October 2014 Exploration, Travels & Voyages: Archives, Journals, Letters, Manuscripts & Watercolours

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[Historically Important Manuscript Journal with Period Copies of Official Despatches, Lists of Vessels, Captives and Other Statistics Related to the British Expedition to Abyssinia in 1868].

Ca. 1868. Folio (ca. 32,5x20 cm). In all 52 leaves of text, brown ink on watermarked laid paper, legible hand writing. Filled from both ends. The watermarks are “Dorling & Gregory, London” and a rampant lion with the date “1867”. Original album with marbled boards and cloth spine, worn and damaged. A number of leaves loosely inserted, some with tears and corner loss. Overall a very good internally clean manuscript.
The journal contains the following documents:
1) Lists of Arrivals & Departure of Transports in and from Annesley Bay. From 3rd January 1868 to 20th June 1868. Alphabetically arranged (41 pp.); 2) List of “The Abyssinian Captives” (1 p.); 3) [Napier, R.] Copy of the letter of congratulation from His Excellency to the soldiers & sailors of the army of Abyssinia” (3 pp.); 4) A copy of the first letter sent from Theodore to General Sir R. Napier Commander-in Chief of the Forces Abyssinia; [with] A Copy of the 2nd letter sent to Sir R. Napier Lt. Genl. (4 pp.); 5) Dr. Blanc, to whom the public have been repeatedly indebted for interesting accounts from Magdala says... (3 pp.); 6) Arrival of His Excellency Sir Robert Napier at Toulla (2 pp.); 7) Statistics relating to the Transport Service... Supplied by Capt. Tryon R.N., the able Director of Transport (6 pp.).
From the reverse of the volume: 1) A List of Vessels Chartered in Bombay for the Abyssinian Expedition (14 pp.); 2) Transports Chartered at Calcutta; [with] Transports Chartered in England (10 pp.); 3) [List of departures and arrivals of vessels at the Bombay port, 19 Sept. - 3 Oct. 1867], including “Fort Saluted Genl. Sir Robert Napier with 15 Guns... Genl. Sir R. Napier & Suite came on board,” (3 pp.); 4) Date of Departure [and] Arrival of H.M.S. Octavia during the Commission [1865-1869] (6 pp.).
The compiler of the journal remains anonymous, but apparently was an eye-witness involved in the events. The fact that the lists are started from both ends suggests that this journal was in use at the time, and not compiled later from printed records.
“The British Expedition to Abyssinia was a rescue mission and punitive expedition carried out in 1868 by the armed forces of the British Empire against the Ethiopian Empire. Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia, also known as "Theodore," imprisoned several missionaries and two representatives of the British government in an attempt to get the attention of the British government, which had been ignoring his requests for military assistance. The punitive expedition launched by the British in response required the transportation of a sizable military force hundreds of miles across mountainous terrain lacking any road system. Harold G. Marcus described the action as "one of the most expensive affairs of honour in history"” (Wikipedia).


[Two Original Manuscript Journals, Bound Together]: Journal of a Voyage to China; [with:] Journal in Shanghai, and Travels in China.

[Various places, including at sea and locations in China: Shanghai, Ningpo, Hancow, Wuchang et al.]. 1870-1871. Quarto. 281; 146 pp., plus 6 pp. of notes laid in. Approximately 100,000 words. Period brown gilt tooled half morocco with brown pebbled cloth boards. Recased but overall a very good journal.
The journal of W.C. Peckham from Kingston, Mass., who went to Shanghai as a teacher and companion of a young American man whose parents resided in China. The journal describes Peckham’s journey to China and during his tour there, documenting a total of five months. It is written in a mix of a sort of shorthand and full words. His abbreviated writing often gives only the first letter or two of the word, generally using a the letter "e" for the word "the," the letter "v" for the word "of," and so forth. It is, nevertheless, relatively readable. The author spent 118 days at sea, recording the various happenings aboard his vessel, the clipper ship Surprise. The Surprise was a California clipper built in 1850 that spent most of its working life plying trade between the West Coast and China. In 1867 she was converted from the faster clipper to a slower merchant ship, continuing in the China trade until she was wrecked and sunk off the coast of Japan in 1876.
In addition to the usual voyage fare - sightings of whales and other wildlife, reports on the weather, pining for home, interacting with the crew, etc. - Peckham includes some commentary on Chinese society, gleaned from his conversations with the steward and others aboard the ship. Interestingly, one of the aspects that he chooses to discuss in his journal is that of Chinese prostitution and mistresses. He writes (in translated transcription from the shorthand), on December 15th: "The steward has told me much of the prostitution of the Chinese women. It would seem that is scarce known among them. The foreign merchants & the clerks many of them keep [them?] mistresses, upon whom money is lavished as it is every where else in the world upon persons who stand in the same [relation to men?]. The Chinese women are bought of a price of their mothers, often a man of wealth pays a thousand dollars for his 'China wife' & keeps her in state. She spends her days away from him in the Chinese quarter with her friends & comes to his rooms after dark, or it might be, he goes to her when he pleases. Girls who have no mothers often sell themselves, get some old woman to claim be their parent & drive the bargain while in reality the money goes to the girl. ... Lying is by no means a shame to a Chinaman. They feel no disgrace if caught in a falsehood & they will tell a lie, or [have]? One proven "upon them?] with equal composure." He goes on to describe trading with the Chinese in light of their penchant for lying, saying, "It must require great patience on the part of the missionaries to deal with such a people. I shall watch these characteristics very closely that I may form an intelligent opinion about them."
He goes on to relate what he's been told of Chinese cities by the captain: "The Captain told us more fully what he has hinted at before of the filth of Chinese cities. All along in the narrow streets are set vessels, let into the street permanently, immovably, into which the men make water openly." He has written in parentheses, "(I don't know about the women also), and crossed through it and written "no" above it in answer. He continues: "These are bailed out every day & the contents taken into the country for fertilizer. ... The men collect this filth in jars which they carry on poles slung over their shoulders. ... The streets called 'Chow Chow' streets are very filthy. Here food is sold by the natives. The whole creature is made available, the intestines are washed, cooked, & eaten, even the contents are washed out & eaten. Rats, dogs & cats are not eaten save in case of danger of famine. ... In planting the Chinese use no solid manure. All the fertilizers are applied in liquid form. This gives great growth of vegetables, it also makes the vegetables taste of the manure, hence Europeans do not buy or use the vegetables the Chinese raise. They are famous gardeners. The whole land is a garden."
The second portion of the volume is devoted to the author's travels in China. He arrived in February 1871, during Chinese New Year and describes the festive atmosphere, noting that "We saw Chinese war junks of the old style, which had an enormous number of guns on a side. Now there was on every gun a strip of red for it is New Year." He describes his lodgings and the people who serve him there, his daily routines, meals etc., in considerable detail. He confirms that the streets are indeed filthy and the poor similar to those in America: "...through Chinese streets, round by the walls of the old city. We saw small footed women & fortune tellers. There were crowds of Chinese, cook shops sent out their (savory?) odors, filth was in the streets; but after all, I can't think it was much worse, those some what different, than the low Irish quarters of N.Y. City. Poor people are wretched everywhere."
Peckham also visits shrines in the countryside, describing the sights and experiences around as well as in Shanghai. He comments on schools, prostitution, and various customs. All in all, a fascinating read and a look at the Far East through the eyes of a 19th-century American.


3. [ADEN]
[Large Panoramic Unsigned British School Watercolour of Aden].

[Aden], ca. 1845. Recently matted watercolour on thick paper ca. 26x77 cm (10 x 30 ½ in). Margins strengthened and with a couple of repaired tears and some old crease marks, but still an attractive and impressive watercolour.
An interesting and historically important early and large panoramic watercolour view of Aden including the port, British military installations and town from the early period of British control.
"In 1609 The Ascension was the first English ship to visit Aden, before sailing on to Mocha during the Fourth voyage of the East India Company. After Ottoman rule, Aden was ruled by the Sultanate of Lahej, under suzerainty of the Zaidi imams of Yemen. Aden was at this time a small village with a population of 600 Arabs, Somalis, Jews and Indians housed for the most part in huts of reed matting erected among ruins recalling a vanished era of wealth and prosperity. Haines stated that it could become a major trading centre and the latter part of the British period proved him correct with Aden growing to become one of the busiest ports in the world. In 1838, Sultan Muhsin bin Fadl of the nearby state of Lahej ceded 194 km² (75 sq. Miles) including Aden to the British.
On 19 January 1839, the British East India Company landed Royal Marines at Aden to occupy the territory and stop attacks by pirates against British shipping to India. The port lies about equidistant from the Suez Canal, Bombay (now Mumbai), and Zanzibar, which were all important British possessions. Aden had been an entrepôt and a way-station for seamen in the ancient world. There, supplies, particularly water, were replenished. So, in the mid-19th century, it became necessary to replenish coal and boiler water. Thus Aden acquired a coaling station at Steamer Point. Aden was to remain under British control until 1967" (Wikipedia).


BLANCKLEY, Henry Stanyford (1752-1820)
[Original Certificate on the Printed Form of the British Chancery Office in Algiers, Appointing Lewis Tonna as Blanckley’s Secretary].

Algiers, 9 October 1806. Oblong Folio (ca. 25x39 cm). Official printed form of the British Chancery Office in Algiers, with woodcut arms at head; finished in manuscript in secretarial hand and signed by Blanckley in the right lower corner. Brown ink on laid paper. With official red wax seal on the left margin. Overall a very good document.
“We, H. S. Blanckley Esquire, His Britannic Majesty’s agent and consul general in this City and Kingdom, certify that We do constitute and appoint Lewis Tonna Esqr. Our Secretary and do hereby Order that he is to be obeyed and acknowledged as such by all and every Person whom this may concern”.
Issued at the British Chancery Office at Algiers in 1806 and signed off by the then consul general Henry Stanyford Blanckley, this document appointed Lewis Tonna as his secretary. Blanckley, an army Mayor, had taken part in the siege of Gibraltar in 1782 before a nineteen year stint as consul in the Balearic Islands. He was the British Consul General in Algiers in 1806-1812 and went on to play a role in shaping British policy towards the Barbary Coast. Lewis Hippolytus Joseph Tonna (d. 1828) later became a British vice-consul in Algiers and at Bona, vice-consul for Spain and consul for the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in Liverpool. He married Blanckley’s daughter Maria, and their son Lewis Tonna (1812-1857) was a polyglot, fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, and evangelical protestant campaigner.


[Autograph Letter Signed “Geo. Swain,” the Master of the New Bedford Whaling Barque “Wavelet” to Lawrence Grinnell, the Owner of the Barque, with the Account of Wavelet’s Whaling Season in the South Pacific].

Honolulu, 15 November, 1858. Quarto (ca. 25x19,5 cm). 3 pp. Brown ink on blue paper with the blind stamped papermaker’s monogram in the upper left corner. Docketed on the last blank page. Fold marks, otherwise a very good legible letter.
An interesting letter by George Swain, the master of the New Bedford whaling barque “Wavelet”, addressed to the barque’s owner Lawrence Grinnell, a member of a prominent New Bedford family involved in the whaling business. Swain confirms Grinnell’s request to "go another season” and reports to “have taken about 700 Barls. Of Wail & no Sperm." Swain is transporting the obtained oil and bone via the "West Wind" and Captain Baxter "at 7 cts per gal & 1 1/2 cts pr lb that is the best I can do." He has discharged all the crew except for two mates, and discusses payment for the crew and for repairs to his ship, giving a very detailed accounting of expenses for the voyage. In the letter Swain mentions such ports of call as Honolulu and Hilo in Hawaii, as well as the King George Sound – a popular whaling ground in Western Australia at the time.
The "Wavelet’s" whaling voyages in the Pacific lasted from 1855 to 1860. The barque was registered on arrival at the port of Albany (King George Sound, Western Australia) on 17 October 1856 (The Empire, Sydney, Wednesday, 24 December 1856, p. 4); and while leaving the New Zealand port of Mongonui on 23 February 1857, “cleared for the whaling grounds” (The Sydney Morning Herald, Tuesday, 7 April 1857, p. 4). The barque was also noted to briefly touch at the Pohnpei Islands (the Carolines) in 1858 and 1859, apparently on the way from the whaling grounds to Hawaii.
Overall an important detailed letter of American whaling off the coast of Western Australia.


D’OYLY, Sir Hastings Hadley (1864-1948)

[Two Original Watercolours of the Andaman Islands, Titled on Verso]: 1) Ross Islands from the Aberdeen District Officers’ House, Port Blair; and 2) Government Rest House, Mount Harriet – Port Blair.
Ca. 1890s. Two watercolours on paper, each ca. 14x22,5 cm (5 ½ x 8 ¾ in). Period manuscript captions in pencil on verso. Later matting. A very good pair.
Interesting original watercolour views of Port Blair, the capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India) and the centre of the infamous penal colony during the British rule. Apart from an unsuccessful attempt to establish a colony on the islands in 1789, Britain hadn’t risen territorial claims to the Andamans until the 1850s. In 1858 a British penal colony was set up for dissenters and independence fighters from the Indian subcontinent. Since 1972 the Andaman and Nicobar islands were administered by a chief commissioner at Port Blair. The infamous Cellular Jail was constructed in Point Blair in 1896-1906.
Drawn in the midst of the colonial period, the watercolours present interesting views of the Andaman Islands, including “Government Rest House” – summer headquarters of the British administration located on a beautiful Mount Harriet, the third highest peak of the islands. Another watercolour is taken from the Aberdeen District Officers’ House and has a great view of the Ross Island where the British administrative headquarters were settled. The artist, Sir Hastings Hadley D’Oyly, 11th Baronet of Shottisham (succeeded in 1921) lived and served in the British India. He gained the rank of Captain in the service of the Bihar Light Horse and later served as a deputy commissioner of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.


[Collection of Four Related Autograph Letters Signed by John Franklin, Frederick William Beechey, John Richardson and John D. Hunter, Apparently Addressed to Nicholas Garry, Deputy Governor of the Hudson’s Bay Company).

Four ALS, all dated by days of the week, without a year, but 1824. Three Small Octavos (ca. 18x11,5 cm), and one small note ca. 9,5x11 cm. Each 1 page, brown ink on paper. One with a pencil written list of names on verso. All with old identical guards on verso, indicating that the letters were mounted together in an album. Very good letters.
An interesting collection of original letters by noted Arctic explorers, apparently all related to meetings to make preparations for the 1824-25 voyages to find the Northwest Passage. Three letters were written by the members of two corresponding expeditions to the region: John Franklin and John Richardson, who explored the shores of the Arctic Ocean west and east of the Coppermine River in 1825-1827, and Frederick William Beechey, who explored the Bering Strait from the west in 1825-1828, in an attempt to meet Franklin’s expedition. In his letter Franklin also mentions George Francis Lyon who was to sail on HMS Griper to the Repulse Bay in June 1824. The author of the fourth letter, John D. Hunter, also mentioned in Franklin’s letter as a participant of one of the meetings, was apparently an organiser or a member of one of those expeditions. Dated by days of the week, the letters refer to several meetings in March 1824. John Richardson’s letter was written at “55 Devonshire Street,” which was John Franklin’s London address.
Beechey’s and Hunter’s letters are addressed to “Mr. Garry,” most likely Nicholas Garry (ca. 1782-1856), deputy governor of the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1822-1835. Fort Garry (now Winnipeg) was founded and named after him in 1822. Several places in the Northwest Passage were named after him during the expedition season of 1825-27. John Franklin gave his name to the Garry Island in the delta of the Mackenzie River “for all his active kindness and indefatigable attention to the comfort of myself and my companions” (Franklin, J. Narrative of a Second Expedition to the Shores of the Polar Sea, 1825, 1826, and 1827. London, 1828, p. 36). William Parry named Cape Garry in the Somerset Island, Prince Regent Inlet “after by worthy friend Nicholas Garry, Esq., one of the most active members of the Hudson’s Bay Company, and a gentleman most warmly interested in everything connected with northern discovery” (Parry, W. Journal of a Third Voyage for the Discovery of a North-West Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific; Performed in the Years 1824-25 in His Majesty's Ships Hecla and Fury. London, 1826, p. 140).
In his letter to Mr. Garry, John D. Hunter also mentions “Mr. Halkett”, who was most likely, John Halkett (1768-1852), director of the HBC and a member of its London Committee.
The texts of the letters:
Franklin: “My dear Sir, I shall have great pleasure in joining your party on Thursday the 25th but you must let me off early as I am engaged to an Evening party. I was just going to write to you when your note came, to say Mrs. Franklin and I will be glad to have the pleasure of your company at dinner on Tuesday 30th March at six. I hope Mr. Hunter will be with us also. I will send your letter to Capt. Lyon and I shall probably take the opportunity of seeing Parry tomorrow. Ever sincerely & faithfully yours, John Franklin. Tuesday Eveng.”
Richardson: “Dear Sir, I shall with much pleasure dine with you on Wednesday next at 7. I am dear Sir yours sincerely, John Richardson. Saturday, 55 Devonshire Street.”
Beechey: “Captain Beechey presents his compliments to Mr. Garry and will have the pleasure of accepting his polite invitation for the 6th inst. Harley Street, March 21st.”
Hunter: “I sincerely thank you my dear Mr. Garry for the book you were kind enough to send me, but my engagements will I fear render it out of my power to read it through. I will dine with you on Tuesday if I return from Brighton in time. I shall start at 11 this morning, & contemplate to return on Monday evening, I am much pleased to hear that among other friends Mr. Halkett will be one. Believe me very sincerely yours &c. John D. Hunter. Saturday morning.”


CHARLES, John, Chief Factor at Fort Chipewyan (d. 1849)
[Autograph Letter Signed to Alexander Christie, Chief Factor of the York Factory, Reporting of the Brigade’s Affairs Before Leaving Norway House to Fort Chipewyan for the Season].

Norway House, 1 August 1830. Quarto (ca. 25x20 cm). 3 pp. Addressed, sealed and docketed on the last blank page. Fold marks, minor hole on the last page after opening, slightly affecting the text, otherwise a very good legible letter.
An interesting letter from John Charles, a leader of the Hudson’s Bay Company’s Athabasca Brigade and Chief Factor at Fort Chipewyan (1830-1834), written on the eve of the brigade’s departure to the interior for the winter trade. The letter is addressed to Alexander Christie (1792-1872), chief factor of the York Factory, subsequently considered one of the most influential factors of the Hudson’s Bay Company.
Charles reports on the departure of the Athabasca Brigade, as well as conditions and supplies at Norway House: “We have now nearly made an end of our Business here and expect to move off at the latest in a Day or so. Our four Boats for Athabasca were away Yesterday with an Ample Supply for the Season to meet all Demands. The Goods forwarded by Messrs. Meler & Hargrave for the Men’s Equipment were most ample <…> the Men appear quite Satisfied with these Advances, which are the best they ever got.”He hopes that when “the Athabasca Brigade will henceforth return from the Plain [?], if we could have a Building of some kind erected for transacting our Business it will be of great Advantage, for at present the want of Sufficient Room even to make a temporary Shop, creates much Inconvenience, and I may add not a little Confusion. I would also be obliged to you to give Orders to have the Boats built for us at this Place, for the New Boats brought from the other Places we generally get the Worst.” Charles reports that “in order to prevent too much of some Articles and too little of others being forwarded for Men’s Equipment next Spring, I have made out a Requisition, both for Advances and Outfit, which if it can be complied with will be fully Sufficient.” He also complains of hard conditions on the Winter Road, resulting in sickness and injury among the Indian accompanying the brigade. Overall a very interesting informative letter.


9. [ATKINSON, James] (1780-1852)
[Original Unsigned Watercolour used as an Archetype for Plate 19 "The Main Street in the Bazaar at Caubul in the Fruit Season" from the "Sketches in Afghaunistan", 1842].

Ca. [1841-42]. Pencil and ink on paper, heightened in white, ca. 26x41 cm (10x16 in). Manuscript pencil caption on the lower margin. Recently matted. Mild traces of an old mount on verso, otherwise a near fine watercolour.
This watercolour was mostly likely used as the original archetype for lithographed plate № 19 in the Atkinson’s "Sketches in Afghaunistan" (London: Henry Graves & J.W. Allen, 1842), one of the earliest collections of views of this country. The watercolour depicts a market square in Kabul, with fruits in abundance, falling over small stores; food sellers, traders and customers, dog and donkeys and a young man in the European clothes with a bunch of grapes and a fruit in the foreground.
In 1839, the strongest fortress of Afghanistan, Ghazni, having fallen, the Army of the Indus advanced to Kabul, 80 miles north. Dost Mohammad had retreated even further north, abandoning Kabul, so the British had a relatively peaceful entry into the city and enthroned their new Emir, Shah Shuja. Atkinson wrote: “The entrance into Caubul was by a narrow street, presenting to the view a scene of the most busy description. The numerous shops, little better than sheds, exhibited fruit, not only surprising for its beauty, but for its prodigious abundance... Other articles are also presented for sale. Cooks are preparing kabobs and confectioners sweetmeats; cutlers and furriers, guns, swords, and horseshoes; silk-mercers, dealers in carpets, furs, lace, chintz, saddlery, &c., are all attentive to their several occupations.” (British Library).
“As a Superintending Surgeon to the Army of the Indus, Atkinson participated in the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839-42) and completed many sketches portraying the military skirmishes of the campaign as well as landscape views and the lives of local people” (British Library). Atkinson's "Expedition into Affghanistan provides an interesting personal narrative, supplemented by his Sketches in Afghanistan (1842) containing a series of lithographed drawings which complete the picture of what was then an unexplored country" (Oxford DNB).
Lithographs: Abbey Travel 508; Tooley 73; Colas 173; Lipperheide 1493.


[An Historically Important Archive of over Fifty Items Relating to Sultan Shah Jahan, Begum of Bhopal (July 29, 1838 – June 16, 1901) and Bhopal's Relations to the British Raj after the Mutiny of 1857 Including: The Canning 1862 Sunnad on Bhopal Succession, Formal 1862 Letters of Introduction and Departure by the First and Second Viceroys, Viceroy Lord Northbrook's 1873 Letter to the Begum About her Attendance at a Ceremony of the Order of the Star of India, Viceroy Lord Northbrook's 1874 Letter to the Begum Congratulating her on her Financial Management, two 1879 Letters from Viceroy Lord Lytton on the Conclusion of the Afghan War and a Cabinet Portrait Photograph of the Begum of Bhopal ca. 1876].

The "Bhopal State was an independent state of 18th century India, a princely salute state in a subsidiary alliance with British India from 1818 to 1947, and an independent state from 1947 to 1949. Islamnagar served as the State's first capital, which was later shifted to the city of Bhopal. The state was founded by Dost Mohammad Khan, an Afghan soldier in the Mughal army who became a mercenary after the Emperor Aurangzeb's death and annexed several territories to his feudal territory" (Wikipedia).
The contents of this archive include:
1. Earl Canning (Governor General 1856-1858, First Viceroy 1858-1862). The historically significant Canning Sunnad of 1862 concerning the Bhopal Succession.
A single large sheet of parchment headed by the large inked seal of the Supreme Government of British India, written in fine palace script, setting out the British policy to secure the succession of Princely Houses ruling in the various states. It promises that, “in failure of natural heirs any succession to the Government of your State which may be legitimate according to Mahomedan Law will be upheld. Be assured that nothing shall disturb this agreement here made to you so long as your House remains loyal to the Crown, and faithful to the conditions of the treaties, grants and agreements which record its obligations to the British Government.” The Sunnad is signed “Canning” at the foot. Bound by stab stitching into a half cloth with patterned papered boards folder together with some dozen related pages of letters and documents in Persian script. One of these has some gold leaf additions and is additionally signed by the Political Agent A R E Hutchinson. A covering document is a true copy of a circular from Major R I Meade, Agent to the Governor General at Indore, to Major Hutchinson which accompanied the Sunnad as it was sent from the Viceroy. Some of the other documents are counter signed by Major Hutchinson.
In the light of future problems over disputed succession this document proved to be highly important and equally contentious, especially in the 1920’s when Nawab Sultan Begum named her only surviving son Hamidullah as her successor in conflict with accepted laws of primogeniture. The reference to remaining faithful, as Bhopal always had been, is particularly important in this early post Mutiny period when the Crown had just taken over all the East India Company’s powers. This document is one example of the close British attention to matters of succession in Indian states. In Bhopal the British wished to maintain the succession within the Orakzai tribe which had been so loyal to the Company and the Crown. Marriage and succession were to loom large in the relations between the Viceroy and the rulers of Bhopal during the rest of the century.
2. Earl Canning (Viceroy 1858-1862) & Earl of Elgin & Kincardine (Viceroy 1862-1863). Formal letters of introduction and departure signed by the first and second Viceroys.
A formal letter written on a single folio sheet of watermarked paper in a neat secretarial hand addressed Nawab Sekunder Begum, Knight of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India – Bhopal dated Fort William 1st March 1862 and signed Canning. This first formal Viceregal letter of departure from office notes the friendly relations that have been maintained during a period which had covered the Mutiny. The paper of this letter is less strong than that used later and it has a strengthening repair to the fore edge and some chipping at the edges. Bound with it is a Persian copy, certified True Translation signed C U Aitchison, Under Secy to the Govt of India in the Foreign Dept. Together with a similarly addressed letter on a single folio sheet of paper in the same hand dated Fort William 3rd April 1862 and signed Elgin & Kincardine. He writes to inform the Begum “that on the 12th March I arrived at Calcutta and assumed charge of my Office.” The paper is somewhat fragile and there is a single tear at the bottom without loss. This has a formal Persian translation with gold leaf decoration, signed by the Political Agent at Bhopal A R E Hutchinson. Stab stitched into a half cloth with marbled papered boards folder with two other related Persian letters.
Although in less than perfect condition these two formal letters from the first two Viceroys set the tone for future relations between the Crown and the ruler. The use of the Begum’s British Order in full seems to be a way of recognising her importance at the same time as stressing that it derives from the Crown. Elgin died in office and was buried at Dharamsala.
3. Lord Northbrook (Viceroy 1872-1876). Letter of 1873 signed by Viceroy Lord Northbrook thanking the Begum for her loyal address after her attendance at a Chapter of the Order of the Star of India.
A formal letter written in fine palace script on two side of a plain bifolium addressed to Nawab Shah Jehan Begum, Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, Bhopal dated Fort William The 13th January 1873 and signed Northbrook, thanking the Begum for her letter to his Agent in Central India regarding her pleasure in the ceremonials attached to her investiture as GCSI. He promises to forward her “expressions of attachment and loyalty” to the Secretary of State for India for delivery to Her Majesty with her “Petition and accompanying address.” The letter shows the precise etiquette observed by Viceroys when dealing with letters from rulers. The letter has needle holes in the gutter margin where it has been stab sewn and stitched into a half cloth with marbled papered boards folder. Together with a Persian translation, certified true and countersigned C U Aitchison, Secretary to the Govt of India Foreign Deptt. With a further ten Persian letters [not researched], some with inked seals and signatures of Political Officers, one – like the Persian document above – decorated with gold leaf.
4. Letter of 1874 signed by Viceroy Lord Northbrook congratulating the Begum on her management of financial affairs.
A formal letter written in fine palace script on a single folio sheet of parchment embossed with the Viceroy’s royal arms in gold addressed to Nawab Shah Jehan Begum, Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, Bhopal dated Fort William The 10th April 1874 and signed Northbrook, acknowledging a Khureeta [letter] informing him that debt of 7 lakhs of Rupees on the Begum’s accession [1868] has been liquidated. Northbrook notes approvingly that these debts partly represented “increased expenditure that has been entailed by the introduction of certain administrative reforms in Your Highness’ State.” This is bound by stab sewing into a half cloth with marbled papered boards folder with two Persian translations [probably of this letter and of the Khureeta] on gold leaf decorated paper, one signed as a “True Translation H Le P Wynne Secy to the Govt of India in the Foreign Dept”. Together with four other related Persian letters, one with an ink stamped seal and a British signature and another with an indistinct signature.
5. Two 1879 Letters signed by Lord Lytton (Viceroy 1876-1880) on the Conclusion of the Afghan War.
A manuscript letter written in palace script on both sides of a single sheet of parchment, embossed in gold with the Viceroy’s royal coat of arms, addressed to Her Highness Nawab Kudsia Begam, M.C.I. Dated Simla 30th July 1879 and signed Lytton. The letter thanks the Begum for her congratulations on “the termination of hostilities with the Amir of Afghanistan” and promises to convey them to the Queen. This letter is folded at foot and fore-edge to fit the binding and is accompanied by another letter using the same wording and also signed Lytton but addressed to Her Highness Nawab Shah Jahan Begam, G.C.S.I., together with true copies in Persian on gold leaf decorated paper, certified and signed by the Secretary to the Government of India. Sewn into a simple binding, the card covers with decorative local printed paper. The binding also includes an official copy on a folio sheet embossed with the small arms of the Govt of India, of a letter to the 1st Asst Agent to the Governor General for Central India [D W K Barr] from the Under Secretary to the Govt of India [Thomas Hope] thanking the Begum for her offer of sending the Bhopal Battalion for “employment in Afghanistan”, together with a copy of Barr’s letter to Hope and approximately 20 other related letters and documents in Persian, some bearing the inked seal of the AGG for Central India and with gold leaf decoration all housed in a half cloth with marbled papered boards folder.
A number of Indian rulers offered the British Government their troops on occasions such as the Second Afghan War. In the case of the Bhopal State this was particularly poignant as the ruling house derived its origins from a tribe living in the Tochi area on the Afghan border.
6. Cabinet portrait photograph of the Begum of Bhopal ca. 1876 by the Bourne & Shepherd ca. 13,5x10 cm (5 ½ x 4 in). In fine condition.


SMITH, Harry Percival Adams (1820-?)
[Autograph Letter Signed "H.P.A. Smith", Written when U.S. Marshall at Fort Scott, Ks, and Reporting about the Latest Events in 'Bleeding Kansas' on the Threshold of the American Civil War].

Lecompton [Kansas Territory], 23 June 1858. Octavo bifolium (ca. 25x19,5 cm). 4 pp. Fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
Great letter, written in highly colorful language by the U.S. Marshall at Fort Scott at the height of the unrest in the Kansas Territory, dubbed "Bleeding Kansas" by Eastern newspapers. In part: "Since I came here I have acted as U.S. Marshall at Fort Scott, the center of the difficulties. Have headed Dragoons & swept the country. Have been besieged and couldn't move an inch. Have been amongst more bullets than are pleasant. Have been shot at on several different occasions - once was under fire from more than 50 men for about 15 minutes <...>, but at present ... For a few weeks we are at peace and I have retired to this place to rest - not on my 'laurels' for we didn't get any, but on a good bed which I have not seen for a long time <...>
If ever the cursed Abolitionists here (not Free State men) shall be hung or shot or quieted in any other way we could have a good state and a prosperous one but if not God knows what it will be unless a den of theirs <... >I did think them [the Republicans] fools - I now think them villains - and worse than villains. One of the acts of Montgomery was to oblige the wife and daughters of one of his victims to strip naked and walk back and forth before all his men. I could fill ten sheets with accounts of this Deviltry..."
Smith also lauds the natural resources of the country and speculates on the money to be made, in particular on getting surveying contracts. Complete transcription available on request.
Just a few months after penning this, Smith was one of three officers of the Leavenworth Company sent west by James Denver to organize Arapahoe County. Smith has been credited with deciding on the name Denver City for the budding frontier settlement (see Mather & Boswell Vigilante's Victims, p. 151). Smith was a controversial figure, he was a lawyer who defended outlaws and a violent Secessionist, though he hailed from New Hampshire. He was later banished from Utah Territory.


[Illuminated Manuscript Leaf from the Sequence of the Gospel of Saint Mark in a Book of Hours, with a Beautiful Illuminated Miniature Showing St. Mark with his Winged Lion].

Central or Northern France, probably Bourges, early sixteenth century. Single leaf, manuscript on vellum, written area ca. 15,7x10,5 cm (ca. 6 1/8 x 4 1/8 in); miniature size ca. 6,2x9,8 cm (2 3/8 x 3 ¾ in). Text in Latin for the use of Rome. Recto with 13 lines, verso with 23 lines. Text in brown and red ink, recto with a three-line initial in red and white on gold ground with a floral decoration; the text and miniature on recto within two gold frames with red pen work. Very lightly toned, small remnants of adhesive on verso. Mild water stain on the lower margin slightly affecting the text and causing mild creases; otherwise a very good leaf with a bright intact miniature.
This leaf from the second part of a Book of Hours – Gospel Sequences – opens the Sequence of the Gospel of Saint Mark. The text traditionally starts with the lines from its 16th chapter (Mark 16:14-20) regarding Christ sending his apostles on their missionary way: “In illo tempore. Recubentibue Undecim discipulie apparuit illie resue et exprobravit…”. The Sequence opens with a half-page miniature featuring St. Mark writing his Gospel and accompanied by his winged lion sitting at his feet. St. Mark is shown in blue and red gown with gilt decorations.
The studious setting around him reveals the artist’s great attention to details: St. Mark’s large armchair with decorative legs designed like lion’s paws; stone walls with arches and pottery in a niche, multi-coloured floor tiling and an open window showing blue sky and a tree. The apt use of perspective, as seen in the floor tiles, and the bold use of color and gold create an impressive impact for such a small miniature. The miniature and text are framed in gold and red, and the initial features fine floral design.
The other text on the leaf is from the Sequence of the Gospel of St. Matthew – according to the traditional structure of Books of Hours it is the second chapter (Matthew 2:1-12) narrating Christ’s Nativity. Overall a fine leaf with a beautiful bright miniature.


[Illuminated Manuscript Leaf from the “Hours of the Virgin” Part of a French Latin Book of Hours, with the lines from the 150 Psalm, and Hymns to the Blessed Virgin Mary].

France, second half of the 15th century. Small Octavo (ca. 15x10,5 cm). Manuscript on vellum, written area ca. 8,5x5,5 cm. Text in Latin. Recto and verso with 13 lines each. Text in brown and red; with a two-line initial in gold, blue, red and pink; and with seven one line initials in gold, blue and pink. Verso with an elaborate wide floral ornamental border on the left margin. Very lightly toned, minor creases, otherwise a very good manuscript.
This beautiful illuminated manuscript leaf from a French Book of Hours, most likely from the “Hours of the Virgin” part, starts with the lines from the 150 Psalm: “Laudate eum in virtutibus eius laudate eum secundum multitudinem magnitudinis eius. Laudate eum in sono tube laudate eum in psalterio et cithara. Laudate eum in tympano et choro laudate eum in cordis et organo. Laudate eum in cymbalis bene sonantibus laudate eum in cymbalis iubilationis omnius sp[iritu]s laudet dominum” (Praise him for his mighty acts: praise him according to his excellent greatness. Praise him with the sound of the trumpet: praise him with the psaltery and harp. Praise him with the timbrel and dance: praise him with stringed instruments and organs. Praise him upon the loud cymbals: praise him upon the high sounding cymbals. Let every thing that hath breath praise the Lord; King James Version).
Followed by a short hymn “Gloria Patri,” the text is continued by a short version of the “Hail Mary,” the prayer to the Blessed Virgin Mary: “Benedicta Tu in mulieribus, et benedictus fructus ventris Tui” (Blessed art thou amongst women, and blessed is the fruit of thy womb). The leaf is finished with a short hymn to the Blessed Virgin Mary: “Te laudant angeli atque archangeli sancta dei genitrix que virum non cognouisti et dominu deum nostrum in tuo sancto utero bauilasti. Deo Gra[si]as.”


[Illuminated Manuscript Calendar Leaf for June from a 15th Century French Book of Hours].

France, probably Tours, second half of the 15th century. Small Octavo (ca. 19x13 cm). Manuscript on vellum, written area ca. 10x7 cm. Text in French. Recto with 17 lines, verso with 18 lines. Text in brown, red and pale pink; with a three-line initial in gold, blue and pink on recto; and with four one line initials in gold and blue on recto and verso. Very lightly toned, small mount residue in the corners. Mild water stains on the outer margins but overall a very good leaf with bright initials.
A leaf from the traditional perpetual calendar part of a French Book of Hours, recording religious feasts celebrated in June in a particular region of France. Red ink denotes the most important feasts (in our leaf – the feast of St. Barnabus, apostle; nativity of St. John the Baptist, and the feast of St. Peter and St. Paul). The numbers and letters in the first two columns at the left permit the skillful user to calculate the date for Easter and other moveable feasts on the religious calendar. Overall a beautiful leaf with bright initials.


ROIZ [i.e., Rodrigues], João Ventura
[Three Autograph Letters Signed by a Portuguese Businessman in Rio de Janeiro to Barão Antonio Esteves da Costa in Lisbon, Regarding Trade with Brazil and with Mentions of the Slave Trade].

Rio de Janeiro. 21 October & 12 November 1828, 30 August 1833. Three letters, all Large Quarto (ca. 28,5x22,5 cm and 26,5x21 cm). In all 7 pp. of text in Portuguese. Brown ink on paper. Each letter addressed and docketed, with postal stamps and remains of wax seals on the last blank page. Fold marks, paper age toned, minor tears on extremities, final letter with a small hole after opening, not affecting the text. Overall a very good collection.
These three letters give details of business as usual between Brazil and Portugal, including the sale of slaves several years after the slave trade had been outlawed. All the letters are autographed and signed "João Ventura Roiz"; the filing notes on the first list his name as "João Ventura Rodrigues." Rodrigues is one of three inhabitants of Rio de Janeiro who eventually came to the attention of British authorities for flagrantly violating the prohibition on the slave trade. In a letter dated January 27, 1838, to António P. Maciel Monteiro, Brazil's Minister of Foreign Affairs, G.J.R. Gordon complained that more slaves were imported in 1837 than in 1829, the last year in which the slave trade was legal. "A number of new negroes were exhibited last Monday week, at the windows of a house occupied by a person named João Moreira ... At the house in the Largo do Capim, occupied by Senhor João Ventura Roiz, a Portuguese subject, new negroes are on sale; and, finally, in the Rua dos Inválidos, at a house occupied by José Antonio dos Santos Xavier, there are likewise on sale a number of new negroes."
The addressee of the letters is the Barão António Esteves da Costa (1764-1837), who was awarded the title 1º visconde das Picoas in 1831.
Contents of the letters are as follow:
1. 21 October 1828. 3 pp. Addressed on the final verso to "R. Fern.os, Ill.mo Snr. Conselheiro Antonio Esteves Costa, Lisboa." Includes references to goods received via the packet, the arrival of Lord Strangford, the Brique d'Angola, London exchange rates, shipments from Buenos Aires, and Thomé Ribeiro de Faria. On p. 2, he mentions that he has sold slaves from the Brique already for 260$ to 400$.
2. 12 November 1828. 3 pp. Addressed on the final verso to "R. Fern.os, Ill.mo Sr. Conselheiro Antonio Esteves Costa, Lisboa." Includes references to the Brique Flor do Mar, debts owed, Thomé Ribeiro de Faria, António Pedrozo, Seará de Maitinho [?] de Borges, the price of sugar and salt, exchange rates, and Lord Strangford.
3. 30 August 1833. 2 leaves, with text on first recto. Addressed on the final verso to "Ill.mo. Ex.mo Snr. Barão das Picõas, 2ª Nª G. Amalia Lisboa." Includes a few references to payments and interest, but discusses at greatest length (about third of the letter) a consignment of slaves from Vicente Thomaz dos Santos: "tem sido o diabo ... Por que me tem dado grande trabalho, grande desembolso, e muito cuidado hoje," due to the new Codigo. Rodrigues had to make appeals to the Legislatura to straighten out the difficulty.
On João Ventura Rodrigues's participation in the slave trade after it had become illegal, see British and Foreign State Papers v. 27, nos. 174 (pp. 596-8) and 180 (pp. 601-4).


[Autograph Letter Signed by Jasper Taylor [?], a Miner in Nevada City Quartz Mill, to his Sister Discussing the Nature and Climate of Nevada County, and Gold Mining and Social Life in Nevada City].

Nevada [City], 28 November 1856. Quarto (ca. 25x19,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Fold marks, slightly worn on centre folds, otherwise a very good letter.
An interesting personal letter from a miner in a quartz mill near Nevada City, written in the later years of the California Gold Rush. The quartz mill the miner mentions in the letter is most likely the Empire Mine in the Grass Valley, "one of the oldest, largest, deepest, longest and richest gold mines in California," and nowadays a state historic park (see: Empire Mine SHP on California Department. Parks & Recreation online).
Addressing his sister, the miner describes the nature and social life in Nevada County: “the country where I live, is nothing [but] mountains hills and dales, it is a very rough country around here but there some of the most beautiful here that there is in the world, down in the valleys is splendid country level and rich, it is the most productive of any land I ever heard of, wheat goes as high as 75 bushels per acre <…> There is not much Society here, Sundays pass of very slow, churches are about as scarce as hen teeth. There was a preacher came around the other day to me and wanted me to give him some money to build a church, I told him that I had just sent on to San Francisco for a large stock of goods and it had drained me out entirely. A little about the weather now: winter has just set now and it is very cold, we had a very hard snow storm last night”. He also remarks on the quartz mining operations he is involved in: “I am going to Nevada today, I am working at a guarts [sic!] mill about one mile and a half from Nevada, here is where they take gold out of quarts rock, you have often heard of quarts having gold in it, there is a grat [sic!] quantity of it here, it is very profitable business, it pays as high as fifty and a hundred dollars a ton here, but other places it pays a more.”
In a note to his father the miner says, that “I think being that I have come to California I must try and make something before I come home <…> in about one year from this time if I do not strike anything good. I am working at a quarts [sic!] mill now, here is where they take gold out of quarts rock. I wish you could come out and see them take gold out of quarts. You had better take trip out here next spring, you would feel like another man, rent your farm out it will be a good thing for you…”
Overall a very interesting firsthand account of gold mining in Nevada County, which itself was formed as a result of the California Gold Rush.


[Historically Significant and Important Period Manuscript Report of the Naval and Military Actions in Chile and Peru]: Estado que en el dia de la fecha tiene el Vireinato de Lima; Provincias del de Buenos Ayres recuperadas y concervadas por el Ejercito del alto Peru; y finalmente en el que ce halla el Reyno de Chile [The State at this date of the Viceroyalty of Lima, the Provinces of Buenos Aires, taken back by the Army of Alto Peru; and finally the State of the Kingdom of Chile].

Lima, 1 November 1818. Small folio (ca. 31x21 cm). 6 pp. Brown ink on laid paper with watermarks ‘A’ and ‘PLA’. Text in Spanish in legible hand writing. Later marbled paper wrappers. Manuscript in very good condition.
Historically significant and important period report of the final stage of the Chilean (1810-1826) and Peruvian (1811-1824) Wars of Independence, compiled by Spanish colonial authorities. Our copy apparently belonged to Joaquín de la Pezuela, 1st Marquis of Viluma (1761–1830) who was a viceroy of Peru during the War of Independence: there is a handwritten remark “Es copia Pezuela” in the end of the text.
The document is divided into three parts (“Vireinato de Lima”, “Egéreito del Perú”, and “Reyno de Chile”) and starts with the report of advance of the Royalist forces (3400 men under command of General Mariano de Osorio) from Callao to Talcahuano in order to regain Chile. Then follow the descriptions of Battle of Cancha Rayada (18 March 1818), Battle of Maipú (5 April 1818), San Martín’s famous Crossing of the Andes (January-February 1817) et al. A large part of the text is dedicated to the actions of the Royalists’ army in Alto Peru under command of José de la Serna e Hinojosa (1770-1832). The author reports on the numbers of armed forces in different provinces of the Vireinato de Lima and gives a picture of the wartime Peru from north to south.
Very important is the extensive material on the naval war near the coast of Chile and Peru, and the actions of the First Chilean Navy Squadron which was formed in 1817-1818 and eventually “terminated Spanish colonial rule on the south-west coast of South America” (Wikipedia). The report lists 12 vessels of the Royalists’ naval forces (Las fuerzas de mar): frigates Esmeralda, Cleopatra, Presidenta and Venganza, brigantines Pezuela and Potrillo, corvet Sebastiano et al. There are notes on the condition and amount of guns of each vessel. A separate list is dedicated to the enemy vessels and also details their artillery: Lautaro and Cumberland (bought from the British East India Company); corvette Coquimbo (bought from the US), four brigantines, and seven corsairs (Anglo-American and French).
The document reports on the blockade of Valparaiso in March-April 1818, and naval actions, e.g. The attack on Spanish corvette Resolution near Callao by the corsair force consisting of the British, American, Portuguese and Irish sailors (19 October). The text is concluding with the news that the naval reinforcement for the Royalists has departed from Spain: frigate Especulation left Cadiz on the 21st of May with 6 officials and 200 men from the Regiment of Cantabria, a part of a larger force which will embark in Callao and will go immediately to reinforce the army of Alto Peru. Frigate Maria Isabel will increase the maritime forces destined to blockade Valparaiso. The author has no doubt that “Our maritime force should succeed in destroying the rebels and will give us advantage in the reconquista de Chile”.


ROBERTSON, George R. (circa 1829-1862)
Archive of Four Autograph Letters Signed "George D. Robertson, John Cosgrove" Lincoln Cavalry Letters to Matthew Cosgrove, all on Colour Patriotic Letter Sheets Discussing Life in the 1st New York Cavalry.

Various Places, Jan.-Mar. 1862. Octavo (20x12,5 cm). Total 14 pages. Brown ink on beige colour patriotic letter sheets, including one Magnus "For the Union" sheet depicting the Massachusetts. Some mild damp staining but overall a very good archive.
This archive describes life in the 1st New York Cavalry, the "Lincoln Cavalry" formed in New York City by Carl Schurz. All of the letters are written in the first-person singular, but bear the same unusual closing in one hand: "Your friend and brother, George D. Robertson, John Cosgrove." The letters make frequent reference to "Jack," and one bears a postscript from G.D.R. Apparently, Robertson wrote these often humorous letters at the behest of John Cosgrove, an Irish immigrant who was presumably illiterate. The last of these letters offers a perhaps exaggerated account of an action near Manassas: "Drove in the Reble pickets, 14 of our boys charged on about 150 rebles, routed them & took 13 prisoners... We scared them so bad that they did not stop running till they were 20 miles beyond Manassas" (16 March 1862).
John Cosgrove (born circa 1836) and George D. Robertson (circa 1829-1862) both served in the 1st New York Cavalry, Company A, with Private Cosgrove surviving his three-year enlistment. Robertson reached the rank of sergeant before being fatally wounded; he died in a hospital in Chambersburg, PA in October 1862. "The First Battle of Bull Run, also known as First Manassas (the name used by Confederate forces), was fought on July 21, 1861, in Prince William County, Virginia, near the city of Manassas, not far from Washington. The Union forces were slow in positioning themselves, allowing Confederate reinforcements to arrive by rail. Each side had about 18,000 poorly trained and poorly led troops in their first battle. It was a Confederate victory followed by an embarrassing retreat of the Union forces. It was the first major land battle of the American Civil War" (Wikipedia).


19. [COSTA, Ilario di Gesu] (1696-1754)
[Autograph Draft Letter to the Mayor of Pessinetto Concerning Costa’s Imminent Departure as a Missionary to Vietnam].

[Turin, 1721]. Folio (ca. 26,5x18 cm). 2 pp., with an integral leaf. Autograph draft letter in Italian, unfinished. Brown ink on laid paper. Early note in red ink at head of the first page identifying writer as “Costa Fra Ilario missionario, vescovo e vicario apostolico nel Tunchino.” Second leaf of the bifolium with contemporary mathematical calculations, Fold marks, paper slightly soiled, small tears along old folds touching a few letters, but overall a very good manuscript.
This autograph draft letter was penned by the Discalced Augustinian Ilario Costa di Gesu just before his departure to Vietnam as a missionary. Written to the mayor of Pessinetto, Costa’s birthplace north of Turin in Piedmont, it contains much information concerning his preparations for departure. He notes that he and Giovanno Franco Milanese were selected for the mission by the College of Propaganda Fide from among twenty-four in his congregation. He expects to leave at the beginning of November for Flanders and describes how he will be travelling in disguise as a merchant. Costa’s missionary fervour is evident in his declarations of intent to devote himself to the illumination of souls in Vietnam who suffer without Christian guidance. He also includes various requests, thanking certain people and passing on his love to his relations in Pessinetto.
Costa went on to depart from Ostend, arriving in Canton in 1722, but due to the persecution of Christians and the closure of the passes by land it was not until April 1729 that he arrived in Tonkin. During the next twenty five years he produced fourteen Christian works in Vietnamese and rose to the post of bishop of the East Tonkin region, a position he held from 1737 until his death in 1754. The Discalced Augustinian mission in Vietnam involved a total of thirteen Italian missionaries over a period of sixty years (1701-1761) and among these Costa seems to have been a leading figure.


DUNDAS, Richard Saunders, Rear-Admiral (1802-1861)
& PELHAM, Frederick Thomas, Captain of the Fleet (1808-1861)
[Original Journal with Period Manuscript Copies of over Seventy Official Orders by Admiral Dundas and Captain of the Fleet Pelham aboard HMS Duke Of Wellington and HMS Nile during the Second Baltic Campaign, March-September 1855].

Various locations on the Baltic Sea, 13 March-11 September 1855. Folio. Original journal, ca. 130 leaves. 139 pages numbered in hand. Brown ink manuscript in two parts on pages 1-18, 92-[150] (= 77 pp). Original marbled boards neatly rebacked and re-cornered with light brown half calf; gilt lettered morocco label on the spine. Housed in a blue cloth custom made clamshell box with gilt lettered title label on the spine. Pages 103-106 and 133-134 have been taken out, possibly with the orders being censored or suppressed. Overall a very good journal written in a very legible hand.
Original naval journal, thoroughly documenting the orders given to the British fleet during the Crimean War’s second campaign in the Baltic Sea, in March-September 1855. The journal consists of two parts: the first with sixteen standing orders of Admiral Dundas, commander of the British fleet during the campaign, and second with over fifty memorandums and general memos of Admiral Dundas and his second in command Frederick Pelham, the captain of the fleet. The journal was recorded in accordance with the General memo from 8 April 1855: “One General Standing Order Book is to be kept on board each ship under my command in addition to a Book for temporary Orders. The respective Flag Officers, Captains, Commanding Officers will therefore cause all General Standing Orders issued by me to be copied into the Book to be appropriated for that purpose and their order books are to be sent to my Flag ship by an Officer to be examined by my Order Book” (p. 115 of the journal). The compiler of the journal might have been Pelham himself, as the last pages of the journal are occupied with pencil notes about genealogy of the Pelham family.
The orders and memos were written on board of HMS Duke of Wellington, a flagship of the British Baltic fleet during the Crimean War, and HMS Nile, 2nd rate ship of the line. The places of the orders change with the progression of the fleet from England to the Baltic Sea: Spithead, the Downs (North Sea), “Fermern” (Fehmarn) Belt (Baltic Sea), Kiel, Lubeck, Nargen (Naissaar Island, Estonia), Faro [Island] (Sweden), Tolboukin (Tolbukhin) lighthouse (near Kronstadt), [at sea] off Kronstadt, Seskar [Island] (the Gulf of Finland, Russia).
The standing orders include four notifications of “the strict blockade”, spreading further to the east with the movement of the British fleet and affecting: “Ports of Libau, Sackenbaun, Windau and the entrance to the Gulf of Riga” (19 April, supplement to the Standing order # 3); “Gulf of Finland from the Hango Island to the Dangerot Lighthouse” (3 May, SO # 5); “the Coast of Finland from Nystad to Hango Head, including especially the Port of Abo and including likewise all the Islands and Islets fronting the said coast” (15 June, suppl. To SO # 11); “the Gulf of Bothia from Tornea to Nystad” (12 July, suppl. To SO # 15).
A number of documents are dedicated to the Russian merchant vessels which were then in neutral ports and therefore could be captured at sea. The journal contains a list of Russian merchant ships laying in the harbour of Copenhagen (22 April), list of vessels in the Lubeck port under neutral flags “procured by sales which are considered to be fictitious” (22 April), information about ship “Ernest” under Belgian flag with “suspicious or fictitious papers” (29 April) et al.
Another issue that the British fleet had to deal with was the suspected transportation of arms for the Russians by ships of neutral countries. The memos contain information about Dutch ship “Tezlma” bound from Antwerp for Copenhagen with 12 chests “containing 352 Muskets, 131 Carbines, 150 Pistols” (p. 116); another Dutch vessel “Youthaudel” transporting “Muskets from Belgium” (29 April); brig “Otto” from Hamburg “nominally cleared for Brazil”, which “is suspected of having shipped Muskets and other munitions of War for a Russian Port” (30 April); two vessels in the Lubeck port “which are considered liable to capture or detention” (3 May) et al. A note from 11 July warns the British officers that "a large quantity of Colts Revolver Pistols have been lately packed at New York in Cotton Bales, and intended to be shipped on account of the Russian government."
Historically important is the General memo from 27 August informing about the bombardment of the Sveaborg fortress on 9-10 August – the main engagement of the 1855 Baltic campaign. Admiral Dundas informs the “Officers, Seamen and Marines” about the Lords’ of the Admiralty “entire approbation of their conduct on the occasion, as well as of the skill and gallantry with which the service was executed."
The other documents detail different aspects of the British fleet service during the Baltic Campaign: regulations of work of the mortar vessels, weapon use (“heavy Lancaster shells”, “Fuze for Boats Guns”, ammunition for the rifles), maintenance of the machinery of steamships, daily routines for ships’ crews "at sea" and "in harbour," rules of keeping of official ships’ documentation, specific instructions for the safe communication of H.M. Ships with enemy fleets under a "Flag of Truce" and others. Last two pages contain a later general memo from rear Admiral Fremantle, commander of the Channel Squadron, dated “Spithead, 24 August 185[8?]”.
Overall a captivating and historically important first-hand account of the actions of the British fleet in the Baltic theatre of the Crimean War.


[Album with Fourteen Original Watercolours made during a Trip from the Baltic Sea to Russia and Persia, with interesting views of Saint Petersburg, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, Kazan, Simbirsk, Samara, Caucasian Mountains, the Caspian Sea and area near Isfahan; With a Manuscript map of the Route across the Baltic Sea].

September-November 1869. Fourteen watercolours ca. 21x12 cm (8 ¼ x 4 ¾ in) mounted on original album leaves, with manuscript ink captions on the mounts, some also captioned on the images by the artist. With a watercolour map loosely inserted. Bound in a period style brown folio half calf with marbled boards; the spine with a gilt lettered morocco label and raised bands. A very good album.
A charming group of watercolour views by an English traveller to Russia, with an unusual series of views of the Volga cities – Nizhny Novgorod, Simbirsk, Samara and “Ouswan opposite Kazan on Volga” (Verkhny Uslon village, located right opposite Kazan on the right bank of the Volga). Other interesting views show the Caucasian Mountains and the shore of the Caspian Sea between Petrovski (founded in 1844, modern Makhachkala) and Derbent (both in Dagestan, Russia); the Caucasian Mountains with Mount Shahdag (4243 m., Azerbaijan); and a vicinity of Isfahan (Iran). There are also four nice watercolours of Moscow showing the Kremlin and the exterior and interior of St. Basil Cathedral, a lively view titled “In the Suburbs of St. Petersburg,” with a fire watch tower, “Drozhky & Ezvostchiks”, a four-horse omnibus and a branch of Neva. Two views depict Helsingborg (Sweden) and the Tivoli Gardens in Copenhagen. The images are accompanied by a hand drawn “Map of route from Hull to St. Petersburg,” covering the traveller’s route across the Baltic Sea. Overall an unusual collection of fascinating “Russian” views of the mid-19th century.


FORBES, William L.
[Original Manuscript Journal Titled in Manuscript:] A Journal of a Voyage From Boston to Batavia (Island of Java, East Indies), Latitude 6’10’’S and Longitude 106’51’’ East, in the Ship Juno, Steven Williams Master. Keeped by William L. Forbes.

29 December 1815 - 19 March 1817. Folio (ca. 32,5x21 cm). 82 unnumbered leaves, all but two filled in. Brown ink on laid paper. Original sail cloth covers. Three leaves in between the leaves [67] and [68], in the unfilled part, removed by the compiler, paper slightly age toned, first two leaves with minor tears on extremities, but overall a very good journal written in clear and legible hand.
Interesting detailed journal of an early American commercial voyage to the East Indies. Kept by a crew member, William L. Forbes, the journal registers the voyage of a Boston ship “Juno,” Steven Williams master, to Batavia (29 December 1815 – 20 April 1816), her subsequent stay in the port of Batavia (21 April – 18 July 1816), a trip from there to Holland (19 July – 5 November 1816), and a return voyage to the United States (New Orleans, 28 January – 19 March 1816). The journal keeps a thorough record of the ship’s track and geographical coordinates, weather, sail handling, vessels sighted and spoken, landmarks seen, and events on board.
Juno usually executed long sea passages without calling on ports, with the only exception being the uninhabited Amsterdam Island (southern Indian Ocean) visited on the 23rd of March on the way from Boston, rounding the Cape of Good Hope to Batavia. A message from the English brig Alexander was found there, which “with 24 females touched on 22 February 1816, bound for New South Wales. All well.” The second part of the journal, titled “Remarks on board Ship Juno, Lying in Batavia Roads” (April-July 1816) is rich in content. Forbes notes the supplies and various cargo taken on board (water, beef, hides, cordage, Japanwood, sugar, tin, arrack, coffee, mats, shipstores, indigo et al.), and works executed on sails and rigging. He registers discharged ballast, and mentions several times “boxes of dollars” sent to shore. The entry from the 13th of May informs that “John Brown put in irons for mutiny.”
The journal also unveils the sad story of an epidemic of a tropical disease which took a heavy toll on Juno’s crew. The first notes that “two men unwell” appear in the journal a week after the ship’s arrival to Batavia, on 27 April 1816, and almost all subsequent entries contain information of several sick men on board. Some of them were sent to the hospital on shore, but nevertheless two of Juno’s men died in Batavia, and two more during a voyage to Europe. This part of the travel was the hardest, with the frequent notes about the ship making water, and from eight to thirteen men sick and off duty; on the 29th of October another crew member “Herman Graff taking sick, leaves 5 for duty.” This part of the logbook ends not reaching Holland, at the latitude of 46° 16’N (approximately near the southern entrance to the English Channel). Three leaves after the last entry have been removed from the journal, apparently they contained the rest of the information. On this leg of the journey Juno sighted without visiting the peak of Cracatoa, Rodrigues Island, Isle of France & Isle of Bourbon, Cape Agulhas, and St. Helena Island.
On her return voyage from Texel (Holland) to the United States Juno encountered suspected privateers: “two sail in sight, by all appearances privateers as one was laying by and the other under short sail” (14 March); “at 2 pm one of the privateers passed to windward, standing in fore the land saw a great number of people on her deck” (15 March). Overall an interesting journal, rich in content.


[Original Manuscript Will of George Glover, Shipwright of Deptford]: In the name of God. Amen. The Tenth Day of March in the year of our Lord one thousand six hundred fiftie and fours, I George Clover of Deptford otherwise West Greenwich in the county of Kent ship right <…> now bounde fforth in a perilous voyage to the East India beyond the Seas…

[London], 10 March 1654. Oblong Folio (ca. 29,5 x 46 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on vellum. 26 lines, initial line with calligraphic flourishes. With an ink inscription “To M. Cornish, 1894” on verso. With an attached vellum leaf (ca. 11x16,5 cm), witnessing the will (dated 7 October 1656, 16 lines, signed off by two judges for probate of wills). With a fragmentary central portion of a large Commonwealth seal with the arms of the City of London appended. Old folds, some rubbing and dusting but overall a very good document.
Original manuscript will of English shipwright George Glover, compiled shortly before his departure to the East Indies. Most likely Glover was employed on a ship of the British East India Company which had a shipyard in Deptford since 1607. The will appointed his wife Elizabeth his executrix and mentioned property owned by Glover at Deptford Strand and at “West Streete in East-Greenwich… by the name of the Signe of the Cork…” The attached document proving the will indicates that Glover must have died in 1656 in the East Indies. A united copy of Glover’s will and the “probate document” dated 7 October 1656, is included in the official papers of the Court for Probate of Wills & Granting of Administrations (The National Archives, Kew, ref. Number PROB 11/258/346). The will of Elizabeth Glover, dated 3 July 1657 and naming her the “Widow of Deptford,” is also deposited in the National Archives, Kew (ref. Number PROB 11/266/129).
“The ships initially used by the [East India] Company were purchased privately. However losses from wear, tear and wreck took their toll and large ships suitable for the Eastern trade were soon at a premium. In 1607, the Company therefore decided to build its own ships and they leased a yard in Deptford. Initially, this change of policy was fully justified, but the shipbuilding and maintenance of these yards at Deptford soon proved highly expensive to run. Later in the 17th century, the Company reverted to the practice of hiring vessels, many of which were built in the private yards at Deptford and Blackwall. In 1660 the East India Company yard consisted of a dock and two slipways on the site at Deptford Creek” (National Maritime Museum, Greenwich online).


CHEVALLIER, Barrington Henry (1851-1930)
[Historically Interesting Manuscript British Navy Logbook, Containing the Logs of Eight Separate Voyages, Including Voyages in the North Pacific, with Stops at Esquimalt and Port Alberni on Vancouver Island and Honolulu, Hawaii].

[Various places at sea], 1865-1870. Folio (33x21,5 cm). [Ca. 500] pp. Logbook in English, with twenty manuscript charts and four watercolours tipped in, five of the logs have manuscript title-pages, two in colour, four with flags and one with a printed picture of the ship pasted on the leaf. Period black blind-tooled half sheep, brown cloth boards, gilt-tooled morocco title-label on front cover. Housed in a modern cloth clamshell box with a black gilt morocco label. Extremities rubbed, front upper hinge with a crack but overall in very good condition.
Manuscript logs of eight ships: HMS Victoria, Terrible, Victoria, Urgent, Malacca, Scout, Duke of Wellington and Bellerophon. The logs were kept by midshipman Barrington Henry Chevallier (1851-1930) from what was probably his first tour of duty in 1865 (after joining the navy in 1864 and training on HMS Britannia) to 1870, when he was promoted to sub-Lieutenant.
For the most part, the logs record the typical duties of a seaman of his rank. The numerous folding charts are excellent, as are the four watercolours. On his first two voyages, on board the Victoria and then the Terrible, he sailed in the Mediterranean, with stops at Malta, Corinth, Patras, Cephalonia and Gibraltar. He then made a longer voyage on board the Urgent to the West Indies, with an initial stop at Bermuda and visits to Jamaica and Colombia. Chevallier then transferred to the Malacca, which was at anchor off Panama. After a brief trip to the Pearl Islands in April 1868, Chevallier was sent aboard HMS Scout, commanded by J.A.P. Price. It was aboard this ship that he undertook his first Pacific voyage, which took him from Panama to Esquimalt on Vancouver Island. On Vancouver Island the crew of the Scout met with the USS Pensacola. The voyage continued from Esquimalt to Honolulu, where the ship arrived in September. A second log for the Scout records a voyage from Honolulu to Tahiti, then to Valparaiso, through Tierra del Fuego, on to the Falkland Islands and then the return home to Spithead (15 October 1868 - 5 May 1869). The final two logs, of the Duke of Wellington and the Bellerophon, record coastal trips around Portsmouth and further Mediterranean travels. Chevallier rose through the ranks, moved to an office job in Naval Ordinance in 1887, married and settled in Kent, eventually becoming a Captain.
A very interesting well illustrated volume of ships' logs, including carefully plotted voyages with nice watercolours of Esquimalt and Kingston and interesting charts of the Pacific including the Galapagos Islands and a plan of Honolulu Harbour. Additionally, Chevallier describes communications with three Indian Canoes, the visit of an American Minister and British Consul to the ship, a 21-gun salute of the Tahitian Flag, the sighting of a Chilean Men of War (one bearing the flag of Adl. Blanca) and a Peruvian iron clad, etc.


[Attractive Private Scrapbook of a British Lady, Containing a Cut Silhouette of Sir William Hoste, a Great Frigate Captain of the Napoleonic Wars, Eleven Pasted-in Watercolours from a European Tour, a copy (?) of a pencil sketch by Edward Lear, a Pencil Portrait Probably of the Artist, and Fifteen Pencil or Watercolour Sketches Apparently made on a South American Trip.]

Ca. 1820-1840s. Oblong Octavo (ca. 12x19 cm). Over sixty leaves of multicolored paper. With a cut silhouette, eleven pasted-in watercolours from ca. 10,5x15,5 cm (4x6 in) to ca. 6x9 cm (2 ¾ x 3 3/8 in), all but two signed “E.S.B.” in the lower corners. With seventeen watercolour and pencil drawings on the album leaves, one signed in pencil “Edw. Lear del, 29 May 1841.” Original green full calf, with gilt tooled ornamental borders on the boards and spine, all edges gilt. Spine with a long crack on the upper hinge, the front board partially detached, binding slightly rubbed on the edges, but overall a very good internally clean album with bright watercolours.
This attractive private scrapbook, compiled by a British lady in the 1820-1840s, starts with an expertly executed silhouette of Sir William Hoste (1780-1828), a protégé of Admiral Nelson and one of the great frigate captains of the Napoleonic Wars. The owner of the album also included eleven beautiful watercolour views of Europe, most likely of France, Italy and Greece. Two of them, captioned in ink, are copies of the contemporary steel engravings “The plains of Waterloo” (by R. Brandard, after a drawing by Th. Cooper, 1834), and “The Temple of Jupiter Olympus at Athens. Greece” (by E. Finden, after a drawing by C. Stanfield, 1832). There is also a pencil drawn Italian view signed in pencil “Edw. Lear del, 29 May 1841,” probably, a copy of a work by Lear. Another pencil drawing done in amateur manner portrays a woman, who is writing or drawing – apparently the artist and compiler of the album. The last pages are occupied with dynamic drawings showing horse riders in different positions travelling in the countryside, shepherds throwing a lasso, women riders (including a scene with a woman fallen off a horse), a scene of a bull fight, et al. This last group of drawings was most likely done during a trip to South America. The drawings throughout the whole album are interspersed with handwritten charades and anecdotes, the answers to charades and unfinished list of drawings are at rear. Overall a charming example of an early 19th century lady's scrapbook with some interesting watercolours.


26. [EZPELETA ENRILE, Joaquin, Captain General of Cuba] (1788-1863)
[Two Official Letters to Joaquin Ezpeleta Enrile, Captain General of Cuba in 1838-1840, from U.S. Consuls in Havana and Trinidad de Cuba; the First one in English; and the Second One Translated into Spanish by a Havana Translator].

Letter from U.S. Consul Nicholas Philip Trist: Havana, Consulate of the United States of America, 18 April 1838. Folio (ca. 30,5x21,5 cm). 2 pp., with an integral blank leaf. Brown ink on paper, official ink stamp of the US Consulate in Havana in the upper left corner of the first leaf. Legible text in English. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good document.
Letter from U.S. Consul Thomas R. Gray translated into Spanish by Luis Paynes [?]: Havana, 29 September 1838 (original document: Trinidad de Cuba, 15 September 1838). Folio (ca 30x21 cm). 2 pp., with an integral blank leaf. Mild offset, fold marks, otherwise a very good document.
Two official letters to Joaquin Ezpeleta Enrile, Captain General of Cuba in 1838-1840, from Nicholas Philip Trist (1800-1847) and Thomas R. Gray, U.S. Consuls in Havana and Trinidad de Cuba. In the first letter Trist congratulates Ezpeleta Enrile on his appointment as the new Captain General of Cuba, and wishes that good relations between the two nations will continue. He reassures Ezpeleta that “to no other foreign country is an event of this nature so necessarily, so intensively or so deeply interesting, as it is to that which I have the honor to represent <…> I can form no better with for the very numerous class of my countrymen who have direct & special personal interests in the prosperity of this magnificent Island, and consequently in the way in which it may be governed, than that the expectation awakened by Y.E’s Proclamation may be fulfilled…”
In his letter to Joaquin Ezpeleta Enrile Thomas R. Gray, U.S. Consul in Trinidad de Cuba files a complaint regarding “an order from this city's chief of navy informing that all captains of American ships along with its passengers may need to present themselves in person,” which both “Spanish and American merchants as well as captains and passengers had complained to me about <…> I wish that Your Excellency will be kind enough to arrange that I be instructed competently and respectfully regarding that order so that my fellow citizens may find out about it with expected appropriateness” (in translation). The original letter was written in English (Trinidad de Cuba, 15 September 1838), but we have only an official Spanish translation of it, done two weeks later by a Havana translator Luis Paynes.
“Cuba and the United States of America have had an interest in one another since well before either of their independence movements. Plans for purchase of Cuba from the Spanish Empire were put forward at various times by the United States. As the Spanish influence waned in the Caribbean, the United States gradually gained a position of economic and political dominance over the island, with the vast majority of foreign investment holdings and the bulk of imports and exports in its hands, as well as a strong influence on Cuban political affairs. Following the Cuban Revolution of 1959, relations deteriorated substantially and have been marked by tension and confrontation since. The United States does not have formal diplomatic relations with Cuba and has maintained an embargo which makes it illegal for U.S. Corporations to do business with Cuba” (Wikipedia).


[A Pair of Attractive Historically Important Watercolour Views:] "Angra Pequena (Lüderitzbucht) von der Höhe der Nautilus Spitze gesehen" [Angra Pequena (Lüderitz) Viewed from the top of the Nautilus Peak]; [with:] "Blick von den Höhen östlich von Angra Pequena auf das Flugsandgebiet und die Berge östlich desselben. [View from the Heights East of Angra Pequena..,]."

Ca, 1884. Two watercolours each ca. 19,5x44 cm (7 ½ x 17 ½ in) Mounted on stiff card with manuscript titles on mounts. Mounts lightly dust soiled, otherwise two very good watercolours.
These two historically important views are most likely some of first views of the German occupation of Namibia. The first view shows the bay (Lüderitzbucht) with a cross (Magellan Cross) on the hill in the foreground with several barracks shown below which are most likely Fort Vogelsang. The second view shows the dune landscape of the area looking into the interior.
"On 16 November 1882 a German merchant from Bremen, Adolf Lüderitz, requested protection for a station that he planned to build in South-West Africa, from Chancellor Bismarck. Once this was granted, his employee Heinrich Vogelsang purchased land from a native chief and established a city at Angra Pequena which was renamed Lüderitz. On 24 April 1884, he placed the area under the protection of Imperial Germany to deter British encroachment. In early 1884, the Kaiserliche Marine ship SMS Nautilus visited to review the situation. A favourable report from the government, and acquiescence from the British, resulted in a visit from the SMS Leipzig and SMS Elisabeth. The German flag was finally raised in South-West Africa on 7 August 1884. The German claims on this land were confirmed during the Conference of Berlin" (Wikipedia).


[Original Untitled Watercolour prepared for the “Graphic,” Titled:] "Combating the Difficulties of a new Route to Kumassi."

1 July 1899. Grisaille watercolour on cardboard, heightened in white, ca. 16x22 cm (ca. 6 ¼ x 8 ½ in), within hand drawn ink frame. Signed “F.C.D.” in watercolour in the left lower corner. Ink stamp “1 Jul 99” on verso. Mounted in a recent mat, overall a very good watercolour.
This captivating watercolour was published in “The Graphic” (# 1544, 1 July 1899, p. 8), as one of the four illustrations to "Railway enterprise in West Africa: With a surveying expedition to Kumassi”. The scene shows a European explorer on his way through the deep jungle of the “Dark” Africa, knee-deep in black mud and armed with a sword and a revolver. His white military uniform and pith helmet are shown in strong contrast with almost naked native porters, who are carrying heavy expedition supplies, including a surveyor's distance wheel.
The explorer shown was British railway engineer Frederic Shelford (1871-1943), who undertook the very difficult task of surveying the previously impenetrable jungle of the Gold Coast (Southern Ghana) for the prospective railroad from the gold mines of Tarkwa to Kumasi.
“The Graphic” described his expedition in these words: “We reproduce this week some sketches by Mr. Frederick Shelford, who has made many trips to some most outlandish parts of the African and American continents for the Colonial Office, seeking for desirable routes for the construction of light railways to open up and render accessible some of our beautiful and fertile, but very remote tropical possessions. <…> The sketches refer to Mr. Shelford’s latest exploration – namely, through the great West African forest belt to Kumassi, not by one of the well-known routes from the coast to the capital of Ashanti, but in a bee line from the Turkwa Gold Mines through unknown country, a journey involving a five weeks’ tramp of 360 miles. There being no road, and no native being found capable of guiding the expedition, Mr. Shelford had to pick his way through the forest by compass and such information as the few natives encountered were able to afford, and was compelled to follow bush hunters’ tracks densely overgrown and frequently knee deep in water and black, oozy mud.
Kumassi, so long a thorn in the side of Great Britain, was found now to be a smart up-to-date military station, with the only draw-back that a three-shilling bag of rice costs twenty-five shillings more to get there. There is a large fort, from which centre of the whole country for many scores of miles in every direction is administered by the British Resident, a post now ably filled by Captain Donald Stewart, C.M.G. <…> Mr. Shelford was accompanied during this trip by Dr. J.C. Matthews and sixty carriers” (# 1544, 1 July 1899, p. 7).


[Period Manuscript Copy of:] An Address from the [Principal] Inhabitants of Goree to Lieut. Colonel Chisholm.

Goree Island, 26 May 1816. Folio (ca. 32x20,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Legible handwriting in secretarial hand. Mild fold marks, otherwise a near fine document.
Farewell gratitude letter to Lieutenant-Colonel James Chrisholm (ca. 1765 - 1821) of the Royal African Corps who has been the Commandant of Goree for seven years. British garrison was quartered in Goree during the last British occupation of the island of 1800-1817 (French reoccupied the colony on 25 January 1817). The letter is signed by twelve citizens of Goree, mostly French (Reni Dupuy, Pierre Lapolicett, Cader Francio, Martin Terranjou, Armond Laport, James Bradley, Ja. Lanim, Nicolas Jonga, Jn. Baudin, Pierre Louis, Fs. Defontnoy, Pierre Jurpin, Mayor).
“It is with sincere regret we the undersigned being the principal inhabitants of Goree, learn that you are about leaving this island, we cannot in Justice to our feeling allow you to depart without offering our most grateful thanks for your fatherly care and constant attention to forward our welfare”. The letter praises “the great improvements you have made in this Island”, “the state of defence you put the garrison in when surrounded by the Enemy’s Ships of War”, “the impartiality and moderation of your decisions in the Administration of Justice” and notes that “the high state of discipline you have maintained over the Troops under your Command not only secured to us our Property, but kept the most perfect harmony between the Soldiers and all Classes of Inhabitants.”
“The Friends of the African Institution are greatly indebted to you for your in remitted Exertions in carrying their humane and liberal views into execution. As a token of our regard and gratitude we beg you to accept of few Gold Rings and wear them in remembrance of us”.
James Chisholm was a British army officer who served in the Guzerat and Upper Bengal provinces of India (since 1796). In 1807 he took part in the British attack on Buenos Aires. “In 1808 he was promoted to a majority in the Royal African Corps, with which he served on the coast of Africa, and, during a part of that time, as Commandant of Goree. While thus employed, he uniformly and determinedly opposed the abominable and inhuman traffic in slaves, many of whom he rescued from their oppressors, and restored to their families and to freedom. On his departure from the Island in 1816, the inhabitants of Goree, French as well as English, voted him a gold medal, and an affectionate address, as a flattering testimony of the sense they entertained of his services, and as a mark of gratitude for the zeal with which he watched over the safety and interests of the Settlement. The Reports of the Royal African Institution contain abundant proofs of his cordial exertions in favour of the unhappy natives of Africa…” (Obituary/ Gentleman’s Magazine. February 1822. P. 182).


STARR, Samuel G.
[Autograph Letter Signed to his Mother, Mrs. Betsey Starr in Connecticut, with Remarks on the Great Charleston Fire].

Charleston, 20 February 1835. Large Octavo (ca. 24,5x20 cm). 2 pp. With an integral blank leaf. Brown ink on paper, addressed and sealed on verso of the second leaf. Red postal stamp “New York” ibidem. Fold marks, a small hole on the last page after opening, not affecting the text; overall a very good letter.
A private letter by a young Yankee from Danbury (Connecticut), sent to work in the Charleston hat store co-owned by his father and another Danbury merchant, Congressman Zalmon Wildman (1775-1835), who opened the first hat stores in Charleston and Savannah in 1802. Young Samuel writes to his mother about his life, including the arrival of her parcel with the pie, cakes, apples and other provisions for him, most of which unfortunately went bad. He also remarks on his work in the hat store: “We have been more busy since Mr. Wildman has been [gone] but we have a great many hats on hand, more than we shall be able to sell. I am afraid I think that they will stop soon in making many more for this season. <…> I shall send this to New York by a Mr. Grant who goes on in the Steam Boat tomorrow”. The young man also gives a description of the Charleston fire which broke out just a few days before, on 15 February 1835: “We had a very large fire here on Saturday night past. It burnt up between fifty and a hundred houses and one of the largest churches in the city and at one time I thought that it would burn half of the city…”
“Just after midnight on February 15, 1835, a fire broke out in a brothel “of the very lowest and degraded character” at the north corner of State and Linguard streets. Soon, a dozen buildings were ablaze, the fire threatening to spread south across Amen [Cumberland] Street. Mostly confined to the two city blocks between Market, Cumberland, Church and State streets, the fire’s great blow was the loss of St. Philip’s Episcopal Church, south of Cumberland Street. Windblown sparks ignited the domed top of the steeple, which “burned downward, then fell in with a crash which was succeeded by magnificent burst of fire from the tower, which continued for more than an hour to send up volumes of flame, until at last the body of the church and the whole roof kindled at once, and the destruction was complete.” The remains of the steeple and the front of the portico fell into Church Street the next morning. The entire city mourned the destruction of a building “unsurpassed in architectural beauty by any edifice in the Union.” More than a century old, the church had been saved from fire in 1796, and spared again in 1810 when the surrounding neighborhood burned.” (The 1830s: A Decade of Fire/ Preservation Society of Charleston online).


[Attractive well executed Pencil Portrait of Edmund Hillary, the First Man on the Top of Everest, Autographed by Him].

Ca. 1953. Pencil drawing on an album leaf, ca. 25x35,5 cm (9 ¾ x 14 in). Hillary’s ink signature on the left margin. With a pencil drawing of a rugby player and fifteen signatures of the Canterbury rugby players on verso. Recently matted. A very good drawing.
Captivating pencil drawn portrait of world-known New Zealand mountaineer Edmund Hillary (1919-2008), created not long after his famous first ascent of Mount Everest on 29 May 1953. Together with Sherpa mountaineer Tenzing Norgay, Hillary became the first climbers known to have reached the summit of Everest. They were part of the ninth British Expedition to Everest, led by John Hunt.
The portrait was drawn by New Zealand artist John Herber who in the 1950s and 1960s created a series of drawings portraying notable personalities of the day. Each portrait was later sent to the person depicted with the request to autograph it. Our portrait shows Hillary in his expedition parka, with a captivating smile, and is signed “E.P. Hillary” on the left margin.
The verso of the portrait is an interesting illustration in the history of the New Zealand rugby. It is dedicated to the game between the Canterbury and Springboks teams during the 1956 Springboks tour (21 July 1956, Lancaster Park Stadium, Christchurch). Canterbury won 9:6. There is a pencil drawn portrait of a Canterbury player, and signatures of fifteen players who took part in the game (K. Stuart, R. Smith, A. Elsom, M. Dixon, S.K. Henderson, S.G. Bremner, P. Vincent, N. Roberts, J. Buxton, R. Duff, S.F. Hill, H. Burry, W.J. Whineray, D. Young, E. Hern).


CASPARI, Chrétien Edouard (1840-1918)
[Eleven Original Watercolour Views of Saigon, Bangkok and Scenes of Everyday life in French Indochina].

1877-1878. Watercolour and ink on paper; seven larger sketches, ca. 13x21 cm (5x8 in), and four smaller ones, ca. 10,5x14 cm (4 x 5 ½ in). All captioned and dated in ink in the lower margins of the images, with additional pencil captions or notes on the mounts. Watercolours mounted on ten period watermarked laid paper leaves. Mounts slightly soiled and stained, but the watercolours are bright and in very good condition.
Beautiful sketches taken from life by a skilful amateur artist, a French colonial engineer, while serving in Indochina. The collection includes several interesting views of Saigon showing the La Sainte Enfance School, St. Joseph Seminary (‘Seminaire annamite’), the house of the director of the French arsenal, a horse-driven carriage or ‘Malabar’ et al. The watercolours include some nice portraits of the locals, including a sketch of a Chinese merchant followed by a servant carrying his goods, portraits of Vietnamese women with children, people driving oxen carts, villagers et al. There is also a great view of Dong Nai River near Bien Hoa city (32 km east from Saigon) – a peaceful picture of a river with two people paddling in a boat and several village houses amidst lush tropical greenery on shore. The earliest watercolour in the collection, dated 1877, is a view of Bangkok. One sketch shows local plants – mango tree, bamboo and an Erythrina tree covered with bright red flowers.
Chrétien Édouard Caspari was a French hydrographer and astronomer. He graduated from École polytechnique in 1860, and in 1862-1902 he worked as a hydrographer and engineer in France, the Caribbean and French Indochina (the Gulf of Siam, Annam and Tonkin). Caspari was the author of an astronomy textbook for the Service Hydrographique de la Marine, and of numerous scientific papers, some relating to Indochina. He was awarded with the Prix Montijon of the French Academy of Sciences (1878), and in 1905 he became President of the Astronomical Society of France.


[Two Detailed Manuscript Testimonials of a Voyage of the Merchant brig Jane to the West Indies in 1780, and the Circumstances of Her Shipwreck during the Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane, Notarially Certified in Montego Bay and London; With a Period Copy of Jane’s Portledge Bill for 1781].

Montego Bay (Jamaica) - London, 1780-1781. Three Folio Manuscripts (ca. 44x28 cm, ca. 40x26 cm and ca. 36,5x22 cm) folded to Octavos. 3, 1 and 3 pp each. Each brown ink on watermarked laid paper, each docketed on the last blank page. Two signed by deponents and notaries, one with two tax stamps and a notarial seal. Fold marks, but overall very good and legible documents.
Interesting collection of three original manuscripts revealing the story of the voyage of British merchant brig Jane to the West Indies in 1780 and her experience of the Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane on 3 October 1780, during which she was considerably damaged and a large part of her cargo was lost. The documents include an affidavit, compiled in Montego Bay (Jamaica) on 10 January 1781 and signed by Jane’s Commander James Jones, first mate William Barrey and boatswain Sever Brown. The affidavit was witnessed before Samuel Mottershed, Esq., a Justice for the parish of Saint James; and certified by Ralph Montague, Notary Public in Montego Bay (St. James parish, Cornwall County, Jamaica). The other document is a notarially certified “Declaration of a protest”, compiled after Jane’s return to Britain. The document is signed by James Jones and William Barrey and certified by a London notary on 31 August 1781. The last document is a period copy of Jane’s portledge bill, for the period from 30 January to September 1781, listing twenty-six crew members (including captain), their station, length of service, and amount of wages due and paid.
The affidavit and declaration of protest give a detailed account of Jane’s voyage to the Caribbean and the circumstances of her damage during the notorious Savanna-la-Mar Hurricane which struck Montego Bay where Jane had been moored, on 3 October 1780. Jane arrived to Kingston from London on 1 August 1780, under the escort of HMS Thunderer and other men-of-war; later that month she sailed for the Black River where she received a cargo of logwood, mahogany and pimento. In Montego Bay she was additionally loaded with sugar and rum. Whilst there Jane experienced a severe storm, and in spite of the attempt to find asylum in the mouth of the Great River, the brig drag both anchors and was driven to a reef where she was struck against the rocks many times. The ship was a wreck and couldn’t be taken off the reef for another three weeks. The cargo, anchors and guns were reloaded in order to lighten the ship, and when the time came to reload, it turned out that a large part of the cargo had been “washed about the beach owing to sundry gales of wind <…> and many pieces buried in the sand.” In spite of the “utmost endeavours” some part of cargo were never recovered.
Jane returned to Montego Bay on 27 January 1781 and on 17 March left the West Indies for London, in a convoy of ninety merchantmen, protected by HMS Edmont Graffton, Trident Bristol and Endymion. The long, five-month return trip was perilous, with her taking “a great deal of water <…> so as to keep the pump almost constantly going.” The next day after arrival the captain filed the present declaration of protest at the office of a London notary which solemnly stated: “I do protest against the Seas and bad weather, and particularly against the Violent Hurricane which the said Ship met with in Jamaica when taking on board her said Cargo as above mentioned for all Loss and Damage happened to the said Brig and Cargo;” he declared “that when the said Brig begun to take in her said Cargo at Jamaica aforesaid She was tight Staunch and Strong <…> and provided with all things needful for such a Brig and Voyage. That as well During the time the said Brig was on Shore in Jamaica as aforesaid, as at all other times, he this appearer and the Rest of the said Brig’s Company Exorted [sic!] themselves to the utmost of their Power and used their utmost Endeavours to preserve the said Brig and Cargo from Damage, so that what Loss and Damage hath happened to the said Brig and Cargo was intirely [sic!] occasioned by the means aforesaid and not through any insufficiency in the said Brig neglect of him appearer or any of his mariners.”


CLONARD, Robert Sutton de (1751-1788)
[Autograph Letter Signed to a “Madame” Regarding the Mining Enterprise in Guadalcanal, Spain].

Paris, 24 November 1774. Quarto (ca. 23,5x18,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper, period ink inscription in another hand on the first page. Fold marks, slightly worn, overall a very good letter.
Early letter by a prominent member the ill-fated expedition of La Perouse to the Pacific (1785-1788). Clonard served as a second-in-command on board the “Boussole” and apparently died after both expedition ships wrecked near Vanikoro in 1788.
The letter is dedicated to the Guadalcanal mining enterprise which was founded and administered by Clonard in the 1760-1770s and involved investments from a number of French aristocrats and high ranking officials. The mine turned to be unproductive, and the company declared bankruptcy. Our letter is addressed to one of the shareholders, a French noble woman, and relates to the last phase of the company’s existence. Clonard informs the lady that he has just returned from the mines, supposes that she is already aware of the abuses of the administration and tells her about the measures he undertook to fix the situation: “M. Le Camus resigned the next day after my arrival to Guadalcanal, and M. Besnier resigned the day before my departure”. M. Geffrier was appointed the new general director of the mines. He proceeds: “After careful examination of all the circumstances of our enterprise, I assure you on my honour that my hopes are very strong and even beyond what they were before my departure from Paris. I can boast that they will fulfil in the course of the next month by the certainty of rich and abundant mineral. At least it is my opinion and that of our two engineers”.
“The Guadalcanal Company was run by the comte de Clonard, a naturalised Irish Jacobite, and brought together a range of ducs (Harcourt, du Châtelet, La Rochefoucauld-Liancourt), numerous great lords (the marquis de Bussy, de Lévis, des Réaux, d`Houdetot, d’Hérissy), aristocratic ladies of the industry (the marquises de Marboeuf, de Cambot, de Boursonne), comtes de Blagny, de Payre, de Custinem du Hautoy, a foreign noble Count Doria, the comtesses de Ruffey, de la Suze, de Coustin, the vicomte de La Rouchefoucald and president de Vaudreuil. In 1778 the Guadalcanal Company had absorbed over three million livres” (Chaussinand-Nogaret. The French Nobility in the Eighteenth Century. 1995. p. 108)
“In 1768 <…> Thomas Sutton, comte de Clonard, a member of the Jacobite trading aristocracy and a syndic of the Indies Company, secured a silver mining concession from the king of Spain at Guadalcanal in the Sierra Morena mountains. Among the shareholders of the new company, capitalized at three million livres, were the duc d’Harcourt, the duc de Châtelet, the duc de Liancourt, and the marquise de Marboeuf. When the company broke up a few years later, Sutton, who speculated on his shares, seems to have been the only shareholder to turn a profit” (Shovlin, J. The political economy of virtue: luxury, patriotism, and the origins of the French revolution. New York, 2006. p. 158).


MILLER, Abraham
[Autograph Letter Signed by Abraham Miller, a Black Presbyterian Missionary to Liberia, Addressed to Rev. Daniel Wells in the Mission Rooms, New York].

Bassa [Liberia], 31 March 1841. Quarto bifolium (ca. 25x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked paper. Addressed and stamped on the second blank leaf, with the red stamp of New York post office endorsed with inscription “pr. Brig Mentor”. Fold marks with some splitting along folds, two holes on the second blank leaf after opening, but overall a very good letter.
Rare early missionary letter from Bassa written by Abraham Miller, a member of the first Presbyterian mission to Liberia. He was a native prince of the Liberian Kru tribe and spent nearly a year at school in America and returned home with a strong and sincere desire to be useful to his native Liberians. The letter is addressed to Rev. Daniel Wells, the treasurer and member of the executive committee of the Board of Presbyterian Foreign Missions.
In his letter Miller mentions other members of the mission Rev. Oren K. Canfield and Rev. Jonathan P. Alward, and describes one of the first meetings with the Kru people: "Some of the Kroo men come on the board on the sabath day I ask them can the Kroo children learn and he answers yes the Kroo children very well, then I tell them about the good this missionaries will do among to them, there we remain the few days at Monrovia and the people there received this brethren very well... The climate here is not very hot because soon the rain will commence. I hope God will spare my life in this country that I may do good among my country people, and I think the people who love the African ignorent [sic!] people, if they see their lives [?] it will make them be sorry much because they all were heathen and ignorent [sic!] people of knowing nothing about God and Jesus."
The Presbyterian mission to Western Africa included Rev. Canfied and Rev. Alward with wives, Mr. Abraham Miller, “coloured native Teacher” and Miss Cecilia Van Tyne, “coloured teacher.” They were sent “to the Kroos, a large tribe residing on the coast, about half way from Monrovia to cape Palmas” with the centre in the town of Settra-Kroo. “Abraham Miller, the native African Prince, after being ten months at school in this country returned with the brethen. He will still continue his studies with them, and from his intelligence, hopeful piety, and unabated desire of improvement, he promises to be greatly useful to people” (Fourth Annual Report of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. New York, 1841, p. 8-9).


RIKERT, JAMES H., Union Soldier
[Autograph Letter Signed "Jas. H. Rikert" About the News of the Recent Assassination of President Abraham Lincoln].

Louisville, KY, 24 April 1865. Octavo bifolium (ca. 20x12,5 cm). Brown ink on laid paper with the printed letterhead of "Brown U.S.A. General Hospital." With the original envelope addressed to Mrs. Margaret Seymour, with ink and paper postal stamps. Mild fold marks, paper age toned, otherwise a very good letter.
A very moving letter by a Union soldier apparently to his fiancée, Mrs. Margaret Seymour from East Saginaw, Michigan, on receiving the news of Lincoln's death. The letter was written ten days after Lincoln had been shot by John Booth on 14 April 1865. "We have had a terrible time and a sorrowful one too. I was down town, on the day before the news of the murder came, attending a glorification in honor of our successes, and the prospect of a speedy peace. I came back much elated and was sanguine of the war soon being over and coming home soon. I had just commenced work [at the military printing office which he was in charge of], when one of the clerks came in and told me that the President and Secretary had been assassinated. I told him he was joking, but he affirmed it, and I could see by his looks that he was in earnest, and [?] the newsboy came in and my worst fears were realized. As soon as the President's death was announced our flag was lowered at half mast amid the tears and groans of both soldiers and officers. The band played a wailing tune beneath the flag and [?] were fired from the fort until sundown."


[Contemporary copy of a Situation Report by two Italian Missionaries on the Malabar Coast in India, providing the College of Propaganda Fide with an Account of the Fatal Illness and Holy Death of the Carmelite Fr. Angelo Francesco di S. Teresa, Vicar Apostolic of Verapoly].

[Verapoly (Varapuzha)], ca. 1712. Folio (ca. 33x21,5 cm). 3 pp. Manuscript in Italian. Brown ink on laid paper. Docketed on the last blank page. Leaves slightly soiled on the top edges, small tears and edge-fraying not touching manuscript text, old folds, the last page with minor old mount residue. Overall a very good manuscript.
This document is a contemporary copy of a manuscript situation report written on 12 November 1712 by two Italian missionaries, Carmelites Fr. Innocenzo di S. Onofre and Fr. Arsenio di S. Teresa, concerning the fatal illness and death of the vicar apostolic of Verapoly, the Carmelite Fr. Angelo Francesco di S. Teresa (1650-1712), by birth Giovanni Vigliotti. The Carmelite order had been sent to Malabar in 1657 to effect reconciliation between the St. Thomas Christians and their archbishop. When it became apparent that they would not accept his authority, or any Jesuit, Rome entrusted the Carmelite order with the task of ministering them. The two missionaries begin here by mentioning various letters from Cardinal Giuseppe Sacripante (1642-1727) and papal documents they have received containing rules for the St. Thomas Christians. They proclaim their intention to devote themselves to bringing to obedience the numerous souls that have left the faith in Malabar. They then describe Fr. Angelo Francesco di S. Teresa converting several thousand on a tour through the northern towns of Malabar. This is followed by a detailed account of his pious behaviour during his final fever and sickness and also events immediately after his death, including a description of strange lights and music emanating from his cell.


RYAN, Rt. Rev. Vincent William (1816-1888)
[Autograph Letter Written when a Bishop of Mauritius to “The Lord Bishop of Carlisle”].

St. James’s [Cathedral?], Port Louis, 12 May 1856. Octavo (ca. 20,5x12,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on blue laid paper, docketed on top of the first page. Fold marks, minor tears and loss of paper on top and bottom of the centrefold after removing from a stab, repaired on the bottom with tape. Overall a very good letter.
An interesting letter from the first Anglican bishop of Mauritius Vincent William Ryan, written about a year after the beginning of his service on the island. It is addressed to the “Bishop of Carlisle”, then Samuel Waldegrave (1817-1869) who held this rank from 1860 until his death.
The letter expresses Ryan’s “sympathy, encouragement & earnest interception <…> in the midst of much infirmity” and continues with the latest news of the Mauritius diocese: “Many things here continue to impress the need of spiritual help. 128,550 Indians form the chief subject of my thoughts - 800 Chinese are ready for a working Missionary. The descendants of Madagascar & Mozambique slaves are located all over the Island. Romanism here is very repressive. A Major honoured by the whole island buried without any Christian Rites because he was a Freemason; a large church building from the products of a lottery are [?] the old story of arrogance and meanness <…> The Tamil congregation in Town meets in our school room near the cathedral church <…> On Friday of last week I visited an inland missionary station where our small schools are succeeding admirably and the palisaded church was full of parents and friends, all creole or Malegashe & Mozambique <…> The cholera had been very severe amidst them <…> There are 1600 soldiers here. The general & the several colonels very ready to forward our wishes. Last year 15,000 sailors visited the port”.
In 1854 Ryan “was nominated bishop of Mauritius, a post for which his knowledge of French particularly suited him. He set sail for Mauritius on 15 March 1855, and landed at Port Louis on 12 June, accompanied by a catechist from the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. Although the London Missionary Society was represented in other ports of Mauritius, Ryan found only two clergymen in Port Louis, along with one missionary in the country districts. Notwithstanding, he took full advantage of the awakening interest in evangelical Christianity there. On 8 January 1856 he consecrated a new church at Mahébourg. Later in the year (on 11 October) he made his first visit to the Seychelles, which were included in his diocese. In 1859 he visited the islands again, and consecrated the new church at Mahé. He was particularly interested in the schools in his diocese and in the Hindu population. <…>
On 12 July 1862 he went with the special commissioner to Madagascar, to explore the possibility of establishing a new mission there. He visited the capital and the scene of the massacres of Christians, and returned to Mauritius in poor health. In October 1862 he revisited the Seychelles after the hurricane of that year. <…> In 1867 he finally left Mauritius” (Oxford DNB).
Ryan published and account of his service in Mauritius titled “Mauritius & Madagascar, Journals of an Eight Years’ Residence in the Diocese of Mauritius, and of a Visit to Madagascar” (London, 1864).


MCCALL, Mary Dickinson
[Autograph Letter Signed Mary Dickinson McCall to her renowned brother George McCall in the 4th Infantry care of the quartermaster in New Orleans, Recounting his Recent Heroism.]

Philadelphia, 15 June [1846]. Quarto (ca. 27x21 cm). 5 pp. Brown ink on light blue very thin wove paper. Address panel with Philadelphia postmark on verso of last leaf. With fold marks and minor wear but overall a very good letter in a legible hand.
George Archibald McCall (1802-1868) was a career Army officer who had just distinguished himself in the Battle of Palo Alto, the first major battle of the Mexican War. Here his sister reports that he was now "decidedly the most distinguished man in the Army, and more talked about in Washington than anyone else." A freshman representative from Mississippi named Jefferson Davis stated on the floor of Congress that McCall's "cool courage did so much to set a noble example before his men... a more gallant spirit never entered the field." McCall went on to serve as a Union general in the Civil War.


[Original Watercolour Panorama of Mombasa].

Mombasa, ca. 1880. Watercolour and ink on paper, ca. 11,5x29,5 cm (5 ½ x11 ½ in). Mounted on period beige laid paper and recently matted. Captioned in ink "Mombasa through the Glass from the Anchorage" in the left lower corner; additional ink caption on the laid paper "Mombasa - a town on the coast north from Zanzibar." Minor creases on the left corners, with a minor stain, otherwise a very good watercolour.
A tranquil view of Mombasa, likely just before the time when it came under the administration of the British East Africa Association.


MONRO, Vere, Reverend (1801/2-1842)
[Two Autograph Letters Signed “V. Monro” to the Rev. John Richard Errington Talking about Monro’s travels from Constantinople to Belgrade and Various Private Matters].

N.p., n.d. (postal stamp “Sept, 1836[?]”), and Breding Priory, 2 January 1837. Two letters Quarto (ca. 23x18,5 cm or 8 ¾ x 7 ¼ in), each four pages. Brown ink on Whatman paper, watermarked “1834” and “1835” respectively. Both letters addressed, sealed and with the postal stamps on the 4th page. Fold marks, minor tears on folds neatly repaired, minor holes on the 4th pages after opening, but otherwise very good letters with legible text and important content.
Two autograph signed letters by Reverend Vere Monro, a traveller to the Near East and author of "A Summer Ramble in Syria, with a Tartar trip from Aleppo to Stamboul" (2 vols., London, 1835). Addressing to his friend Reverend John Richard Errington (1808-1882), Monro informs him about his new project – to write an account of his travel to Asia Minor – and asks Errington’s help in it: “I am just new employed in working up my Tartar journey from Constantinople to Belgrade, & very much want some local information about the places through which our route lay. These are chiefly Adrianople - Sophia - Nyssa Phillippopoli. The late history of Nyssa the capital of Servia [sic!] must be specially interesting, from the monuments of slaughter still extant near the town. I conclude the Xtians have always been in a state of rebellion there against the Turkish government. Georgio Milosch is their chief. If you chance to be idling about the Musee you might hit upon some book containing information about these countries, or you may perhaps learn from some quarter what are the books to apply to for information of which I am at present entirely ignorant & without some local aid, I fear I shall break down. Pray let me hear from you shortly & say if you can help me”.
Monro also notes his new assignment as a contributing author of the “Bentley’s Miscellany” magazine: “Bentley applied to me not long since, to write for his Miscellany which comes out this month. I am not clear that the subject I have chosen will suit it, but if not I think it may be disposed of elsewhere”. He gives a positive feedback on the Errington’s “paper upon the Vase [?]” which “will be very useful to me as the subject is an interesting [one] & some knowledge of their formation indispensable”; remarks on the situation in France calling Louis Philippe “a wretched being”; tries to arrange Errington’s visit to Breding and discusses the latest social news.
“Vere Monro entered University College, Oxford in 1819 and graduated B.A in 1823 and M.A in 1826. He was ordained in 1825 and in 1826 was appointed curate of Stokesley, Diocese of York” (Wikipedia). After that he extensively travelled in the Near East and upon return became curate of Upper Beeding (1834). The account of his travels was published by Richard Bentley in 1835 under the title “A Ramble in Syria, with a Tartar trip from Aleppe to Stamboul”. Extracts from his manuscript journal were also published in J.A. St. John’s book “Egypt and Mohammed Ali” (2 vols., London, 1834) which was dedicated to Monro: first about Monro’s confinement in the Lazzaretto of Alexandria during the quarantine period (vol. 1, pp. 535-542) and second about the Temple of Kalabsha (pp. 550-552). Reverend John Richard Errington was a vicar in Ashbourne, Derbyshire, a member of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (1859) and the National Society for promoting education of the poor.


[A Collection of Four Watercolours of the British Settlement of Bluefields, Nicaragua].

Nicaragua, 1845. Four matted watercolour views on paper, three sheets measuring ca. 14,5x25,5 cm (5 ½ x 10 in), the fourth measuring ca. 14,5x23 cm (5 ½ x 9 in). Two of the views with manuscript captions on verso, the other two with later paper backing. Two of the watercolours have old fold creases, otherwise a very good collection of watercolours.
An attractive collection of watercolours of the British settlement at Bluefields, Nicaragua, showing the area as it appeared in the 1840s. Two of the images are captioned in a contemporary hand on the verso, and show the home of a "Mr. Ninoud" as it appeared when the artist was at Bluefields on July 10, 1845. They show a small, thatched-roof structure on stilts near the coast. The other two watercolours show a more substantial building, two stories in height and with a thatched roof and a porch. In one of the images a Union Jack is shown flying outside the building, indicating the presence of a British merchant, trader, or official.
Bluefields is Nicaragua's chief Caribbean port, and has been a location of interest to Europeans since the early seventeenth century. The British founded a colony there in 1730, and it remained under British control for more than a century. Moravian missionaries arrived at Bluefields in 1847, and established a church two years later. In 1844, a year before these watercolours were made, the British government sent a new envoy, Patrick Walker, to live in the town. This was part of a British effort to shore up the region in the face of possible encroachment by the United States and European powers.


NOBBS, George Hunn, Pastor (1799-1884)
[Autograph Letter Signed, 'George H. Nobbs,' to the Right Reverend Christopher Wordsworth‚ Bishop of Lincoln‚ asking for an Annotated Copy of the Scriptures “for the Use of the Congregation‚ and as an Heir-loom for the Descendants of the Community”‚ Explaining that they are Converting a Former Convict Store into a Church‚ and Describing the Origin of the Community on Pitcairn Island].

Norfolk Island, South Pacific Ocean, 30 December 1874. Large Octavo (ca. 25x20 cm). 2 pp., with an integral blank leaf. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Legible handwriting‚ but with some moderate water damage probably incurred in the mails‚ one edge ragged‚ other minor defects. Overall a good letter.
A great letter and an important Norfolk Island relic‚ despite the water staining. George Hunn Nobbs, the pastor of the descendants of the HMS Bounty mutineers, by that time for over forty years, is writing to his superior, the Bishop of Lincoln, with the latest news from his “isolated, but happy home.” He asks His Lordship to grant the community with a copy of the Bible and proceeds: “The people I represent are the descendants of the Mutineers of H.M.S. Bounty - and formerly dwelling on Pitcairn Island‚ but now‚ by favour of our Gracious Queen‚ and philanthropy of influential Friends in England‚ in possession of the large portion of Norfolk Island.” He also refers to the Melanesian Mission‚ with whom the island was shared in an uneasy partnership, and describes the destruction of the old church in a cyclone‚ and the whaling boats being washed away by a tidal wave, but “we are now recovering from this elemental war‚ & hope to have our new Church ready for public Worship by Easter next. The consecration must‚ of course‚ be deferred until a Successor to our honoured and beloved Friend Bishop Patterson is appointed...” He expresses his readiness to provide further information about the community, “should Your Lordship be desirous”, and additionally asks for the bishop’s “autograph on the “Fly Leaf” with a word or two of paternal salutation to the community.”
George Hunn Nobbs arrived on Pitcairn Island in 1828 and became the schoolmaster and an unordained pastor to a community descended from HMS Bounty mutineers and Tahitian islanders. On 18 October 1829 Nobbs married Sarah Christian‚ the granddaughter of Fletcher Christian, who had let the mutiny. In 1852 he was ordained in London and commissioned as Chaplain of Pitcairn Island. In 1856 the community moved to Norfolk Island‚ a Crown Colony previously occupied by convict prisoners.


HANSON, Joseph, Lance-Corporal, Royal Engineers
[Autograph Letter Signed 'J. A. Hanson, Explorer for the Palestine Exploration Fund' to his Parents Regarding the Excavations in Old Jerusalem].

Jerusalem, Palestine, 31 May 1868. Quarto (ca. 26,5x21 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on paper. 105 lines of text, clear and complete. Paper aged and sometimes mildly worn on folds, otherwise a very good letter.
Important eye witness account of the first major excavation of Jerusalem’s Temple Mount undertaken in 1867-1870 by Captain Charles Warren (1840-1927) on assignment of the Palestine Exploration Fund. This is a private letter by a member of the excavation party Lance Corporal J. Hanson who was mentioned in Warren’s account of the mission “The recovery of Jerusalem: a narrative of exploration and discovery in the city and the Holy Land” (New York, 1871). The letter is semi-literate, and all quotations are given according to the original.
First of all, Hanson witnesses the troubles caused to the Warren’s party by the Muslim Governor of Jerusalem who often stopped the excavations. The permission letter from Constantinople authorized Warren “to excavate anywhere, except in the Haram Area, and sites sacred to Christians and Moslems” (See: Our work in Palestine: an account of the different expeditions sent out to the Holy land by the committee of the Palestine exploration fund. London, 1873, p. 97), which in fact didn’t allow any works on the Temple Mount (Haram Ash-Sharif). Hanson reports that Warren had embarked for England “also to make a complant against the Governor, the "Pasha" of this City who is interfering with our Excavations without us Giveing Him Any couse whatsowever. He couse us a very great del of trouble in trying to stop our works […] I trust he [Warren] will gain us permit ‘that is the Palestine Exploration Fun [sic] is atplieing to Constantinoble for permission from the "Sulton" to proceed further in our Excavation within the "Walls" of this "Holy City"”.
Hanson gives very interesting notes about the progress of the excavation: “I am now excavatin to the west of mount "Sion" and also out Side of the east Walles of the City. I have found a great number of peaces of Pottery also carved Stones Marble Glass of all colors also a number of ancient Monny &c. Those ar found at the depth of 60 feet and apward and at this depth from the Surface it is very dangerious Work”. Hanson reports that he is excavating “the ancion wall of the city of Jerusalem […] with 40 [or 70?] Laborers”, many of whom he has lost to “the ferver”. He also notes that he has '”dellings with a great Number of Criston Jews” and has them employed “as overseers on the works”.
Hanson vividly describes the new harvest in Jerusalem: “Ere this Avineyard is looking most Magnificence also the apricots Trees this Fruit is very plentifull in Palestine you can by apricots 14lb. For one penny very fine the Figs also is very fine. Vegtable-Marrow and cucumbers come into this City in cartlodes from Jaffa, and the surrounding Villigis”. He mentions a “Great fested with the "Jewes" of all nacsions in this City on the 27th. Of this Month”, complains about the heat, and bright sun in Jerusalem, so strong that there are “a very great number of people of all nactions totally Blind in this city”; as well as about “confounded Miscakco” [moscitos?] who “bit very hard”.
Overall a very interesting historical document adding nice details to the history of the first major excavation in Jerusalem.


45. [SALE, Sir Robert Henry] (1782-1845)
[Original Unsigned Ink and Watercolour Drawing for the lithograph plate "City and Fortress of Cabul" published in Sale’s "Defence of Jellalabad", ca. 1846].

Ca. 1845. Ink and watercolour on paper, heightened in white, ca. 28x38,5 cm (11x15 in). Unsigned, recently matted. Slightly browned on verso, otherwise a very good drawing.
Beautiful original drawing for the lithograph plate “City and Fortress of Cabul” in Sir Robert Sale’s “The Defence of Jellalabad” (London, lith. By W.L. Walton, ca. 1846). The view shows Afghani soldiers camping under the massive walls of the ancient Bala Hissar fortress, with Kabul city and River in the background. The soldiers are having a rest, talking leisurely at a camp fire, with a camel laying nearby and two soldiers on guard looking over the approaches to the Kabul River.
Major General Sir Robert Henry Sale (GCB) was an important figure of the First Anglo-Afghan War (1839-42). He commanded the 1st Bengal Brigade during the advance on Kandahar, took part in the march to Kabul and led one of the storming columns at Ghazni in July 1839. For his services Sale was made a Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath (KCB) and received the local rank of major-general. He was mostly noted for a courageous defense of the Jalalabad fortress where he was besieged by the Afghan troops for half a year (November 1841 - April 1842). He then participated in the General Pollock’s advance to Kabul in order to relieve the British hostages, including Sale’s wife and daughter. Sale was promoted to Knight Grand Cross (GCB) and to mark his heroic leadership during the siege salutes were fired at every cantonment in India; later he also received official gratitude of the British Parliament (see more: Britain’s Greatest Generals/ National Army Museum on-line).


[Autograph Letter Signed from a San Francisco Resident J.H. Murrill Describing Life in the City in 1849, and the Business Opportunities in Real Estate and Merchandise].

San Francisco, 31 December 1849. Quarto (ca. 25,19,5 cm). [4] pp. Brown ink on pale blue paper. Fold marks, some light marginal staining, otherwise a very good letter.
An interesting letter from San Francisco written on New Year’s Eve 1849, the first year in the Gold Rush, in which a local resident writes a friend about the opportunities to be had, and conditions in the booming city. He begins by describing the “melancholy state of affairs” in San Francisco, which is full of crime and degeneracy. He writes that he lives in the land of the "dying, a land of gamblers & thieves, of murderers and robbers as were the situation no doubt by trade and occupation of many before they came here <...> Before the fire there were over two hundred large gambling houses in our town and I have no doubt that one quarter of the inhabitants of the place spend their time there, Sundays not excepted."
Murrill goes on to write that he has made a great deal of money in selling his real estate, despite being targeted by two "great scoundrels:" "I have sold most of real estate on time all however to be paid within 16 months and for 3 or 6 months I have to remain here to settle up and attend to my affairs before I can join my family [in the Sandwich Islands]." He future plans are connected with the Sandwich Islands: "It is said that the best opportunities in the world are now offered at the Sandwich Islands... $10,000 there will give a man a start by which he may live as easy as he pleases. I think I shall turn my attention to the shipping business which cannot fail to be good. A line of packets from this place to the Sandwich Islands and Panama will be a lucrative business..."
As to the business opportunities in San Francisco, Murrill notes: "There is one thing sure here, a man with capital can make money faster than in the States. There is great opportunities for purchasing lands now low in many places & a man with 5 to 10 thousand capital would settle himself for life very greatly <...> There is one advantage in this country over any and almost all others by the winters are favourable, you have nothing to care for your stock and you can raise all the luxuries of life with much more ease than in the States <…> we have a population of about 16,000 inhabitants and rapidly increasing, no town on the globe ever went up like it. If you had come here when I did with 1000 dollars to lay out you would now have been beyond anxiety…"
An interesting letter, full of hope for prosperity in the future.


[OGDEN, Richard Livingston] (1822-1900)
[Private Diary Describing Sailings of the Yachts Restless and Peerless in San Francisco Bay]: A concise and condensed history of the goings & comings & voyages of the Sloop Yacht "Restless" by a reliable not contraband but highly respectable gentleman, slightly tinctured with a fondness for salt water, a piscatorial weakness and the pursuit of ducks under difficulties...

[San Francisco], ca. 1860-1870s. Quarto (ca. 25x20 cm). 25 pp. of text and fifty blank leaves. Brown and blue ink on laid paper, with several newspaper clippings and an ink drawing of the yacht “Restless” mounted on the leaves. Original violet full sheep notebook with raised bands and blind stamped decorative borders on the boards. Binding rubbed on extremities, hinges cracked, foot of spine chipped, but overall a very good internally clean manuscript.
Fascinating private account of the sailings of the yachts Restless and Peerless, both belonging to San Francisco industrialist and keen yachtsman Richard Livingston Ogden. Ogden came to California in 1852 as a major of the US army and subsequently established the firm of Ogden and Hayes; he was one of the founders of the Kimball Carriage and Car Manufacturing Company in the 1860s, the first president of the reorganized San Francisco Yacht Club (1874-1878) and one of the founders of the Jekyll Island Club, Georgia, in 1886.
The manuscript starts with a detailed description of the yacht Restless: "31 feet long, 16 feet beam, 3½ deep centre board, 10 feet long 12 feet wide 5 feet high, finished a la raeveaux gilt mouldings, stained glass windows, velvet cushions forming very comfortable sleeping accommodations..." Various voyages are described, such as "The first voyages of the Restless were to Sausalito on pic-nics, fishing trips, to Angel Island on clambakes, to Alcatraz on Offish-al business, to Benicia, to Martinez, and on the 3rd of July [1863] to Sacramento in 18 hours against the tide & with calm weather to contend with beating 14 schooners & sloops... On the opening of the Ducking season she was put in shooting trim and some half dozen successful voyages with glorious results..." Later on, as years passed, "The Restless was sold on the departure of the owner for the East for $1000 to a gentleman of the Lager Bier line of business who put her into service as a Ferry Boat between 3rd St. Wharf and the Potrero..."
The second half of the journal is a record of the little schooner "Peerless," another of Ogden’s yachts, launched in 1869. “Length on water line 53, length on deck, beam 17 feet, depth 5 ½. Schooner rigged, built of <…> Eastern oak, bent timber (frames), cedar & Oregon, galvanized fastenings, cabin Oregon maple & cedar, all built in best manner.” The manuscript describes Peerless’ sailings to Belmont, Martinez and Antioch. The first free endpaper bears an amateur ink sketch of the yacht Restless resting on shore and a man shooting a duck from a log nearby.
Commodore Richard L. Ogden, was “the oldest and best known yachtsman of San Francisco Bay <…>. He was in the fifties the owner of the then famous sloop Restless, the first pleasure yacht seen on these waters. It was brought from New York on a ship's deck. In 1868 he built the large schooner-yacht Peerless, one of the handsomest yachts ever built here and one that took part in the first regular regatta ever sailed on this coast. She was sold by him to the King of Samoa and became the "Samoan Navy." When the San Francisco Yacht Club was reorganized in 1875 he was elected commodore, an office he held for several years. About that time Commodore Ogden also built the fine steam yacht Quickstep and the steam launch Hi-Yah.” (San Francisco Call, October 7, 1900, 23:4)


BLAUVITZ [or BLAULING?], Christoph
[Attractive Manuscript Plan of the Village of Prusy (Prauss), Strzelin (Strehlen) County, near Wrocław (Breslau) Titled:] "N=ro I. Diese Carte zeiget uns dass Hoch Freiherrl. Fidei Com(m)iss guth Prauß, mit dem Herschafftlichen Schloß und forwergs gebäuden, auch Kirch und Pfarr hauß, sambt allen ... Und zu gehörigen Feldern...".

1740. Manuscript hand coloured plan oriented to the north-west, ca. 87x43 cm (34 ¼ x 17 in). Ink and watercolour on paper, linen backed. With a decorative cartouche, wind rose and a scale ruler. Period ink inscriptions on verso. Plan with some wear, creased and with minor repaired tears, linen soiled, but overall very good.
Elaborately drawn manuscript plan of Prauss - a village in the Silesian Landkreise Strehlen (now Prusy, near Strzelin, south-western Poland). This plan was made during the First Silesian War (1740-2) between Prussia and Austria. "The Prussian victory in the Battle of Chotusitz on May 17, 1742, ended the First Silesian War. By the preliminary Peace of Breslau, confirmed by the Treaty of Berlin on July 28, 1742, the bulk of Silesia and the Bohemian County of Kladsko were ceded to Prussia and was later consolidated as the Province of Silesia" (Wikipedia).
The name Prauss is first mentioned in 1295 in a deed recorded in 1732 by Friedrich Wilhelm Sommersbergzum in "Selisiorum Rei Historicae." In this deed, Duke Heinrich of Silesia, Master of Breslau, states that Andreas von Pruss sold his ancestral property in Prauss with all its belongings to the Knight Conrad von Borschitz and his brother Johann. The village is named after this Knight von Pruss. In 1792 the village of Prauss consisted of one Protestant church and school, one catholic chapel, one mill and had 360 inhabitants. The village had at the time become a place of horse breeding and was expanding that activity (Leonhardi, F.G. Erdbeschreibung der preussischen Monarchie, Bd. 2. Halle, 1792, S. 231).
"Prusy is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Kondratowice, within Strzelin County, Lower Silesian Voivodeship, in south-western Poland. Prior to 1945 it was in Germany. It lies approximately 3 kilometres (2 mi) south of Kondratowice (Kurtwitz), 11 km (7 mi) west of Strzelin, and 43 km (27 mi) south of the regional capital Wrocław" (Wikipedia).


[Official Manumission "Libertad" Document for a Black Slave Child in Cuba].

Havana, 9 July 1867. Folio (ca. 31,5x21,5 cm). 2 pp., with an integral blank leaf. Brown ink on paper, with official notary stamps on top of rectos of both leaves. Light wear, some worming, mostly marginal but affecting a few letters at bottom; overall a very good document.
An extraordinary document, signed and ratified by Havana notary public Juan Requeyra, granting freedom to a “brown-skinned girl” who "has not yet been baptized." She was to be named Maria del Carmen, and her mother a “Creole and mulattress slave Natalia” belonged to a local merchant Jose Rabell. The child’s freedom was “graciously granted as a payment of her mother's good services <…> everything will be given up, renounced and transferred as a matter of fact in her own cause in order for her to, as a free person from now onwards, do business, contract, buy and sell, appear in court, issue public deed and be able to do all that is allowed to people who freely act upon their own volition. Freedom is bound to be enforced at all times in an uncompromising and unscathed manner; by law she will remain protected along with her possessions.”This document was necessary, as children born into slavery were considered to be slaves, unless, as here, were manumitted.


[Autograph Letter Signed by Charles Kyte‚ Agent in Guiana‚ to Henry Beard in London‚ Sending the Accounts for his Cotton Estate‚ and Deploring the Behaviour of the Slaves “in Consequence of the New Law”].

New Amsterdam, Berbice [British Guiana], 17 February 1832. Folio (ca. 30x18,5 cm). 2 pp., with an integral leaf of the related accounting. Addressed, sealed and with postal stamps on verso of the first leaf (including the Deal Ship Letter marking). Fold marks‚ minor hole on the margin after opening, affecting one word, otherwise a very good manuscript.
Interesting early letter from the colony of British Guiana which had been consolidated in its current state (from the colonies of Berbice, Essequibo and Demerara) just a year before, in 1831. Written by Charles Kyte, apparently a local planter, the letter is addressed to an ex-governor of the Berbice colony Henry Beard (1821-1825 and 1826-1831) and vividly describes the local effects of the movement for the abolition of slavery: “I have been obliged to visit the West Coast since I wrote you‚ the slaves [on] Mr Blair’s Estates and at Golden Grove having shewn very strong symptoms of insubordination‚ in consequence of the New Law‚ which coming to them without the intervention of the Colonial Government, has had[?] only the most mischievous effect; as they think it sets them beyond the authority of their Masters: they give three cheers for King William whenever the Flag is hoisted & the Horn blows for Breakfast & dinner‚ and are much disposed to make the extra leisure which the Law gives them as the reason for doing nothing‚ or the next thing to it. <…> the women <...> on Mr. Blair’s Estates absolutely refused to clean more Cotton than 15th per day instead of 40 as I insist upon‚ or‚ as they frequently have done & can easily do‚ 60th! I have been very firm & determined with both Gangs...”
Kyte, most likely refers to the consolidated slave ordinance, published by the government of the British Guiana in January 1832. “It provided, as we have seen, for the still greater amelioration in the condition of the slave, reducing the period of labour to nine hours; and for children under four years of age and pregnant women to six hours; it increased the allowances; and reduced the extent of punishment to fifteen lashes” (Dalton, H.G. The History of British Guiana: in 2 vols. Vol. 1. London, 1855, p. 387).
Slavery in British Guiana was abolished with the enforcement of the famous Slavery Abolition Act of 1833.


[WILLOUGHBY, Avarilla]
[Eight Very Attractive Original Watercolours of Seventeen Spanish Costumes].

[Warwickshire?] ca. 1829-31. Folio (ca. 39,5 x 25 cm). Five leaves of Whatman paper watermarked “1821” with three large drawings directly on the leaves, and five smaller mounted drawings (ca. 15,5x15,5 cm and 12x7 cm or slightly smaller), all in pencil, ink and gouache. Period ink captions in French and English, dated 1829-31. Period style red straight-grained half morocco with gilt tooled spine and marbled boards and endpapers. A very good collection of watercolours.
Charming collection of eight colourful watercolours showing seventeen costumes of the Spanish county of Aragon, including Vallée de Gistain (de Chistau), Valle de Broto and Riviere de Broto. Details are shown in a masterly manner; the gouaches show peasants, musicians, a mountain shepherd, a water bearer, a woman with a child, and even a contrabandist from Gavarni with a gun. Apparently (from a note which was included with other items from this estate) drawn by Avarilla Willoughby after she was 46 for her affectionate daughter Cecilia.


WEST, Charles Augustus, Lt.-Col. (1766-1854)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Augustus West” to Lord Beresford concerning the Latest Affairs of the War of Two Brothers in Portugal].

Paris, 15 May 1829. Quarto (ca. 23x18,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Fold marks and centre folds with small tears on the outer margins (on folds) not affecting the text, otherwise a very good letter.
A letter with an important diplomatic report on the development of the conflict between the liberal and absolutist parties in Portugal during the War of Two Brothers (1828-1834). The author, Lt. Col. Charles Augustus West was a British military officer who saw active service in Ireland, Holland, Egypt, Germany, Denmark, Portugal and Spain, winning an additional clasp for his bravery at the Battle of Talavera (1809). In 1811 he became Lieut. Governor of Landguard Fort (near Harwich) and since then seems to have been engaged in the affairs of Europe.
“William Carr Beresford, Viscount Beresford (1768-1854) was a British general and Portuguese marshal prominent in the (Iberian) Peninsular War of 1808-14. General Sir Arthur Wellesley, the future Duke of Wellington, chose him to reorganize the Portuguese army, in which Beresford was given the rank of marshal (March 7, 1809). He served Portugal until 1819, being successively created count, marquess, and duke in that country’s peerage. During Wellington’s first prime ministry he was master general of the ordnance (1828-30)” (Encyclopaedia Britannica).
“The M. De Palmella called on me yesterday to thank me for my attention to his unfortunate sister - he talked a good deal about Portugal of times past and present and he wanted to know how things were now going on there and particularly in the Palace and alluding to the quarrel between D.M. [Dom Miguel] and his sister [infanta Isabel Maria]. It appears to me that the plan was to get the Princess to escape, either in a French or in an English vessel and I have reason to believe that the great emigration from Portugal of many of the families and others was a planned thing from the beginning and all done by the same party - but now I see that a great many would be rejoiced to return to Portugal tomorrow and would return if there was an amnesty - many of those that are here are in great distress and Parati will in a few days be without a soul. Abrantes denies me to say anything to gain Lordship for him, but he is as violent as ever. Villa Flor is again returned to London – he merely came here with his wife & I suppose to receive instructions. I am told he goes as Governor to Terceira. The M. De Valenca has also left Paris for London & in great want of money. Joao Carlos de Saldanha is gone to Calais for his wife & it appears he and his family are completely opposed now to the M. De Palmella. I have called on poor Alva but I have not seen him since the death of his wife his head is not right & he wanders a good deal…”.
The War of the Two Brothers was between Dom Pedro & Dom Miguel, sons of Dom John king of Brazil and Portugal. Leaving his eldest son to govern Brazil, Dom John reluctantly returned to Portugal having fled to Brazil during the Napoleonic Campaigns. His wife Carlota Joaquina and younger son Dom Miguel refused to swear an oath to uphold the constitution. Dom John died in 1826 having made no provision for the succession, his daughter Maria Isabel was named Regent. When his older brother refused to return to the throne of Portugal, declaring Brazil independent and himself as the first Emperor, renouncing the Portuguese throne in favour of his daughter Maria da Gloria provided she marry her uncle, Dom Miguel took that opportunity to foment the feeling against his brother. In 1827 he was appointed Regent and King in 1828. Only the island of Terceira in the Azores remained loyal to Maria da Gloria and declared a Regency in June 1829. West gives notice in this letter, dated the month before, that Villa Flor, later Duke of Terceira, is off to the island presumably to effect that declaration.


THRESHER, William, Lt. RN.
[Original Manuscript Journal Titled in Manuscript:] Journal of H.M. Screw Steam Corvette “Satellite“ 21 Guns.

Montevideo, Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires, Stanley (Falkland Islands), 1 March 1864 - 7 September 1865. Small Octavo (ca. 18x11 cm). T.p., [142] pp., 16 blank leaves. Black ink on laid lined paper. With six small pencil sketches tipped in. Original black skiver notebook with gilt tooled borders on the boards and marbled endpapers, neatly rebacked. A very good journal.
Historically significant detailed naval journal kept by Lieutenant William Thresher, RN during his service on board HM screw steam corvette Satellite, when stationed in Montevideo. The journal thoroughly describes Satellite’s daily life and naval exercise, mentions all warships visiting and staying in Montevideo, and presents a valuable first-hand account of the events of the Uruguayan War (10 August 1864 – 20 February 1865), which the crew of the Satellite took part in, as a part of the international peacekeeping force during the fights in Montevideo. The journal records the Satellite’s short trips between Montevideo, Rio de Janeiro, and Buenos Aires, together with a detailed description of the travel and naval exercise in the Falkland Islands in December 1864. There are also frequent mentions of the American Civil War.
The journal is illustrated with six pencil drawings tipped-in between the pages, depicting: American Federal Sloop of War Sacramento, “the best specimen I have seen of a Sloop of war;” Federal American War Steamer Waterwee; “Onward” slaver taken fitted for slaves by HMS Alecto; Screw Steamer Flying Fish; HMS Bombay's and HMS Arctic’s steam launches; “Sophy,” the boat of the Governor of the Falkland Islands.
William Thresher entered the navy in 1854, became a midshipman in 1856, lieutenant in August 1861 and retired as a Commander in 1870 (Warren, C. Royal Navy List… January 1880, p. 102). HMS Satellite was a wooden Pearl-class screw corvette launched in 1855 and broken up in 1879. On 5 May 1862 - 22 September 1865, it was stationed on the south-east coast of America, under command of Captain Stephen Smith Lowther Crofton,
Overall a beautiful naval journal with rich and historically significant content.
Several excerpts from the journal:
Montevideo, 26 July 1864. Arrived French mail steamer bringing the news of the destruction of the famous Confederate cruiser Alabama by the Federal Sloop of War Kearsage on the 19th June off Cherbourg.
Stanley, the Falkland Islands, 6-15 December 1864.
6 December: Manned and armed boats to send them away to fire. [Then follows a detailed description of the gunnery practice:] <…> when clearing the boats after practice the launch got adrift and the wind catching her on the port bow, heeled her over so much that the gun capsized jamming the man who was stowing away the anchor, which he very naturally dropped overboard and lost.
8 December: The “Sophy” [the Governor’s boat] is merely an eighteen gun’s brig <…> and decked with a small cabin and forepeak <…> and is under the charge of the Harbour Master of Stanley “Melville” who was an old seaman in the “Tune” frigate on this station some years ago. His crew consisted of as he himself expressed of a “jailbird” who was an American by birth, a Southerner from Florida, but with Yankee notions and ideas. He worked well, but was rather inclined to be saucy.
15 December: Held public theatrical at the Eagle Tavern by the good nature of a publican called Goss, under the management of Lieut. Holbrook. A full house to the Bluejackets performances of The Miller and His Men, Who Speaks First, and Box and Cox.
Montevideo, 10 January 1865. Officer of the Guard came on board and informed us of the terrible loss of HMS Bombay (2nd Rate 84) by fire off the Flores Island on 14th December and of the survivors having left the River Plate on 22nd December for England, 93 lives supposed to have been lost. Heard also of the capture of Salto and Paycando by the allied Brazilian and Colorado forces. Landed marines under command of Lieut. Holbrook to protect the English Bank.
Montevideo, 26 January – 24 February 1865. Detailed description of the blockade of Montevideo by the Brazilian fleet, with refugees leaving the city, and street fights between the Blanco and the Colorado forces.
14 February. Rumours flying about alternately - Peace in the Morning - War to the Knife in the Afternoon - No believing anything or anybody. Landed and walked with Lieuts Miller and Masters through the White outposts into the Red lines and returned into town to hear that a President had been elected.
18 February. At 1 pm landing party of the Allied Neutral forces disembarked and occupied the Customs House. The French held the centre, the English the right, Spanish and Italian the left. Captain Joulard of the French flagship Astree in command of the allied forces. Landed Commander Wells, being in command of the English, Lieut Thresher, Sub Lieut Russell and Taylor from Satellite with 40 seamen, Lieut Holbrook RM and 36 marines from Satellite, with marines from other vessels <...> We had tolerably comfortable quarters, a sitting room, a sleeping room, a bath room and an office. Sub Lieut Rainier with 10 men were detached to the English Bank, Sub Lieut Russell with 4 men at the Portuguese Consulate. [Numerous refugees from the town claimed protection at the Customs House, including] a notorious ruffian Colonel Coriolanus Marquez and Mrs. Reyes wife of a leader of the Blanco party. They were accepted on board a Spanish brig of war.
20 February. At 3 am the main body of the Custom’s House guard, the English marines and bluejackets, leading the French next, Spanish and Italian last, marched out of the Customs House with loaded rifles and fixed bayonets (but arms not capped) and under command of Commander Wells proceeded to the Fueste or Government House and occupied it. <…> The street gate to the English quarters was immediately barricaded and the bluejackets' rifles loaded and a guard ready to defend the gate if pressed.
21 February. At 3 pm General Camballo and the advanced guard of the Colorados entered the town quietly <…> the Colorado troopers were riding freely about the place, the bells of the Cathedral rang forth with holiday chimes, crackers let off in the streets (regardless of the powder magazines), and all knew at last for certain that the Capital had surrendered, and that Flores for two years the Rebel <…> was Ruler of Montevideo.


D’ESTREES, Jean; Vice Admiral of Ponant, (1624-1707)
[Autograph Letter Signed ‘Le Comte d’Estrees’ to Jean Descloreaux, General Intendant of the French Navy in Brest].

On board the Sceptre, 10 July 1692. 1 p. Quarto bifolium (ca. 23x17 cm), addressed and sealed on the 4th page. Text in French. Round hole on the 4th page after opening, not affecting the text, mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
An interesting letter from Jean D’Estrees, an important naval commander of Louis XIV. Written in the aftermath of France’s defeat at the battle of La Hougue (29 May 1692) in the Cotentin peninsula, the letter mainly hints at one of Estrees's poorly orchestrated tactical manoeuvres when in charge of a fleet of 45 vessels. Assigned to the protection of the port city of Brest, he chose for an unknown reason to sail out to the Landevenec River and hide his fleet in its meanders. Strongly rebuked by French naval minister Pontchartrain, he finally sailed back to his previous position in the port of Brest.
The letter is addressed to the general intendant of the French navy in Brest and informs him that “I have no doubt that Mr. de Pontchartrain had let you know about the King's intentions regarding the river Landevenec; he does not want these vessels to remain there, so there is no time to waste and leave those vessels stranded in the harbour [...] we will all sail out of here with a silent tide[...] [...] there are manifold of appearances so that within twenty-four hours, we will [...] them in the same order as we were before”. He asks his correspondent to provide the fleet with a few masts and rafts, “please be kind to tow them across to the headland as soon as all ships have sailed out of harbour. We will have to think about getting some seamen to replace the missing ones and hiring new crew members.”
Jean II d'Estrées was a Marshal of France (1681), and an important naval commander of Louis XIV. His aunt was Gabrielle d'Estrées, lover of King Henry IV of France. He joined the navy in 1668, and took part in the campaigns in the Caribbean, and the Franco-Dutch War; he served as the Vice Roy of the New France in 1681-1687.
A letter of D’Estrees also written on board the “Sceptre” (25 July 1692) is included in the “Inventaire des dessins et estampes relatifs au Département de l’Aisne” of the National Library of France (Catalogue by E. Fleury, Paris, 1887, p. 127, # 2077).


[Fascinating Manuscript Account of the Travels of Two Englishmen to the Crimean Battlefields, Thirty Years after the Crimean War, Illustrated with Superb Humorous Ink Drawings]: Yarn and the Major Visit the Crimea. 8 August 1883 – 6 April 1884.

Quarto. 136 pp. Brown ink manuscript on watermarked laid paper. With forty-nine original drawings and three sketch maps in text. Period green moiré cloth boards rebacked with light brown half sheep with gilt lettered title on the spine. Bookplate of John Duck on the first pastedown endpaper. Very good journal.
Interesting historical commentary of the events of the Crimean War, compiled almost thirty years after the war’s end. This travel journal is written in a witty and humorous manner narrates two British gentlemen’s travels to Crimea in summer 1883 during which they visited the famous battlefields of Inkerman, Sevastopol and Balaklava. The manuscript consists of eight chapters, with four of them titled: “Sebastopol” (Chapter 4), “Inkerman” (Chapter 5), “Sebastopol. The pleasure garden” (Chapter 6), “The Malakhoff Redan, the Cemeteries & Balaklava” (Chapter 7). The full names of travellers remain unknown, but they call each other “Johnnie”, “Yarn” or “Commodore”, and “Jack” “Mayor” or “Kanard”. Their notes and observations of the Crimean sites reveal a good knowledge of the history of the Crimean War: with names and dates being remembered quickly and several referrals to Kinglake’s monumental “The Invasion of the Crimea” (London, 1863-1887, 8 vols.) which they regret not to have with them.
Thus, at the site of the Battle of Inkerman: “they thought of the cold drizzly rain, the damp obscuring fog, the dismal features & gloomy surroundings of that never to be forgotten morning in November 1854 <…> though the minds of both passed visions of the fighting soldiers of the 41st, the 49th, 77th, 88th & the other meager battalions brought up to confront the enemy, <…> visions of the Guards in the Sandbag Battery as they fought tooth & nail against the dense mosses of the grey coated Muscovites; of the advance and death of the gallant Cathcart, of the grim humour of Pennefather & the antique heroism of Lord Raglan” (p. 68-69).
In Sevastopol the travellers were surprised to that the city still remained in ruins: “there were houses along the route here & there, evidently not very ancient, but the rest of the town was simply one mass of ruins. All was a roofless chaotic mass, broken columns, walls half or wholly down, & the debris of what were once stately buildings scattered about in all directions. <…> with the exception of the sunken ships having been raised & the entrance to the harbour cleared, very little appears to have been done” (p. 50-51).
The Malakoff Kurgan “was a natural hill fortified by art, and though its ditch, its riveted slopes, scarp & counterscarp; its banquets, its terrepleine & ramparts were somewhat ruined by explosions, & thirty years of neglect had jumbled up its shape & caused its lines to be [?] & confused; though grass & wild flowers now overran its ramparts, & as if in mockery at man’s work held up their humble heads & flourished in the sunshine, yet the modern fortification was plainly visible” (p. 91). The travellers got some bullets and fragments of shells picked from around the Malakhov by a farmer whose house was nearby.
The Malakhov Redan “was scarcely distinguishable as a Fort, being simply a mound with little or nothing in the shape of masonry about it, tho’ the general outline of the work & its ditch could be traced. From here it was at once seen that the Malakoff was the true Key to the position.” It was here that they found the collection of unburied bones, which provoked comments on death and the circle of life.
Furthermore, during the course of their travels they talk about the Crimean Tartars (p. 54), St. Vladimir’s Cathedral, which they called “the Church of the four Admirals” (M. Lazarev, V. Kornilov, V. Istomin, P. Nakhimov); Count’s Landing (Grafskaya Pristan) with notes about Count Vorotsov, spend an evening in the Sevastopol pleasure garden, are surprised to discover that there is a railway from Sevastopol to Moscow; pass the Korabelnaya Storona and see the ruins of the Russian “Karabel Barracks”
Visit the British Cemetery, read inscriptions on the graves, one being of Brigadier General Goldie killed in the battle of Inkerman – a monument to him had been seen by the travellers on the Isle of Man
Additionally they constantly get into funny incidents because nobody understands English, and barely speaks French; examples include: Enjoying the Crimean wine (p. 26-27); Tea drinking: The tea was served in glasses, with a slice of lemon in it. It was a trifle different to our ideas of tea, which are always associated with tea cups & so on, no one took cream, but everyone just put as much sugar in his glass as he thought proper (p. 37); Humorous description of buying the Russian cigars; Refresh with vodka in a small hotel in Balaklava which reminds them of Bourbon etc.
Overall all an interesting lively account illustrated with evocative drawings.


56. [WALKER, Henry, Captain]
[Manuscript Journal of the Ship Ida From Boston Voyage to Valparaiso, San Blas, Guayaquil and back to Boston in 1821-23, Titled]: Journal kept on board the Ship Ida of Boston <...> from Boston towards N.W. Coast of America.

[Primarily at sea], 1821-1823. Folio (31x19 cm). [188] pp. With two manuscript deeds, and four other sheets of manuscript laid in. Period brown quarter sheep with marbled boards, housed in a new light brown cloth clamshell box with green gilt lettered sheep label. Rubbed at extremities, lightly soiled. Some minor scattered foxing, else text is clean and very legible. Deeds chipped and lightly foxed. Old fold lines; one reinforced along folds, the other with a hole one inch by two, affecting text. Overall a very good manuscript.
The journal details Ida’s voyage in 1821-23 from Boston to San Blas in Mexico around Cape Horn, with stops in Valparaiso (Chile) and Guayaquil (Ecuador), and the return journey to the United States. The voyage went in several stages: at first, from Boston to Valparaiso (December 7th, 1821 - February 14th, 1822); then after a two-month furlough from Valparaiso to San Blas (April 12th - May 24th, 1822); then back to South America, to Guayaquil (August 2nd - September 4th of the same year); from there back to Valparaiso (October 11th - November 24th, 1822), and a return journey to the US (June 1st - July 6th, 1823).
The journal methodically records the nautical details of Ida’s voyage: wind and weather conditions, daily mileage, speed of the ship each hour, latitude and longitude, and geographical objects encountered and passed on the way. Captain Walker notes that he departed on the Ida from Boston harbor "with a heavy heart and thoughts of home," crossed the Equator on the 30th of December, and the next day passed the archipelago of Fernando Noronha (354 km offshore from the Brazilian coast). On the 25th of January she passed the Falkland Islands, and went through the Drake Passage: along Terra del Fuego "for eight leagues making in sharp peaks like steeples," Staten Land (Isla de los Estados) and Diego Ramirez Islands. On the 4th of February Ida rounded Cape Horn, and on that day Walker "saw a Rain Bow at midnight caused by the moon", two days later he observed a moon eclipse. Santiago’s port San Antonio was sighted on the 13th of February, and the next day Ida arrived in Valparaiso.
During the sailing to San Blas Walker noted the ship passing the Galapagos Islands, Cabo Corrientes (Mexico) et al; on return journey to Guayaquil - Islas Marias (Mexico) and Isla de la Plata (Ecuador). Ida arrived to Puna island at the head of Gulf of Guayaquil on the 4th of September. On the way back to Valparaiso she passed Juan Fernandez Island and stayed in port San Antonio, at the mouth of Maipo River for several days. During this part of the voyage Ida got caught in many storms, the note from 24th of October witnesses "Strong gales, squalls and rough sea; ship requires pumping every two hours."
The journal contains an impressive entry describing the Valparaiso earthquake on the 20th of November 1822: "At 11 P.M. We was sudenly [sic] alarmed by a violent shock that effected the ship as if she had struck the bottom, all hands sprung on deck and cried out the ship ashore...on reflection knew it was impossible for her to have struck any bottom in so heavy a sea as was on at the time without bilging the bottom in. I then thought of a wreck of a vessel but lastly I imputed it to an earth quake." Aftershocks wrack the sea periodically for the next few days. On the 22nd of November they got word about the effects of the quake: "They <..,> informed us that there had been a heavy shock of an earth quake on shore and that Valparaiso had been nearly destroyed and had lost 23 lives in the fall of a Castle. St. Jago & several of the towns in the interior had suffered severely the inhabitants about the sea coast fled to the mountains for safety fearing that the sea would flow in upon them, animals of every kind on shore appeared to be affected by the shock."
There is also an interesting note about the ship Emerald of London coming from New South Wales to Rio de Janeiro with a cargo of oil which Ida encountered in the South Atlantic on the 20th of January, 1822. She provided Emerald with provisions, including "6 barrels of flour, 6 of beef, one of pork and two of bread and two cases of gin," but the next day the sailors "found a strange man on board that had secreted himself under one of the forecastle berths; he said he came from the Emerald in the second boat - he is supposed to be a convict from New Holland." No hint is given as to the fate of the stowaway. The journal also keeps track of wildlife seen at sea, including dolphins, sharks, turtles, flying fish, and albatrosses, boobies and various other birds.
One of the later notes records the sale of Ida: "I was informed by Capt. Scott that the ship Ida was sold this day" (1st of March, 1823). There is no record of the interim period, and Walker's entries are both brief and incomplete about a return journey to Boston in summer 1823. There are notes in a later hand throughout the volume which give pieces of information about Walker, and a paragraph on the last page gives an account of Walker's return, indicating that Walker returned on a whaling vessel to Nantucket and thence to Boston.
The two deeds pertain to land. They are marked as "Deed, Walker to Woodbury," and "Nancy Walker's share in the estate of Luke Woodbury - Copy." The other manuscript sheets are in the same later hand as in the journal and elaborate further on Walker's life and career.
Overall an interesting collection related to 19th century US commercial maritime voyages.


FARRAGUT, David Glasgow (1801-1870)
[Secretarial Copy of an Autographed Letter Signed by David Glasgow Farragut Concerning a Seized Whaler, Copied by his Clerk and Signed by him: "D.E. Farragut, Comd'g."]

La Paz, Mexico, 20 November 1855. Small Folio (ca. 29x20 cm). One page. Brown ink on light blue wove paper. With fold marks and remnants of mounts on recto and verso, but overall a very good letter in a legible hand.
The original letter had been written by United States consular agent Thomas Sprague, addressed to "the commanding officer of any American Man of War." Sprague complained that "General Blancarte has seized the American whale-ship Rebecca Adams, removed the officers and crew on shore, and put them in prison, without any lawful cause. I have demanded their release, but as yet have not been able to procure it. There are also several females among these sufferers. The presence of an armed vessel is required instantly at this Port." The Rebecca Adams had left San Francisco in April 1855, and Starbuck makes no note of this incident or the vessel's eventual return to port (page 532). Farragut's clerk copied out the present copy at the Mare Island Navy Yard in California April 1st 1856, where it was signed by Farragut and forwarded to another officer for response.


58. ASHTON, Sir John William (Australian, 1881-1963)
[SYDNEY HARBOUR: Watercolour Signed with Initials and Dated "W.A. 98" (lower right)].

1898. Watercolour ca. 24x33 cm (9 ½ x 13 in). Watercolour in very good condition. Recently matted.
This atmospheric attractive watercolour shows the Sydney waterfront with a docked sailing vessel in the foreground. The prolific artist produced many landscapes of Australia as well as of Europe and the Middle East and travelled widely in his life.
"Sir John William "Will" Ashton OBE, ROI was a British-Australian artist and Director of the National Art Gallery of New South Wales from 1937 to 1945" (Wikipedia).


59. BACK, George (1796-1878)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Geo Back,” to “Webster, Esq.” asking him “when you correct the list of Members, will you add to my name, instead of Captain, Rear Admiral, DCL. FRS”].

[London]: 109 Gloucester Place, Portman Square, 2 April 1857. Duodecimo (ca. 14,5x9 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on laid paper. With a 19th century ink inscription “Sir George Back, R.N., the Arctic Navigator.” Upper left corner cut off, hole at top of page marginally affecting the address, but overall a very good letter.
A short note from a British naval officer and renowned Arctic explorer George Back, referring to the list of members of the Royal Geographical Society of which he was a vice-president at the time. Written in early April 1857 and apparently addressed to one of the office employees of the society, the note informs of his promotion to the rank of rear-admiral (which had happened two weeks before, on the 19th of March 1857).
“Sir George Back, naval officer who helped to trace the Arctic coastline of North America. He twice accompanied the British explorer John Franklin to Canada’s Northwest Territories (1819-22 and 1825-27) and later conducted two expeditions of his own to the same region. The first of these expeditions, in 1833, was to search for another British explorer, John Ross, who had disappeared on an Arctic voyage in 1829. The venture resulted in the exploration of the Great Fish River, now the Back River. In 1836 Back returned to explore the coastal region east from the mouth of the river. His writings include Narrative of the Arctic Land Expedition to the Mouth of the Great Fish River (1836) and Narrative of Expedition in H.M.S. Terror (1838). He was knighted in 1839” (Encyclopaedia Britannica).


60. BARBOSA, Januario da Cunha (1780-1864)
[Protocols and Procedures for Burials in the Churches of Rio de Janeiro] Exposição do Padre Januario da Cunha Barbosa a El-Rei D. João VI sobre as sepulturas nas Egrejas do Rio de Janeiro.

Ca. 1813-1816. Folio (ca. 33x20 cm). 4 pp., with two integral blank leaves, tied with two pink ribbons. Brown ink on laid paper watermarked “1813”, legible text in Portuguese. Paper tag ("Avulços") glued to final leaf. Laid into later ruled paper folder (typed title as given above). Paper slightly age toned, mild fold marks, otherwise a near fine document.
Unpublished manuscript on church burials in Rio de Janeiro by one of the earliest Brazilian literary critics and an important figure in the independence movement.
An apparently unpublished work on the protocols and procedures for burials in churches of Rio de Janeiro, written at a time when such burials were becoming an important public health issue. Cunha Barbosa was appointed prégador for the royal chapel in Rio de Janeiro in 1808. There he became involved in deciding which tombs in the church could be opened when a member of a family or of a religious order died. Apparently Cunha Barbosa had been reprimanded for opening one tomb, and in this work he explains his decision at greater length than he had previously done. He also states the procedures for opening a tomb and notes which church officials had to authorize it. Cunha Barbosa refers to the addressee as "V.A. R." throughout, and once as "Principe." This suggests that the addressee was D. João VI during his tenure as Prince Regent (i.e., before 1816).
Two works dealing with burials as a public health matter were published by Brazilians before independence: Vicente Coelho de Seabra Silva e Telles' Memoria sobre os prejuizos causados pelas sepulturas dos cadaveres nos templos, e methodo de os prevenir (Lisbon, 1800), and José Correa Picanço's Ensaio sobre os perigos das sepulturas dentro das cidades, e nos seus contornos (Rio de Janeiro, 1812; See Guerra, Bibliografia medica brasileira 20.)
Januario da Cunha Barbosa took orders in 1803 and soon earned such a reputation as a religious orator that in 1808 he was named prégador for the royal chapel in Rio de Janeiro. One of the leading spirits in the Independence movement, he founded and edited (along with Joaquim Gonçalves Ledo) the periodical Reverbero Constitucional Fluminense from September 1821 to October 1822. At the end of 1822 his rival from the liberal party, José Bonifácio, had him deported without trial, but a year later - as Bonifácio himself was being deported - Cunha Barbosa returned to Brazil. There he was simultaneously elected deputy to the new legislature for Minas Geraes and for Rio de Janeiro. He later served as director of the Imprensa Nacional and the Biblioteca Nacional.
Cunha Barbosa published numerous sermons, some poetry, and articles on a wide range of subjects in the journals of various learned societies. His anthology Parnaso Brasileiro (Rio de Janeiro, 1829-30) is a major literary contribution. With its publication Cunha Barbosa became one of the earliest Brazilian literary critics and preserved much poetry of the colonial period which would doubtless otherwise have been lost. (See Verissimo, História da literatura brasileira [1969] p. 119.) He also co-founded, with Raymundo José da Cunha Mattos, the Instituto Historico e Geographico Brazileiro in 1838. The Instituto had much wider interests than its name suggests, and came to serve as a forum for all Brazilian writers. Work done under its auspices set the direction for much of the historical, geographical and ethnological research later done in Brazil. (See Verissimo, p. 127).
On Cunha Barbosa, see Innocêncio III, 254; VI, 127; VII, 71; X, 117. See also Sacramento Blake III, 294-300. OCLC: No printed version or other manuscript version located. No printed or manuscript version located in Porbase, Copac, or OCLC.


61. BARROW, Sir John, 1st Baronet (1764-1848)
[Official Letter on the form of the Admiralty Signed "John Barrow" to "Sir G. Hammond, Bt., KCB" with the Latest Instructions about the Naval Armament].

Admiralty, 9 December 1834. Folio (ca. 32,5x20 cm). 1 p. (bifolium, with a second blank leaf). Official printed form of the Admiralty (on the Smith & Son laid paper watermarked "1831"), completed in brown ink in secretarial hand and signed by Barrow at the bottom. With a manuscript note “Duplicate” and date 13 May/35 in the left upper corner. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good document.
This official letter signed by John Barrow as the second Secretary of the Admiralty was addressed to Sir Graham Eden Hamond, 2nd Baronet GCB (1779-1862), a British Royal Navy officer (Admiral of the Fleet in 1862) who served during the French Revolutionary Wars and Napoleonic Wars. At the time he was the commander of the Royal Navy’s South American Station (16 September 1834 - 17 May 1838). The letter accompanied the copies of “their Lordship’s Circular Order of the 21 October last forbidding the use of Coal Tar upon Gun and Carronade Carriages as a substitute for Paint".
John Barrow was a renowned English statesman, traveller and great promoter of Arctic exploration; a member of the Royal Society (1805), a founding member and a president (1835-1837) of the Royal Geographical Society. He accompanied Lord Macartney’s embassy to China (1792-4), and served during the latter’s governorship in South Africa (1797-9) "collecting much of the commercial and strategic intelligence about the eastern seas and southern Africa" (Oxford DNB). He was the second Secretary of the Admiralty in 1804-1845 (except for the period between 10 February 1806 and 7 April 1807).
According to the chapter “Fitting and General Service” of the “Admiralty Instructions for the Government of Her Majesty’s Naval Service” (1844), “A coating of coal tar is never to be applied to guns of carronage carriages while on board Her Majesty’s Ships instead of paint, such substance being detrimental to the carriages.”


62. BENTINCK, Lord William Cavendish (1774-1839)
[Autograph Letter Written when Governor of Madras‚ to Marquis Wellesley‚ Governor-General of India‚ Regarding the Reception of Lord Valentia During His Travels in India].

Fort St. George, 15 January 1804. 2 pp. Quarto bifolium (ca. 22,5x18 cm). Brown ink on watermarked laid paper, docketed on the top of the first leaf and on verso of the second blank leaf. Mild fold marks, traces of old mount on verso of the second blank leaf, otherwise a very good letter.
Interesting letter regarding George Annesley, Viscount of Valentia’s travels in India in 1802-1806. Lord Bentinck, Governor of Madras (1803-1807, and later Governor-General of India) advises Marquis Wellesley that he has received his letter‚ transmitted by Lord Valentia and proceeds: “I trust that your Lordship will be convinced that during the progress of Lord Valentia through the territories of this Residency every public mark of distinction & respect so properly due to a person of Rank shall be shewn to his Lordship in obedience to your Excellency’s Commands.”
George Annesley, Viscount Valentia (1770-1774) travelled across India, Ceylon, the Red Sea region and Ethiopia in 1802-1806, accompanied by a noted artist and orientalist Henry Salt (1780-1827) as his secretary and draughtsman. Salt's paintings from the trip were used to the Lord Valentia's “Voyages and Travels to India” (London, 1809, 3 vols.).


63. BOWERS, Alexander
Autograph Manuscript of a Detailed Report to "The Chairman of the Chamber of Commerce Glasgow," on Burma and the Sladen Mission sent from Mandalay to the Chinese Frontier to Establish "Overland Communication with Western China," with Detailed Descriptions of People and Places and on the Goods Available in the Region and the Trade Possibilities.

[Glasgow], ca. 1870. . Quarto (ca. 25 x 19cm). 32 leaves. Brown ink on beige wove paper. Text mainly on recto of leaves. With minor edge wear, very minor foxing and with small pieces of tape on left outer leaf edges, with corrections and additions in pencil and ink. Overall a very good manuscript.
In 1868, Edward Bosc Sladen (1827–1890) "was placed in charge of a political mission sent to the Chinese frontier to inquire into the causes of the cessation of overland trade between Burma and China, and to obtain information respecting the Shans, Kakyens, and Panthays. Leaving Mandalay on 13 January, he proceeded via Bhamo to Momein (Tengyue), the frontier town of the Chinese province of Yunnan, where he stayed six weeks, but was prevented from proceeding further by the disturbed state of the country. The mission reached Bhamo, on its return journey, on 3 September, having acquired much valuable information about an almost unknown country" (Oxford DNB). "The journey proved for the first time the navigability of the river beyond Mandalay, and charts were drawn up by Captain Bowers who accompanied the expedition" (Howgego, Continental Exploration 1850-1940, S39).
The present manuscript is a detailed report including the historical and political background with mentions of "the Panthay Rebellion (1856–1873), a rebellion of the Muslim Hui people and other (non-Muslim) ethnic minorities against the Manchu rulers of the Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province" (Wikipedia) and the relationship between Burma and Western China. It includes details and findings of the Sladen expedition to Yunnan to explore re-opening ancient trade routes, descriptions of cities such as Talifu (the headquarters of the Mohammedan "Sultan" during the rebellion), and the influence of political and religious factors on trade and the workforce, with descriptions of goods traded (such as gold and cotton). Bowers describes the governor of the city and district of Momein ""Ja Su Kone?" [as] a man of most liberal ideas, and generous impulses was anxious to reciprocate trade relations with us, and entered heartily into a treaty of commerce with Major Sladen." Further, Bowers says of the capital of the Panthay's "Talifoo [Dali]," is described as a city of the first class, it is situated on the banks of an immense lake [Erhai Lake] or inland sea, and is the seat of the Panthay Govt., their King "Suliman the first" has his courts there, it is described as being 12 days march in "N" direction from Momein. The city has sixteen gates to it, and is about 3 miles long." Bowers descriptions of the people and places of this Burmese-Chinese border region is supplemented with much detail on the products and trade possibilities available there.


64. BRINE, Lindesay, Commander R.N. (1834-1906)
[CHINA: Panoramic Watercolour of Chefoo (Yantai) During the Taiping Rebellion, 1850-1864, Titled:] HMS Gunboat Opossum - Junk by Chefoo - The French Troops are Encamped on the Hill.

23 June 1860. Watercolour ca. 23x38 cm (9x15 in) mounted on larger card. Overall a very good painting. Recently matted.
An attractive and skillfully executed pencil drawing heightened with watercolour. The artist, who entered the Royal Navy in 1847 was the author of "The Taeping Rebellion in China; a narrative of its rise and progress, based upon original documents and information obtained in China" (London: Murray, 1862). This watercolour was made on the spot during his service as commander in the China Seas. "While serving in the Far East, [Brine] took much pains to collect accurate information on the troubles then prevailing, and in 1862 published the results of his observations and inquiries in a volume entitled ‘The Taiping Rebellion in China’" (Obituary in The Geographical Journal 27, 3, March 1906).


65. BURTON, I[nger] M[aria] (1828-1897)
[Two Signed Stone Town, Zanzibar Watercolours Created at Around the Time When David Livingstone was there Preparing for his Last Expedition].

[Zanzibar], ca. 1865. Two matted watercolours each ca. 14x37 cm (5 ½ x 14 ½ in). The upper watercolour with some mild foxing, otherwise very good watercolours.
The two well executed and scenic watercolours show port scenes in Stone Town, Zanzibar.
"In 1840, Sultan Said bin Sultan moved his seat from Muscat, Oman, to Stone Town, which thus entered an era of quick development as the new capital of the Sultanate of Oman and Zanzibar. In 1861, as a consequence of a war of succession within the Omani royal family, Zanzibar and Oman were separated, with Zanzibar becoming an independent sultanate under Sultan Majid bin Said.
In the 19th century Stone Town also flourished as a trading centre. It was especially renowned for the commerce of spices (mostly cloves) and slaves. Around middle of the century, the sultanate had a close relationship with the British; David Livingstone, for example, is known to have stayed in Stone Town in 1866 while he was preparing his final expedition into the interior of East Africa. In the same period, several immigrant communities from Oman, Persia and India formed as a consequence of the town's intense commercial activity" (Wikipedia).


66. CAINE, William Sproston (1842-1903)
[Original Watercolour of the Environs of Calgary, used for the Illustration in W.S. Caine’s "A Trip Around the World in 1887-8", London: Routledge, 1888].

[1887-8]. Watercolour and pencil with touches on gouache on paper, ca. 10,5x19 cm (4 ¼ x 7 ½ in). Captioned in ink on the lower margin. Recently matted. Paper slightly yellowed on the blank margins, otherwise a very good watercolour.
Original watercolour captioned "Calgary Canada. Rocky Mountains in Distance" and used as the illustration to p. 59. His note on the same page reads: “Calgary is beautifully situated at the junction of the Bow and Elbow Rivers, fine clear streams of pure water, fresh and cool from the Rocky Mountains, whose snow-clad outlines were visible on the horizon 60 miles away. Calgary is the capital of the magnificent grazing country which lies along the foothills of the Rocky Mountains, between the South Saskatchewan River and Montana. This is probably the finest ranching country on the Continent”.
W.S. Caine, a British politician and Temperance advocate, travelled around the world with his daughter Hannah in August 1887 - March 1886. He went across the Atlantic Ocean on a steam liner from Liverpool to Quebec, then crossed Canada overland through the Rocky Mountains and British Columbia, went on a steamer from Vancouver to San Francisco and continued his trip to Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore, Ceylon and India. Caine’s numerous sketches and photographs taken during the journey were used as illustrations to his book, some in the original state, and some being reworked “by my old friend, Mr. John Pedder, of Maidenhead, who has evolved the greater portion of the illustrations, with accuracy and artistic skill” (Caine. A Trip around the World, p. X).


67. CANNING, Charles John‚ Earl Canning (1812-1862)
[An Autograph Letter Signed to Sir Benjamin Hawes K.C.B.‚ War Office‚ making “the painful announcement of untimely death” of Sir Hawes’ Son‚ Captain Arthur Hawes‚ during a Jail Outbreak in Mundlaisir‚ Central India].

Calcutta, 6 September 1859. Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm). 8 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Blind stamped monograms in the left upper corners. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
A dignified‚ yet personal‚ letter from Charles John Canning‚ Earl Canning‚ Governor-General and Viceroy of India in 1856-1862‚ conveying tragic news to Sir Benjamin Hawes (1797-1862), Under-Secretary for War and the Colonies in 1846-1851, and Permanent Under-Secretary in the War Office since 1857. The letter informs Hawes about untimely death of his son Captain Arthur Hawes during a jail uprising in Mundlaisir (now Mandleshwar, Madhya Pradesh, Central India).
“I named him little more than 3 months ago to act in the place of an absent Officer as Political Agent in Nimar; a post of some trouble‚ and requiring activity and a sound judgement‚ but certainly not‚ so far as human foresight could perceive‚ of any danger. He would probably have held that post for about a year‚ by which time‚ if the officer in possession of it had returned it might have been in my power to replace Captain Hawes in permanent Civil Employment. But this has been cut short. A jail outbreak at Mundlaisir‚ unprovoked as far as I yet know by any political cause‚ and against which the close proximity of 200 men of a Bombay Regiment ought to have sufficiently guarded‚ has caused his Death. He displayed admirable promptitude of action‚ and fearlessness‚ - but in the performance of his duty he has laid down his life. <…> your son has left a high name with all under whom he has served for ability and zeal, and <…> he was in the fare path to distinction in the branch of the service for which he had been selected.”
See a brief contemporary comment on the matter: “Central India. The chief item is a rising of the prisoners in the Mundlaisir gaol, on the 22nd ultimo. They overpowered the guard, killing one, and then seized one of the bastions, whence they fired on Captain Hawes, acting political agent, and his men, unhappily with fatal effect. Captain Hawes fell beneath two bullets. The prisoners seem to have escaped, having first plundered the treasury” (The Sydney Morning Herald. No. 6691, 17 November 1859, p. 3)


68. CARTHEW-YORSTOUN, Morden, Lt. Colonel (1832 - after 1905)
[Original Double-Page Watercolour of Mawlamyine, Burma].

Ca. 1853. Watercolour and pencil on two conjoined leaves, total size ca. 25,5x70 cm (10 x 27 ½ in). Weak pencil caption "M. Carthew. Moulmein" on verso. Recent matting. A very good watercolour.
An impressive panoramic view of Mawlamyine or Mawlamyaing (formerly Moulmein), the third-largest city in modern Burma and an important port and trade centre in British Burma and its first capital in 1826-1852. The wide panorama shows the city from the Taungnyo hills on the right to the Thanlwin (Salween) River on the left, with the British ships in the harbor and rice fields, houses and small pagoda also shown. Most likely the watercolour was made from the famous viewpoint on Kyaikthanlan Pagoda located on the hills overlooking Moulmein.
The artist, Lt. Colonel Morden Carthew, was a prominent British colonial officer who served in India and Burma for 12 years and had several important posts in the administration of Moulmein.
The view from the pagoda, created by a British soldier could have been the basis for Rudyard Kipling’s poem "Mandalay":
By the old Moulmein Pagoda, lookin' lazy at the sea,
There's a Burma girl a-settin', and I know she thinks o' me;
For the wind is in the palm-trees, and the temple-bells they say:
"Come you back, you British soldier; come you back to Mandalay!"
General Morden Carthew, C.B., started in 1848 as a cadet in the Madras Presidency of the East India Company. In around 1850 with his own regiment, the 26th Madras Native Infantry, he was sent to Moulmein, Burma. "When the second Burmese war broke out in 1852, young Carthew, then a Lieutenant, was in England on sick leave; but he hastened out and rejoined his regiment just after a capture of Martaban, a fortified town belonging to the Burmese on the opposite side of the river on which Moulmein stands. Some tedious months of garrison work in Martaban followed, which Carthew utilized by setting to work to study the Burmese language." Thanks to his skills he obtained a place in the Civil Department of the British province of Moulmein as an officer assisting "in the pacification and civil administration of the newly annexed territory." "During the course of the war in 1852-53 Carthew saw a good deal of what was going on, and was present at several of the small actions that took place, for there were no pitched battles, the Burmese troops being very inferior in armament and courage." Carthew made the first survey of the town of Sittang and after "obtained a regular certificate for surveying." He was awarded with the Burmese war medal.
"On getting to Moulmein early in 1853, Morden Carthew, at twenty years of age, was appointed Assistant Magistrate of Moulmein, a large town and seaport of over 40,000 inhabitants of every race"; at twenty one he became a Civil Judge in the Civil Court of the Moulmein town and province. In 1855 he was appointed the Senior Magistrate of Moulmein "with all its police duties, with a convict jail chiefly composed of prisoners transported from India to the number of about 1500 men, charge of all the roads and bridges in the town district, and with a multitude of the other duties that only one accustomed to the life and work of an Indian soldier civilian can understand or even count." In 1858 he took the post of the Deputy Commissioner of the Province of Mergui, "the most southern point of British possessions on the Malay Peninsula, under the Indian Government." Altogether he spent 12 years in India and Burma and returned to England in 1860. He afterwards lived in Dumfriesshire (Scotland) and took an active part in the county affairs. He was known of his wood carving skills and exhibited his work in London and Edinburgh.
[Abstracts of the] Carthew Yorstoun family [genealogy] // The Gallovidian: An Illustrated Southern Counties Quarterly Magazine. Spring 1905. # 25. Vol. Viii. P. 1-9 (Open Library on-line).


69. DIX, Arthur Joseph (1861-1917)
[Album of 103 Original Watercolour Designs for Stained Glass Windows].

Ca. 1900. Oblong Quarto (ca. 20x28 cm). 16 card stock leaves. One hundred and three watercolour sketches on paper from ca. 2x2 cm (1x1 in) to ca. 5,5x12,5 cm (2x5 in), mounted on the album leaves. All watercolours numbered in pencil, with the ink captions on the opposite leaves. Artist’s carte-de-visite mounted on the first pastedown. Period brown cloth album with gilt tooled initials “A.J.D.” on the front cover. Binding rubbed on extremities, with the spine recased. Overall a very good album with beautiful bright watercolours.
Valuable collection of 103 original watercolour designs for stained glass windows produced by the firm of Arthur J. Dix (101 Gower St., London). The designs, drawn and compiled by Dix himself, include fine examples of coat of arms, royal shields, seals and insignia, with the time frame from the Medieval English kings, to British 20th century institutions and societies. Among the designs are royal shields of kings Ethelbert, Oswald of Northumberland, Harold I, Alfred the Great, Richard II, Henry VIII; seals of Edward the Confessor, King John, the Duke of Burgundy, the City of London, the town of Hartlepool etc. There are also coats of arms of the cities of York, Leeds, Liverpool, Chester, Plymouth, Borough of Kensington, county of Lancashire et al.; Oxford and Cambridge Universities; emblems of the Company of Musicians, Society of Antiquaries, Institute of British Architects et al.
“Stained glass artist. Arthur J. Dix was based in Gower Street, London, and active from the 1890s. He, or his studio, also made work by other designers as late as 1940” (Stained Glass of Wales online).
His advertising published in the “Debrett’s House of Commons and the Judicial Bench” for 1916 stated: “Designs prepared and submitted with estimates for memorial and heraldic stained glass windows, church decorations, mosaics and brasses. Arthur J. Dix, worker in stained glass, 101, Gower St., London” (p. Xix).
Dix carved stained glass windows for a number of buildings in Buckinghampshire, including town hall in his native Wycombe, churches of All Saints (Marlow), St. Peter and Paul (Medmenham), St. Mary (Slough), and St. John the Baptist (The Lee). His stained glass windows also decorate the church of St. John the Baptist (Ightfield, Shropshire), St. Dunstan’s church (Cranford, London) and others.
See more: Little, J. Stained Glass Marks and Monograms. London: National Association of Decorative and Fine Art Societies, 2002, p. 42.


70. D'OYLY, Sir Charles (1781-1845)
[CALCUTTA: Large Signed Presentation Watercolour]: "For Warren Hastings ESQ / View of Calcutta and Fort William from Sir John D'Oyly's Garden Reach/ D'Oyly (on verso)."

[Calcutta], ca. 1800. Watercolour ca. 47x61 cm (18 ½ x 24 in). Watercolour with several expertly repaired tears and a few very mild water stains affecting image, but overall still a very good attractive watercolour. Recently matted.
This large attractive watercolour was presented from the artist to close family friend and governor-general of Bengal Warren Hastings (1732–1818). D'Oyly was a prolific artist and provided the sketches for a great number of colour plate works on India. "Charles D'Oyly was a public official and painter from Dhaka who produced numerous images on Indian subject matter..., His father, Baron Sir John Hedley D'Oyly, was the resident of the Company at the Court of Nawab Babar Ali of Murshidabad. D'Oyly went to England with the family in 1785 and received his first formal education there. In 1798 he returned to India as Assistant to the Registrar in the Court of Appeal in Calcutta. In 1803 he was appointed as 'Keeper of the Records' in the office of the Governor General.
D'Oyly 1808 appointed as the Collector of Dacca (now Dhaka) in 1808. In the following years, the posts he held, were the Government and City Collector of Customs in Calcutta (1818), the Opium Agent of Bihar (1821), the Commercial Resident of Patna (1831) and lastly the Senior Member of the Board of Customs, Salt, Opium and of the Marine (1833). After serving with the company for forty years, his failing health compelled D'Oyly to leave India in 1838" (Wikipedia).


71. DRUMMOND, Sir William (1770-1828)
[Autograph Letter Signed‚ Reporting on the Latest Actions between the Ottoman Army and Mamluks in Egypt].

Boucarest, 13 December 1803. Large Octavo (ca. 23,5x18,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on laid paper. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
Interesting historical commentary to the struggle between the Ottomans and Mamluks in the early 19th century Egypt which consequently brought to power famous Muhammad Ali, the founder of modern Egypt. The letter was written by a British scholar and diplomat Sir William Drummond who at the time was the ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (1803-1806).
Drummond notes: “When I left Constantinople there were no news of any importance‚ unless it were that the Beys had raised the siege of Alexandria and had retired to Cairo. This event is attributed to a mutinous spirit‚ which had manifested itself among the Albanian troops‚ the new allies of the Mamelukes. I am sorry to add‚ that the French interest among the Beys has taken a decided ascendancy.” He also complains that he has been delayed in Bucharest for ten days “by the bad state of the roads, and must wait here until another fall of snow will enable me to put my carriage on a sledge”; after that he plans to reach Berlin via Jassy and Cracow.


72. DUHAMEL DU MONCEAU, Henri-Louis (1700-1782)
[Autograph Letter Signed to Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau from a La Rochelle Merchant Pierre Isaac Rasteau Regarding a Letter by Don Antonio Ulloa, the First Spanish Governor of Louisiana, Which has been Sent from America on the Ship Samson].

La Rochelle, 26 April 1768. Octavo bifolium (ca. 24x18,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on laid paper, addressed, sealed and docketed on the 4th page. Text in French. Fold marks, a small hole of the 4th page after opening, otherwise a very good letter.
An interesting historical commentary to the connections of the 18th century European scientists and colonial administrators. In his letter to a prominent French botanist, physician and naval engineer Henri-Louis Duhamel du Monceau, a La Rochelle merchant Pierre Isaac Rasteau informs him that a vessel Samson has just arrived from Louisiana, with a dispatch to Duhamel du Monceau from Don Antonio de Ulloa (1716-1795), Spanish general, explorer, astronomer and at the time the Spanish Governor of Louisiana (1766-1768). Rasteau mentions that “there are no at this point here direct occasions [for return] to that colony, however it is assured that Samson will go back there, but in some time”.
Duhamel de Monceau’s interest in Louisiana was closely connected with his botanical experimentation with exotic trees, especially those from North America, and their acclimatisation in France. He is known for several important works on forestry, including a famous catalogue of trees and shrubs that can be grown outdoors in France which described a number of North American plants (Traite Complet des Bois et des Forets, Paris, 1755, 2 vols.). Duhamel de Monceau is considered the father of silviculture, the scientific approach to forestry; he was a member and thrice president of the French Academy of Sciences. In 1739 he became Inspector-General of the Marine; he was a co-founder of the naval academy in Brest (1752) and a school of Marine science (1741), which in 1765 became the Ecole des Ingénieurs-Constructeurs, the forerunner of the modern Ecole du Génie Maritime.
Antonio de Ulloa y de la Torre-Girault was a Spanish general, explorer, author, astronomer, colonial administrator and the first Spanish governor of Louisiana. In 1736-1744 he participated in the French Geodesic Mission to a present-day Ecuador to measure a degree of meridian arc at the equator; was a Fellow of the Royal Society of London, established the first museum of natural history and the first metallurgical laboratory in Spain, and the observatory of Cadiz. De Ulloa was the First Governor of Louisiana and was displaced in the outcome of the Louisiana Rebellion in the autumn of 1768.
“The Rasteaus were one of the premier mercantile families in La Rochelle during the eighteenth century. They appear to have risen to prominence in that Protestant stronghold during the late seventeenth or early eighteenth centuries. By the end of the War of Spanish Succession, they appear frequently in the shipping annals of the port, sending vessels to Guinea for slaves and to the French West Indies. Both of these trades remained central to the Rasteau operations during the period in which they were involved in the Louisiana commerce. The family was large and the business included, as far as can be ascertained at this point, at least three sons of Jacques Rasteau, Pierre Isaac (the oldest), Eli, and Paul. Gabriel and Daniel, Jacques’ brothers, were heavily engaged in the family’s business ventures and appear in Louisiana during the 1760s. <…> Various members of the family served in the La Rochelle Chamber of Commerce during the eighteenth century and in the La Rochelle militia and, in 1777, Pierre Isaac was honoured by becoming the first Protestant elected as a deputy to the Council of Commerce, a national advisory body responsible to the crown. The Rasteaus were also subscribers to the Compagnie d’assurances générales, founded in 1750 with a capital of 12 million livres, and Pierre Isaac was named a director of the branch office in La Rochelle…” (Clark, John G. New Orleans, 1718-1812: An Economic History. Louisiana State University Press, 1970, p. 95-96).


73. EGERTON, B[lanche] H[arriet] (1871-1943)
[Sketchbook with over Forty Original Watercolours and Drawings of British Columbia, Ottawa and Quebec].

22 Aug - 25 Dec 1919. Oblong Octavo (ca. 16,5x23 cm). 39 leaves. With 40 full page sketches in watercolour and pencil, and several partial sketches. The majority titled and dated in pencil. Original green cloth album with gilt lettered title “Sketches” on the front board. With the artist’s pencil signature “B.H. Egerton” on the front free endpaper. A very good album.
Attractive collection of watercolours and pencil drawings, mostly of British Columbia, created by Lady B.H. Egerton on her trip across Canada in the autumn of 1919. The sketchbook starts with a drawing of “HMS Renown from the Citadel, Quebec” dated 22 August 1919. Miss Egerton apparently proceeded to the west by the route of the Canadian National Railway, depicting Manitoban “Le Pas from train,” Mount Robson, McBride and the upper Fraser Valley, “Bulkley Gate, 150 ft high, 8 ft thick” [near Hazelton], and “Nass River from steamer Anyox to Prince Rupert.” Then follows a group of six views of the Vancouver Island, including nice watercolours of Cowichan Lake and the Qualicum Beach, and a double-page pencil drawing taken “On way to Vancouver.” The rest of the album contains the views of BC taken on Egerton’s return trip to Eastern Canada by the route of the Canadian Pacific Railway: a series of beautiful watercolor panoramas of Okanagan, Kootenay, Arrowhead (Upper Arrow) Lakes and Lake Louise; a watercolour view “From Train, Kamloops to Revelstoke,” pencil drawings of the Fraser Canyon, Thompson River, Kettle Valley, “Mountain from Revelstoke station,” the Selkirks from the Golden station, a view “From Field,” Lake Agnes and others. The album is concluded with a watercolour view of Ottawa taken from the Government House on Christmas 1919. The majority of watercolours and drawings are titled and dated, many are supplemented with reference notes on colouring for future completion.
Blanche Harriet Egerton was a daughter of Admiral Hon. Francis Egerton (1824-1895) and Lady Louisa Caroline Cavendish, daughter of William Cavendish, 7th Duke of Devonshire. Her paternal grandfather was Francis Egerton, 1st Earl of Ellesmere (1800-1857), a British politician, traveler and patron of the arts, a president of the Royal Geographical Society, and of the Royal Asiatic Society, a trustee of the National Gallery, and one of the founders of the National Portrait Gallery. Lake Ellesmere in New Zealand and the Ellesmere Island in Nunavut, Canada were named after him.


74. ESTCOURT, James Bucknall (1802-1855)
[Three Works: a Watercolour, an Ink and a Pencil Sketch of Tangier].

Ca. 1825. Each on separate album leaves, one double-page. Image sizes 55x21 cm (21 ½ x 8 ¼ in); 25,5x20 cm (10x8 in); 28x19,5 cm (11 x 7 ¾ in). All captioned in ink with the same hand on verso. This group is in very good condition.
The group includes a watercolour panoramic view of Tangier Bay captioned "№ 15 & 16. Two views of the point of Malabat. Tanjir Bay. The Light House and Isla at Tarifa. The bank of sand which unites the Isla to the main land" (with the second description regarding view № 16 not present here). The view represents Cape Malabata (6 miles east of Tangier) facing the Strait of Gibraltar; the mentioned lighthouse still exists. The Isla de Tarifa (modern La Isla de las Palomas) is the island opposite the town of Tarifa at the southern end of the Punta de Tarifa, the southern most point of the Iberian Peninsula.
The second view of Tangier Bay is in pencil and captioned "The Castle and port of the Fortifications of Tanjirs taken from the harbour." There is also a smaller monochrome brownish watercolour and ink sketch captioned "A View from the top of the British Vice Consul’s House in Tetuan" and dated "Jan. [?]th 1825." Tetouan is a city in northern Morocco, one of the two major ports of Morocco on the Mediterranean Sea. It lies a few miles south of the Strait of Gibraltar, and about 40 mi (60 km) east of Tangier. Historical Text Archive on-line notes that in 1825 the post of British vice-consul in Tetuan was held by a Moroccan Jew Salvador D. Hassan, who also acted as Consul of Portugal and Italy.
Estcourt "purchased a commission as ensign in the 44th foot on 13 July 1820, exchanging on 7 June 1821 into the 43rd foot (Monmouthshire light infantry) before purchasing promotion to lieutenant (9 December 1824) and captain (5 November 1825). Estcourt served with the regiment, which formed part of Lieutenant-General Sir William Clinton's division sent to garrison towns in Portugal (1826-7) during disruption over the succession to the throne. He appears then to have returned with the 43rd to Gibraltar, before sailing for Plymouth and, in 1832, Ireland. From January 1835 until June 1837, he was second in command to Colonel F. R. Chesney during his expedition to the Euphrates valley, which sought to prove that the river was navigable from within overland reach of the Mediterranean to its mouth on the Persian Gulf, thus shortening the journey to India. Despite a torrid period, during which one steamer was wrecked and twenty lives lost at Basrah on 31 August 1836, Estcourt produced a detailed report for Chesney, anticipating ‘no difficulties’ in passage during the ‘season of high water’, provided that accurate knowledge of the deep channel and a vessel of suitable length were acquired. He was less sure about the ‘low season’, owing to lack of information, though he was confident that local Arabs would not be hostile, once they became used to the steamers" (Oxford DNB). This collection was obviously made from Estcourt first posting in Gibraltar.


75. EVANS, Edward, Admiral, RN (1880-1957)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Edward R.G.R. Evans” to his Lecture Agent Gerald Christy mentioning Evans’ Lecture Tour about the 1910 Scott Antarctic Expedition, Recent Naval Engagement near the Belgian Coast, and Plans for a new Novel].

HMS Viking, 27 January 1915. Octavo (ca. 23x17,5 cm). 2 pp. Black ink on watermarked paper with embossed letterhead of HMS Viking in the upper right corner. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
An interesting letter by renowned Antarctic explorer Edward “Teddy” Evans, who was the captain of the “Terra Nova” expedition ship during Robert Scott’s Antarctic Expedition of 1910-1913. The letter is addressed to his lecture agent Gerald Christy of the Lecture Agency Ltd. (London) who organized Evans’ famous 1913-1914 tour around the United States, Canada, Great Britain and Europe, which presented the results of Scott’s expedition to the public. Writing during the early part of WW1, on board the destroyer HMS Viking of which Evans was the Commander at the time, Evans describes his latest engagement with a German submarine near the Belgian coast, “no damage for either side though. I swim in the sea, rough time warm or cold, whenever we are in harbour.”
He asks about the results of Douglas Mawson’s 1914 lecture tour “Home of the Blizzard” based on the Australasian Antarctic Expedition of 1911-1914, “I hear he is lecturing or has done at the Aeolian Hall, New York – did you run this tour too?” He also recalls his own lecture tour: “I wish the Admiralty had not become uneasy on my English Lecture tour, we might have run on for another 6 months with advantage. But nevertheless, for an understudy of your first Naval lecturer, you were not disappointed in my results, were you?”
Evans shares his plans for a new book: “I think it is too late for the book, but I can put you in charge of the novel that I am writing if you like, there is some good copy available, but to get the best out of it we should have to publish it under another name, or one or two people would get their backs up at the reproduction of themselves therein. Think it over, last time you trained me I was a good paying horse?”
Evans’ memoirs about the Scott’s expedition “South with Scott” was published only in 1921 (London: Collins).
“Gerald Christy of the lecture agency Christy & Moore commissioned Evans to carry out the tour he had planned for Scott, and the naval officer spent much of the summer of 1913 lecturing in the United State and Canada. Evans returned to Britain after the publication of the final Strand Magazine instalment, to undertake an extensive national tour, speaking in over fifty towns and cities in the last three months of 1913. In the new year Evans embarked on a further tour through the geographical societies of Europe. He received diplomas of honour from the societies of Antwerp, Berlin, Budapest, Christiania, Copenhagen, Gothenburg, Rome, Stockholm, and Vienna, gold medals from the societies of Brussels, Budapest, Edinburgh, Marseilles, Newcastle, and Paris, and the Huer Silver Medal, the highest award of the Vienna Geographical Society. The tour was a great success” (Jones, M. The Last Great Quest. Captain Scott’s Antarctic Sacrifice. Oxford University Press, 2003, p. 172).
Gerald Christy’s “The Lecture Agency” was located in the Outer Temple, Strand. He managed the lecture tours of Fridtjof Nansen, Robert F. Scott, Ernest Shackleton, R.E. Peary, Douglas Mawson and Roald Amundsen.


76. FOSTER (SKEFFINGTON), Thomas Henry, 2nd Viscount Ferrard, 2nd Baron of Oriel (1772-1843).
[Autograph Letter Signed “Ths. Foster” to his mother Margaretta Amelia Foster, Baroness Oriel, with Observations on Lisbon and the Portuguese].

Lisbon, 22 February ca. 1791. Octavo (ca. 22x17 cm). 3 ½ pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Addressed, with postal stamps and remnants of the original seal on the fourth page. Fold marks, tears and holes on the last page after opening, touching a few letters of text but not affecting sense; the tears repaired. Overall a very good legible letter.
An informative letter full of interesting observations, by a member of one of the aristocratic Irish families, who travelled to Portugal either during a Grand Tour or for health reasons (the letter contains notes on his improving, but not yet good condition). Foster starts the letter expressing his impatience to know “how Anna [his younger sister, Anne Dorothea, ca. 1774-1865] has succeeded in her Castle Minuet & only wait for some Authority to congratulate her on her first Appearance as a Lady of Ton…”
The letter contains his observations on the Portuguese weather, people, religious customs and celebrations, etc.: “Snow in Lisbon is so uncommon that a Phisician [sic!] told me, that his Driver on seeing it this time two years got off his Mule to cross himself, the thaw was so sudden then & accompanied with such Warmth that for Many Hours the People of Lisbon concluded that some Part of the Town was on Fire, & very diligently searched for this concealed Flame <…> Oranges or grapes are to be had fresh through the whole year, & there is no Plant that will not flourish in this Climate some one time of the Year, from the Produce of Brazil, to the Coldest Shrub of Iceland <…> Rheumatic Patients are the only growth that dwindles here & some good Englishmen who have been used to a periodical fit of the gout complain that the climate will not fix their disorder to the time they wish. <…>
The Portuguese in general are like the figures you see in Italian Prints, the monks look either dropsical or agueish, you would smile to see a greasy Franciscan friar with only one coarse garment, no stockings & loose broques, carrying an umbrella, when the rules of his order forbid hi, the use of any hat... This is a fair evasion compared with other they practise <…> Where so bad a Police is kept up & so few Atrocious crimes happen, either the Nature of the People must be good, or fear of their Confessors must restrain them. Any man who is detected with a stabbing knife is instantly imprisoned. But the interest of a Nobleman will open any Prison, & the absurd lenity of the Queen will pardon any Offence.
<…> The Patriarch has more than once given me his Blessings as I have passed his Carriage, he represents the Pope in the same Degree that a Vice Roy does his King. The Inquisition is perfectly quiet & scarcely considered as a religious office <…> My Books are by a Friend’s Means released from the Board of Censure, they are very liberal to Strangers in this respect, indeed I know nothing in Portugal which may not be attained by Interest, to put a Man into Prison, or to take him out to marry your Niece <…> All the Nobility are Pensioners to the Crown, & their principal Study that of supplanting each other of the Royal Favour...”
“Thomas Henry Skeffington, 2nd Viscount Ferrard was an Irish peer and politician. He entered the Irish House of Commons for Dunleer in 1793, representing it until the Act of Union in 1801. Ferrard sat as Member of Parliament in the British House of Commons for Drogheda (1807-1812) and for County Louth (1821-1824). In 1811 he was appointed High Sheriff of Louth and in 1818, appointed High Sheriff of Antrim. He succeeded his mother as second Viscount Ferrard in 1821. However, as this was an Irish peerage it did not entitle him to a seat in the House of Lords. In 1828 he succeeded his father in the barony of Oriel, which was in the Peerage of the United Kingdom, and was able to take a seat in the upper chamber of Parliament” (Wikipedia).


[Letter in French, Written in Secretarial Hand and Signed "Frederic" to Ferdinand I (III/IV), King of Two Sicilies, Informing Him about the Marriage of Prince Frederick William of Prussia, Heir to the Throne and Future Prussian King Frederick William II].

Charlottenburg, 15 July 1769. Folio (ca. 32,5x20 cm). 1 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper; text in French, written in secretarial hand and signed by Frederick the Great. Period ink inscription in another hand on the bottom margin of the first page. With an opened laid paper envelope, addressed in secretarial hand to “Sa Majeste le Roi des deux Siciles Monsieur Mon Frere”; a black seal features Royal Prussian eagle. Fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
An official letter signed by Frederick the Great, a nice example of the correspondence between European monarchs in the 18th century. Frederick the Great informs his royal “Brother” Ferdinand that “yesterday” (14 July 1769) a wedding ceremony took place in Charlottenburg, between Prince Frederick of Prussia and Princess Frederica Louisa, a second daughter of Ludwig IX, Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt. He hopes that his “Brother” will “enter the joy created by this union” and reassures in his “feelings of respect and perfect friendship.” The letter is addressed to “The King of Two Sicilies”, although at the time Ferdinand was officially styled as Ferdinand III of the Kingdom of Sicily and Ferdinand IV of the Kingdom of Naples. He officially became the King of Two Sicilies only in 1816, in the aftermath of the Napoleonic Wars.
"Frederick II was King in Prussia (1740–1786) of the Hohenzollern dynasty. He is best known for his military victories, his reorganization of Prussian armies, his innovative drills and tactics, and his final success against great odds in the Seven Years' War. He became known as Frederick the Great (Friedrich der Große) and was nicknamed Der Alte Fritz ("Old Fritz")" (Wikipedia).


78. GIOVIO, Giulio‚ Bishop of Nocera (ca. 1510-ca. 1563)
[Official Letter Signed by Giovio to “Molto Magnifico Signor” Solomeo Solomei in Florence‚ Introducing his Nephew Passing through Florence on his way to Rome].

Como, 19 March 1560. Folio (ca. 31x21 cm). 1 pp. With the integral blank leaf. Brown ink on laid paper, text in Italian in secretarial hand, signed by Giovio, addressed and docketed on verso of the second blank leaf. Fold marks, second leaf with the lower blank corner clipped and minor staining from the removed seal, but overall a very good letter.
Letter by Giulio Giovio‚ the bishop of Nocera, Campania (1552-1560), writer and nephew of noted prelate, historian and physician Paolo Giovio (1483-1552). Giulio Giovio inherited the title of the bishop of Nocera from his uncle (Paolo Giovio held the seat in 1528-1552). Among poetical works of Giulio Giovio is an extensive poem, a part of which is dedicated to Giovanni da Verrazzano who travelled to North America in 1524, thus becoming “the first European since the Norse expeditions to North America around AD 1000 to explore the Atlantic coast of North America between the Carolinas and Newfoundland, including New York Bay and Narragansett Bay.” A contemporary of the events, Giulio Giovio collected news about the voyage directly from the testimony of Verrazzano’s brother, Jerome. The eleven octaves of Giovio’s poem related to Giovanni da Verrazzano were published by A. Bacchiani under title “I fratelli da Verrazzano e l'eccidio di una spedizione italo-francese in America (1528)” (Boll. Della Società geografica italiana, s. 4, II (1925), pp. 395-399). The later years of Giulio's life he spent at his uncle’s villa, called Museo because of a large collection of painting and antiquities, including one of the first collection of artefacts from the New World, where he sorted the unpublished works of his uncle.


79. GOLDSWORTHY, Walter Tuckfield (1837-1911)
[Large Archive of 138 Letters and Documents on 276 Pages Charting the Career of Walter Tuckfield Goldsworthy from Volunteer Trooper in the Indian Mutiny to Brigade Major in Abyssinia under Lord Napier in 1868 as well as Later Administrative and Regimental Postings.]

1857-1909. The letters and documents are generally in very good to near fine condition.
The core of the archive is its copies of the many testimonials from commanding officers and of mentions in dispatches of particular actions which describe him as an ideal staff officer - zealous, understanding the nature of his many duties, and always tactful and resourceful. These are supplemented by original letters discussing or appointing him to particular posts. This archive charts Goldsworthy career from Volunteer Trooper with Havelock’s Mobile Column in 1857, 8th (the King’s Royal Irish) Hussars, 1857-1864, 91st Foot, 1864-1868 and finally Major-General, M.P. 1885-1900.
In mid-June 1857, Sir Henry Havelock set off from Calcutta to relieve Cawnpore and Lucknow with his ‘Mobile Column’, consisting of infantry and a few guns. His only cavalry were volunteers – civilians including the Goldsworthy brothers, with planters and officers whose regiments had mutinied, just 18 sabres in all. Havelock’s son testifies how, without them, his father and the column would have been “entirely crippled”, and how they endured in rain and burning sun often on outposts, when the regular soldiers had occasional rest in huts or tents. Though Havelock did not reach Lucknow till 25th September, on the way he won victories at Oonau (Unao, 29th July) and Busserutgunge (Busherutgunge, 29th July and 5th August), three of the nine occasions when Goldsworthy is mentioned in dispatches. Soon the volunteers were re-deployed, and in October Goldsworthy was gazetted Cornet in the 8th Hussars, which had charged in the Light Brigade at Balaklava. He was still Cornet the next summer at Gwalior, the last major stronghold of the rebels, and still Cornet with the Rajpootana Field Brigade operating in Central India, acting as its Brigade Major (senior staff officer) and being mentioned in dispatches by Sir Robert Napier (August 1858). Promoted Lieutenant on merit at the end of 1859, he held many responsible posts in his Regiment, including Adjutant for 3½ years. Despairing of advancement, in 1864 when the 8th Hussars were back home, he borrowed money to buy a Captaincy and then transfer to the 91st (Argyllshire) Foot, a cavalry Captaincy “in England” being too expensive. The 91st went out to India, and when Napier was preparing for Abyssinia (1867-1868) he telegraphed for Goldsworthy to join him once again as a Brigade Major of Cavalry, even though he was now with the Infantry. As a reward, Goldsworthy was made Brevet Major, but on half pay and unattached, and he spent the next seven years seeking employment.
The archive includes:
D. COPIES OF CORRESPONDENCE BY COMMANDING OFFICERS WITH THE DUKE OF CAMBRIDGE, recommending Goldsworthy for Promotion, 1861-1865. 10 items in 17 pages
E. COPIES OF CERTIFICATES (TESTIMONIAL LETTERS) about Service in India and Abyssinia, 1857-1868. 14 items in 18 pages
F. GOLDSWORTHY’S STATEMENTS OF SERVICE, c.1865 and c. 1872. 4 items in 12 pages
G. POSSIBLE EMPLOYMENT, Correspondence with Horse Guards about, 1868-1875. 20 items in 28 pages
H. CARDWELL’S ARMY REFORMS, Effect on Goldsworthy, with drafts of his evidence to the Royal Commission, no date and 1873-1877. 16 items in 57 pages
I. MONEY and FAMILY LETTERS, 1863-1909. 23 items in 67 pages
A full detailed list of all documents and letters is available upon request.


80. GOUGH, Bloomfield, Captain (d. 1904)
[SECOND ANGLO-AFGHAN WAR, SIEGE OF THE SHERPUR CANTONMENT: Autograph Letter Signed Addressed to His Father from Besieged Sherpur, Providing Vivid Details of the Siege].

Sherpur, Kabul, 20 December 1879. Octavo (ca. 21x13,5 cm). 14 pp. Brown ink on paper. Old folds with minor tears on margins, paper lightly browned, overall a very good letter.
Expressive first-hand account of the Siege of the Sherpur Cantonment (15-23 December 1879) during the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-1880). The Siege took place during the second phase of the war when in October 1879, Kabul was occupied by the British troops after the British Resident Sir Pierre Cavagnari had been murdered there. In November mutinous Afghan troops amassed to the north of Kabul and, on December 15 mounted a siege on British troops in the Sherpur Cantonment. The siege was raised with arrival on December 23 of the relief column under the command of Brigadier General Charles Gough.
Captain Bloomfield Gough was serving with the 9th Queen’s Royal Lancers cavalry regiment, and took active part in the defence of the Sherpur Cantonment. In his extensive and emotional letter written when the siege was still on, Gough gives a "full and true account of my battles and the siege of Sherpore as far as it has gone."
The account starts with the period from December 9, and describes at length the ferocious fight in Kabul’s neighbourhood Kila Kizi on December 11. Gough recreates all the events of the day in strict consistency, names all officers in command (Brig.-Gen. Macpherson (infantry), Capt. Stewart-Mackenzie and Lieut.-Col. Cleland (9th Queen’s Royal Lancers), Major Smith Widham (artillery) et al); and gives amounts of wounded and killed officers, men and horses.
Gough’s letter provides remarkable descriptions of battle scenes: "After going about 4 or 5 miles the advance partly were fired upon and soon afterwards we saw the enemy collecting in great numbers to our left front. I got my troop under cover of a hillock and the enemy numbering (I am told 1200) began advancing with standards and tom toms and great shouting. Our guns soon came into action and the enemy guns replied. As soon as they came within 800 yards, I opened fire with half my troop dismounted, and owing to our being under cover and the enemy advancing in the open, succeeded in stopping them on our right, however seeing the guns retire and fearing I should be cut off, I remounted my troops and retired over a lot of stony ground at a gallop, keeping my troop well in hand. [To?] turn upon then, if as I expected they (the enemy) would come after me. Well we retired about ¾ of a mile, and the enemy cavalry pursued, coming on with shouts of Allah and Bismillah, and as I hoped in very straggling order. When I thought they were far enough away from the enemy I got my troop into a trot and gave the order Right about Wheel - Charge! - Well I never seen such a scene of consternation [emphasis added]. My men came with a shout and the enemy who were at first so brave appeared thunder struck. Some came on, most stood still and some ran away <..,> The charge was a great success."
Gough is fascinated with an Afghan standard bearer, who "fought in a most desperate way and I never saw such a brave man. He had several lances through him before he fell off his horse and when they got down to take his standard away, though half dead and lying on the ground, he raised himself up and snatched a lance away from one of our men with which he thrust at anyone who came hear him as long as he had a drop of life left in him." He also notes the bravery of British officers who "were a long way in front in the charge and a long way behind in the retreat and every one of them do the same thing that Bill Beresford got the V.C. For." The battle description is illustrated with a nice little drawing in text (leave 2, inside) showing the lancers’ attack on the enemy positions.
Gough’s account of December 13 describes a fierce fight near Siah Sung Heights in which the 9th Lancers commander was killed: "Poor Batson shot dead with a bullet through his heart, Chrisholme being wounded with a shot through the leg and Trowers’ other horse, a very nice black whaler shot dead. 4 men dead and 9 wounded and about 30 dead Afghans lying in heaps. I am awfully sorry for Batson, poor fellow. We also lost several horses, killed or wounded."
Then follows the description of the Siege and the state of the British garrison: "The place is fortified and a desultory fire kept up all and every day from the walls <..,> Every night we have the whole regiment in picquet for fear of an attack. You must not suppose we are in a bad way, as we have plenty of ammunition to defend ourselves, only not enough to go out and drive off the enemy who are in the city and have been having great games looting it. We are perfectly safe here and are only waiting for Charley who is coming up with reinforcements and ammunition, when we shall go out and make an example of them."
In the end Gough states that "I am beginning to think war is not such good sport as people say and think hunting far better for fun and much less dangerous" [emphasis added], and describes the Afghans who "are quite different from those we met at first; <..,> mostly armed with Sniders, and are not out of the way cowards, though fortunately they are very bad shots," and notes that "it is terribly cold with snow on the ground wherever the sun cannot get at it”. He hopes that “Charley will arrive soon and that I shall give them a proper beating and then pursue them with all the cavalry, only the country is so hilly and so intersected with ditches and water that it is not an easy place for us to work on."
Bloomfield Gough came from a noted Irish noble family with a long military tradition. During the Second Afghan War he served as Aide-de-Camp to his relative, Brigadier General Sir Charles Gough (1832-1912) and was present at the taking of Ali Musjid (November 1878). Subsequent to this letter he took part in the march from Kabul to Kandahar and was present at the battle of Kandahar. He was twice mentioned in dispatches (January and September 1880).
Gough exchanged into the 9th Lancers from the Rifle Brigade in April 1873 and rose to command the regiment as Lieut. Colonel from December 1895. He accompanied the 9th Lancers to the Boer War in 1899 but was unjustly relieved of his command in the field in November. Gough retired in 1900 when commanding the regiment with the rank of Lieut. Colonel.


81. HENRY, Jules, Captain of “Nouvelle Bretagne,” Governor of the Colony
[PAPUA NEW GUINEA, LA NOUVELLE FRANCE COLONY: Original Manuscript Account Book, Kept by French Captain Jules Henry on board “Nelusko” steamship during his travels across the Indian Ocean in 1876-1879, and on board “Nouvelle Bretagne” steamship during Marquis de Rays’ ill-fated 1881-1882 settling expedition in New Guinea]: Compte Exploitation Nelusko; Compte du Cap. J. Henry, Sujet Français, Cn. De V[apeur] Libérien “Nouvelle Bretagne”.

Folio (ca. 33,5x20 cm), over 170 lined leaves. Nelusko Account Book: 1876-1879. [11, 1], 38, [2] [=52] leaves. Nouvelle Bretagne Account Book: 1881-1882. [8] pages. In all 56 leaves of text in French, written in legible hand writing. Period brown panelled full sheep with blind stamped British Royal Crest on upper cover (revenue over stamped “4”). A very good manuscript.
Important document supplement to the history of the ill-fated Marquis de Rays’ New Guinea Expedition (1881), compiled by the captain of one of the expedition ships and provisional Governor of the new colony Jules Henry. This was the third and the last attempt of colonisation of the “Nouvelle France”, more commonly known as New Ireland (Bismarck Archipelago, Papua New Guinea).
Jules Henry on “Nouvelle Bretagne” and Captain Rabardy on “Genil” delivered the last batch of immigrants to the Marquis de Rays’ Nouvelle France. Henry left Barcelona in April 1881 with 180 emigrants, including several judicial and military officials. At Singapore he received a telegram from Marquis which nominated him provisional Governor of Port Breton. Upon arrival to Port Breton he discovered the residents suffering from starvation and malaria, with many already dead, and the rest fully disillusioned in the perspectives of the Nouvelle France. After a short stay, on the 16th of September Henry proceeded to Manila with a large group of the unfortunate settlers, hoping to obtain supplies and medicines for Port Breton in the Philippines. But in Manila the ship was placed under arrest together with the captain and the crew on the claim of one of Marquis’ creditors, and was put up for sale. Remembering the starving settlers of the Nouvelle France, Henry escaped from the Bay of Manila during a storm and went to Port Breton. He arrived to the settlement in the end of December, finding the survivors in an even more deplorable condition. On the 15th of January a Spanish man-of-war “Legaspi” arrived to Port Breton and arrested Henry with his crew and ship on charge of embargo violation and piracy (as he took with him several Spanish officials who were on the “Nouvelle Bretagne” when he escaped). On the 22nd of January both ships left for Manila where Henry went under trial (for more information see: The Sydney Morning Herald, 5 May 1882, p. 7; The Sidney Morning Herald, 7 December 1882, p. 4).
Jules Henry’s account book contains texts of three interesting documents about his service on the “Novelle Bretagne” which were obviously compiled during his trial in Manila in May 1882:“Compte du Cap. J. Henry, Sujet Français, Cn. De V[apeur] Libérien “Nouvelle Bretagne” (dated “Manille, 17 Mai 1882”), “Compte particulier du Cap. J. Henry Ct. Le Vapeur Libérien “Nouvelle Bretagne” dont il demande à poursuivre le recouvrement en justice avec privilège sur les biens en general “Du Marquis de Rays” et en particulier sur le Navire ‘Nouvelle Bretagne’”; and “Copie du Compte alimentation présenté à l’Avocat le 1er Mai” (dated “Manille, 1 Mai 1882”). All three documents are manuscript copies of the original accounts intended for the Spanish officials; they were obviously made by Henry for his own record at the same time with the originals, and placed into the journal which already contained accounts of his previous journeys. Henry gives a detailed account of his income and expenses when the captain of the “Nouvelle Bretagne”.
Charles du Breil, Marquis de Rays (1832-1893), an adventurous French nobleman, declared himself “King Charles I” of a Pacific empire located on the islands still unclaimed by European powers, and having fertile soils, a climate similar to that of the French Riviera and an already developed infrastructure. About 570 colonists from France, German and Italy immigrated to the newly established Port Breton in 1880-1881, but discovered no settlement, mountainous terrain and dense rainforest not suitable for fields or pastures. After about a hundred settlers had died from malaria and malnutrition, the rest fled to Australia, New Caledonia and the Philippines. In 1883 de Rays was sentenced by a French court to six years in prison for criminal negligence. Captain Henry was a witness against Marquise de Ray in the trial in Paris in November 1882.
The first account book records over twenty voyages of “Nelusko” steamship in the years 1876-1879 under Henry’s command from France (Marseille) to (and between) different ports of the Indian Ocean and the East Indies: Madagascar and neighbouring islets (Nosy Be, Mayotte), Seychelles (Mahé), Mauritius and Réunion, Zanzibar, India (Pondicherry, Negapatam, Karaikal, Madras et al.), Penang, Singapore and others. Nelusko transported post, consular goods, hospital supplies, and live cargo; several lists of passengers and crew are included.


82. HERNDON, William Lewis (1813-1857)
[Autograph Manuscript Letter Book of U.S. Naval Lieutenant William Lewis Herndon, Containing Copies of Thirty-Two Documents Written on Board USS Iris during the Mexican-American War, and a Copy of a Letter to Lardner Gibbon during the US Expedition to the Valley of the Amazon].

[U.S.S. Iris at various locations (Vera Cruz, Pensacola, Laguna); and Tarma (Peru), 1847-1851]. [44] pp. Folio (ca. 33x20 cm). Black ink on lined paper; text clean and legible. Original quarter sheep note book with marbled boards; contemporary bookplate on the front pastedown. Housed in a custom made cloth clamshell box with an olive gilt title label on the spine. Hinges cracked, spine partially perished, corners worn, but overall a very good letter book.
Original letter book of noted American naval officer, Amazon explorer and naval hero William Lewis Herndon; it contains the original draft of Herndon’s instructions to the expedition member Lt. Lardner Gibbon regarding his further exploration of the Amazon following their separation at Tarma, Peru on July 1, 1851. The text of the manuscript differs slightly from the one published in volume I of Herndon and Gibbon's “Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon” (Washington, 1854, pp. 33-34), and has some manuscript corrections, which makes it an important historical source.
Herndon assigned Gibbon a different route of discovery so that "while I gave my own personal attention to the countries drained by the upper Marañon, Mr. Gibbon might explore some, and gather all the information he could respecting others, of the Bolivian tributaries of the Amazon." This letter provides Gibbon with guidance as to the route he is to follow and the importance of minimizing risk to himself to ensure that the results of their exploration might be preserved. “Lt. Herndon pushed into the upper Amazon. Lt. Gibbon traveled south through Bolivia and then into the selvas of Brazil. The two groups met in Serpa, Brazil, and then continued down the Amazon River to Para” (Hill 803).
The letter book also contains thirty two letters and documents written on board USS Iris which was under Herndon’s command during the Mexican-American War (1846-1848). The correspondence is primarily on various day to day issues including the engineering problems and administrative issues. However, also included is a five-page letter dated aboard the Iris at Laguna in March of 1848 to an unidentified recipient, but probably Matthew C. Perry, Commanding the Home Squadron off Mexico during the Mexican-American War. The letter reports the results of Herndon's meetings at Sisal with Military Commandant Don Alonzo Azuar regarding Indian involvement in the conflict, and with the senior Spanish Naval Officer present, Don Francisco Garcia di Salas, commander of the brig Nervian, regarding the landing of guns and munitions.
In 1857, as a captain of the ill-fated U.S. Mail Steamer Central America, Herndon showed the utmost heroism while saving lives of the passengers during the hurricane of Cape Hatteras, having evacuated all women and children. 426 passengers and crew, including Herndon perished with the ship, thus making the wreckage the largest loss of life in a commercial ship disaster in United States history. Herndon's heroism prompted the construction of the Herndon Monument at the U. S. Naval Academy in 1860.
Overall this Letter book represents an important primary source on the history of the US expedition to the Amazon (1851-1852) and the Mexican-American War (1846-1848).


83. HILDEBRANDT, Eduard (GERMAN, 1817-1869)
[Original Signed Watercolour Titled:] "Sonnenuntergang an der asiatischen Wanigja [Canton (Guangzhou)?]."

Ca.1863. Watercolour on paper, ca. 21x30 cm (8 ½ x 11 ½ in). Signed in pencil. Mounted under glass in a later molded gilt wood frame. A very good watercolour, not examined out of the frame.
This atmospheric watercolour most likely shows the Pearl River looking towards old Canton (with Chigang Pagoda, Temple of the Six Banyan Trees et al. Seen in the distance) at sundown produced on Hildebrandt's world tour 1862-1864. - Verso with a note that the title of the watercolour was written on the old passepartout.
Eduard Hildebrandt was a German painter. He studied in Berlin and Paris and was a friend of scientist and explorer Alexander von Humboldt. Under the latter’s influence he took a voyage around the world in 1862-64, making watercolour views of many places he visited. "Fantasies in red, yellow and opal, sunset, sunrise and moonshine, distances of hundreds of miles like those of the Andes and the Himalaya, narrow streets in the bazaars of Cairo or Suez, panoramas as seen from mast-heads, wide cities like Bombay or Pekin, narrow strips of desert with measure-less expanses of sky all alike display his quality of bravura" (Wikipedia).


84. HORSBURGH, James, F.R.S. (1762-1836)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Jas. Horsburgh” to B.S. Jones, Esq., Secretary of the India Board Introducing the Charts of the Java Sea Straits Recently Published by Horsburgh].

East India House [London], 16 January 1819. Quarto (ca. 22,5x18 cm). 4 pp. (text on page 1). Brown ink on watermarked laid paper, addressed on the 4th page. Legible handwriting. Mild fold marks, otherwise a near fine letter.
Interesting letter by James Horsburgh, noted Scottish navigator and chart maker, official hydrographer of the East India Company (since 1810) and Fellow of the Royal Society. He became known his precise maps and navigational directories of the East Indies, in particular around Singapore, including his famous “Directions for sailing to and from the East Indies, China, New Holland…” (2 parts, 1809-1811), which became the standard navigation guide for the area, known as the “East India Directory”. Horsburgh also supervised the engraving and publishing of the famous “Atlas of India” (London, 1827- …).
The letter, addressed to the secretary of the India Board B.S. Jones, regards Horsburgh’s recently published charts of Gaspar, Bangka and Sunda Straits adjacent to the Java Sea: “Having a few days ago published a Chart of the Straits of Banca and Gaspar on the same scale as my late Chart of the Strait of Sunda which I had the pleasure to forward you; permit me to send a copy of the above mentioned Chart also, in case yourself or any of the Gentlemen at the India Board should have occasion to advert to these places, as the delineation of the Coasts of Banca &c. Is more correct that in any former publication”.
The mentioned maps were published under the titles: “To Captain Krusenstern, of the Imperial Russian Navy, as a tribute for his laudable exertions to benefit navigation and maritime science, this chart of the Strait of Sunda is inscribed” (Jun. 1818) and" Chart of the Straits of Gaspar, Straits of Banca, and adjacent areas of the China and Java Seas” (Jan. 1819).
“East India House was the London headquarters of the East India Company, from which much of British India was governed until the British government took control of the Company's possessions in India in 1858” (Wikipedia). “The Right Honourable Board of Commissioners for the Affairs of India (commonly known as the India Board or the Board of Control) was an arm of the Government of the United Kingdom responsible for managing the Government's interest in British India and the East India Company between 1784 and 1858” (Wikipedia).


85. KEAST, Susette Inloes (nee SCHULZ, 1892-1932)
& William Richard Morton (1888-1973)
[Two Albums with Over Fifty Watercolours and Pencil Drawings of Japan and China].

Ca. 1914. Two albums, both oblong small Octavo, ca. 14x18,5 cm (5 ½ x 7 ¼ in) and ca. 13x19,5 cm (5 1/8 x 7 ½ in). The first one: 25 leaves, over thirty drawings, including six full-page and over ten hand coloured. Signed and dated in pencil "Susette I. Keast. 6360 McCallum St, Germ. Philadelphia - Penna, USA" on the first pastedown. With eleven Japanese red ink stamps on the leaves. The second album: 16 leaves, about twenty sketches, including over ten hand coloured. Signed "W.R. Morton Keast, Japan 1914" on the last pastedown. Both in original Japanese green cloth albums; the second one with a paper label of “Jiujiya Bookseller and Stationer, Yokohama” on the last pastedown. The first album with the last free endpaper torn off; the second album slightly loose on hinges, but overall a very good pair.
Interesting collection of travel sketches of Japan and China by a family couple of American artists – Susette Keast (in future a member of the Philadelphia Ten) and prominent Philadelphia architect William Morton Keast. The albums were compiled during the couple’s trip to East Asia in 1914, one album being compiled by Susette, and the other by her husband. Susette’s album includes seven fine full-page drawings, including two views of streets and temples of Kyoto, street views of Nanking (Nanjing, China) and Shanghai, scenes in a “Park at Nara” and “In the train – Tokyo,” and two watercolours of a “Peking Cart” and Chinese street vendors (there is also an unfinished watercolour of a “Peking Shop”). The album also contains numerous sketches and studies of Japanese and Chinese architectural details, ornaments, interiors, and costumes, many with dense reference notes about colours, left for subsequent completion. Several leaves analyse special topics and colouring manner in East-Asian art, i.e. “Subjects for gold sliding screens – Japanese,” “Cherry blossoms & water,” “Fir trees,” “Korean Colour,” “Chinese colour – Peking.” W.M. Keast’s album includes architectural studies with reference notes about colours, and sketches of Japanese fans and costumes; with three pages of ink manuscript notes, most likely made by Susette.
Susette Schultz Keast studied at the Philadelphia School of Design for Women and the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts under such notable instructors as Henry Snell, Elliott Daingerfield, Hugh Breckenridge, Thomas Anshutz and William Merritt Chase. She received her Cresson European Fellowship at the young age of 19. In 1919, she married prominent architect, William Morton Keast. The engaging couple traveled frequently, including several trips to China and Japan, before settling in Philadelphia and raising their two daughters. Susette’s artwork was strongly influenced by the Orient, to the point of having her home studio created from the palace of a Chinese Emperor that was shipped back to the States. Keast was dedicated to fostering the professional growth of women artists. She was a member and chairwoman of the Eight Philadelphia Women. They exhibited regularly at the Plastic Club and the Art Club of Philadelphia. She was also a member of the Philadelphia Ten, replacing Cora Brooks who died suddenly of pneumonia in 1930. Tragically, Keast, too, died very suddenly in 1932 at the age of 40. (She contracted a brief, fatal illness during a trip to Canada) (AskArt.com)
W. R. Morton Keast was the chief designer for the Philadelphia architect bureau of John T. Windrim for about 25 years. He contributed to the design of a number of Philadelphia buildings, including the Fidelity Bank, the Franklin Institute, several Bell Telephone buildings, the house group for Girard College, the Wanamaker Men's Store Building (Lincoln-Liberty Building) et al. Keast was a member of the American Institute of Architects, the Pennsylvania Society of Architects, the Franklin Institute, the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and others (See more about Keast in the article by Sandra L. Tatman/ Philadelphia Architects & Buildings online).
“The Philadelphia Ten, also known as The Ten, was a group of female artists from the United States who exhibited together from 1917 to 1945. The group exhibited annually in Philadelphia and later had traveling exhibitions at other museums throughout the East Coast and the Midwest. The Philadelphia Ten exhibited together between 1917 and 1945, at first annually in Philadelphia and later, with traveling exhibitions at major museums and galleries on the east coast and in the Midwest. All members had studied art in the schools of Philadelphia and all but three of the original ten were graduates of the Philadelphia School of Design for Women (now Moore College of Art and Design). Relatively unknown today, this group of a total of 23 painters and 7 sculptors was critically acclaimed, aggressively shown, and widely patronized during the twenty-eight years they formally exhibited together” (Wikipedia).
See more about Susette Keast: The Philadelphia Ten: A Women’s Artist Group, 1917-1945/ Moore College of Art and Design and American Art Review Press, 1998. 175 p.


86. LUMSDEN, Sir Peter Stark (1829-1918)
[An Historically Important Archive of Thirteen Items Relating to the Career of Sir Peter Stark Lumsden. The Archive Covers Lumsden's Career in India for the Period ca. 1870-1883].

Lumsden "served as quartermaster-general in India between 1868 and 1873. He was made a full colonel in March 1870 and became aide-de-camp to Queen Victoria. In 1872 he was appointed resident to Hyderabad, and CB the following year. He was created CSI, served as adjutant-general of India (1874-9), and became the chief of staff of India in September 1879, having been knighted in July. He was also extremely enterprising: when Sir Frederick Roberts led his column on Kandahar during the Second Afghan War (1878–80) he was approached by a foul-smelling fakir, an ‘extraordinary looking creature’, who claimed to have obtained valuable intelligence on the Afghan forces. Roberts did not realize the fakir was Lumsden, who had been on his own personal reconnaissance in an elaborate disguise with ‘decoration of peculiar sanctity … dirt, wig and all’. He was also known for his great physical fitness: recovering from scarlet fever, he was alerted to the presence nearby of a man who was drowning. He asked the crowd if someone would volunteer to rescue the man since he himself was quite ill, but, when no one stepped forward, he plunged in, and, with extraordinary effort, pulled the man to safety. Lumsden was promoted major-general in 1881, and in 1883 became a member of the Council of India, where he was thought of as someone with a ‘sturdy independence’ of mind"(Oxford DNB). The archive includes:
1. ALS from Lord Lawrence on cuts to the Indian Army, octavo, three pages, the first page black edged and embossed with a coronet and the address 26 Queen’s Gate addressed to Colonel Peter Lumsden, C.B., C.S.I., dated 19th May 1873, addressing him My dear Lumsden and signed Lawrence. The letter notes that Lawrence is to be examined by the Finance Committee and requests information on the various strengths of the Army in India and in each of the Presidencies. Lawrence seeks a meeting with Lumsden to discuss the proposed cuts in the army and observes “My idea generally is that both in Europeans & Natives we have cut down the Army as low as we ought to do. Madras might spare some Native Troops perhaps, but then these seem to be our only reserves.” The blank rear leaf of the letter is pasted to an old album leaf; the top third of the first page is browned but the whole is sound.
John Lawrence was asked to serve an extra year as Viceroy and, on his return to England, he was raised to the peerage as Lord Lawrence of the Punjaub. He died in 1879.
2. Group Portraits showing Viceroys: Sir John Lawrence and Lord Mayo. An old album leaf with on the one side a portrait of Sir John Lawrence seated at a table with members of his council and staff, circa 1865, including Gen Sir Robert Napier [later Lord Napier of Magdala], Gen. Sir Hugh Rose [later Lord Strathnairn], his military Secretary Col Sir Henry Durand, Col Henry Norman [in uniform], Sir Charles Trevelyan, Col Richard Strachey. The image strong and clear is ca. 16 x 22cm (6 x 8.5in.), The verso has a 19 x 18cm (7.5 x 7in.) group portrait of the succeeding Viceroy, Lord Mayo, with his senior military staff at Peshawar in 1870. The portrait includes Gen Lord Napier, Col Peter Lumsden (QMG), Col Henry Norman [Military Member]. There are two small tears without loss lower right. The majority of the sitters wear military uniform, some with medals; Lord Minto [the only Viceroy to be assassinated] wears a frock coat and the star and ribbon of the Grand Master of the Order of the Star of India.
Napier acted as Governor General during an interim period following the death of the Earl of Elgin in 1863 and Norman turned down the position of Viceroy in succession to Lord Lansdowne in 1894.
3. A manuscript letter, written in a neat secretarial hand on two sides of a single sheet of plain folio paper, addressed to Lieut. Colonel P. S. Lumsden, C.B., Quarter Master General, thanking Lumsden, on behalf of the Viceroy [Lord Mayo], for his trouble in connection with the investiture of H.R.H. The Duke of Edinburgh as an Extra Knight Grand Commander of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. “Your exertions as Marshal of the Encampment were indefatigable. At great sacrifice of time and labour, you made a variety of complicated arrangements which resulted in the absence of everything in the shape of confusion or inconvenience either among those who took part in the ceremonial or among the large number of persons who attended as spectators.” The letter is dated Fort William, The 4th January 1870 and signed C. U. Aitchison Offg. Secretary to the Govt of India.
4. Notification of Award of C.S.I. to Colonel Peter Lumsden. A single folio sized sheet of paper written on both sides in a formal secretarial hand, noting that the Viceroy, Lord Mayo, is sending the grant from the Queen appointing Lumsden a Companion of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, together with a mention of a covenant concerning return of insignia, signed C. U. Aitchison by the Secretary to the Order, C U Aitchison, CSI and dated Simla 3rd June 1870.
The document also notes that the Badge of the Order has already been presented to Lumsden privately by the Junior Under Secretary to the Foreign Department .
5. Grant of Companion of the Order of the Star of India to Lumsden, Signed by the Sovereign of the Order, Victoria R. A manuscript document written in fine palace script on two sides of a bifolium, appointing Peter Stark Lumsden, Esquire Colonel in Our Army, Major in the Bengal Staff Corps and Quarter Master General to be a Companion of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of India, signed By Her Majesty’s Command Pagett, dated 22nd March 1870 and applied with the paper seal of the Order and signed at the head of the first page Victoria R. Excellent condition with the usual fold marks.
A fairly early award of the CSI, which had only been instituted in 1861. Lumsden was to go on to be awarded the CB, KCB and eventually the GCB.
6. Original photograph of Col Peter Lumsden, C.B., C.S.I. A carte de visite ca. 9 x 5.5 cm (3. 5 x 2 in.) bust length portrait showing the colonel in dress uniform wearing his CB and CSI with his campaign medals, circa 1870. With no sign of ever having been attached to a photographer’s card.
At this period the CB and the CSI were both worn as breast badges and not from the neck.
7. The appointment of Lumsden as Resident to the Court of Hyderabad. A formal letter of appointment written on two sides of a bifolium in palace script addressed to Colonel P. S. Lumsden, C.S.I. Of the Bengal Staff Corps appointing him to be the Viceroy’s Representative to the Court of His Highness Nawab Meer Muhboob Ali Khan, Bahadur during the three month absence of the Resident of Hyderabad, C.B. Saunders, C.B. On privilege leave. The document is dated Simla, this 28th day of June 1872 and signed by the Viceroy Northbrook above the large inked Seal of the Supreme Government of India. The document is in very good condition, with the usual folds and is pasted by the blank second sheet to an old album leaf. Together with a copy letter in manuscript similarly presented, certified as a true copy and signed by the Registrar Foreign Deptt. This is the letter sent by Lord Northbrook Simla The 28th June 1872 addressed His Highness Asuf Jah Muzufer-ool-Mumalik Nizam-ool-Moolk Nizam-ood Dowlah Nawab Meer Muhboob Ali Khan Bahadur Futteh Jung, Hyderabad and advises him that Col Lumsden, “an officer who possesses my full confidence, and of high standing and character in the service of the British Government, has been appointed to officiate as Resident....” Northbrook adds that this friendly letter will be delivered personally by Lumsden. Great care was attached to the appointment of Residents and Agents as they had the delicate task of interpreting government policy to the rulers.
8. The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India. Ceremonial to be observed at The Grand Chapter of The Most Exalted Order of the Star of India to be held at Calcutta, on Saturday, the 1st January 1876. 14pp folio, sewn as issued but the sewing now loose. The first page is headed with the badge of the Order. The final unnumbered blank page is stuck to an old album leaf. The various headings, printed in red, are Object of the Grand Chapter, Formation and Arrangement of Encampment, Arrangement of Seats within the Chapter Tent, Arrival of Spectators and Members of the Order, Grand Procession to the Chapter Tent, Opening of the Chapter, Decoration of Companions of the Order, Closing of the Chapter. An appendix details the order of the carriage cortège for HRH The Prince of Wales and HE The Grand Master. This important chapter marked the Prince of Wales’s visit to India. The Raja of Jhind and the Maharaja of Jodhpur were invested as Knights Grand Commander. The KCSI’s to be invested were the Maharaja of Punna, the Raja of Nahun, Rao Holker Dad Sahib of Indore, Col the Hon H Ramsay, Gen Runnodeep Sing Rana Bahadur [C-in-c of the Nepalese Army], Rao Raja Gunput Rao Kirkee, & Mumtaz-ud-Dowlah Mahummad Faiz Ali Khan. Two civil servants and one other Indian were created CSI. Details of the elaborate procession and tented accommodation are given including the procession of existing Knights Grand Commander with their banner holders (Major Gen Dighton Probyn VC in the case of the Prince] and attendants. The reverse of the album leaf has a large scale plan of the tents with title and coloured badge of the Order. The Knights Grand Commander attending the ceremony were the Begum of Bhopal, H E Nawab Sir Salar Jung Bahadur of Nepal, the Maharajas of Patiala, Travancore, Rewah, Holkar of Indore, Cashmere, Sindia of Gwalior, and Sir Bartle Frere.
Provenance: Major General Sir Peter Lumsden, who is listed among the 29 Companions of the Order who attended.
9. Order of the Star of India: A small printed sheet [5 x 8ins] commanding the recipient to attend a chapter of the Order at Calcutta on 1st January 1876, for the Investiture of the Rulers of Jodhpore, Rampore, and Jheend as Knights Grand Commanders of the Order. Printed in blue and signed by the Secretary of the Order, “C. U. Aitchison”, Dated Simla 39th August 1875 and made out to Major Genl. P. S. Lumsden, C.S.I.. Pasted to part of an old album sheet, slightly soiled. Together with: Collar Days. A printed folio sized sheet of paper listing the Collar days for Orders from the era of Queen Victoria. 3 faint horizontal folds, otherwise clean.
10. ALS from John Wodehouse, 1st Earl of Kimberley [1826-1902], two pages octavo with printed address 35 Lowndes Square, S.W., addressed to Maj Gen Sir P Lumsden, K.C.B. The letter, dated Nov 18th 1883, expresses Kimberley’s pleasure in recommending Lumsden to the Queen for appointment to the Indian Council in the place of Sir Henry Norman and is signed Kimberley. First page a bit browned. The Earl of Kimberley was Secretary of State for India 1882-85. His endorsement would be almost certain to guarantee Lumsden’s appointment.


87. MACLEAY, Alexander (1767-1848)
[Period Manuscript Copy of the Government Order Issued by McLeay as the Colonial Secretary in Sydney, Regarding the Assassination of Captain Patrick Logan in October, 1830].

[Sydney]: Colonial Secretary’s Office, ca. 1830. The original dated “17 November 1830.” Octavo (ca. 22,5x18,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on S. Brook’s watermarked laid paper, with a blind stamped monogram in the left upper corner. Written in legible secretarial hand. Fold marks, a couple of minor tears on folds, paper slightly browned, but overall a very good document.
A period manuscript copy of the Government Order. No. 22, issued on November 17, 1830 by the Colonial Secretary's Office in Sydney. The order refers to the murder of Captain Patrick Logan, the Commander of the Moreton Bay penal colony, notorious for his harshness to convicts and Aboriginal people alike to the point of cruelty. He managed the penal colony from 1826 until his death, having explored and mapped vast territories in South East Queensland. Logan was the first European explorer to visit the upper reaches of the Brisbane and Bremer Rivers, Mount Barney; he named a number of geographical locations in the area. He was killed apparently by Aboriginal Australians during a survey trip in October 1830.
The text of our manuscript almost completely coincides with the official order published in the “Sydney Gazette and New South Wales Advertiser” on Thursday, 18 November, 1830 (vol. 28, Issue 1294, p. 2). The two minor differences include the absence of the phrase “and eight months” in the sentence “He had held for a Period of four Years [and eight months] the Command at Moreton Bay” in the newspaper publication; and the correction of the word “Risque” with “Risk” ibidem.
“His Excellency the Governor publishes, with Feelings of deep Concern, the following Copy of a Letter from Captain Clunie, 17th Regiment, conveying Intelligence of the melancholy Fate of Captain Logan, 57th, late Commandant at Moreton Bay, who was murdered by the natives, when completing a Survey which he had commenced last Year. <…>
He had held for a Period of four Years [and eight months] the Command at Moreton Bay - a Situation, from the Character of the Settlement, of the most troublesome and arduous Description. He did not, however, confine himself to the immediate Duties of his Command; but had on several Occasions, at great personal Risque, explored the Country to a Considerable extent; and on one of these discovered a River, which, in Compliment to his Services, was named the "Logan" as will be seen by the Government Order of the 16th July, 1827, No. 27.
The Circumstances of Captain Logan's death, prove that the Ardour of his Character was not to be restrained by personal Considerations. His Life was devoted to the Public Service. Professionally he possessed those Qualities which distinguish the best Officers; and in the Conduct of an extensive Public Establishment, his Services were highly important to the Colony. The Governor, though he deeply regrets the Occasion, is gratified in expressing his Sentiments of Captain Logan's Character and Services. He is assured that every feeling Mind will sympathise with the afflicted Widow, who, with her infant Family has, by an Act of savage Barbarity, sustained a Loss which cannot be repaired. As a Tribute to the Memory of this meritorious Officer, His Excellency requests that the Gentlemen of the Civil Service will join the Military in attending the Funeral, of which due Notice will be given. By His Excellency's Command. Signed Alexander M'Leay”.


88. MATTHEWS, Marmaduke RCA, OSA (Canadian 1837-1913)
[Original Signed Watercolour Titled:] "Evening at Leanchoil."

Ca. 1890. Watercolour ca. 19x43 cm (7 ½ x 17 in). The watercolour is glazed, matted and framed. Overall a very good watercolour.
The watercolour shows the Canadian Pacific Railroad tracks at Leanchoil B.C. (Between Field and Golden) with the Rocky Mountains of Yoho National Park in the background. Mathews "studied watercolour painting at Oxford University before moving to Toronto Canada in 1860 to embark on a career as an esteemed painter of western landscapes. He was hired by the Canadian Pacific Railway to paint the Canadian prairies and rocky mountains. He worked under William Van Horne, then-president of the Canadian Pacific Railway, and made several cross-country trips to Canada's west, including in 1887, 1889 and 1892. He reportedly drew his sketches from the cowcatcher of a locomotive train" (Wikipedia).


89. MOFFAT, John Smith, Reverend (1835-1918)
[Autograph Letter Signed “John Smith Moffat” to “Master Alfred William Gough” about Latter’s Desire to Become a Missionary in Africa].

Kuruman, [?] Hopetown, Cape of Good Hope, 25 January 1876. Quarto (ca. 27x21,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on blue laid paper. Paper aged, weak on folds and with minor tears neatly repaired, otherwise a very good letter, written in a very legible hand.
Historically interesting letter from Reverend John Smith Moffat, a noted British missionary in South Africa and a brother-in-law of David Livingstone. The letter written in a very personal manner, is addressed to a young boy and reveals Moffat’s thoughts on the essence and purpose of Christian missions. The letter was most likely addressed to Alfred William Gough (1862-1931), who was 14 at the time, and later became a renowned Christian activist and author, Prebendary of St. Paul’s Cathedral.
“My dear young Friend, I was glad to have your note, and to hear that you would like to be a missionary. It is much better to be missionary than to be anything else. A man who lives for himself may get rich and powerful and have a great many things that a missionary cannot have, but he can never have such happiness; and when the world has passed away he will have nothing to show for all the time he lived and enjoyed the world. But every act of love & kindness will then live; like the seeds which we bury and see no more for a time, and then we come back to find them beautiful fragrant flowers. <…> If you ever become missionary you must be prepared for a good many things that you are hardly like I think about now. Indeed I do not address you to become a missionary unless you are quite sure that God calls you <…> [when you are sure] that the Lord will be with you & that you will make a good missionary.”
“We are getting on very slowly here, but Africa is a slow country & patience is necessary for everything. It is a good thing however that when one set of missionaries dies, another is ready to take its place. <…> It is a pleasant thought to me that when I am gone there will be plenty of strong young fellows to come into my place. Perhaps this is not just the sort of letter you might have expected from me, but it does us all good, even jolly young cubs at school, sometimes to sit down and think about these things, which are just as real & true as the life you are now living & will all have to come to pass, so let us meet them bravely & pass away like heroes. Remember me to any of your schoolfellows who may know me. Perhaps someday I may be also to give you another letter like the last about the Bechuana or the Matebele.”
The letter was written in the famous Kuruman station of the London Missionary Society (modern Northern Cape, South Africa). Known as “the fountain of Christianity," it was founded in 1821 by Robert Moffat, the father of the author of this letter; and it was at Kuruman where David Livingstone arrived for his first position as a missionary in 1841. John Smith Moffat took over running the Kuruman station from his father in 1865 and worked there until 1879 when he joined the British Bechuanaland colonial service. An Interesting personal account on the Christian missionary activities in the 19th century Southern Africa by one its leading figures.


90. MOHAN LAL (1812-1877)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Mohan Lal,” Informing his Correspondent that “a Ticket for admission to the Botanical Garden has been forwarded to me by Mr. Oliveira & therefore I beg you not to take any trouble.”]

[London]: 53 Manchester Street, 11 June 1845. Duodecimo (ca. 13,5x9 cm). 2 pp., with an integral blank leaf. Brown ink on paper with a blind stamped monogram in the upper left corner. Mild fold marks, minor stains on verso of the second blank leaf, otherwise a very good letter.
A rare letter by Mohan Lal (Zutshi) – one of the few native Indian players of the Great Game who greatly contributed to the British victory in the First Anglo-Afghan War (1838-1842). The letter was written in England where Mohan Lal lived after the end of the war. His two major books, “Travels in the Panjab, Afghanistan & Turkistan to Balk, Bokhara, and Herat” and “Life of the Amir Dost Mohammed Khan, of Kabul” were to be published in London the following year. The latter is considered a primary source on the First English-Afghan War.
An offspring of a Kashmiri noble family from Delhi, Mohan Lal attended the newly formed Delhi English College. In 1832-1834 he accompanied Sir Alexander Burnes on his expedition to Central Asia with the aim of political and military intelligence; they became close friends. “Later, Lal was the Commercial Agent for the British on the Indus and Political Assistant to Burnes in Kabul during the first Afghan War. Unlike Burnes, he survived the massacres of 1841 and continued to keep Calcutta informed of events in the Afghan capital from the house of a merchant where he had taken refuge […] Mohan Lal played a major role in securing the release of British prisoners held hostage in Bamiyan” (Wikipedia).
In the letter Mohan Lal mentions Benjamin Oliveira, a British politician and businessman, writer, philanthropist, Member of Parliament and Director of the British Institution of Beaux Arts and Painting (See more: British Armorial Bindings/ University of Toronto Libraries on-line).


91. MONTEIRO, Manoel, S.J. (1604-1680)
[Autograph Letter Signed "Manuel Montro", addressed to D. João IV, Regarding the Portuguese Attempt to Seize the Fortress at Angra, on Ilha Terceira (the Azores) from the Spaniards, during the Portuguese Restoration War].

Angra do Heroísmo (the Azores), 8 April 1641. Folio (ca. 31x21 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on laid paper, text in Portuguese written in a dense but legible hand. Period commentary in a different hand on the top margin of the first page. Fold marks, weak and partly detached on the centrefold, very minor tears on extremities, some neatly repaired. Overall in very good condition.
Official report to the Portuguese King D. João IV by his emissary comprising an original, eyewitness account of the early stages of siege by the Portuguese of the Spanish-held Angra fortress on Terceira Island (the Azores) in 1641-1642. Soon after D. João IV's acclamation (1 December 1640), Manoel Monteiro, a Jesuit, was dispatched to Angra to negotiate on D. João’s behalf with D. Alvaro de Vieiros, the Spanish commander. Monteiro arrived in January 1641. In this report to D. João, he describes the behavior and armament of the Spaniards as well as the progress of the negotiations. He also analyzes events to date and cites two possible threats to the situation on the island. The siege of San Philippe del Monte Brasil (in this document, “Castello de S. Philippe”) began on 27 March 1641, about a week before this letter was written. It lasted until the Spanish surrender on 4 March 1642, when the Spaniards were permitted to retreat with their personal arms and two bronze artillery pieces. The surrender of the fort ended Spanish dominion on Terceira. The Portuguese renamed the fort São João Baptista, after D. João’s patron saint.
The manuscript has a period inscription at the top of first leaf, giving a short summary of the letter: "Relação original que mandarão a El Rey D. João o 4 os Pdes. Da Compª de que socedeo na Ilha 3ª, quando chegou a not[ici]a de ser aclamado, e do que con os Castelhanos se passou na Cid[ad]e de Angra, onde soccederão couzas prodigiosos." The text of the letter was apparently first published in “Boletim da Sociedade de Bibliophilos Barbosa Machado”, rare Portuguese bibliophile magazine of the early 20th century, most likely as an article and an offprint, as a small publication with the same title is listed in Worldcat (Relação. Original que mandarão a el-rey d. João o 4º os padres da comp[anhi]a do que soccedeo na ilha 3ª, quando chegou a nota. De ser aclamado; e do que con os castelhanos se passou na cide. De Angra. Onde soccederão couzas prodigiosas. Publicada por Martinho da Fonseca. Lisbon, 1912, 20 pp., 50 copies).
Fr. Manuel Monteiro (Monforte, 1604-1680) taught Greek and Hebrew in Angra and Lisbon. He published biographies of St. Francis Xavier, St. Ignatius of Loyola, and P. José Anchieta, as well as numerous works on religious subjects.
“Like the Tower of Belém and the Monastery of the Hieronymites in Lisbon, and Goa in India, Angra do Heroismo is directly and tangibly associated with an event of a universal historic significance: the maritime exploration that allowed exchanges between the world's great civilizations. Set in the mid-Atlantic, the port of Angra, obligatory port-of-call for fleets from Africa and the Indies, is the eminent example of a creation linked to the maritime world, within the framework of the great explorations.
Within the history of the maritime explorations of the 15th and 16th centuries, which established communications between the great civilizations of Africa, Asia, America and Europe, Angra do Heroismo holds an eminent position: this port on the island of Terceira, in the Azores, served as a link for almost three centuries between Europe and the 'New World'. Vasco de Gama in 1499 and Pedro de Alvarado in 1536 set up an obligatory port-of-call for the fleets of Equatorial Africa and of the East and West Indies during their voyages back and forth from Europe. A Provedoria das Armadas e Naus da India (Office of Fleets and Vessels of the Indies) was immediately set up there.
The site, admirably chosen by the first navigators, was protected from the prevailing winds by a series of hills; the port comprises two natural basins, that of the Beacon and that of the Anchorage (Angra) from which the village took its name. An impregnable defensive system was installed immediately following its foundation with the construction of the large fortresses of São Sebastião and São Filipe (today named São João Baptista)” (UNESCO World Heritage list online).


92. OMMANNEY, Erasmus Austin, Commander, RN (1850-1938)
[Collection of Twelve Autograph Letters Signed to His Father and Mother (Including two letters by his Superiors), Related to His Naval Service in the West Indies and Quebec, and with Travel Notes about Halifax and Saint John’s, Newfoundland].

Various locations: Gosport Royal Academy, HMS Britannia, Chew Magna, HMS Aurora (at Port Royal and Quebec), SS Hibernian, Halifax, SS Alpha, St. Thomas (Barbados), 1 April 1863 – [26 June 1876]. Twelve Octavo letters (from ca. 18x11,5 cm to ca. 21x13,5 cm). In all 67 pp. of text. Brown or black ink on letter paper (white, blue or green); ten letters by E.A. Ommanney and two by his superiors. Fold marks, some letters weak on folds, with minor tears; two with traces from old staples being removed. Overall a very good collection.
Twelve autograph letters related to the naval career of Commander Erasmus Austin Ommanney, a son of distinguished Arctic explorer Admiral Sir Erasmus Ommanney (1814-1904), who commanded the "Assistance" on the first Franklin Relief Expedition of 1850 and was responsible for discovering the first traces of Franklin's party. Covering the period of thirteen years, the letters contain interesting notes about Quebec, Saint John’s (Newfoundland), Halifax, and naval service in the West Indies.
Nine early letters date back to the time of Ommanney’s studies in the Gosport Royal Academy (1863) and his service as a midshipman on HMS Britannia and Aurora (1864-1867), including a superior’s note about him successfully having passed the summer exam (16th out of 64; 1863); and news of him becoming a midshipman “with a first class certificate, <…> a good conduct certificate and a gold compass” (Sept. 30, 1864). Two letters written on board HMS Aurora tell about his service in the West Indies - Barbados, Trinidad, La Guaira (Venezuela) and Port Royal (Jamaica), with a detailed description of the recovery of the wreck of HMS Bulldog which ran aground near Cap-Haitien in 1865, whilst attacking the port as part of a punitive raid against local revolutionaries. The recovery was conducted using “diving dresses;” and later Ommanney went on shore to witness the destruction of the city: “the shot had great effect upon the town, the houses knocked about a great deal <…> The forts are in ruins, the guns are in a most ludicrous state, some turned right over others on their sides & I should not care to be close to them when they were fired off as I think they might chance to burst, they look so rotten” (March 18, 1866).
Three letters written while a midshipman on HMS Aurora stationed in Quebec contain an interesting description of Ommanney’s ten-day trip “into the woods,” down the Murray River to the Murray Bay (La Malbaie, north shore of St. Lawrence River). The party of three went down the river in bark canoes, accompanied by four Indians, slept in wigwams and enjoyed “capital fishing” and “magnificent scenery <…> we were sitting in canoes being moved along quickly but swiftly among tremendous high steep mountains, they were like a lot of “Gibraltars” all together, but thickly wooded.”
The letter from Ommanney’s superior on HMS Aurora informed his father that he had received a first class certificate and had been sent temporarily to a gunboat “Prince Albert” stationed between Windsor and Sarnia on the Great Lakes, “as it is expected that the Fenians intend giving some more trouble out here.”
Three letters written by Ommanney in May-June 1876, during his travel to his new ship - HMS Rover stationed in Port Royal (Jamaica), have some distinct notes on Saint John’s (Newfoundland) and Halifax. The houses in St. John’s “are of wood and very irregularly built, the streets are badly paved & very dirty and a strong smell of fish pervades the whole place; whalers and seal ships come here a great deal.” When entering St. John’s harbour Ommanney’s steamboat struck an iceberg, and “fortunately no damage was done <…> it only grazed along the side. It had such a peculiar appearance, with the light shining on it <…> Female passengers were greatly agitated & thought their last moments had arrived.”
“I find Halifax very dull & it seems quite different to what I remember it in former days <…> The country is not very pretty, all the trees seem so stunted, the roads are disgraceful everywhere, both town & country <…> Fog seems to be the great feature of the place, it has hardly been fine one whole day since I have been here.”
The collection is supplemented with a later card inscribed by E.A. Ommanney’s son, stating that it was his father who found relics of Franklin’s expedition while on board Aurora under Sir Leopold McClintock. In fact, it was E.A. Ommanney’s father, Sir Erasmus, who found the first Franklin relics while commanding HMS ‘Assistance’ on Horatio Austin’s Admiralty search for Franklin in 1850.
E.A. Ommanney was appointed to HMS corvette “Rover,” Commander Thomas Barnardiston, on 28 April 1876 (The Navy List, Corrected to the 20 June 1877. London: John Murray, 1877, p. 169). He retired from the navy with the rank of Commander in 1879. He took Holy Orders in 1883, serving his ministry as a vicar in the South seas.


93. PAVLIKEVITCH, J. (Russian, active ca. 1910-1930)
[ISTANBUL: Attractive Pencil and Watercolour of the Courtyard of the Bayazit Mosque signed, inscribed and dated "Stambul 9.29 J. Pavlikevitch' (lower left) and further inscribed "Cour de la Mosque du Sultan Bayezid" (lower right)].

1929. Pencil and watercolour ca. 43x28 cm (17x11 in). A very good watercolour, recently matted.
This attractive and skillfully executed watercolour shows the lively and people filled courtyard of the Bayazit Mosque which is right next to the Grand Bazaar in Istanbul. "J. Pavlikevitch was a watercolor artist, putatively of Russian origin, who was active in Istanbul, Turkey in the early decades of the 20th century. It is thought that he was part of a large number of civilians and members of the White Russian Army (collectively known as White émigrés) who, after struggling against the Bolsheviks in the Russian civil war following the Soviet Revolution, retreated to the South Crimea and then to Istanbul, where they stayed in the Imperial city until about 1925. Shortly after, and with the help of charities and international organizations, they departed the city and emigrated to other countries" (Wikipedia).


94. PRESCOTT, Robert, Governor-in-Chief of British North America (1726-1816)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Robert Prescott” to Field Marshal George Townshend, 1st Marquis Townshend mentioning Nelson’s Mediterranean Campaign, the Irish Rebellion, State of Matters in British North America, and Major Robert Lethbridge who Joined the Montreal Battalion of the 60th Regiment or King’s Royal Rifle Corps].

Quebec, 14 November 1798. Quarto (ca. 23x18,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Neat legible handwriting, docketed on the 4th page. Mild fold marks, otherwise a near fine letter.
A letter from Robert Prescott when Governor-in-Chief of British North America and commander of British forces (1796-1799). “He enlisted in the British Army in 1745 and served during the Seven Years' War. He was at the siege of Louisburg and became an aide-de-camp to General Jeffrey Amherst in 1759 participating in the capture of Montreal. Prescott then served in the West Indies and became Governor of Martinique in 1794. In 1796 he became governor-in-chief of British North America and commander of British forces. He remained in the position until 1807 but spent much of his time outside of Canada. He was unable to resolve growing demands among French-Canadians and was recalled in 1799” (Wikipedia).
The letter is addressed to George Townshend, 1st Marquis Townshend, who participated in the actions near Quebec during the Seven Years’ War, and received Quebec’s surrender on 18 September 1759 in the rank of commander of the British Forces. Consequently Townshend served as Lord Lieutenant of Ireland (1767–1772) and Master-General of the Ordnance (1772–1782 and 1783–1784). Fort Townshend built in Newfoundland in 1773-1779 was named after him, it is now National Historic Site of Canada. Extensive biographies of both men are in the Dictionary of Canadian Biography.
This interesting letter relates to several important events of the time, including the success of Horatio Nelson’s Mediterranean Campaign of 1798 which “must in its consequences turn the scale against French politics, and perhaps ultimately tend to Pacification.” Prescott also notes about the Irish Rebellion (May-September 1798): “It was most favourable circumstance that the French did not land a month or six weeks sooner than they did in Ireland; then perhaps their Standard would have been resorted to by the Rebels in indefinitely greater numbers than what joined them on their debarkation at Killala.” In the end he notes that “in the American States everything bears the most favourable aspect for us, and abhorrence of the French System.”
Prescott also thanks Townshend for the recommendation of “Major Lethbridge” who arrived to Halifax, then sailed to Boston and arrived on 7 November 1798 to Montreal where he is now attached to the 60th Regiment. “I hope to have some opportunity to evince how highly I esteem your recommendation of him”.
Major Robert Lethbridge was listed amongst the Lieutenant-Colonels Commanding the King’s Royal Rifle Cross. He joined the regiment in 1778 at St. Augustine, East Florida and served there until 1813. He was stationed in Canada and the Caribbean. In 1795 “he was nominated A.D.C. To the Marquis Townshend, and continued as such till his promotion to a Majority in the 3rd Battalion, in December 1795”. In 1798 he joined the 2nd battalion at Montreal, in November 1798 (see: Wallace, N.W. A Regimental Chronicle and List of Officers of the 60th, or the King’s Royal Rifle Corps, formerly the 62nd, or the Royal American Regiment on Foot. London, 1879, p. 289-290).
Overall a fine piece by an important Canadian political and military figure.


95. RITCHIE, Joseph (ca. 1788-1819)
[Interesting Autograph Letter to John Whishaw, Secretary of the African Institution, Written at the Beginning of Ritchie's Ill-Fated Expedition to Africa, to Introduce Sidi Hassuna D'Ghies, who was a son of the Prime Minister of the Pasha of Tripoli, and Later Would Become the Pasha’s Foreign Minister, and Additionally he was Later also Connected to the Fate of Alexander Laing].

Marseilles, 28 August 1818. Quarto (ca. 25,5x19,5 cm). 1 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Mild fold marks and light chipping of the top margin, ink slightly faded, but overall a very good legible letter.
Rare historically important letter by Joseph Ritchie, an English surgeon and African explorer, written during his ill-fated expedition to Northern Africa in 1818-1819, which tried to ascertain the course of the Niger and the location of the fabled Timbuktu. Ritchie and George Lyon followed the route of Frederick Hornemann’s expedition of 1797, crossing the Sahara via Murzuq. “The expedition was underfunded, lacked support and because of the ideas of Barrow departed from Tripoli and thus had to cross the Sahara as part of their journey. A year later, due to much officialdom they had only got as far as Murzuk, the capital of Fezzan, where they both fell ill. Ritchie never recovered and died there” (Wikipedia).
The letter, written in Marseille shortly before Ritchie's departure for Malta was addressed to John Whisham (1764-1840), the secretary of the African Institution and the biographer of Mungo Park. Ritchie introduced to him 'Sidi Hassuna D'Ghies, a Tripolitan who has passed some time in this Town - & son of the present Minister of the Pacha. I am anxious in some measure to repay the Services which he has rendered me during a tedious detention here (waiting for a passage to Malta) by giving me much useful information respecting Africa; the interest which has been so kindly taken in the Attempt I am about to make, emboldens me to hope that his liberality & goodness will be well-appreciated in England'.
Hassuna D’Ghies was appointed the foreign minister of the Pasha of Tripoli in 1825. He “came from a wealthy merchant family with commercial interests in Ghadamis, Fazzan, and various European countries. Having spent seven years in London and Paris on business and diplomatic missions, he was familiar with European ways. [British consul in Tripoli] Warrington, who had most to lose from Hassuna D’Ghies insistence on conducting business with the consuls in a way which prevented their intervention in local affairs, used the death near Timbuktu in 1826 of the English explorer Major Laing as an occasion to force the pasha to dismiss his foreign minister. <…> Warrington claimed, without any substantial evidence, that Laing’s assassination had been plotted by the Pasha and D’Ghies, that the latter had given Laing’s papers to the French consul in return for a forty per cent reduction of a debt which he owed him and that Caillie had never set foot in Timbuktu and the diary he had published under his name was compiled from Laing’s papers.” As a result in 1829 D’Ghies was announced by the pasha responsible for Laing’s death and replaced as foreign minister by his brother Muhammed (Abun-Nasr, Jamil M. A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period. Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 202).
Ritchie was involved into scientific and literary circles of London. He foretold the exceptional literary future of John Keats, and “possibly from some association of ‘Endymion’ with the Mountains of the Moon, promised to carry a copy of the poem with him to Africa and fling it into the midst of the Sahara” (Oxford DNB).


96. SAUNDERS, Sir Charles, Admiral (ca. 1715-1775)
[Two Official Orders Addressed to "Captain Tonyn, Commander of HMS Brune", both Written in Secretarial Hand, and Signed "Chas. Saunders."]

Both: on board HMS Neptune, Gibraltar Bay, 5 January 1762. Both Folios (ca. 32,5x20,5 cm). Each 1 p.; brown ink on watermarked laid paper, main text in secretarial hand (“By Command of the Admiral Sam. More”). Both orders signed by Saunders, one with a period manuscript note “This is the original order” at the bottom. Both docketed in ink “Brune” on versos. Documents with stains, tears and two minor holes on folds (one affecting a word), but overall a good collection written in very legible hand.
Two important naval orders from the time of the Seven Years’ War, issued a day after Britain’s declaration of war to Spain (4 January 1762). Both orders were signed by Admiral Charles Saunders, Commander-in-Chief of the Mediterranean fleet, and addressed to Captain George Anthony Tonyn (d. 1770) of the HMS “Brune.”
The first document directs Captain Tonyn: “You are hereby required and directed to put yourself under my Command & follow all such further Orders as you shall receive from me, till further orders”. The second order informs Tonyn of the Britain’s declaration of war to Spain and orders “immediately to commence Hostilities against his Catholic Majesty [Spanish King] & his Subjects by taking, sinking, burning, or destroying their Ships, Vessels, & Effects, and to protect his Majesty’s trading subjects to whom you are to give Notice of the Rupture with Spain.”
George Anthony Tonyn became a lieutenant of the Royal Navy in 1756, a captain of HMS Fowey in 1758, and a captain of the frigate Brune in 1761. In 1767 he was appointed to the Phoenix of 44 guns and ordered to the coast of Africa, apparently as the commander of the African Station (see more: Charnock, J. Biographis Navalis; or Impartial Memories of the Lives and Characters of Officers of the Navy of Great Britain, from the Year 1660 to the present time. Vol. VI. London, 1798, p. 344). On 17th October 1762 HMS Brune under command of Tonyn captured the French Frigate "L'Oiseau" commanded by Capitaine De Modene in what is now regarded as the last sea battle of the Seven Years War between France and Great Britain. His nephew was Charles William Paterson (1756-1841), Admiral of the White.
“Admiral Sir Charles Saunders, KB was a Commander-in-Chief of the British Mediterranean Fleet during the Seven Years' War and later served as First Lord of the Admiralty. He was appointed to the Privy Council in 1766. Cape Saunders, on the Otago coast of New Zealand, was named in his honour by Captain James Cook, who had served under Saunders in Canada” (Wikipedia).


97. SCHOMBURGK, Sir Robert Hermann (1804-1865)
[An Extensive Autograph Letter Signed‚ as British Consul in Siam‚ to Captain John Washington‚ Hydrographer to the Admiralty in London‚ Discussing Preparations for his Journey to Chiang Mai (the Last Major Scientific Travel in his career)‚ Scientific Instruments Necessary for the Journey, Siamese King Mongkut and his Second King Pinklao; Mentioning Sir Francis Beaufort‚ and the Latest Discovery of Sir John Franklin’s Fate].

Bangkok, 28 November 1859. Octavo (ca. 18x11 cm). 12 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper with Schomburgk’s blind stamped monograms on the top margins. With red ink marks and notes in different hand (apparently by Washington). A very good letter.
A long and important letter by Sir Robert Hermann Schomburgk‚ renowned explorer of British Guiana‚ British consul in San Domingo (1848-57) and in Siam (1857-64). The letter written as British consul in Siam, reports about Schomburgk’s plans for his last major scientific expedition – a travel to Chiang Mai, the ancient capital of the Lanna Kingdom in the north of Thailand: “I stand now on the eve of a much larger expedition, namely to Xieng Mai, the last principle Siamese town near the confines of China. From thence I purpose to turn westward to Mulmain on the eastern bank of the Gulf of Bengal, and crossing the Malay Peninsula, return to Bangkok. This, my dear and kind friend will probably be the last tour of that description which I can hope to undertake with 56 years upon my shoulders.”
Schomburgk discusses different types of scientific instruments necessary for the journey, stating the loss of barometer during his recent river travel to Phetchaburi: “the boat coming into contact during a dark night with some of the palisades across the river Meklong [sic!]‚ was thrown on her beamends‚ and made a sad havock in the cabin. I saved the Chronometer‚ but the Barometer fell a victim to the accident...”. Now he only has two aneroids and three chronometers – two belonging to the Admiralty and his own gold chronometer “for which I paid £55”. He complains about “pernicious” effect of the local climate on chronometers and remembers the words of Sir Francis Beaufort about Schomburgk’s Guiana expedition of 1840: “take a sextant and a good watch with you, and you have an observatory wherever you go.” The conclusion is that “I am almost restricted to the number he mentioned.”
Schomburgk’s feelings about the life in the Siamese capital are that “I prefer rather to live at once amongst the Savages, where my expectations are tempered to what I have to expect, that in Bangkok with its false pretentions <…> this observation bears no reference to the two kings and the Government.” He describes King Mongkut of Siam (best known in the West as the main character in the play and film “The King and I”) as “somewhat pompous, and while I respect H.M. In his character, I equally insist upon that he shall respect me as H.M. Consul.” Schomburgk also mentions that the Second King or King Pinklao “is anxious to have a Pocket Chronometer by one of the best makers, it is to be of silver (not intended to be worn in the pocket, but just like the one I now return to you, to be placed in a small box).” He asks Washington to undertake the commission if he wishes so.
In the end of the letter Schomburgk notes that he has “just received the findings of poor Sir John Franklin’s fate, as ascertained by Capt. McClintock – how very sad! Lady Franklin, I see, is in Paris. If you are acquainted with Mrs. Dixon, one of the daughters of Lady Simpkinson [Lady Franklin’s sister], please tell her my consolation”. Overall a very interesting and rich content letter.


98. SHARPE, Alfred, Sir (1853-1935)
[Collection of 25 Autograph Letters and Notes Signed “Alfred Sharpe” to “Dear Colles” – his Literary Agent William Morris Colles, with a number of topics touched, including Sharpe’s prospective book about his travels Central Africa, polemics with the Labour Party’s idea of Postwar International Administration of Equatorial Africa, and politics in the Balkans during WWI].

Various places in Britain (the majority – Elmhurst, Lancaster), 1915-1918. Various sizes, from Small Octavo (ca. 17,5x11 cm) to Quarto (ca. 23x19,5 cm). 39 pp. In total. Brown ink on various paper (blue laid paper, blue San Remo linen paper, white “Basildon Bond” paper et al.). Eighteen letters with blind stamped address “Elmhurst, Lancaster” on the upper margin, and two with the “Plâs Nantyr, Glyn” ink stamp; one letter on the printed form of “Euston Hotel, London”, and one – on the form of the “Royal Societies Club, St. James’s Street, London”. All but one letters with the ink stamp “Received” on the first page, specifying the date of reception; all letters with blue pencil numbers apparently put by Colles. Mild fold marks, holes in one of the corners after the letters having been stapled together, some letters with minor creases and tears on the margins, but overall a very good archive of interesting letters written in a legible hand.
Very interesting historically important archive of Sir Alfred Sharpe, British traveller and colonial administrator in Central Africa, who was actively engaged in the formation of the British Central Africa Protectorate (after 1964 - Malawi), became its High Commissioner (1896-1907) and later, when the colony was renamed to Nyasaland – its first governor (1907-1910). Sharpe was also a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society (RGS) since 1891, received its Cuthbert Peak Award in 1898 and became a member of the Society’s Council in 1913-1917.
Much of the collection relates to the history of writing and publication of Sharpe’s memoirs about his travels in Africa. The first documents regarding this date from the end of 1916 (Nov 24 and Dec 11) when Sharpe had the diaries of his journey to South Africa retyped and sent to Colles “together with 100 photos from which a choice – or all – can be taken”. After that Sharpe went on another trip, writing to Colles: “I leave for Africa on Friday” (11 Dec, 1916), and already in July 1917 he sent to the agent “notes on my last journey” (9 Jul, 1917). From this time starts long correspondence about different aspects of the prospective book: what stories should be included, what should be edited or revised; whether it is possible to find paper to print a book (in wartime) et al. Some examples of the correspondence about “the Book”: Sharpe is talking about his travel to the German East Africa in 1904 – “to the magnificent high district immediately north of Lake Nyasa”. He encloses the diary he kept at the time saying that he can “complete a running narrative out of it” (5 March, 1918). “I can make out say 2000 or 3000 words on the German Kondeland – with a general description of that nice country, and the notes of the journey I sent you. Let me know if you want it” (6 March, 1918), “You said I owe a paper – Here is one of the Cape to Cairo fetish [?] <…> Would it do also to incorporate as a chapter in the book?” (9 March, 1918). Several letters reveal the negotiation process with prospective publisher Edward Arnold: he is first mentioned in a letter from 9 July 1917. Almost a year after, on 1 May 1918 Sharpe writes to Colles that Arnold wants him to rewrite the manuscript and make “a fresh book”. Throughout the next five letters continues the discussion about Sharpe’s royalty: the author wanted “20 % and £200 down” and then was ready “to go down to the South coast & shut myself up for 2 to 3 months & make the thing to work”. The outcome on 21 May was unfavourable, Sharpe writing: “It is not sufficiently attractive for me to go in for four months hard work. Moreover it is a form of agreement which would bend me to write, but leaves A. Open to publish or not according to when he likes, and if paper goes to his price. Will you kindly inform him that I can not consider his offer”. Note: Sharpe’s book was eventually published in 1921 by H.F. & G. Witherby under the title “The Backbone of Africa: A record of Travel During the Great War, with Some Suggestions for Administrative Reform."
Other letters from the collection reveal a number of different interesting subjects: Four letters touch on the idea of post-war international administration of the Equatorial Africa suggested by the Labour Party, the idea which Sharpe was a passionate opponent of: “What on earth the Labour Gentlemen have to do with our African possessions <…>”; Their idea of a mixed up Africa governed by a mixed up international Govt is of course a farce. Does anyone really looks on it seriously?” (2 Jan, 1918). The other letters are dedicated to the article by H.G. Wells which supported the Labour’s idea and was published in the Daily Mail (30 Jan 1918) under the title “The African Riddle”. Sharpe wrote a reply article for the Daily Mail for 1000 words, and another one for 3500 words – and is asking Colles to find a magazine to publish it (5 Feb, 1918). From the next letter we get to know that it went to the “Land and Water” magazine (10 Feb, 1918).
Six letters dated October-December 1917 contain some interesting contemporary observations on the events in the Balkans theatre of WW1, e.g. Extensive notes on the “present German actions in Greece” also discusses Greek Prime-Minister Eleftherios Venizelos (31 Oct); letter about the British politics regarding Bulgaria and its desire to ally with the Entente (2 Nov); description of Sharpe’s private meeting with Venizelos when the conditions of Bulgaria’s alliance with the Entente were discussed (15 Nov); or thoughts about the future of the Balkan and Mediterranean fronts: “It is now sticking out for anyone to see that Germany, after she has done what she can in Italy, will send her spare army down to the Balkans, & make a big effort to force us out to the sea. After that she will go for Mesopotamia & Gaza. And how can we do anything there to stand up to her? – These many fronts are our weakness” (6 Nov).
William Morris Colles (1865-1926) was an English literary agent, the founder and managing director of The Authors' Syndicate, Ltd. (1890); a Member of the Council of the Society of Authors, and of the Copyright Association. His extensive correspondence with numerous writers is held in several depositories, including the library of UCLA (correspondence with James Barrie, Arnold Bennett, E. F. Benson, R. Haggard, and S. Maugham), and the University of Columbia (Thomas Hardy, Alfred Ollivant, John Pendleton, William H. Rideing, Peter Kropotkin and others).


99. SIMPSON, John (1788-1873)
[EARLY LAND GRANTS IN YORK COUNTY, UPPER CANADA: Autograph Letter Signed “John Simpson” Regarding His Intention of Land Acquisition in the Upper Canada’s York County; With: Original Insurance Document for Simpson’s Property on his Sea Voyage from London to Quebec in 1811].

Augusta [township, Upper Canada], 6 May 1819. Quarto (ca. 24x19,5 cm). Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Legible handwriting, docketed on the 4th page. Fold marks, paper slightly soiled, otherwise a very good letter. Document: London, 21 March 1811. Folio (ca. 37x23,5 cm). Official printed form on watermarked laid paper, completed in brown ink. Fold marks, upper margin with minor tears, otherwise a very good document.
Autograph letter by John Simpson, a noted government official and politician of the Upper and Lower Canada in the first half 19th century. He immigrated to Augusta (Upper Canada) in 1815 and became a private secretary of Lord Dalhousie, governor-in-chief of Canada in 1819. Three years later he was appointed a government official in Coteau-du-Lac post on St. Lawrence River; the rest of his career Simpson spent in the Lower Canada, being elected as a deputy of the Lower Canada assembly in 1824 and Legislative Assembly in 1841. He is also known as the author of a critical pamphlet on the reform party “Essay on Modern Reformers: addressed to the people of Upper Canada” (Kingston, 1818).
The letter written in May 1819, when Simpson still lived in Augusta, contains interesting details of the early land sales in Upper Canada. Asking his correspondent “Mr. Henshaw” for a substantial financial loan, Simpson convinces him: “I have recd. Such very flattering accounts of the present and prospective value of the Lands now giving out in the vicinity of York as induce me to anticipate the most favorable and valuable locations. I have therefore made up my mind to go immediately to York and apply my interest and exertion towards obtaining those lands that are likely to answer your intentions and forward my own. <…>. If this proposition meet your approbation I shou’d be very much oblig’d by your immediate compliance with the pecuniary part of it as I wou’d wish to be upon the spot with Captain Sherwood who is now Surveying the settlement. One lot I propose to improve, cultivate and reside on myself and I shou’d then be in the neighbourhood to take every advantage for the improvement of the values of the others”.
In the end of the letter he notes with emotion: “The country is so quickly settling that I would wish to not lose a moment in my application”.
Most likely, the land grants Simpson wrote about belonged to the newly created township of Nassagaweya (modern Halton Region of the Greater Toronto Area). Provincial Land Surveyor Reuben Sherwood (1775-1851) who was mentioned in the letter, was engaged in the land survey of the Townships of Nelson and Nassagaweya in February-May 1819. According to the extracts from his diary for that period, Sherwood “commence the new township” on 22 April, “meet the Surveyor-General in the morning, and draw my lands in Nelson and Nassagaweya” on 4 May (Fairhall, Ch. Surveyors of the Past// The Ontario Land Surveyor. Summer 1978. P. 10). Simpson wrote his letter two days later.
At the end of the letter Simpson also asks for help in employment of his wife (Zipporah Tickell), “a gentlewoman perfectly accomplished as private Governess to finish the education of a few young ladies, or to attend a certain number of Pupils <…>, capable of teaching French, drawing, indeed every acquirement incidental to gentlewoman’s education.”


100. TEN EYCK, Samuel
[FRASER RIVER GOLD RUSH & GADSDEN PURCHASE: Important Autograph Letter Signed from Samuel Ten Eyck to O.B. Throop, giving a Description of Guaymas, Mexico, his Impressions of Mexicans, and Briefly Relating his Experiences During the Fraser River Gold Rush].

Guaymas, Sonora, Mexico: April 27th, 1859. On a folded double quarto leaf. [4] pp. Brown ink on bluish paper. Blind stamp of a papermaker (Rolland Freres, Bordeaux) in the upper left corner. Housed in a later custom made blue quarter morocco clam shell box with gilt lettered spine. Old fold marks, otherwise a near fine letter.
In this letter Samuel Ten Eyck writes to his friend, Origin B. Throop, back home in Schoharie, New York, offering a description of the Mexican port city of Guaymas, Sonora, giving his assessment of Mexican attitudes toward Americans, and describing his experiences in the Fraser River Gold Rush.
Samuel Ten Eyck came from a prominent family in New York's Schoharie County. He left Schoharie in the early 1850s, went to California in search of gold, took part in the Fraser River Gold Rush in British Columbia of 1858-1859, and then arrived in Guaymas, Mexico in the spring of 1859. He apparently went to Sonora in anticipation of that state and the surrounding Mexican states of Chihuahua and Sinaloa being annexed to the United States. The Gadsen Purchase Treaty, ratified in 1854, brought a part of northern Sonora into the United States, and there appears to have been some agitation for the United States to take more territory in the region. Such a thing did not occur, and it is unknown for how long Ten Eyck stayed in Guaymas waiting for it to happen, or where his travels took him next.
The letter begins by Ten Eyck asking Throop to make discreet inquiries to some of his friends as to why they have not corresponded with him. "I suppose you will be astonished to learn I am in this God-forsaken country. I must confess, I am astonished to find myself here, but here I am and what is still more pleasant, have a mighty fine prospect of, as it is termed in California, making my pile. I have been here but a month. On my arrival I found the country all excitement, and a revolution going on in the three states, 'Sonora, Chihuahua, Sinaloa,' they being, I think, the tail end of creation, but they are full of silver mines and in saying that I say all that can be said in their favour. The Mexicans are the most hostile people in the world and think no more of killing an American than of taking a drink and as this is the scene of Walker's exploits and also where the unfortunate H.A. Crabb & followers were massacred, I am obliged to keep a pretty sharp look out. The women, however, are very kind & affectionate, and in case of difficulty invariably give you a warning and find a place of concealment for you. At least I have found it so on two occasions. <..,>
Guaymas, the seaport of Sonora & an old city, contains perhaps eight thousand inhabitants and being an earthquake country the houses are but one story high and mostly built of adoby [sic], which is the building material of mostly all houses in Mexico and on entering one is reminded more of a large brickyard than of a large city. <..,> I would not have come here but that the three states above named will without doubt be annexed to the U.S. - if so your humble servant is all right. I have had five years experience in California and any chance that may offer here I am on hand, in fact the pioneer."
Ten Eyck also briefly describes his experiences in British Columbia during the recent Fraser River Gold Rush: "It is as hot as blazes [in Guaymas]. I feel it more perhaps than others just having come from a northern country, as the year past I have been at Vancouver's Island & British Columbia. You of course heard of the Fraser River excitement. I was almost the first of the many thousands that rushed to that cold country. It did not prove as profitable as was anticipated, still it paid me very well, as I was able after nine months hard work to leave with a five hundred more than I took with me."
In the end Ten Eyck gives his assessment of the qualities of the women he has encountered in Guaymas, "beautiful, full of life and spirit", "very positive to us Americans" etc. A very interesting important letter, with provocative views on Mexico and a bit of information on one American's experiences in the Fraser River Gold Rush.
O.B. Throop was the owner of the only drug store in the county which still exists today as the Schoharie pharmacy, and a Secretary of the Board of Directors of the Albany and Schoharie plank road (1862).


101. TROTTER, A[lexander] M[ason] (Scotland 1891-1946)
[Watercolour, Apparently Used as an Illustration in 'The Graphic,' Titled on Verso:] "Death of Livingstone."

London, 1917. Matted watercolour on Whatman board ca. 27x38 cm (11x15 in). With an old fold (cracked at margins) on lower margin not affecting the main image, otherwise a very striking watercolour in very good condition.
This striking watercolour is a latter reworking of the famous scene of the death of David Livingstone. "David Livingstone died in that area in Chief Chitambo's village at Ilala southeast of Lake Bangweulu in present-day Zambia on 1 May 1873 from malaria and internal bleeding caused by dysentery. He took his final breaths while kneeling in prayer at his bedside. (His journal indicates that the date of his death would have been 1 May, but his attendants noted the date as 4 May, which they carved on a tree and later reported; this is the date on his grave.) Britain wanted the body to give it a proper ceremony, but the tribe would not give his body to them. Finally they relented, but cut the heart out and put a note on the body that said, "You can have his body, but his heart belongs in Africa!". Livingstone's heart was buried under a Mvula tree near the spot where he died, now the site of the Livingstone Memorial. His body together with his journal was carried over a thousand miles by his loyal attendants Chuma and Susi to the coast to Bagamoyo, and was returned to Britain for burial. After lying in repose at No.1 Savile Row "then the headquarters of the Royal Geographical Society, now the home of bespoke tailors Gieves & Hawkes" his remains were interred at Westminster Abbey" (Wikipedia).


102. TURNER, Captain Henry A. Royal Artillery (Active 1849-1853)
[Two Watercolour Panoramas each on four Joined Sheets Titled: "St. Georges, Grenada from Hospital Hill," & "View of the Harbour, St. Georges, Grenada, from Belmont Hill." Dated on verso 1852.]

1852. Each panorama ca. 18x54 cm (7 ½ x 21 ½ n). Both watercolour panoramas consisting of four sheets of paper joined with strips of linen and overall in very good condition. Recently matted.
These two attractive and skillfully executed pencil and watercolour panoramas, each on four sheets of paper, are part of a series of studies by Captain Turner for two hand coloured lithograph views:"View of the Town and Harbour, St. George's, Grenada, West Indies taken from the hill above Belmont, showing the barracks and Richmond Hill on the right and Fort George on the left," & "View of the Harbour, St George's, Grenada, W.I. Taken from Fort George," both published by Ackermann & Co., London 1852. The panoramas are from larger collection of watercolours and drawings of which several were signed with initials 'H.A.T.' on the mounts, and the majority were titled and dated 1851-52. "St. George's is the capital of Grenada. The city is surrounded by a hillside of an old volcano crater and is on a horseshoe-shaped harbor" (Wikipedia).


103. WADDINGTON, George (1793-1869)
[Autograph Letter Signed “George Waddington” Declining to Participate in a Public Meeting].

London, 13 May 1864. Small Octavo (ca. 18,5x11 cm). 2 pp., with an integral blank leaf. Black ink on Joynson’s laid paper watermarked ‘1862’. Mild fold marks, small mount residue on verso of the second blank leaf, otherwise a very good letter.
“My dear Sir, I thank you for the compliment that you have paid me. But I have never at any time taken part in any public meetings with which I was not directly connected & now I think it rather far late to begin. Your practical local application of the principles of the Association appears to be to do you real honor.”
George Waddington was an English clergyman, traveller and church historian. A graduate of the Trinity College, Oxford, he was the Dean of Durham (1840-1869), Warden of Durham University (1862-69), an original member of the Athenaeum Club‚ London on its foundation in 1824. He travelled widely, having published “Journal of a Visit to some parts of Ethiopia” (together with Rev. B. Hanbury), “A Visit to Greece in 1823 and 1824” (1825), and several works on the Christian church history.
“Clergymen Hanbury and Waddington were both Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge, who accompanied the army of Muhammad Ali in its conquest of the Sudan in 1820. This was just after Napoleon's expedition through the Nile, during which time he ordered a team of scientists and architects to record all the ancient monuments and natural features of the country. Stimulated by this work many Europeans travelled to Egypt in search of ancient wonders. This included both Hanbury and Waddington who visited Egypt and Nubia together in 1821 and brought back the coffin set of Nespawashefyt (E.1.1822) which was the first Egyptian object to come into the possession of the [Fitzwilliam] University. In 1822 Waddington published an account of their travels up the Nile in Journal of a visit to some parts of Ethiopia, including accounts of visiting the temples at Abu Simbel and Soleb, and the sites of Napata and Meroe” (The Collections/Egypt/Fitzwilliam University online).


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