863 – [26 June 1876]. Twelve Octavo letters (from ca. 18x11,5 cm to ca. 21x13,5 cm). In all 67 pp. of text. Brown or black ink on letter paper (white, blue or green); ten letters by E.A. Ommanney and two by his superiors. Fold marks, some letters weak on folds, with minor tears; two with traces from old staples being removed. Overall a very good collection.
Twelve autograph letters related to the naval career of Commander Erasmus Austin Ommanney, a son of distinguished Arctic explorer Admiral Sir Erasmus Ommanney (1814-1904), who commanded the "Assistance" on the first Franklin Relief Expedition of 1850 and was responsible for discovering the first traces of Franklin's party. Covering the period of thirteen years, the letters contain interesting notes about Quebec, Saint John’s (Newfoundland), Halifax, and naval service in the West Indies.
Nine early letters date back to the time of Ommanney’s studies in the Gosport Royal Academy (1863) and his service as a midshipman on HMS Britannia and Aurora (1864-1867), including a superior’s note about him successfully having passed the summer exam (16th out of 64; 1863); and news of him becoming a midshipman “with a first class certificate, <…> a good conduct certificate and a gold compass” (Sept. 30, 1864). Two letters written on board HMS Aurora tell about his service in the West Indies - Barbados, Trinidad, La Guaira (Venezuela) and Port Royal (Jamaica), with a detailed description of the recovery of the wreck of HMS Bulldog which ran aground near Cap-Haitien in 1865, whilst attacking the port as part of a punitive raid against local revolutionaries. The recovery was conducted using “diving dresses;” and later Ommanney went on shore to witness the destruction of the city: “the shot had great effect upon the town, the houses knocked about a great deal <…> The forts are in ruins, the guns are in a most ludicrous state, some turned right over others on their sides & I should not care to be close to them when they were fired off as I think they might chance to burst, they look so rotten” (March 18, 1866).
Three letters written while a midshipman on HMS Aurora stationed in Quebec contain an interesting description of Ommanney’s ten-day trip “into the woods,” down the Murray River to the Murray Bay (La Malbaie, north shore of St. Lawrence River). The party of three went down the river in bark canoes, accompanied by four Indians, slept in wigwams and enjoyed “capital fishing” and “magnificent scenery <…> we were sitting in canoes being moved along quickly but swiftly among tremendous high steep mountains, they were like a lot of “Gibraltars” all together, but thickly wooded.”
The letter from Ommanney’s superior on HMS Aurora informed his father that he had received a first class certificate and had been sent temporarily to a gunboat “Prince Albert” stationed between Windsor and Sarnia on the Great Lakes, “as it is expected that the Fenians intend giving some more trouble out here.”
Three letters written by Ommanney in May-June 1876, during his travel to his new ship - HMS Rover stationed in Port Royal (Jamaica), have some distinct notes on Saint John’s (Newfoundland) and Halifax. The houses in St. John’s “are of wood and very irregularly built, the streets are badly paved & very dirty and a strong smell of fish pervades the whole place; whalers and seal ships come here a great deal.” When entering St. John’s harbour Ommanney’s steamboat struck an iceberg, and “fortunately no damage was done <…> it only grazed along the side. It had such a peculiar appearance, with the light shining on it <…> Female passengers were greatly agitated & thought their last moments had arrived.”
“I find Halifax very dull & it seems quite different to what I remember it in former days <…> The country is not very pretty, all the trees seem so stunted, the roads are disgraceful everywhere, both town & country <…> Fog seems to be the great feature of the place, it has hardly been fine one whole day since I have been here.”
The collection is supplemented with a later card inscribed by E.A. Ommanney’s son, stating that it was his father who found relics of Franklin’s expedition while on board Aurora under Sir Leopold McClintock. In fact, it was E.A. Ommanney’s father, Sir Erasmus, who found the first Franklin relics while commanding HMS ‘Assistance’ on Horatio Austin’s Admiralty search for Franklin in 1850.
Ommanney was appointed to HMS corvette “Rover,” Commander Thomas Barnardiston, on 28 April 1876 (The Navy List, Corrected to the 20 June 1877. London: John Murray, 1877, p. 169). He retired from the navy with the rank of Commander in 1879. He took Holy Orders in 1883, serving his ministry as a vicar in the South seas.
113. OSBORN, Sherard Rear Rear-Admiral(1822–1875)
[Autograph Letter Signed by Sherard Osborn to "My Dear Rogers" about his current illness and his time in China].
Ca. 1870. Octavo (18x11,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on wove paper. With a small printed paper label on the foot of page one "Capt. Sherard Osborn." With a small cloth strip on left, fold marks but otherwise a very good letter.
Judging by the content, Rogers is most likely a naval officer Osborn served with in China. Osborn discusses that he has been ill "for the last three weeks and [is] still very sicketty (sic)." Further he discusses China and mentions Admiral [Sir Alexander Inglis] Cochrane (1758–1832) who he served under in China: "Do know I sometimes regret ever having left China. I had the strangest letters in my favour sent out to Ad. Cochrane by an old friend of his.., I begin to pine for its bright sunny days and Eastern Delights. Those dear old Straits of Malacca. I always look back with pleasure to the days I spent there."
"In September 1837 [Osborn] was entered by Commander William Warren as a first-class volunteer on board the sloop Hyacinth, fitting for the East Indies. The Hyacinth arrived at Singapore in May 1838, and in September was ordered to blockade Kedah, then in a state of revolt. Osborn was appointed to command a tender and so from December 1838 to March 1839 he was ‘captain of his own ship’. The responsibility thrust on him at such an early age went far to strengthen and mature his character. Parts of his journal during the time were published in 1857 as Quedah, or, Stray Leaves from a Journal in Malayan Waters. In 1840 the Hyacinth went to China, and took part in the operations in the Canton River. In 1842 Osborn was moved into the Clio with Commander Troubridge, and in her was present at the capture of Woosung (Wusong) on 16 June. He was afterwards transferred to the Volage, and came home in the Columbine in 1843. He passed his examination in December, and, after going through the gunnery course in the Excellent, was appointed gunnery mate of the Collingwood, fitting out for the Pacific as flagship of Sir George Seymour.
On 4 May 1846 Osborn was promoted lieutenant of the Collingwood, in which he returned to England in the summer of 1848. He then had command of the Dwarf, a small screw-steamer, employed during the disturbances of the year on the coast of Ireland. In 1849, when public attention was turned to the fate of Sir John Franklin, Osborn entered into the question with enthusiasm and energy, and in 1850 was appointed to command the steam tender Pioneer, in the Arctic expedition under Captain Austin in the Resolute. Considered as a surveying expedition, it was eminently successful, and proved that Franklin's ships had not been lost in Baffin's Bay" (Oxford DNB).
114. OSWELL, William Cotton (1818-1893)
[Autograph Letter Signed to ‘My dear Nat’‚ a lively letter about family arrangements‚ with a story about Lord Glenelg as Colonial Secretary].
St. Leonards, 20 December. Octavo ca. 18x11,5 cm. 4 pp. Black ink on laid paper. Mild fold marks, abrasion along one edge where formerly mounted, otherwise a very good letter.
A lively letter by a British African explorer William Cotton Oswell. “In the 1850-s he explored the Kalahari desert in Bechuanaland (now Botswana) and located Lake Ngami; later he participated in expeditions to the Zambezi river with David Livingstone, and one of Livingstone's children, born in Botswana in 1851, was named William Oswell Livingstone. The species Rhinoceros oswellii was named for him (this name is no longer used in modern taxonomy). Livingstone described Oswell as having had lucky escapes, having been tossed by a rhinoceros on two occasions” (Wikipedia).
From the letter: “I am not in town more than 6 times a year‚ & I find gentlemen who sit at home in their own arm chairs are not always very prone to take opinions from Mumbo Jumbo‚ latest arrival from the Mts. of the Moon. We are so apt to side with our own ideas that we very diligently sift other people’s to see if they contain those pearls of great price and if they don’t why they’re rubbish! You remember the story told of Lord Glenelg when Colonial Sectry‚ receiving a deputation from Natal‚ suggest his own project plans & refusing to listen to said deputation on any point. ‘Good morning‚ my Lord’‚ ‘Good morning Gentlemen - by the way‚ how is Natal?’‚ this just as they were leaving the room.”
115. PARRY, Sir William Edward (1790-1855)
[A Collection of Two Autograph Letters Signed "W. Parry"; With Two Engraved Portraits of William Parry]: Sir Captn. W.E. Parry, R.N.
Letters: 1) Mattishall, 17 April 1835. Quarto (ca. 23x18 cm). 3 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper, docketed on the 4th page. 2) Greenwich Hospital, 1 May 1854. 12mo (ca. 17,5x11,5 cm). Brown ink on laid paper, docketed in a different hand in the end of the letter. Both letters with fold marks, second letter slightly stained on the last blank page, otherwise a very good pair. Portraits: stipple engraved book plates, ca. 14x12 cm (from the European Magazine, London, 1821) and ca. 7,5x6 cm (by J. Limbird). Very good portraits.
These two original letters written by a renowned Arctic explorer William Parry relate to the time of his government service in the 1830s and 1850s - as an Assistant Poor-Law Commissioner in the County of Norfolk (1835-1836) and a governor of the Greenwich Hospital (1854 until his death). In the first letter addressed to some “R. Kerrinson, Esq.” Parry asks for the “Norwich Papers”, as well as “a Copy of a small publication I have seen, containing the Parliamentary Returns of the Population &c. Of the county, divided into Kindreds and Parishes.” He is also looking forward to hear about “what you have done in compliance with the Order for Relief in kind”. In the end Parry adds: “Will you ask the Governor to allow a Couple of the Copies of the Printed Notice to Overseas & to be pasted up in the Workhouse”. The second letter was written by Parry in the rank of a governor of the Greenwich hospital to some Rev. Reginald Smith (as seen from the docket). The letter regards the donation made by the correspondent in favour of “Sailors”, which needed to be forwarded to the Military Association.
The letters are supplemented with two stipple engraved portraits of William Parry, both based on the famous Parry portrait by Samuel Drummond (National Portrait Gallery).
116. PARRY, William Edward, Sir (1790-1855)
[Autograph Letter Signed “W. Parry” to “My dear Buxton” regarding the Ale Supply for the Niger Expedition 1841-42; With: Lithographed Portrait of William Parry].
Admiralty, 8 December 4 . Small Octavo (ca. 17,5x10,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Written on verso of the official note from the Controller of Victualling Department of the Royal Navy, dated “Admiralty, Somerset House, 6 December 1841”. Paper aged toned, mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter. Portrait: lithograph on paper, ca. 1830-s, ca. 9,5x7,5 cm; lithographed titled and printer’s address on the lower margin.
An interesting item of the Niger Expedition 1841-1842, this letter from the famous Arctic explorer Sir Edward Parry, was written when he was a high ranking Admiralty official. The letter is addressed to Charles Buxton (1823-1871), English brewer, philanthropist, and Member of Parliament, the letter concerns the ale supplies for the participating steamers. It was Charles’ father, Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton (1786–1845), a noted British politician and abolitionist, who was the initiator of the expedition.
Parry forwards Buxton the official answer from the Royal Navy “Controller of Victualling” which says that “the Ale required for the Niger Expedition has been ordered from the Parties who supplied it on the last occasion, namely Mr.s Hodgson & Abbott, Captain Trotter having written favorably respecting the former supplies made by the same parties” [Henry Dundas Trotter (1802-1859) – the commander of the Niger Expedition]. Parry further notes “I have great hopes of receiving better accounts from the Niger, when we next hear <…> I hope to write to your father today”.
“The Niger expedition of 1841 was a largely unsuccessful journey in 1841 and 1842 of three British iron steam vessels to Lokoja, at the confluence of the Niger River and Benue River, in what is now Nigeria. It was mounted by British missionary and activist groups, with the backing of the British government. The crews of the boats suffered a high mortality from disease” (Wikipedia).
“In mid-August 1841 the expedition entered one of the mouths of the Niger. Early in October the last of its ships was limping back, its commander prostrated by fever, the cabins crammed with sick and dying, the geologist working the engines with the aid of a textbook. Those seven weeks cost forty-one European lives” (Dictionary of African Christian Biography on-line).
117. PATEY, Russell, R.N. (b. 1817)
[Five Watercolours in Sepia of Moulmein (Mawlamyine), Burma 1846-7].
Recently matted, the watercolours are in fine condition.
Five attractive watercolours of the capital of British colonial Burma,
The titles of the watercolours as written on verso of each painting by the artist are:
View of Large Pagoda, Moulmein Sept 46 as seen from the West 24 x 34cm (9.5 x 13.5inches)
A Punghi House, Moulmein June 46 24 x 34cm (9.5 x 13.5inches)
Farm Caves , Moulmein as Seen from the East Side Sept. 47 Russell Patey 23 x 28 cm (9 x 11 inches)
Farm Caves , Moulmein Taken from the Interior Sept. 47 Russell Patey 22 x 27.5 cm (8.5 x 11 inches)
Austin's House, Moulmein May 46 24 x 34 (9.5 x 13.5inches).
"Mawlamyine (Moulmein) was the first capital of British Burma between 1826 and 1852 after the Tanintharyi (Tenassarim) coast, along with Arakan, was ceded to Britain under the Treaty of Yandabo at the end of the First Anglo-Burmese War..,Mawlamyine is the third largest city of Burma situated 300 km south east of Yangon" (Wikipedia).
118. PATTERSON, John Henry (1867-1947)
[Autograph Letter in the Original Envelope, and Two Postcards Signed “J.H. Patterson” to H.K. Raymenton, a member of San Diego Historical Society].
La Jolla, California: 29 March, 8 June and 29 June 1944. Letter on a Quarto leaf, ca. 25,5x20 cm. Black ink on watermarked paper, 1 p. Envelope ca. 9x16 cm, postcards ca. 9x14 cm, all signed in black ink and with California postal ink stamps. Mild fold marks on the letter, otherwise a very good collection.
A small archive of British military man, hunter and author of the famous “Man-Eaters of Tsavo” (1907) – the account of the construction of a railway bridge over the Tsavo River in Kenia in 1898-1899. The book became the basis for an Oscar-winning movie “The Ghost and the Darkness” (1996) with Val Kilmer and Michael Douglas.
The letter and the postcards relate to Patterson’s last years which he spent in La Jolla, California. They are all addressed to a local historian, journalist and collector of ethnographical material H.K. Raymenton. Patterson schedules future meetings with him, thanks for the received letters or informs Raymenton, that he “might have to cancel my visit to your excellent Club” [the University Club of San Diego, founded in 1896].
“An important collector in this area [the Southwest Textile] was H. K. Raymenton. He was an avid supporter of the Museum and active Board member during the 1940s and 1950s. He was, in fact, President of the Board in 1940-41 and 1950-53 and wrote a history of the Museum, “Forty-Seven Years: History of the San Diego Museum Association”. He contributed many objects and photographs to the collections, including the famous “Railroad Rug” described in George Wharton James’s book “Indian Blankets and Their Makers” (1914) (See: San Diego Museum of Man on-line/ The Ethnographic Collections).
119. PIM, Bedford Clapperton Trevelyan (1826-1886)
[Autograph Letter Signed "Bedford Pim" to Don Carlos Gutierrez (1818-1882), Minister Plenipotentiary, Honduras Government, with the Latter’s Signed Note, Countersigned by Pim in Receipt].
London: 2 Crown Office Row, Temple, E.C., 15 July 1872. Quarto (ca. 22,5x19,5 cm (9 x 7 ½ in).Four pages with only two filled in. Laid watermarked paper with printed address letterhead and a penny Inland Revenue stamp on the second page; text written in ink in a legible hand. Paper mildly sunned and aged, and with folds, but overall the letter is in a very good condition.
Captain Bedford Pim, R.N. Was a British naval officer, who "In June 1859 he was appointed to the Gorgon, for service in Central America. While stationed off Grey Town he originated and surveyed the Nicaraguan route for an isthmian canal through Mosquito and Nicaragua. While on the station he purchased a bay on the Atlantic shore, for which he was censured by the lords of the Admiralty in May 1860" (Oxford DNB).
This letter concerns his salary as "Special Commissioner of Honduras" to which he was appointed to on the "23rd of May." Proposing payment "on the quarter days usual in this country," Pim includes the details of the first two proposed payments and "Incidental expenses." The letter is docketed, at the foot of the second page, "in the name & on behalf of the Honduras Government & as Minister Plenipotentiary." and signed "Carlos Gutierrez." Countersigned by Pim in receipt of £550 over a penny Inland Revenue stamp, and dated 23 July 1872.
120. PRESCOTT, Robert, Governor-in-Chief of British North America (1726-1816)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Robert Prescott” to Field Marshal George Townshend, 1st Marquis Townshend mentioning Nelson’s Mediterranean Campaign, the Irish Rebellion, State of Matters in British North America, and Major Robert Lethbridge who Joined the Montreal Battalion of the 60th Regiment or King’s Royal Rifle Corps].
Quebec, 14 November 1798. Quarto (ca. 23x18,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Neat legible handwriting, docketed on the 4th page. Mild fold marks, otherwise a near fine letter.
A letter from Robert Prescott when Governor-in-Chief of British North America and commander of British forces (1796-1799). “He enlisted in the British Army in 1745 and served during the Seven Years' War. He was at the siege of Louisburg and became an aide-de-camp to General Jeffrey Amherst in 1759 participating in the capture of Montreal. Prescott then served in the West Indies and became Governor of Martinique in 1794. In 1796 he became governor-in-chief of British North America and commander of British forces. He remained in the position until 1807 but spent much of his time outside of Canada. He was unable to resolve growing demands among French-Canadians and was recalled in 1799” (Wikipedia).
The letter is addressed to George Townshend, 1st Marquis Townshend, who participated in the actions near Quebec during the Seven Years’ War, and received Quebec’s surrender on 18 September 1759 in the rank of commander of the British Forces. Consequently Townshend served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (1767–1772) and Master-General of the Ordnance (1772–1782 and 1783–1784). Fort Townshend built in Newfoundland in 1773-1779 was named after him, it is now National Historic Site of Canada. Extensive biographies of both men are in the Dictionary of Canadian Biography.
This interesting letter relates to several important events of the time, including the success of Horatio Nelson’s Mediterranean Campaign of 1798 which “must in its consequences turn the scale against French politics, and perhaps ultimately tend to Pacification.” Prescott also notes about the Irish Rebellion (May-September 1798): “It was most favourable circumstance that the French did not land a month or six weeks sooner than they did in Ireland; then perhaps their Standard would have been resorted to by the Rebels in indefinitely greater numbers than what joined them on their debarkation at Killala.” In the end he notes that “in the American States everything bears the most favourable aspect for us, and abhorrence of the French System.”
Prescott also thanks Townshend for the recommendation of “Major Lethbridge” who arrived to Halifax, then sailed to Boston and arrived on 7 November 1798 to Montreal where he is now attached to the 60th Regiment. “I hope to have some opportunity to evince how highly I esteem your recommendation of him”.
Major Robert Lethbridge was listed amongst the Lieutenant-Colonels Commanding the King’s Royal Rifle Cross. He joined the regiment in 1778 at St. Augustine, East Florida and served there until 1813. He was stationed in Canada and the Caribbean. In 1795 “he was nominated A.D.C. To the Marquis Townshend, and continued as such till his promotion to a Majority in the 3rd Battalion, in December 1795”. In 1798 he joined the 2nd battalion at Montreal, in November 1798 (see: Wallace, N.W. A Regimental Chronicle and List of Officers of the 60th, or the King’s Royal Rifle Corps, formerly the 62nd, or the Royal American Regiment on Foot. London, 1879, p. 289-290).
Overall a fine piece by an important Canadian political and military figure.
121. REICHARD, Walter Reinhold
[Album with Forty-Eight Superb Watercolours Drawn by a German Prisoner of First World War While in Interned in the Bolkhuny and Yenotayevka Villages of the Astrakhan Province]: Erinnerungen an die Kriegsgefangenschaft in der Kirgisen- und Kalmükensteppe. 1914-1918. Jenotajewsk-Bolchuny. Gouvernement Astrachan. Aquarell-Studien [Memories of a Prisoner of War in the Kirghisian and Kalmykian Steppes]. [With: Two Large Drawings Showing Meetings of German Internees in Bolkhuny After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Including Portraits of the Main Activists, with their Names Captioned]: Aus der Bolchuner Chronik – 1917.
Ca. 1914-1918. Oblong Octavo (ca. 17x25 cm). 48 leaves. With 48 watercolours, including a watercolour drawn “title page” with additional title “Erinnerungen an die Kriegsgefangenschaft, 1914/16. Aquarell-Studien von Walter R. Reichard”. All watercolours with the author’s monogram, captioned and dated (1914-1916). Period ink inscription on the first free endpaper “Herrn K. H. Lindenberg. Bolchuny, 1916”. Ink inscription on rear paste down “Walter Reichard. Berlin, Hufelandstrasse No. 39”.Separate drawings: 1917-1918. Pencil and watercolour on paper, ca. 24,5x21 cm (9 ½ x 8 ¼ in) and 26x20 cm (10 ¼ x 8 cm), mounted on modern album leaves. Both signed and dated by the artist, and both with extensive captions (titles and names) in ink and watercolour. First drawing also with extensive pencil notes on verso. One drawing with a small tear and crease on the right margin, but overall very good drawings. Original gray cloth album with hand drawn title and coat of arms of the Astrakhan Kingdom (“Царство Астрахан.”) on the upper board. Binding rubbed and soiled, front hinge cracked, but the watercolours are bright and beautiful.
Beautiful collection of historically important watercolours showing the Astrakhan region during the First World War, with amazing views of the Kalmyk steppes and Volga River, street scenes in the Yenotaewsk city and Bolkhuny village, and artistic portraits of the local people – Kirghises, Kalmyks and Russians. The album was made by a German prisoner of war who was interned in the Astrakhan province of the Russian Empire and spent at least four years (1914-1918) in Yenotayevsk and Bolkhuny.
The landscape watercolours include a series of views of Bolkhuny: general views with the steep banks of the Akhtuba River; colourful scene of the Bolkhuny Sunday market; a view with the famous Bolkhuny windmills; pastoral view of a Bolkhuny street with haulm-roofed houses and pigs wandering in puddles in the middle of the street; crimson-tone watercolour of the sheep herd coming back to Bolkhuny in the evening; sunny view of the troika race on the Epiphany day (Heilige drei Könige) et al. Among other landscapes are a deep-blue night scene in the “Kirgisen Steppe” and two beautiful winter views of the Volga: 1) with Yenotayevsk houses on top of the steep river bank, and 2) with a camel-laden “Kerosin Karavan” crossing the frozen river.
The album contains a gallery of outstanding individual and group portraits of local people starting with an image of a galloping Kirghis rider on the “title page”. There are also twelve portraits of the Kalmyk people (old and young women, families next to their jurt, members of the Kalmyk clergy, dancing girls, men in the Kalmyk camp, riders in the steppe et al.), and thirteen portraits of the Kirghises (old woman-beggar, “Old Kirghisian soothsayer”, water carter, group portraits of Kirghis fishermen, travellers in the steppe, families, men with a camel cart on the frozen Volga et al.). The other portraits show a “Tatar vet” (Tartarischer Tierarzt), Persian longshoremen in Astrakhan, Russian girl in the holiday dress, and Ruthenian and Galitzian war refugees.
The album is supplemented with two individual larger drawings titled by the artist “From the Bolkhuny Chronicles, 1917”. They give a slightly ironic picture of public meetings of German internees and prisoners of war in Bolkhuny in spring or summer 1917, during the rule of the Russian Provisional Government. The drawings have a very similar composition consisting of three parts. The central parts of both drawings show the public meeting near the Bolkhuny police department lead by Karl Lindenberg, who was, according to the pencil note on verso of one of the drawings, an engineer from Moscow. One of his phrases is recorded by the artist: “Meine Herren! Sie glauben ja garnich was wir unter uns für Menschen haben!” Lindenberg apparently bought or received the Bolkhuny watercolour album from the artist, as his inscription “Herrn K.H. Lindenberg. Bolchuny, 1916” is on the first free endpaper of the album.
The upper parts of the drawings show the supporters of the tsarist regime (titled “Das alte Regime und seine Anhänger’ and “Der gute alte Freundeskreis”); and the lower parts – the revolutionaries (“Das revolutionare Comite und seine Helfershlfer” and “Das neue Regime und seine Anhänger”). Names of all supporters are placed under the portraits or on verso.
Overall the collection is a historically significant and beautiful (!) illustration of life in the Astrakhan region during the WWI, with important additions to the fate of German prisoners of war in Russia before and after the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Yenotayevsk (now Yenotaevka village) is located on the right channel of the Volga River 154 km north of Astrakhan and is separated from the river’s main channel by the Chicherin Island. It is the oldest settlement in the Astrakhan province, with the fortress protecting the trade route from Astrakhan to central Russia being founded in 1742. In 1785 the town became the centre of the district (uyezd), and in 1810 the fortress was abolished. In the last quarter of the 19th century the town turned into a place of the political exile in the Astrakhan region where a number of antigovernment and revolutionary activists were interned. This fact explains why the prisoners of war were transported here in 1914-1917. In 1925 Yenotayevsk lost its status as a city and remains a village (although a center of the Yenotayevsky district) nowadays (Russian Brokhaus dictionary on-line).
Bolkhuny is a village in the Akhtubinsky district of the Astrakhan region (founded in 1822, before 1927 – a part of the Yenotayevsky district). The village is located on the left bank of the Akhtuba River (Volga’s tributary) over 200 km north of Astrakhan. In the beginning of the 20th century it had over 7000 inhabitants, a school, a church, 55 shops (lavka), three large trade fairs, three bread warehouses (magazin), and smaller weekly fairs. Bolkhuny was known for its livestock breeding (over 15000 sheep, 7000 cows) and over 100 wind mills (Russian Brokhaus dictionary on-line).
122. RENNELL, James (1742-1830)
[Autograph Letter Signed "J. Rennell"‚ Thanking his Correspondent for "the curious tract" and Informing that the crew of the ship on which Rennell’s son was to Embark for India had all been Impressed‚ and an Embargo had been laid upon the Ship].
London, 30 May 1803. Quarto (ca. 22,5x17 cm). 1 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Mild fold marks, paper toned, traces of the old mount on verso, otherwise a very good letter.
“I have been very remissful not sooner returning you thanks for the curious tract that you have been pleased to send me <…> the ship in which my Son was to have embarked for India in 3 Days, had all her crew impressed & an Embargo laid on her, even when she should get another Crew. So I have had a great deal of Trouble, Expense, waiting and Running about, to no Purpose.”
Major James Rennell‚ FRS, was the leading British geographer of his time, called the "Father of Indian Geography" for the first nearly accurate map of India (1783) and "A Bengal Atlas" (1779) - a work important for British strategic and administrative interests. His was also a pioneer of oceanography, writing on currents in the Atlantic and Indian oceans.
"While serving in the Royal Navy (1756-63) Rennell became an expert surveyor. In 1762 he accompanied the Scottish geographer Alexander Dalrymple to the Philippines. Rennell later joined the East India Company and became surveyor general of Bengal (1764-77) and of Bihar and Orissa (1767-77). Until he left India in 1777 he was responsible for producing numerous local and provincial maps.
After returning to London, Rennell devoted himself to geography and gained international eminence, his residence becoming a gathering place for travelers from around the world. When the famed explorer Mungo Park returned from West Africa in 1797, Rennell, as adviser to the African Association, organized the notes and provided the illustrations and route map for Park’s classic work, Travels in the Interior Districts of Africa. Three editions of Rennell’s Memoir of a Map of Hindoostan appeared between 1783 and 1793. His plan for a comprehensive study of western Asia resulted in a two-volume study of the geography of Herodotus and A Treatise on the Comparative Geography of Western Asia (1831), among other works. He also wrote on oceanography" (Encyclopaedia Britannica on-line).
123. RICH, Robert, Second Earl of Warwick(1587-1658)
Original Warrant Signed "Warwicke" as Lord High Admiral of England (for Parliament) during the English Civil War addressed to the Commissioners of the Navy ordering the complete provisioning of the fleet "for the next summer’s guard" listing all 44 ships by name beneath.
Warwick House, 6 February 1648. Four pages (two with text) pp. Folio, ca. 32.5 x 22.5 cm (13 x 9 inches). Right margin ragged and soiled, but complete, and with original folds, otherwise in good condition. Warwick’s blind stamp (a crown above an anchor) impressed upper left corner.
"In 1642, following the dismissal of the Earl of Northumberland as Lord High Admiral, Warwick was appointed commander of the fleet by Parliament" (Wikipedia). Another of Warwick's titles was Lord of the Caribee Islands and he was active in colonial ventures becoming president of the New England Company and a zealous member of the Bermuda and Providence Companies. The warrant replaces an earlier order with this revised list of ships and requires the provision of boatswains’ and carpenters’ stores for the whole summer’s campaign. From the Collection of the 5th Earl of Rosebery. "As the events of 1648 unfolded, some of the ambiguities of Warwick's position appear rather to have deepened than to have diminished. On 27 May 1648 the greater part of the parliamentary fleet in the Downs mutinied against the command of Colonel Thomas Rainsborough, appointed in place of the politically suspect William Batten. Two days later parliament reappointed Warwick to the post of lord high admiral, in the hope that his popularity would secure the fidelity of the sailors" (Oxford DNB).
124. ROCHET D'HÉRICOURT, Charles-Xavier (1801-1854)
[Autograph Letter Signed ‘Rochet d’Héricourt’ to a Magazine Editor].
Paris, 18 February 1846. On a folded Octavo leaf (ca. 19,5x12 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on white paper. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
Autograph letter by renowned French explorer of the East Africa, the leader of two expeditions to Ethiopia in 1839-40 and 1842-43, which resulted in his books, “Voyage sur la côte orientale de la Mer rouge dans le pays d'Adel et le royaume de Choa” (Paris, 1841) and “Second voyage sur les deux rives de la mer Rouge, dans le pays des Adels et le Royaume de Choa” (Paris, 1846).
In a letter to a magazine editor, Rochet d'Héricourt denies a proposal to publish his biography with the detailed description of his travels: “The relation of my travel has been published in the ‘Revue Novelle’ and I don’t have anything to add; regarding my biography the only event of my life which could be included are my travel adventures, and I don’t have anything to add to what I’ve published” [translated from French].
However he will send the editor a copy of the report to the French Academy of Sciences which will be printed soon, and is ready to give “verbal explanations” (“explications verbales“) which could be useful for the correspondent.
Interesting letter revealing the process of publication of the results of Rochet d'Héricourt’s second travel to Abyssinia (1842-43). He mentions the official account of the expedition (Arthus-Bertrand, 1846) and the extensive report prepared for to the French Academy of Sciences (see: La Revue Novelle. Tome 9. 2-me année. Paris, 1846, p. 147-165) which were both published that year.
125. RUJULA, Juan Félix de, Chronicler and the King of Arms (1744-1806)
[KINGDOM OF SPAIN: Beautiful Manuscript Nobility Patent, Given to the Montero Family, Written in Calligraphic Secretarial Hand, and Illustrated with a Large Watercolour of the Montero Coat of Arms and Pictorial Initials]: Don Juan Feliz de Rujula, Cronista y Rey de Armas en todos los Reynos, Dominios y Señorios de su Majestad Catolica el Señor Don Carlos Quarto (que Dios guarde) Rey de España y de las Indias Orientales y Occidentales, Islas y Tierra firme del Mar Occeano etc. ect...
Madrid, 10 October 1796. Folio (ca. 31x20,5 cm). Eight unnumbered paper leaves. Calligraphic manuscript text in black, red and blue ink, within red ink decorative borders. With a full page watercolour on vellum in colour and gold (the coat of arms). With five pictorial watercolour initials and two vignettes. Signed at the end by Juan Felix de Rujula, Juan Manuel Lopez Fando and two other officials. With the official ink stamp of “Carolus IV D.G. Hispaniar Rex” within the watercolour ornamental frame on the first leaf, and with an official paper label of “Cabild. De Escribanos de el numero. Madrid” on the last leaf. Original brown full treed calf with gilt ruled ornamental borders, gilt spine and marbled endpapers. Binding slightly rubbed, last leaf with minor tears on the margin, without last free endpaper, traces of a manuscript label removed from the last pastedown, but overall a beautiful document in very good condition.
Beautiful example of an official Spanish 18th century nobility patent, the document bears the personal signature of the Spanish Chronicler and King of Arms (Cronista y Rey de Armas) “D. Juan Felix de Rujua”, as well as those of Madrid notary Juan Manuel Lopez Fando and two other officials. The patent contains the text of the certificate of arms, a concise genealogy of the Montero family and the description of the Montero coat of arms. The large superb watercolour of the coat of arms, heightened in gold, features a tree with two keys hanging on its branches, and five golden horns on red background, all within elaborate floral ornament. The text is decorated with five beautiful initials illuminated in gold and black with small coloured landscape scenes in the background.
The document mentions a number of representatives of the Montero family, but seems to concern firstly the line of Dona Francisca Ambrosia Montero, Rios y Anaya, legitimate wife of Don Diego Ximenez de Lasarte, resident of the city of Antequera; legitimate daughter of Don Pedro Josef Montero de Anaya, granddaughter of Don Luis Montero, and second granddaughter of Don Christoval Ruiz Montero.
The last name of Montero is included into the famous “Enciclopedia Heráldica Hispano-Americana” by Alberto and Arturo Caraffa (88 vol., 1919-1963). The index prepared by the Library of Congress lists the last name of Montero in vol. 58, p. 162.
126. SANTA ANNA, Antonio Lopez de (1794-1876)
[A Partially Printed and Completed in Manuscript Document Signed by Santa Anna, Hiring Edward Gottlieb as his Interpreter and Private Secretary].
Staten Island, N.Y., April 5, 1867. Partially printed and completed in manuscript. Elephant Folio ca. 47x29,5 cm (19 x 11 ½ in). Document with old folds and backed with Japanese paper. Printed green seal in lower right corner. Housed in a green gilt tooled quarter morocco with cloth boards folding portfolio. In very good condition.
An interesting document, signed by Santa Anna, (the famous victorious Mexican commander at the Battle of the Alamo) in which the former President and commanding general of Mexico, hires an interpreter and personal assistant. At the time, Santa Anna was living in exile on Staten Island, trying to raise funds for an army so that he could retake power in Mexico. In this elaborately printed document, in which Santa Anna pronounces himself "General in Chief of the Liberating Army of Mexico," he hires one Edward Gottlieb to be his private secretary and interpreter, at a salary of two hundred "pesos" per month. The document is also signed by "R. Clay Crawford, Maj. Gen." Crawford, a notorious soldier of fortune, styled himself at times as a Turkish general called "Osman Pasha," and also involved himself in Mexican military conflicts in the 1860s. "In 1869, 74-year-old Santa Anna was living in exile in Staten Island, New York. He was trying to raise money for an army to return and take over Mexico City. During his time in New York City, he is credited with bringing in the first shipments of chicle, the base of chewing gum. He failed to profit from this, since his plan was to use the chicle to replace rubber in carriage tires, which was tried without success. Thomas Adams, the American assigned to aid Santa Anna while he was in the United States, experimented with chicle in an attempt to use it as a substitute for rubber. He bought one ton of the substance from Santa Anna, but his experiments proved unsuccessful. Instead, Adams helped to found the chewing gum industry with a product that he called "Chiclets"" (Wikipedia).
127. SCHOMBURGK, Robert Hermann, Sir (1804-1865)
[Autograph Letter Signed to an Associate of the British Museum Regarding Fossils and Shells Collected by Schomburgk in the Dominican Republic and Donated to the Museum’s Collection].
British Consulate, Santo Domingo, 30 January 1850. Octavo (ca. 21x13,5 cm). 3 pp. Brown ink on paper, a weak blind-stamped monogram on the first page. Mild fold marks, traces of removed mount, but overall a very good letter.
An interesting letter by renowned German-born British naturalist and explorer, then British Consul in the Dominican Republic (1848-1857). Addressing a fellow scientist, apparently an associate of the British Museum, Schomburgk informs him about a parcel which had been sent to him through some Mr. Sowerby with “some recent and fossil shells which I beg you to add to the collections of the British Museum if they deserve such a distinction. The shells marked #3[?] is very scarce, and although I have not succeeded yet to find perfect specimens, if they were to bring likely a good price, I would send a dredging machine there. At the same place is likewise the Pholadomia Candida”. In the end Schomburgk asks the correspondent to send him the names of the shells “I sent you herewith” and to “remember me kindly to my friends at the British Museum” - Mr. Doubleday and Mr. White.
Sir Robert Hermann Schomburgk was a German-born explorer for Great Britain who carried out geographical, ethnological and botanical studies in South America and the West Indies, and also fulfilled diplomatic missions for Great Britain in the Dominican Republic and Thailand. He is most famous for the exploratory travels in British Guiana (1835-1839) which resulted in discovery of the giant Victoria Regia and establishment of the provisional boundary between British Guiana and Venezuela - famous “Schomburgk Line.” In 1848-1857 Schomburgk served as a British Consul in the Dominican Republic. “In 1850 he signed an advantageous commercial treaty for Great Britain and also secured a truce from Soulouque in behalf of the Dominican government. During the following years, he contributed valuable papers upon the physical geography of the island to the journal of the Royal Geographical Society” (Wikipedia).
“Mr. Sowerby” mentioned in the letter was obviously a member of the famous Sowerby family which included “four generations of naturalists, illustrators, botanists, and zoologists. The vast majority of their work was on molluscs and their systematics. Together, they introduced numerous (sometimes the number 5000 is mentioned) taxonomic names” (Wikipedia).
128. SCHWEINFURTH, G[eorg August] (1836-1925)
[Autographed Signed Note on a Mounted Decorative Pictorial Card with Egyptian Motiv Giving Happy New Year's Wishes for 1898 Signed G. Schweinfurth. [With] A Cabinet Photograph Portrait (Karl Wahl Berlin) of Schweinfurth Signed G. Schweinfurth and Dated 1914. Additionally Inscribed with a Signed Presentation to Prof. Dr. A. Wiedemann and Signed G. Schweinfurth and Dated 24th July 1916].
The autographed note on card ca. 11x16,5 cm (4 x 6 ½ in). Cabinet photograph portrait ca. 16x10,5 cm (6 ½ x 4 in). Photograph with a small scratch, otherwise the photograph and New Year's card are in very good condition.
Schweinfurth "returned to Germany with a most valuable accumulation of geographical and ethnographic data for regions never before visited by Europeans. He had made extensive observations of the flora and fauna of Central Africa and had delineated for the first time much of the watershed of the Bahr el Ghazal. His discovery of the pygmy Akka settled conclusively the question of the existence of dwarf races in tropical Africa. His important narrative, "Im Herzen vin Afrika," was published at Leipzig in 1874. Schweinfurth returned to Africa in 1873 to accompany Friedrich Gerhard Rohlfs in his exploration of the Western Desert of Egypt, during which he visited the oases of Farafra, Dakhla, El Kharga and Siwa. Schweinfurth settled at Cairo in 1875 and the following year under the auspices of Khedive Ismail, founded the Societe Khedivale de Geographie. He devoted himself to African studies, in 1876, in the company of Richard Paul Guessfeldt, exploring into the Arabian Desert and carrying out geological and botanical investigations in the El Faiyum region of lower Egypt. He removed to Berlin in 1889 but returned to Africa in 1891, 1892 and 1894 to explore Eritrea. Schweinfurth died at Berlin in September 1925 and was buried in a botanical garden created in his honour" (Howgego, Continental Exploration, 1850-1940, S14).
129. SHARPE, Alfred, Sir (1853-1935)
[Collection of 25 Autograph Letters and Notes Signed “Alfred Sharpe” to “Dear Colles” - his Literary Agent William Morris Colles, with a number of topics touched, including Sharpe’s prospective book about his travels Central Africa, polemics with the Labour Party’s idea of Postwar International Administration of Equatorial Africa, and politics in the Balkans during WWI].
Various places in Britain (the majority - Elmhurst, Lancaster), 1915-1918. Various sizes, from Small Octavo (ca. 17,5x11 cm) to Quarto (ca. 23x19,5 cm). 39 pp. In total. Brown ink on various paper (blue laid paper, blue San Remo linen paper, white “Basildon Bond” paper et al.). Eighteen letters with blind stamped address “Elmhurst, Lancaster” on the upper margin, and two with the “Plâs Nantyr, Glyn” ink stamp; one letter on the printed form of “Euston Hotel, London”, and one – on the form of the “Royal Societies Club, St. James’s Street, London”. All but one letters with the ink stamp “Received” on the first page, specifying the date of reception; all letters with blue pencil numbers apparently put by Colles. Mild fold marks, holes in one of the corners after the letters having been stapled together, some letters with minor creases and tears on the margins, but overall a very good archive of interesting letters written in a legible hand.
Very interesting historically important archive of Sir Alfred Sharpe, British traveller and colonial administrator in Central Africa, who was actively engaged in the formation of the British Central Africa Protectorate (after 1964 - Malawi), became its High Commissioner (1896-1907) and later, when the colony was renamed to Nyasaland – its first governor (1907-1910). Sharpe was also a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society (RGS) since 1891, received its Cuthbert Peak Award in 1898 and became a member of the Society’s Council in 1913-1917.
Much of the collection relates to the history of writing and publication of Sharpe’s memoirs about his travels in Africa. The first documents regarding this date from the end of 1916 (Nov 24 and Dec 11) when Sharpe had the diaries of his journey to South Africa retyped and sent to Colles “together with 100 photos from which a choice – or all – can be taken”. After that Sharpe went on another trip, writing to Colles: “I leave for Africa on Friday” (11 Dec, 1916), and already in July 1917 he sent to the agent “notes on my last journey” (9 Jul, 1917). From this time starts long correspondence about different aspects of the prospective book: what stories should be included, what should be edited or revised; whether it is possible to find paper to print a book (in wartime) et al. Some examples of the correspondence about “the Book”: Sharpe is talking about his travel to the German East Africa in 1904 – “to the magnificent high district immediately north of Lake Nyasa”. He encloses the diary he kept at the time saying that he can “complete a running narrative out of it” (5 March, 1918). “I can make out say 2000 or 3000 words on the German Kondeland – with a general description of that nice country, and the notes of the journey I sent you. Let me know if you want it” (6 March, 1918), “You said I owe a paper – Here is one of the Cape to Cairo fetish [?] <…> Would it do also to incorporate as a chapter in the book?” (9 March, 1918).
Several letters reveal the negotiation process with prospective publisher Edward Arnold: he is first mentioned in a letter from 9 July 1917. Almost a year after, on 1 May 1918 Sharpe writes to Colles that Arnold wants him to rewrite the manuscript and make “a fresh book”. Throughout the next five letters continues the discussion about Sharpe’s royalty: the author wanted “20 % and £200 down” and then was ready “to go down to the South coast & shut myself up for 2 to 3 months & make the thing to work”. The outcome on 21 May was unfavourable, Sharpe writing: “It is not sufficiently attractive for me to go in for four months hard work. Moreover it is a form of agreement which would bend me to write, but leaves A. Open to publish or not according to when he likes, and if paper goes to his price. Will you kindly inform him that I can not consider his offer”. Note: Sharpe’s book was eventually published in 1921 by H.F. & G. Witherby under the title “The Backbone of Africa: A record of Travel During the Great War, with Some Suggestions for Administrative Reform."
Other letters from the collection reveal a number of different interesting subjects: four letters touch on the idea of post-war international administration of the Equatorial Africa suggested by the Labour Party, the idea which Sharpe was a passionate opponent of: “What on earth the Labour Gentlemen have to do with our African possessions <…>”; Their idea of a mixed up Africa governed by a mixed up international Govt is of course a farce. Does anyone really looks on it seriously?” (2 Jan, 1918). The other letters are dedicated to the article by H.G. Wells which supported the Labour’s idea and was published in the Daily Mail (30 Jan 1918) under the title “The African Riddle”. Sharpe wrote a reply article for the Daily Mail for 1000 words, and another one for 3500 words – and is asking Colles to find a magazine to publish it (5 Feb, 1918). From the next letter we get to know that it went to the “Land and Water” magazine (10 Feb, 1918).
Six letters dated October-December 1917 contain some interesting contemporary observations on the events in the Balkans theatre of WW1, e.g. Extensive notes on the “present German actions in Greece” also discusses Greek Prime-Minister Eleftherios Venizelos (31 Oct); letter about the British politics regarding Bulgaria and its desire to ally with the Entente (2 Nov); description of Sharpe’s private meeting with Venizelos when the conditions of Bulgaria’s alliance with the Entente were discussed (15 Nov); or thoughts about the future of the Balkan and Mediterranean fronts: “It is now sticking out for anyone to see that Germany, after she has done what she can in Italy, will send her spare army down to the Balkans, & make a big effort to force us out to the sea. After that she will go for Mesopotamia & Gaza. And how can we do anything there to stand up to her? – These many fronts are our weakness” (6 Nov).
William Morris Colles (1865-1926) was English literary agent, the founder and managing director of The Authors' Syndicate, Ltd. (1890); a Member of the Council of the Society of Authors, and of the Copyright Association. His extensive correspondence with numerous writers is held in several depositories, including the library of UCLA (correspondence with James Barrie, Arnold Bennett, E. F. Benson, R. Haggard, and S. Maugham), and the University of Columbia (Thomas Hardy, Alfred Ollivant, John Pendleton, William H. Rideing, Peter Kropotkin and others).
130. SIMPSON, John (1788-1873)
[EARLY LAND GRANTS IN YORK COUNTY, UPPER CANADA: Autograph Letter Signed “John Simpson” Regarding His Intention of Land Acquisition in the Upper Canada’s York County; WITH: Original Insurance Document for Simpson’s Property on his Sea Voyage from London to Quebec in 1811].
Augusta [township, Upper Canada], 6 May 1819. Quarto (ca. 24x19,5 cm).. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Legible handwriting, docketed on the 4th page. Fold marks, paper slightly soiled, otherwise a very good letter. Document: London, 21 March 1811. Folio (ca. 37x23,5 cm). Official printed form on watermarked laid paper, completed in brown ink. Fold marks, upper margin with minor tears, otherwise a very good document.
Autograph letter by John Simpson, a noted government official and politician of the Upper and Lower Canada in the first half 19th century. He immigrated to Augusta (Upper Canada) in 1815 and became a private secretary of Lord Dalhousie, governor-in-chief of Canada in 1819. Three years later he was appointed a government official in Coteau-du-Lac post on St. Lawrence River; the rest of his career Simpson spent in the Lower Canada, being elected as a deputy of the Lower Canada assembly in 1824 and Legislative Assembly in 1841. He is also known as the author of a critical pamphlet on the reform party “Essay on Modern Reformers: addressed to the people of Upper Canada” (Kingston, 1818).
The letter written in May 1819, when Simpson still lived in Augusta, contains interesting details of the early land sales in Upper Canada. Asking his correspondent “Mr. Henshaw” for a substantial financial loan, Simpson convinces him: “I have recd. Such very flattering accounts of the present and prospective value of the Lands now giving out in the vicinity of York as induce me to anticipate the most favorable and valuable locations. I have therefore made up my mind to go immediately to York and apply my interest and exertion towards obtaining those lands that are likely to answer your intentions and forward my own. <…>. If this proposition meet your approbation I shou’d be very much oblig’d by your immediate compliance with the pecuniary part of it as I wou’d wish to be upon the spot with Captain Sherwood who is now Surveying the settlement. One lot I propose to improve, cultivate and reside on myself and I shou’d then be in the neighbourhood to take every advantage for the improvement of the values of the others”.
In the end of the letter he notes with emotion: “The country is so quickly settling that I would wish to not lose a moment in my application”.
Most likely, the land grants Simpson wrote about belonged to the newly created township of Nassagaweya (modern Halton Region of the Greater Toronto Area). Provincial Land Surveyor Reuben Sherwood (1775-1851) who was mentioned in the letter, was engaged in the land survey of the Townships of Nelson and Nassagaweya in February-May 1819. According to the extracts from his diary for that period, Sherwood “commence the new township” on 22 April, “meet the Surveyor-General in the morning, and draw my lands in Nelson and Nassagaweya” on 4 May (Fairhall, Ch. Surveyors of the Past// The Ontario Land Surveyor. Summer 1978. P. 10). Simpson wrote his letter two days later.
At the end of the letter Simpson also asks for help in employment of his wife (Zipporah Tickell), “a gentlewoman perfectly accomplished as private Governess to finish the education of a few young ladies, or to attend a certain number of Pupils <…>, capable of teaching French, drawing, indeed every acquirement incidental to gentlewoman’s education.”
131. SQUIER, Ephraim George (1821-1888)
[Autograph Letter Signed to Samuel Birch regarding tickets to the reading room of the British Museum, and the forthcoming meeting of the Archaeology Department].
Morley, Friday. Small octavo (ca. 18x11 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on laid paper. Fold marks and traces of the old mount on verso, not affecting the text. Overall a very good letter.
A letter by a prominent American archaeologist Ephraim George Squier is addressed to the head of the antiquities department of the British Museum and one of the first British Egyptologists Samuel Birch (1813-1885). In the letter Squier thanks Birch for the tickets to the Reading Room of the Museum and expresses “great pleasure in attending the meeting of the Archy S[ection?] this afternoon”. He adds: “I shall also be happy if I can in any way contribute to the [issue?] of its proceedings.”
Ephraim George Squier was an American archaeologist, author, businessman, editor and diplomat, known for its works about the archaeology of USA, Central and South America: “Ancient Monuments of the Mississippi Valley (1848), “Nicaragua: Its People, Scenery, Monuments” (1852), “Peru: Incidents of Travel and Exploration in the Land of Incas” (1877) et al. Squier worked as a special chargé d'affaires to Guatemala (1849-50), US Commissioner to Peru (1863-65), Consul-General of Honduras at New York City (1868) et al.
132. STANLEY, Henry Morton, Sir (1841-1904)
[Autograph Note Signed "Henry M. Stanley" to "W. Downing, Esq.", Ordering two Books from his Latest Catalogue; With: Original Cabinet Photo of Stanley by Stromeyer & Heyman (Cairo, ca. 1890), from Stanley’s Estate].
Note: London, 29 October 1898. 12mo bifolium (ca. 18x12 cm). 1 p. Black ink on watermarked laid paper, printed letterhead “2, Richmond Terrace, Whitehall, S.W.” Mild fold marks, otherwise a near fine note. Cabinet photo ca. 15x10 cm (5 ¾ x 4 in), mounted on card with the photographer’s printed advertising on verso. Overall a very good photo.
An attractive pair of Stanley items. The note addressed to a certain “W. Downing”, apparently a London bookseller informs him that “Herewith I send you a Cheque to your order for the following books in your catalogue for October 357: No. 202. Owners of Land in England & Wales. 2 vols. 21/-; No. 22. Antiquities Greek & Roman 7/6, which please send by return of post to your obedient st. Henry M. Stanley”. The note is supplemented with a rare cabinet portrait photograph of Stanley by a lesser known Cairo photography studio “Stromeyer & Heyman” (Rue Bab el Hadid) from Stanley's estate.
“Sir Henry Morton Stanley, GCB, born John Rowlands, Congolese nickname Bula Matari (“Breaker of Rocks”), was a Welsh American journalist and explorer famous for his exploration of Central Africa and his search for Scottish missionary and explorer David Livingstone. Upon finding Livingstone, Stanley allegedly uttered the now-famous greeting, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" Stanley is also [controversially] known for his discoveries and development of the Congo region. He was knighted in 1899” (Wikipedia).
133. STUART, Rev. John (1740-1811)
[Autograph Letter Signed "Jn. Stuart" to His Son, James Stuart, then Personal Secretary of Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada Sir Robert Milnes].
Kingston [Upper Canada], 8 November 1803. Folio (ca. 32,5x20 cm). 1 p. (with three lines on verso). Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Fold marks and minor separation on folds, paper age toned at extremities, but overall a very good letter.
An interesting document from one of the prominent loyalist families of the Upper Canada. This is a private letter from the first Anglican missionary in Upper Canada John Stuart to his son James Stuart, then a secretary of Lieutenant Governor of Lower Canada, and subsequently Attorney General and Chief Justice of Lower Canada.
Stuart’s main concern in the letter is the fate of his second daughter Mary (then 16 years old), who was to move to Montreal, so James as her older brother was to take care of her: “A sudden opportunity offers today to send Mary to Montreal, under the car of Mr. & Mrs. Hamilton, late Publicans in Queenstown <…> Of course she must remain with Mrs. Reid till she can with Conveniency and Propriety be delivered into Mrs. Mountain’s hands <…> I must depend wholly on you to have her moved to Quebec, when and how you find most expedient and proper <…> I happened to be almost without cash; but I have given her a couple of Half Joes, which will serve her Purpose, till you receive her. I need not say that her Expenditures at Quebec must be regulated by you. Therefore, whatever small Articles of Dress Mrs. Mountain recommends, you will procure and have them charged to me.”
John Stuart also mentions that his sons Charles and George (with his new wife) arrived “in good Health and Spirits.” It’s interesting to see Stuart’s notes about his new daughter-in-law (Lucy Brooks, whose father was to become a governor of Massachusetts in 1816): “She is very small, but I think he has made a judicious choice. The Family is respectable; and if I may judge by the Baggage (two Cart Loads) he must have made a pretty good Bargain in a worldly sense. Indeed, we have every reason to approve of his choice.”
The Reverend John Stuart was the first Anglican missionary in Upper Canada. He was raised and educated in Philadelphia, and came to Canada in 1781 as Chaplain to Sir John Johnson’s Royal Yorkers. He was a schoolmaster in Montreal in 1781-85; Missionary to the Mohawks at the Bay of Quinte and to the Whites in Kingston in 1785-1811; Bishop’s Official for Upper Canada in 1789-1811; Chaplain to the Legislative Council of Upper Canada in 1792-1807. He was the first school master in Upper Canada and he induced Lieutenant-Governor Hope to erect a school house in Kingston.
Sir James Stuart,1st Baronet of Oxford (1780-1853), an important figure in the law and politics of the Upper Canada. He was called to the bar in 1801, served as a secretary for Lieutenant Governor Sir Robert Shore Milnes, was a member of the Legislative Assembly of the Lower Canada for a number of terms in 1808-1816. He supported the Union of Upper and Lower Canada and served as Attorney General for the Lower Canada in 1825-1831. In 1838 he was appointed Chief Justice of Lower Canada; in 1839-1841 was a member of the Special Council to govern the province after the Lower Canada Rebellion.
Mary Stuart (1787-1812), seventh child and second daughter of the Revd. John Stuart and Jane Okill. Married in Kingston on 8 June 1807 the Hon. Charles Jones (1781-1840), M.L.C. Of Brockville, a businessman and politician of the Upper Canada.
George-Okill Stuart (1776-1862), and Anglican clergyman and educator, a Bishop’s Official for Upper Canada (1812-21), archdeacon of Upper Canada (1821-27), archdeacon of Kingston (1827-62), a member of the council for Trinity College (1851), the first dean for the district of Ontario (1862). In October 1803 he married Lucy (1775-1813), the daughter of John Brooks, later governor of Massachusetts (1816-1823).
Charles Stuart (1782-1816), Sheriff of the Midland District (1811?-1815).
For the detailed entries on different members of John Stuart’s family see: Young, A.H. The Revd. John Stuart, D.D., U.E.L. Of Kingston, U.C. And His Family: A Genealogical Study. Kingston, .
134. TAYLOR, William Rufus
[Autograph Letter Signed by William Rufus Taylor to Lieutenant James Melville Gilliss (1811-1865) U.S. Navy Congratulating Gilliss' on his Successful Expedition i.e., the U.S. Naval Astronomical Expedition to the Southern Hemisphere 1849-52 and thanking him for the "beautiful and interesting books" which were most likely copies of the results of the expedition which were published 1855-6].
Newport R.I., April 17th 1856. Small Quarto (ca. 20 x 16cm). One page. Brown ink on wove paper, verso blank. Letter with a minor crease of upper left corner, otherwise in near fine condition.
The letter reads:"My Dear Sir, Upon my return to this place, ten days ago, after an absence of several months, I found here the beautiful and interesting books that you did me the favour to send me. Permit me to offer you my best thanks for this mark of remembrance. I shall read them with much interest. Often during your absence I thought of your labouring in that distant field, & I sincerely congratulate you upon the successful results of your expedition. Will you be pleased to present my respectful compliments to Mrs. Gilliss. Believe me sincere esteem. Yours very truly, Wm. Rufus Taylor."
Gilliss a naval astronomer and founder of the United States Naval Observatory, in August 1848 "succeeded in obtaining $5,000 from Congress for a naval astronomical expedition to Chile. The chief purpose was to determine the solar parallax--and thus the scale of the solar system--by observations of Mars and Venus. From August 1849 until its return in November 1852, Gilliss headed this expedition, again making observations far beyond the original purposes of the expedition and leaving behind the foundation for the Chilean National Observatory"(ANBO). The author of the letter is most likely William Taylor (1821-1902), evangelist and missionary bishop of the Methodist Episcopal church and author of "California Life Illustrated" (pub. 1858) amongst several other books. "Taylor was one of the most energetic and influential missionary leaders in nineteenth-century Methodism. He was especially responsible for the spread of Methodism in Australia, India, South America, and Africa. Among his most notable accomplishments was his commitment to the principle of indigenous leadership and self-supporting churches" (ANBO).
135. TEN EYCK, Samuel
[FRASER RIVER GOLD RUSH & GADSDEN PURCHASE: Important Autograph Letter Signed from Samuel Ten Eyck to O.B. Throop, giving a Description of Guaymas, Mexico, his Impressions of Mexicans, and Briefly Relating his Experiences During the Fraser River Gold Rush].
Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico: April 27th, 1859. On a folded double quarto leaf.  pp. Brown ink on bluish paper. Blind stamp of a papermaker (Rolland Freres, Bordeaux) in the upper left corner. Housed in a later custom made blue quarter morocco clam shell box with gilt lettered spine. Old fold marks, otherwise a near fine letter.
In this letter Samuel Ten Eyck writes to his friend, Origin B. Throop, back home in Schoharie, New York, offering a description of the Mexican port city of Guaymas, Sonora, giving his assessment of Mexican attitudes toward Americans, and describing his experiences in the Fraser River Gold Rush.
Samuel Ten Eyck came from a prominent family in New York's Schoharie County. He left Schoharie in the early 1850s, went to California in search of gold, took part in the Fraser River Gold Rush in British Columbia of 1858-1859, and then arrived in Guaymas, Mexico in the spring of 1859. He apparently went to Sonora in anticipation of that state and the surrounding Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sinaloa being annexed to the United States. The Gadsen Purchase Treaty, ratified in 1854, brought a part of northern Sonora into the United States, and there appears to have been some agitation for the United States to take more territory in the region. Such a thing did not occur, and it is unknown for how long Ten Eyck stayed in Guaymas waiting for it to happen, or where his travels took him next.
The letter begins by Ten Eyck asking Throop to make discreet inquiries to some of his friends as to why they have not corresponded with him. "I suppose you will be astonished to learn I am in this God-forsaken country. I must confess, I am astonished to find myself here, but here I am and what is still more pleasant, have a mighty fine prospect of, as it is termed in California, making my pile. I have been here but a month. On my arrival I found the country all excitement, and a revolution going on in the three states, 'Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa,' they being, I think, the tail end of creation, but they are full of silver mines and in saying that I say all that can be said in their favour. The Mexicans are the most hostile people in the world and think no more of killing an American than of taking a drink and as this is the scene of Walker's exploits and also where the unfortunate H.A. Crabb & followers were massacred, I am obliged to keep a pretty sharp look out. The women, however, are very kind & affectionate, and in case of difficulty invariably give you a warning and find a place of concealment for you. At least I have found it so on two occasions. <..,>
Guaymas, the seaport of Sonora & an old city, contains perhaps eight thousand inhabitants and being an earthquake country the houses are but one story high and mostly built of adoby [sic], which is the building material of mostly all houses in Mexico and on entering one is reminded more of a large brickyard than of a large city. <..,> I would not have come here but that the three states above named will without doubt be annexed to the U.S. - if so your humble servant is all right. I have had five years experience in California and any chance that may offer here I am on hand, in fact the pioneer."
Ten Eyck also briefly describes his experiences in British Columbia during the recent Fraser River Gold Rush: "It is as hot as blazes [in Guaymas]. I feel it more perhaps than others just having come from a northern country, as the year past I have been at Vancouver's Island & British Columbia. You of course heard of the Fraser River excitement. I was almost the first of the many thousands that rushed to that cold country. It did not prove as profitable as was anticipated, still it paid me very well, as I was able after nine months hard work to leave with a five hundred more than I took with me."
In the end Ten Eyck gives his assessment of the qualities of the women he has encountered in Guaymas, "beautiful, full of life and spirit", "very positive to us Americans" etc. A very interesting important letter, with provocative views on Mexico and a bit of information on one American's experiences in the Fraser River Gold Rush.
O.B. Throop was the owner of the only drug store in the county which still exists today as the Schoharie pharmacy, and a Secretary of the Board of Directors of the Albany and Schoharie plank road (1862).
136. VAMBERY, Arminius (1832-1913)
Autograph Letter Signed [With] Autograph Note Signed "A. Vambéry" to Martin Wood, sometime Editor of "The Times of India" and the author of several books on India. With one original envelope addressed by Vambéry. [Embossed heading] Athenaeum Club, Pall Mall, [London], 10 and 11 July 1892 respectively.
London, 1892. Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm). Total four pages with one envelope with stamp. The letter, note and envelope are all in near fine condition.
[10 July, 3pp.] He reacts to a letter sent by Wood, saying "In political questions of high importance, as the Central Asiatic is, diversity of opinions is very natural, and I am not the least astonished of [sic] the quite opposite view you exhibit in your letters." He would like to show his respect for his views with a personal meeting, and asks him to suggest a time and place. [11July, one page] He confirms their appointment to meet the following day at the Athenaeum. Note: Vambery, a friend of Bram Stoker's, is said to have been the model for Van Helsing, the vampire hunter in "Dracula."
"Vámbéry was especially attracted by the literature and culture of the Ottoman Empire including Turkey. By the age of twenty, Vámbéry had learned enough Ottoman Turkish to enable him to go, through the assistance of Baron Joseph Eötvös, to Constantinople and establish himself as a private tutor of European languages. He became a tutor in the house of Pasha Huseyin Daim, and, under the influence of his friend and instructor, Ahmet Efendi, became a full Osmanli, serving as secretary to Fuat Pasha. About this time he was elected a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in recognition of his translations of Ottoman historians.
After spending about a year in Constantinople, he published a Turkish-German dictionary in 1858. Later, he also published various other linguistic works. He also learned some twenty other Ottoman languages and dialects. Returning to Budapest in 1861, he received a stipend of a thousand florins from the academy, and in the autumn of the same year, disguised as a Sunnite dervish, and under the name of Reshit Efendi, he set out from Constantinople. His route lay from Trebizond on the Black Sea to Tehran in Persia, where he joined a band of pilgrims returning from Mecca, spending several months with them traveling across Central Iran (Tabriz, Zanjan, and Kazvin). He then went to Shiraz, through Ispahan, and in June, 1863, he reached Khiva (Central Asia). Throughout this time, he succeeded in maintaining his disguise as "Reshit Efendi," so that upon his arrival at Khiva he managed to keep up appearances during interviews with the local khan. Together with his band of travelers, he then crossed Bokhara and arrived at Samarkand. Initially, he aroused the suspicions of the local ruler, who kept him in an audience for a full half-hour. Vámbéry managed to maintain his pretences, and left the audience laden with gifts. Upon leaving Samarkand, Vámbéry began making his way back to Constantinople, traveling by way of Herat. There he took leave of the band of dervishes and joined a caravan to Tehran, and from there, via Trebizond and Erzerum, to Constantinople, arriving there in March 1864.
This was the first journey of its kind undertaken by a Western European; and since it was necessary to avoid suspicion, Vámbéry could not take even fragmentary notes, except by stealth. He returned to Europe in 1864. That following June, he paid a visit to London, where he was treated as a celebrity because of his daring adventures and knowledge of languages. That same year, he published his Travels in Central Asia, based on the few, furtive notes he was able to make while traveling with the dervishes. Returning to Hungary, Vámbéry was appointed professor of Oriental languages at the University of Budapest in 1865, retiring in 1905" (Wikipedia).
137. [VICTORIA, QUEEN OF SWEDEN],
[PHOTOGRAPHS FROM HER TRAVEL TO EGYPT, 1890-1891]
[A Unique and Important Collection of 374 Large Photographs of Egypt and Italy From and Made During the Travels of Victoria, Queen of Sweden (1862-1930), Including 25 Photographs of Egypt Made by the Queen Personally in 1890-1891]. [Included are: 25 large photographs made by the Queen ca. 25x30 cm (9 ¾ x 12 in) and a large portrait photo signed on verso “Zeki Bey/ Uppvaktaude has de kunliga” (image size 36,5x22 cm, or 14 ½ x 8 ½ in), taken by the studio of O. Schoefft (Photographer de la Cour, V. Giuntini & G. Khoskantz Successeurs, Caire) and 348 large photographs ca. 20x26 cm (10x8 in) or slightly smaller.
Of the 348 photographs, 246 are Egyptian views, landscapes and scenes, namely Cairo, Karnak, Medinet Habu, Luxor, Ibsamboul, Medamut, Aswan, Giza, Abu Simbel, Alexandria, Heliopolis, Suez Canal et al. They represent panoramic views of the temples and pyramids, the Nile river, streets and squares of major cities, Muslim mosques and tombs, Arab houses, picturesque Oriental street markets, vendors, barbers, soldiers, camel riders, women and children; scenes of Arab meals and pastimes - in short, a vivid and romantic view of Egypt.
Over a hundred photographs were made by the studio of Antonio Beato; over 140 images are from the studio of Pascal Sébah, with photographers’ names written in negative. The photographs are housed in six boxes titled “Egypten. Cairo.” “Egypten. Moskéer och Koptiska Kyrkor,” “Egypten. Pyramider, Tempe loch Obelisker” (2 boxes) and “Egypten. Landskap och Folkstyper” (2 boxes).
The other 102 Italian views are housed in two boxes titled “Italien” and show landscapes, art works and buildings of Naples, Pompeii, Milan, Lake Como, Genova, Bellagio, Giornico, Lugano, Capri etc. The photographs belong to Italian studios of Sommer, L. Guida, Achille Mauri and F. Pesce (Napoli), Nessi (Lake Como), Bosetti, Brogi (Milano) et al].
1890-1. Over a third of the photographs with ink captions in Swedish, many with photographers’ signatures in negative. All photographs mounted on stiff cardboard leaves and loosely inserted in nine impressive period custom made red half cloth clam shell boxes with gilt lettered spines, moiré interiors and marbled edges. Eight boxes ca. 34x28 cm (13 ½ x 11 in), and one, containing the pictures made by the Queen, ca. 46x37 cm (18x14 ¼ in). Boxes slightly rubbed, with signs of wear; three boxes with minor tears on front hinges, two boxes with tears on front hinges neatly repaired, a couple of photographs with minor losses of cardboard on corners, but overall the collection is in very good condition.
A unique and exhaustive collection of photographic views of Egypt, its great monuments, portraits of people and their everyday life, from the collection of Queen Victoria of Sweden who traveled through Egypt for health reasons in the winter of 1890-91. Victoria was “described as strong-willed and artistically talented. She was an accomplished amateur photographer and painter and she also sculpted. On her travels in Egypt and Italy she both photographed and painted extensively, and experimented with various photo-developing techniques, producing high quality photographic work <..,> The trip triggered her interest in archaeology and collecting antiques. Her impressive collection of Egyptian antiques was later donated to the University of Uppsala in Sweden, where the collection is still housed today” (Wikipedia).
Our collection was obviously assembled by a person close to the Queen during her travels, most likely by her attending personal physician and contains 25 large photographs taken by Victoria personally.
One photograph has the Queen’s signed dedication under the image “Till minne af Nyårsdagen 1891 på Mena House/ från/ Victoria” [In memory of the New Year’s day 1891 at Mena House/ from Victoria]; this picture was reproduced in the second edition of the Queen’s biography titled “Drottning Victoria” (1931), see below. Fifteen photographs captioned in Swedish on verso, with four specifically noted as “Foto taget 1891 af Kronprinzessin” (with slight variations in word’s order).
Six photographs were reproduced in the Queen’s book “Vom de Nil” (1892), and one was published in “Drottning Victoria” (1931), see about both editions below. The reproduced photographs are 1) in “Drottning Victoria,” “Mena-Haus, Gize” (p. 78); and 2) in “Vom de Nil”: “Bedouin girls” (p. 21), “Cameel mit Zuckerrohr” (p. 24), “Chephren-Pyramide” (p. 52), “Cataracten-Landschaft” (p. 102), “Bellal” (p. 103), “Ammontempel von Karnak” (p. 141).
Other pictures made by the Queen show accomplished views of the Nile banks, Philae, Karnak, the Pyramid of Cheops and Great Sphinx of Giza. The “Royal” photographs are housed in the clam shell box with gilt lettered title “Egypten” and supplemented with There is also a leaf with beautiful gilt printed and hand written calligraphic Arab text (ca. 57x37 cm or 17 ½ x 14 ½ in), together with an envelope (ca. 17x24 cm), inscribed in Arab and decorated with floral ornaments. The envelope is signed in Swedish “Ordensbref - Osmanieorden” and hassome tears. Likely, the leaf is related to the Order of Osmanieh, the second highest order in the Ottoman Empire.
The photograph collection is supplemented with the very rare privately printed edition of the Queen’s account of her Egypt travels (only four copies found in Worldcat) and also the very rare first and second editions of her biography (four and one copy found in Worldcat respectively). All the books are richly illustrated with photographs of Egypt, including the ones made by the Queen.
VICTORIA, Kronprinzessin von Schweden und Norwegen. Vom Nil. Tagebuchblätter während des Aufenthalts in Egypten im Winter 1890/91 [From the Nile. Diaries During the Stay in Egypt in Winter 1890-91]. Mit Lichtdruckbildern nach eigenen photographischen Aufnahmen und eine Karte. Als Manuscript gedruckt.
Karlsruhe: G. Braun’schen Hofbuchdruckerei, 1892. First edition. Folio. , 163, [1 errata] pp. Front., 34 photogravure plates, numerous photo illustrations in text. Bound without the map. Original publisher’s pictorial cloth, gilt stamped decorative endpapers. Overall a near fine copy.
DROTTNING Victoria. En Översikt av Drottningens Levnad och Verksamhet. Utgiven till minne av 60-årsdagen [The Queen Victoria. An Overview of Queen’s Life and Activity. Published to Commemorate Her 60th Birthday] / Under redaction av Gustav Åsbrink. Med TVÅ Plancher och omslag I koppar-Djuptruck Samt 96 Bilder I Texten.
First edition. Stockholm: Aktiebolaget C.E. Fritzes Kungl. Hovbokhandel, 1923. Folio. 112 pp. With photogravure portrait frontispiece and a plate, numerous illustrations in text. Original publisher’s printed wrappers. A near fine copy.
DROTTNING Victoria. En Översikt av Drottningens Levnad och Verksamhet [The Queen Victoria. An Overview of Queen’s Life and Activity] / Utgiven av Gustav Åsbrink. Med TVÅ fotogravurer och talrika Texbilder.
Second [expanded] edition. Stockholm: Aktiebolaget Hasse W. Tullberg, 1931. Elephant Folio (35,5x27 cm). 292,  pp. With a photogravure portrait frontispiece, a photographic plate, and a facsimile plate; numerous illustrations in text. Original publisher’s full navy morocco, richly gilt tooled, with the queen’s monogram on the front board; decorative endpapers, all edges gilt. Corners slightly rubbed, front endpaper with a minor crack at hinge, but overall a very good copy.
138. WALTHER, Charles Davis (fl. 1813-1842)
[Illustrated Manuscript Account of the Author's Travels to Paris and Belgium, Including a Visit to the Site of the Recently Fought Battle of Waterloo, with a Beautiful Double-page Handcoloured Plan of the Battle of Waterloo, Titled]: "An Account of a Visit to Paris and Belgium made in the year 1817."
Ca. 1817. Octavo (ca. 19x13 cm). T.p., , 164,  pp. With six original drawings on separate leaves. Text: brown ink on paper within red ink double borders; drawings: pencil or ink on paper (including two handcoloured double-page plans), within decorative ink borders, with handwritten titles. Occasional author’s pencil corrections in text. Period style brown full calf with gilt ruled ornamental borders, spine with raised bands, gilt stamped ornaments and gilt lettered sheep title labels. Marbled endpapers. A very good manuscript.
A captivating manuscript account of an Englishman’s travel to France and Belgium, with an extensive description and beautiful handcoloured plan of the Battle of Waterloo compiled just two years after the famous battle (18 June 1815). The author, Charles Davis Walther, also wrote several comic songs (including one with a curious title “Bill the Binder”, 1832), “having then completed [his] 20th year”, travelled to the Continent in August-September 1817. He went to Paris via Dieppe, staying there for about two weeks, and then proceeded to Belgium via Valencienne and Cambrai, visiting Brussels, Waterloo, Ghent and Ostend. Walther was “anxious to see the curiosities of a Country with which we had been so many years at war” and was tempted to see Waterloo and the Low Countries.
The account written in a lively manner contains an interesting description of the Waterloo field and town, with detailed description of the French and Allied positions and movements during the battle. Walther notes that in the garden of Hougoumont, one of the battle’s sites “there is not a tree that is not perforated in all directions by bullets”, and of the stone wall “the face of every other brick is completely knocked to pieces”. He gives a convincing testimony of a feverish hunt for the “souvenirs” of the battle, digging himself a bullet out of the tree with the assistance of a chisel and a broken brick “from the depth of three inches”. The same fate reached “the tree by which the Duke of Wellington stood during the greatest part of the action. This tree in 1815 was twice the size, but numberless visitors have stript it of most of its portable branches, and a boy on our approach climbed up to the top for several sprigs – indeed, this tree seems to be the source of pocket money to the boys, for which reason they are now very sparing of it”. Walther also gives an interesting description of La Belle Alliance inn, Napoleon’s headquarters during the battle of Waterloo where the Duke of Wellington and Gebhard Blücher met to mark the end of the fighting. The “room where this remarkable scene took place” was covered in inscriptions and names of numerous visitors “either in prose or verse”.
Walther witnessed a grand review of the British army in Cambrai, noting that the town “contains a great many bad and bold girls, this may be ascribed to the English army having its head quarters here”. On the road to Valencienne he met English and Prussian foraging parties, describing Prussian lancers of “much the appearance of Cossacks, their spears are twelve feet long, and their pistols are absolutely as long as blunderbusses”. In Paris he had a truly great time, visiting a number of famous landmarks, attending theatres and varietes and having dinners in nice restaurants with indispensable wine or eau-de-vie. His descriptions of the city, as well as other places visited are amusing.
The narration is illustrated with six Walther’s drawings taken on spot, including superb double-page plans of the Battle of Waterloo and the Luxembourg Palace in Paris, views of La Belle Alliance, Hougoumont, Waterloo church and Dieppe, and copies of fragments from the love letters of Francis I and Henry IV, which he made in the manuscript department of the Bibliotheque Royal in Paris. The manuscript is made as a book and contains a title page (in red and black), introduction and a table of contents.
Overall a fascinating period account of one of the most famous sites of the Napoleonic wars.
139. WATERTON, Sir Charles (1782-1865)
[Manuscript Copy of an English Translation of Waterton’s Letter to the Commander of Fort St. Joachim, Portuguese Guiana, During his 1812 Expedition].
First half of the 19th century. Octavo (ca. 21x16,5 cm). 3 pp. Brown ink on bluish paper; inscription on the 4th page “Translation of Chl. Waterton’s letter to __”. Fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
A good 19th century English translation of Charles Waterton’s letter to the commander of Fort St. Joachim, Branco River, Portuguese Guiana (modern Brazil). The original letter was written in Spanish during Waterton’s first exploratory journey into Guyana’s remote inland in 1812, with one of the purposes being to study the nature of the wourali poison, better known as curare. The description of the meeting with the Portuguese commander, as well as the Spanish text of the letter were published in the first edition of Waterton’s travel account "Wanderings in South America, the South-West of the United States and the Antilles, in the Years 1812, 1816, 1820 and 1824" (London, 1825).
Waterton wished to see "the stronghold of the Portuguese for which I beg the favour of Your Excellency and permission", reassuring that his "motives are the most honorable <…> I came latterly from Demarara which place I left on the 5th of April to see this beautiful Country and collect a few Curiosities, particularly the poison called Wourali". He proceeded with the latest news of the war with Napoleon: "Valencia had fallen into the hands of the common Enemy and General Blake with his brave troops had been made prisoners of war <…> Lord Wellington had taken possession of the City of Rodrigo". An interesting note in the end tells: "I beg you to excuse this Letter not being written in Ink – and Indian having dropped the inkstand, it broke into pieces". The letter is signed as "Carlos Waterton."
Charles Waterton was a British naturalist and explorer; he travelled four times in the interior of Guiana in 1812-1824 and was the first to bring the curare poison to Europe. "In 1825, Charles Waterton described a classical experiment in which he kept a curarized female donkey alive by artificial respiration with a bellows through a tracheostomy (Wikipedia). Waterton is also considered as one of the first environmentalists. He has been described by David Attenborough as "one of the first people anywhere to recognize not only that the natural world was of great importance but that it needed protection as humanity made more and more demands on it" (Wikipedia).