March 2015 - Part 2 - Asia


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1. [AMERICAN TEACHER IN CHINA]
[PECKHAM, W. C.]
[Two Original Manuscript Journals, Bound Together:] Journal of a Voyage to China; [with:] Journal in Shanghai, and Travels in China.

Quarto. [Various places, including at sea and locations in China: Shanghai, Ningpo, Hancow, Wuchang et al.]. 1870-1871. 281; 146 pp., plus 6 pp. of notes laid in. Approximately 100,000 words. Period brown gilt tooled half morocco with brown pebbled cloth boards. Recased but overall a very good journal.
The journal of W.C. Peckham from Kingston, Mass., who went to Shanghai as a teacher and companion of a young American man whose parents resided in China. The journal describes Peckham’s journey to China and during his tour there, documenting a total of five months. It is written in a mix of a sort of shorthand and full words. His abbreviated writing often gives only the first letter or two of the word, generally using a the letter "e" for the word "the," the letter "v" for the word "of," and so forth. It is, nevertheless, relatively readable. The author spent 118 days at sea, recording the various happenings aboard his vessel, the clipper ship Surprise. The Surprise was a California clipper built in 1850 that spent most of its working life plying trade between the West Coast and China. In 1867 she was converted from the faster clipper to a slower merchant ship, continuing in the China trade until she was wrecked and sunk off the coast of Japan in 1876.
In addition to the usual voyage fare - sightings of whales and other wildlife, reports on the weather, pining for home, interacting with the crew, etc. - Peckham includes some commentary on Chinese society, gleaned from his conversations with the steward and others aboard the ship. Interestingly, one of the aspects that he chooses to discuss in his journal is that of Chinese prostitution and mistresses. He writes (in translated transcription from the shorthand), on December 15th: "The steward has told me much of the prostitution of the Chinese women. It would seem that is scarce known among them. The foreign merchants & the clerks many of them keep [them?] mistresses, upon whom money is lavished as it is every where else in the world upon persons who stand in the same [relation to men?]. The Chinese women are bought of a price of their mothers, often a man of wealth pays a thousand dollars for his 'China wife' & keeps her in state. She spends her days away from him in the Chinese quarter with her friends & comes to his rooms after dark, or it might be, he goes to her when he pleases. Girls who have no mothers often sell themselves, get some old woman to claim be their parent & drive the bargain while in reality the money goes to the girl. ... Lying is by no means a shame to a Chinaman. They feel no disgrace if caught in a falsehood & they will tell a lie, or [have]? One proven "upon them?] with equal composure." He goes on to describe trading with the Chinese in light of their penchant for lying, saying, "It must require great patience on the part of the missionaries to deal with such a people. I shall watch these characteristics very closely that I may form an intelligent opinion about them."
He goes on to relate what he's been told of Chinese cities by the captain: "The Captain told us more fully what he has hinted at before of the filth of Chinese cities. All along in the narrow streets are set vessels, let into the street permanently, immovably, into which the men make water openly." He has written in parentheses, "(I don't know about the women also), and crossed through it and written "no" above it in answer. He continues: "These are bailed out every day & the contents taken into the country for fertilizer. ... The men collect this filth in jars which they carry on poles slung over their shoulders. ... The streets called 'Chow Chow' streets are very filthy. Here food is sold by the natives. The whole creature is made available, the intestines are washed, cooked, & eaten, even the contents are washed out & eaten. Rats, dogs & cats are not eaten save in case of danger of famine. ... In planting the Chinese use no solid manure. All the fertilizers are applied in liquid form. This gives great growth of vegetables, it also makes the vegetables taste of the manure, hence Europeans do not buy or use the vegetables the Chinese raise. They are famous gardeners. The whole land is a garden."
The second portion of the volume is devoted to the author's travels in China. He arrived in February 1871, during Chinese New Year and describes the festive atmosphere, noting that "We saw Chinese war junks of the old style, which had an enormous number of guns on a side. Now there was on every gun a strip of red for it is New Year." He describes his lodgings and the people who serve him there, his daily routines, meals etc., in considerable detail. He confirms that the streets are indeed filthy and the poor similar to those in America: "...through Chinese streets, round by the walls of the old city. We saw small footed women & fortune tellers. There were crowds of Chinese, cook shops sent out their (savory?) odors, filth was in the streets; but after all, I can't think it was much worse, those some what different, than the low Irish quarters of N.Y. City. Poor people are wretched everywhere."
Peckham also visits shrines in the countryside, describing the sights and experiences around as well as in Shanghai. He comments on schools, prostitution, and various customs. All in all, a fascinating read and a look at the Far East through the eyes of a 19th-century American.

 

2. [BANGKOK]
[Collection of Fourteen Original Photographs of Bangkok].

Ca. 1880. Mounted albumen photographs ca. 16x21 cm (6 x 8 ½ in) with three slightly smaller ones. Mounted on period card, some with mild fading but overall a very good collection.
The attractive images in this collection include: a village ceremony; Prae; elephants drawing logs; palace and grounds of the King of Siam; Buddhist temples in Bangkok; native houses in Bangkok; capturing wild elephants; training elephants; river panorama Bangkok; Siamese woman at her loom; street scene in Bangkok; canal scene in Bangkok. "By the mid-19th century, the West had become an increasingly powerful presence. Missionaries, envoys and merchants began re-visiting Bangkok and Siam, bringing with them both modern innovations and the threat of colonialism. King Mongkut (Rama IV, reigned 1851–68) was open to Western ideas and knowledge, but was also forced to acknowledge their powers, with the signing of the Bowring Treaty in 1855. During his reign, industrialization began taking place in Bangkok, which saw the introduction of the steam engine, modern shipbuilding and the printing press. Influenced by the Western community, Charoen Krung Road, the city's first paved street, was constructed in 1862–64. This was followed by Bamrung Mueang, Fueang Nakhon, Trong (now Rama IV) and Si Lom Roads. Land transport would later surpass the canals in importance, shifting people's homes from floating dwellings toward permanent buildings. The limits of the city proper were also expanded during his reign, extending to the Phadung Krung Kasem Canal, dug in 1851" (Wikipedia).

 

3. [BEGUM OF BHOPAL]
Earl Canning (Governor General 1856-1858, First Viceroy 1858-1862)
[The Historically Significant Canning Sunnad of 1862 Concerning the Bhopal Succession].

A single large sheet of parchment headed by the large inked seal of the Supreme Government of British India, written in fine palace script, setting out the British policy to secure the succession of Princely Houses ruling in the various states. It promises that, “in failure of natural heirs any succession to the Government of your State which may be legitimate according to Mahomedan Law will be upheld. Be assured that nothing shall disturb this agreement here made to you so long as your House remains loyal to the Crown, and faithful to the conditions of the treaties, grants and agreements which record its obligations to the British Government.” The Sunnad is signed “Canning” at the foot. Bound by stab stitching into a half cloth with patterned papered boards folder together with some dozen related pages of letters and documents in Persian script. One of these has some gold leaf additions and is additionally signed by the Political Agent A R E Hutchinson. A covering document is a true copy of a circular from Major R I Meade, Agent to the Governor General at Indore, to Major Hutchinson which accompanied the Sunnad as it was sent from the Viceroy. Some of the other documents are counter signed by Major Hutchinson.
In the light of future problems over disputed succession this document proved to be highly important and equally contentious, especially in the 1920’s when Nawab Sultan Begum named her only surviving son Hamidullah as her successor in conflict with accepted laws of primogeniture. The reference to remaining faithful, as Bhopal always had been, is particularly important in this early post Mutiny period when the Crown had just taken over all the East India Company’s powers. This document is one example of the close British attention to matters of succession in Indian states. In Bhopal the British wished to maintain the succession within the Orakzai tribe which had been so loyal to the Company and the Crown. Marriage and succession were to loom large in the relations between the Viceroy and the rulers of Bhopal during the rest of the century.The "Bhopal State was an independent state of 18th century India, a princely salute state in a subsidiary alliance with British India from 1818 to 1947, and an independent state from 1947 to 1949. Islamnagar served as the State's first capital, which was later shifted to the city of Bhopal. The state was founded by Dost Mohammad Khan, an Afghan soldier in the Mughal army who became a mercenary after the Emperor Aurangzeb's death and annexed several territories to his feudal territory" (Wikipedia).

 

4. [BEGUM OF BHOPAL]
[Two 1879 Letters signed by Lord Lytton (Viceroy 1876-1880) addressed to Her Highness Nawab Kudsia Begam on the Conclusion of the Afghan War; WITH: Cabinet portrait photograph of the Begum of Bhopal ca. 1876 by the Bourne & Shepherd ca. 13,5x10 cm (5 ½ x 4 in)].

1876-9.
A manuscript letter written in palace script on both sides of a single sheet of parchment, embossed in gold with the Viceroy’s royal coat of arms, addressed to Her Highness Nawab Kudsia Begam, M.C.I. Dated Simla 30th July 1879 and signed Lytton. The letter thanks the Begum for her congratulations on “the termination of hostilities with the Amir of Afghanistan” and promises to convey them to the Queen. This letter is folded at foot and fore-edge to fit the binding and is accompanied by another letter using the same wording and also signed Lytton but addressed to Her Highness Nawab Shah Jahan Begam, G.C.S.I., together with true copies in Persian on gold leaf decorated paper, certified and signed by the Secretary to the Government of India. Sewn into a simple binding, the card covers with decorative local printed paper. The binding also includes an official copy on a folio sheet embossed with the small arms of the Govt of India, of a letter to the 1st Asst Agent to the Governor General for Central India [D W K Barr] from the Under Secretary to the Govt of India [Thomas Hope] thanking the Begum for her offer of sending the Bhopal Battalion for “employment in Afghanistan”, together with a copy of Barr’s letter to Hope and approximately 20 other related letters and documents in Persian, some bearing the inked seal of the AGG for Central India and with gold leaf decoration all housed in a half cloth with marbled papered boards folder.
A number of Indian rulers offered the British Government their troops on occasions such as the Second Afghan War. In the case of the Bhopal State this was particularly poignant as the ruling house derived its origins from a tribe living in the Tochi area on the Afghan border. The "Bhopal State was an independent state of 18th century India, a princely salute state in a subsidiary alliance with British India from 1818 to 1947, and an independent state from 1947 to 1949. Islamnagar served as the State's first capital, which was later shifted to the city of Bhopal. The state was founded by Dost Mohammad Khan, an Afghan soldier in the Mughal army who became a mercenary after the Emperor Aurangzeb's death and annexed several territories to his feudal territory" (Wikipedia).

 

5. [BRITISH RAJ]
[Interesting Collection of Eleven Autograph Letters Signed with Postal Cancels from British Colonial Administrators to Bissonauth Law and Co. One of Calcutta's Principal Native Sundry Suppliers Located at 10 New China Bazaar, Calcutta Dated Between the 13th of October 1858 to the 20th November 1864].

India, 1858-1864. Eleven Half Anna stamp embossed de La Rue & Co. London stationary envelopes with interior bifolium octavo letters that fold down to duodecimo envelopes. Most of these have both receiver and/or transit cancels for Indian states and towns. Brown ink on laid paper. Letters generally in very good condition.
An interesting early collection of letters documenting the day to day lives of higher British colonial officials in India just after the Indian Rebellion of 1857-8. The content of the letters usually contain orders for a variety of articles from brandy and beer to mustard, Worcester sauce to a drawing room table. The authors involved are mainly judicial officials who have important positions within British Raj at the time.
Letters include ones by: John G. French, Me, Civil Assist. Surgeon; H.L. Oliphant, who in 1863 was the magistrate and collector at Jessore, and who became an important judge; J.B. Worgan, high ranking member Bengal civil service, who held many positions including judge; H.R. Drew, who became and Adjutant General, etc.
An example of content of one of the letters:
Envelope/Letter India postage ½ Anna embossed stamp on postal stationary envelope.
Receiver and/or transit cancel: G.P.O. Calcutta Oct 5, 1862
“To Messrs Besnath [or Bisnath] and Co, 10 New Chinese Bazar, Calcutta Sept.
20th 1862, Nowgong, Assam.
Sirs, I received yours acknowledging the receipt of my order for sundries of[?] which I shall send you a draft as soon as I know the amount. I received the article. I want a nice Drawing Room table, value about Rs 50 and also a dining table value about Rs 40 or 100 for the two, and I want you to get them for me in Calcutta—as good as your [you?] can for the money and send them per next steamer—to me—to the care of Lieut. Sconce Dy Commissioner in Gowhally—as there is every likelihood of my being appointed civil surgeon of that station, next month. I will not be able to pay you ready[?] cash for them, but will before 2 or 3 months—or by instalments—to that time.
Yours <…>, John G. French, Me, Civil Assist. Surgeon. “

 

6. [BURMA]
[Photograph Album With 22 Mounted Original Photographs of Burma; With: Six Original Photographs of Egypt and a Mounted Lithographed Plan of the Suez Canal].

Ca. 1880. Oblong Folio (36x30 cm). 58 leaves. With 28 original mounted albumen photographs Photos each ca. 20x24 cm (8 x 9 ½ in). Period style brown gilt tooled half morocco with marbled boards. A very good album.
The strong images in this interesting album include: Various scenes in Burma including Yangoon, Burmese temples, an ox cart with passengers, a working elephant, A Burmese boat on a river, a Burmese family, a Burmese theatre, weavers, and Burmese young men and women. "With the fall of Mandalay, all of Burma came under British rule, being annexed on 1 January 1886. Throughout the colonial era, many Indians arrived as soldiers, civil servants, construction workers and traders and, along with the Anglo-Burmese community, dominated commercial and civil life in Burma. Rangoon became the capital of British Burma and an important port between Calcutta and Singapore" (Wikipedia).
The Egyptian Scenes include Tewfik Pasha, Port Said and the Suez Canal, and Egyptian ladies reclining. The Suez Canal which "opened to shipping on 17 November 1869. Although numerous technical, political, and financial problems had been overcome, the final cost was more than double the original estimate. The opening was performed by Khedive Ismail of Egypt and Sudan, and at Ismail's invitation French Empress Eugenie in the Imperial yacht Aigle, piloted by Napolean Coste who was bestowed by the Khedive the Order of the Medjidie" (Wikipedia).

 

7. [DUTCH EAST INDIES]
[Photo Album of 39 Original Photographs of Java and Sumatra compiled by an American Official or Employee; With Seven Photographs by Local Photographer C. Niewenhuis, from Padang].

Ca. 1922. Oblong Small Octavo (18x13 cm). 23 stiff card leaves. With 46 photographs ca. 8,5x14 cm (3 ¼ x 5 ½ in) mounted on grey cardboard leaves and folded in an accordion-like manner. Most photographs with ink manuscript numbers on the lower corner, two dated in negative "1922." Handsome period gilded wooden boards, with a large flower painting on the front board. Album maker’s paper label on the last leaf "Chicago. Charles A. Herbert, copyright 1921." Second leaf with a repaired tear, a couple of the photos slightly faded, otherwise a very good album.
Interesting photograph album of Java and North and Western Sumatra in beautiful boards from the estate of an American, presumably an official (provenance mentions him being an ambassador in Java), or an employee of the Holland-American Plantation Co (Hollandsche-Amerikaansche Plantage Maatschappij) founded in Kirasan, North Sumatra in 1911.
The pictures show local landscapes, plantations, natives and their houses, scenes of work and everyday life and rubber extraction; as well as several portraits of Europeans or Americans, their houses, colonial streets, a train, local club with tennis court (with a sign "Rapa Kisaran Club. 1917 [?]"), and two views of the headquarters of the Commander of the Dutch Naval base in Java, presumably in Surabaya, signed in negative "C.M.V.K. 1922" [Commandant Marine Vliegkamp]. The construction of the Dutch Naval base in Surabaya started in 1921; it became the main base for flying boats and the first and only submarine base in the Dutch East Indies.
The album includes seven photographs by Sumatran photographer C. Nieuwenhuis which include picturesque studio style portraits of local natives, their everyday life and houses. Five photographs bear his blind stamp "C. Nieuwenhuis Fotograaf, Padang, Sum Westkust," and two have circular marks "CNP" (the photographs are the same size and style as the previous five and thus can also be attributed to Nieuwenhuis).
"The interest of U.S. Manufacturers in Sumatra was triggered by new production possibilities in the United States, and, in 1910, with a sharp increase in Brazilian rubber prices. When a faltering Dutch company near the town of Kirasan put its concession up for sale, U.S. Rubber Company, an American trust, bought the rights to 35,000 acres and in 1911 established a subsidiary, Hollandsche-Amerikaansche Plantage Maatschappij (HAPM) <..,>. The addition of 37,000 acres in 1913 brought the total to nearly 76,000 acres, the single largest rubber complex in the world.
HAPM’s factory engineers, laboratory chemists, and foresters were all imported from the United States but the supervisory personnel were of different nationalities. The HAPM complex, on the other hand, was (and is) uniquely American, sporting a plush staff club, tennis courts, a golf course, and a forbidding pillared head office all reaffirming the sound durability of U.S. Investments in the Asalan jungle" (Stoler, A.N. Capitalism and Confrontation in Sumatra’s Plantation Belt, 1870-1979. 2nd ed., University of Michigan, 1995; p. 18). Shavit, D. The United States in Asia: Historical Dictionary. Greenwood Press, 1990.

 

8. [EASTERN BENGAL RAILWAY]
[A Superb Presentation Photograph Album of the Eastern Bengal Railway Line, Presented to W[rey]. A. E[dward] Hanby [M.B.E.] (Retiring Deputy Chief Engineer) by the Officers of the Eastern Bengal Railway 1917].

1917. Elephant Folio (39x54 cm). 26 stiff card leaves. With 89 mounted, matte silver gelatin photographs. The first leaf with a tipped in leaf of 52 ink signatures of railroad administrators. The photos from ca. 23,5x29 cm (9 ½ x 11 ½ in) to ca. 13,5x20 cm (5 ½ x 8 in). There are 35 larger single leaf views. Most of the views are captioned in white ink. Many of the photographs are either by Bourne & Shepherd or Hoffmann and Johnston Period black full morocco with a silver presentation plaque mounted on the front cover, with an engraved inscription: “Presented to W.A.C. Hanby, Esq, by the officers of the Eastern Bengal Railway, 1917.” Extremities with mild wear, front joint cracked otherwise a very good album.
Mr. Wrey Edward Hanby, M.B.E., joined the engineering branch of the Public Works Department in Bengal, c.1888, and spent most of his career working for the Eastern Bengal State Railway, retiring in 1917 as a Deputy Chief Engineer. The Eastern Bengal Railway Company was established in 1857 with the objective of introduction of railway transport in eastern Bengal and even to move into Burma. The strong images in this album include: a group of officers of the EBR at headquarters in 1915, a group of officers of the EBR in 1917, Indian peasants ploughing, harvesting, cutting and working with jute, boats bringing jute to a riverside station, foreshore of the river Houghly at Chitpore, the Chitpore goods shed, the Chitpore road with many carts pulled by oxen, clearing trees from a vast estate for a garden, a view of a massive garden, women and children transplanting seedlings, a group of Bhooteas in Darjeeling in 1905 (Bourne and Shephard photo), 12 images of the effects of a cyclone on the Ganges river in October 1909, (Bourne and Shephard photos), 8 images of the effects of the great earthquake of 12th June1897 on the EB Railway, showing cracks in the earth, in bridges and tracks, in the Nelphanari station yard, on the Rungpur branch, etc. (Bourne and Shephard photos), St. Paul’s cathedral in Calcutta, 3 street scenes in Calcutta showing bustling activity and the Holwell monument, the EBR offices, and the High court, (Bourne and Shephard photos), EBR main station, shipping on the Hooghly river (B&S photo), a Calcutta suburb (B&S photo), the family burial ground of the Nawab of Murshidabad (Johnston and Hoffmann photo), the old Katra Musjid temple in Murshidabad, loading a wagon ferry barge from a train engine and open box cars, (Johnston and Hoffmann photo), a panorama of the lower Ganges bridge, the lower Ganges bridge being constructed, a close-up of the lower Ganges bridge dated 1914, a train coming through the lower Ganges bridge in 1915, from the point of view of a traveler at one end, a river scene on the Ganges river, brick manufacturing, brick foundations for a building, well sinking with heavy equipment, earthwork coolies, many workers building up a well, a boat building and two river scenes on the Ganges river, a view of the Sendlah(?) train yard showing the old office buildings, the Chitpore train yard, 3 images of changing 40 feet spans on the Kitihar, Parbatipur(?) section of track; E.B.Railway, Ghat station on the River Ganges, (Johnston and Hoffmann photo), a Dak bungalow, Carts crossing a ford, Avenue of papal(?) trees, River steamer with flats in tow, Government House in Dacca (Johnston and Hoffmann photo), Loading timbers onto M.G. Trucks at Jainti(?) (Johnston and Hoffmann photo), Jainti River with the Himalayas in the distance (Johnston and Hoffmann photo), Peacock Island, Gauhati, Gauhati from Peacock Island (Bourne and Shephard photo), The Beadon Falls, Shilong (Bourne and Shephard photo), A long view of Shilong, In the Forest below Ging, Darjeeling, A train and its cars on the DHRy, the single loop (Bourne and Shephard photo), A train going up the Darjeeling reverse no. 3, (Bourne and Shephard photo), The town of Darjeeling from below the shrubbery, (Bourne and Shephard photo), Snowy Range from Sandakfoo, Darjeeling, (Bourne and Shephard photo), Snowy Range from Senghal, Everest on the left, Darjeeling, (Bourne and Shephard photo), On the Teesta, below the Bridge, Darjeeling, (Bourne and Shephard photo), Bridge over the Runjnoo, Darjeeling; Main Gate to twelve buildings, Gaur, (Johnston and Hoffmann photo), Andina Building, Pandua, (Johnston and Hoffmann photo) & The Twelve Door Building, Gaur, (Johnston and Hoffmann photo).

 

9. [FIRST OPIUM WAR]
GOLDSMITH, George, Admiral RN (1806-1875)
[Album with Sixteen Beautiful Watercolours, Including One Folding Four Page Watercolour and Fourteen Double page Panoramas. The Album Shows Views of the British Occupied City of Tinghae (Dinghai, Chusan), the citadel and port of Chinghae (Zhenhai, near Ningbo), the port of Amoy (Xiamen) and the Golongsoo (Gulanguy) Island, all Taken on the Spot during the First Opium War].
[With: Collection of 48 Loose Papers (Original and Period Copies of Letters, Orders, Dispatches, Memos et al.) Related to Goldsmith’s Service in the Navy, 1821-1851, Including 23 Documents Related to His Service during the First Opium War, 1841-1842].

Album: ca. 1842. Oblong Folio (ca. 25x33 cm). With sixteen watercolours and three drawings on folding album leaves. The album includes one large folding four page watercolour, fourteen double page watercolours, one single page watercolour, one double page pencil panorama, and three single page drawings. All but one drawing with detailed pencil captions and notes on the margins. Original full Chinese silk album with decorative endpapers. Binding slightly rubbed on extremities, several leaves slightly soiled on extremities, but overall a very good album with bright drawings.
A beautiful collection of historically important watercolour panoramas and views of several ports and citadels on the southern and central Chinese coast, created by a talented artist, British navy officer George Goldsmith, during the First Opium War (18 March 1839 – 29 August 1842). From the 14 August 1841 Goldsmith had been engaged in the naval operations off the coast of China as a Commander of HMS Hyacinth, and was at the Pearl River with the H. M. Schooner “Starling” and East Indiaman “Hooghly” in September 1841; a month later he participated in the capture of the port of Amoy (Xiamen), citadels of Tinghae (Dinghai, Chusan Island) and Chinhai (Zhenhai, near Ningbo). Goldsmith was mentioned as the Senior Officer of Chinhai in January 1842, and as the Senior Officer of the port of Amoy in April 1842.
The album contains a series of perfectly executed views taken in Tinghae and Chinhai and dated February-March 1842, when Goldsmith was the Senior Officer in the citadel of Chinhai. The views show the citadel of Tinghae taken from the upper landing place and behind the city walls, stunning picture of the Chinhai waterfront with the entrance to the Yong River, views of the countryside “on the road to Tinghae,” and of a “Tomb of a Mandarin outside the walls of Tinghae.” Two large watercolours depict the interior of the “Great Temple or Joss House in the City of Tinghae” and “Seven extraordinary monuments within the outer wall of the Great Temple at Tinghae containing Bones of the Dead.” A large four page watercolour showing the temple’s interior is supplemented with a detailed manuscript description of the sculptures and decorations inside. One of the pencil drawings showing the Chusan Island was executed by one Lieut. Hoddart Cornwallis, as follows from the ink note on the lower margin of the drawing.
Five double-page panoramas depict the port of Amoy and the nearby Golongsoo (Gulanguy) Island, showing the town on the Golongsoo where British troops were quartered, the town and harbour of Amoy, majestic banyan treeas on the Golongsoo et al. Three watercolours were taken on the way back to England – in September and October 1842, and show waterfalls at the Cape of Good Hope, and Jamestown on St. Helena.
The manuscript archive contains important documents from Goldsmith’s naval career. Among the materials created during the First Opium War are a letter from the Admiralty informing Goldsmith of his promotion to the rank of Commander, memos and orders (some original, some in period copies) to Goldsmith from Sir William Parker (Commander-in-Chief of the East Indies and China Station), Captain Joseph Nias (Senior Officer in the Pearl River), Captain Edward Belcher (Senior Officer at Macao), Captain Henry Smith (Senior Officer at Amoy), and others.
Overall a beautiful depiction of several Chinese ports in the last phase of the First Opium War made by a direct participant of the events.
George Goldsmith joined the Royal Navy in 1821 and was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant (1828), Commander (1841), Captain (1842), Vice-Admiral (1867) and Admiral (1875). Goldsmith served in the Mediterranean, West Coast Africa and the East Indies. He took part in the 1st Anglo-Chinese War, with HMS Hyacinth; and the Crimean War, with HMS Sidon under his command. Upon return to Britain he became Superintendent of the dockyard at Chatham and was created Companion of the Bath for his services in the Crimea.

 

10. [GEORGE V CORONATION DURBAR IN DELHI]
BOURNE & SHEPHERD
[Sumptious Morocco Album with 142 Original Photographs of the Delhi Durbar of 1911 Commemorating the Coronation of King George V and Queen Mary as the Emperor and Empress of India Titled:] Coronation Durbar, Delhi, 1911.

1911. Elephant Folio (ca. 50x39 cm). 142 gelatin silver prints of various size mounted on 30 stiff card leaves, the majority either ca. 27,5x20 cm (ca. 10 ¾ x 7 ¾ in) or ca. 12,5x19,5 cm (ca. 5x7 ¾ in), there are also large double-page group portrait, ca. 40,5x56 cm (ca. 16x22 in), and large panorama ca. 19x133 cm (7 ½ x 52 ¼ in). Manuscript pencil captions under the photos. Handsome period style red full morocco with gilt tooled borders, original red morocco label with gilt tooled title and Imperial crown mounted on the front board, spine with raised bands, decorative paper endpapers, all edges gilt. Large panorama with minor creases, mounts slightly browned on extremities, otherwise a very good album.
Interesting rare collection of original photos of the Delhi Durbar of 1911 taken by Bourne & Shepherd company – the official photographers of the ceremony. Specially for this occasion “they were given the title, 'Kaiser-e-Hind' which they still use as part of their official letterhead” (Wikipedia). This solemn ceremony at Coronation Park in Delhi lasted for 9 days (7-16 December 1911) and was the only one attended by the sovereign. The Durbar of 1911 is also famous for the fact that on December 12, 1911 George V, “the then Emperor of India along with Queen Mary, made the announcement that the capital of the Raj was to be shifted from Calcutta to Delhi. On December 15, 1911, they laid the foundation stone for Viceroy's residence, and New Delhi here, which was subsequently shifted to its present location on Raisina Hill near Rashtrapati Bhavan (President's House)” (Wikipedia).
The album documents several days of the Durbar and includes a series of images showing the Kingsway railway station and high-ranking guests arriving to the ceremony (H.H. Of Indore, H.H. The Nizam, H.H. Of Biroda, H.H. Of Kashmere et al.); the reception at Salimgarh Fort; the “State entry”; the subsequent reception at the “Ridge” with the scene of fire of the “Reception Tent”; nice series dedicated to the “Presentation of Colors”; opening of the “All India Memorial” in front of the Delhi Fort; “Review” ceremony; “Reception of Chiefs”, the solemn Durbar ceremony itself – with large folding panorama of the scene; the “Church Parade”, photo of “His Majesty Reading the Proclamation” et al. Very important is the image of “Laying if the Foundation Stones of Imperial Delhi by Their Majesties”.
A series of images in dedicated to the luxury tent camps built for the guests and participants of the ceremony, including general views of different camps (Bengal and Assam Camp, Punjab Camp, King’s Camp, Burma Camp, Camp of the Governor of Bombay et al.), and the interiors of the Emperor’s tent (HM’s Audience Chamber, Drawing Room, Her Majesty’s Boudoir et al.). There are also views of Delhi related to the solemn festivities: the Red Fort gate, Durbar post office, Jama Masjid mosque, Diwan-i-Khas Hall in the Red Fort et al.
A group of images shows the sport tournaments organized during the Durbar: semi-finals and finals for Polo, finals of the football tournament with the group portrait of the winning team and a photo of their Majesties watching the game; winners of the hockey tournament et al. Interesting portraits include those of “Balochistan Chiefs” “Bhutan Chiefs”; “Shan Chiefs”, “Bishops of India and Chaplains who conducted the State Service” and a large double-page group portrait of the Durbar guests, the majority of whom are shown wearing the Delhi Durbar Medal – special insignia to commemorate the ceremony (there were 26800 medals in silver and 102 in gold).
Overall a beautiful album with historically significant images.
The Delhi Durbar, meaning "Court of Delhi", was a mass assembly at Coronation Park, Delhi, India, to mark the coronation of a King and Queen of the United Kingdom. Also known as the Imperial Durbar, it was held three times, in 1877, 1903, and 1911, at the height of the British Empire. The 1911 Durbar was the only one attended by the sovereign, who was George V. The term was derived from common Mughal term durbar. On March 22, 1911, a royal proclamation announced that the Durbar would be held in December to commemorate the coronation in Britain a few months earlier of King George V and Queen Mary and allow their proclamation as Emperor and Empress of India. Without public forewarning, the announcement of the move of India's capital from Calcutta to Delhi was also made at the Durbar. Practically every ruling prince and nobleman in India, plus thousands of landed gentry and other persons of note, attended to pay obeisance to their sovereigns.
The official ceremonies lasted from December 7 to December 16, with the Durbar itself occurring on Tuesday, December 12. The Sovereigns appeared in their Coronation robes, the King-Emperor wearing the Imperial Crown of India with eight arches, containing 6170 exquisitely cut diamonds, and covered with sapphires, emeralds and rubies, with a velvet and miniver cap all weighing 34.05 ounces (965 g). They then appeared at a darshan (a sight) at the jharoka (balcony window) of Red Fort, to receive half a million or more of the common people who had come to greet them. A feature film of the coronation titled With Our King and Queen Through India (1912) – also known as The Durbar in Delhi – was filmed in the early color process Kinemacolor and released on 2 February 1912.
King George V announced the movement of the capital of India from Calcutta to New Delhi during the Durbar and also laid the foundation stone of New Delhi. Generally the Durbar achieved its purpose of cementing support for British rule among the ruling princes, as was demonstrated by the support given during the First World War” (Wikipedia).
Bourne & Shepherd established in 1863, is the oldest photographic studio still in operation, and one of the oldest established photographic businesses in the world. At its peak it was the most successful commercial firm in 19th-and early 20th-century India, with agencies all over India, and outlets in London and Paris, and also ran a mail order service.
Though some sources consider its inception to be 1862, when noted British photographers, Charles Shepherd established a photographic studio, with Arthur Robertson, called ‘Shepherd & Robertson’ in Agra, which later moved to Shimla and eventually became the part of ‘Howard, Bourne & Shepherd’, set up by Samuel Bourne, Charles Shepherd, along with William Howard, first established in Shimla around 1863, and later in Kolkata in 1867, where it is still operational today, at Esplanade Row, in Esplanade, Kolkata (Calcutta) under the same name. Today some of their earlier work is preserved at Cambridge University Library, the National Portrait Gallery, London, the National Geographic Society's Image Collection and the Smithsonian Institution” (Wikipedia).

 

11. [HAWAII, JAPAN, CHINA, SOUTH-EAST ASIA & INDIA]
[Photograph Album of 208 Original Photographs of the Pacific and South-East Asia, including Hawaii, Japan, China, the Philippines, Ceylon, India and Himalayas].

Ca. 1905. Oblong Folio (28,5x38 cm). 50 leaves. Over 160 mounted photographs of different size, from ca. 8x13 cm (3x5 in) to ca. 5x8 cm (2x3 in), all captioned in white. Period brown sheep blind stamped on the front board. Extremities mildly rubbed, one leaf with a tear, but otherwise a very good album.
Interesting photograph album, presumably compiled by an American traveller on a tour, with a small group, from Hawaii across the Pacific Ocean to South-East Asia and India. The nationality of the traveller, as well as the approximate date of their trip (ca. 1905) can be supported by the fact, that he crossed the Pacific from Hawaii on SS Mongolia, which was launched in 1903 and used on the trans-Pacific service (San Francisco, Hawaii, Hong Kong) from 1904 to 1915. The date is also confirmed by a picture of steamship Minnesota, included in the album (it was built in 1904 and made forty round trip voyages between the U.S. West Coast and the Far East between January 1905 and October 1915), (The Atlantic Transport Line, 1881 -1931, on-line).
The album starts with the Hawaiian views showing "Queen Lil’s home," Palm Avenue, and "Residence" in Honolulu. Then a large group of photographs (51) show Japan - Yokohama, Kamakura, Kyoto, Osaka, Nagasaki, Mt. Fuji, Lake Hakone (Ashi) and historic Fujiya Hotel in Miyanoshita (Hakone); with views of Japanese gardens and temples, beggars, children and a portrait the traveller with geishas. China is represented with 27 photographs of Canton with its canals, streets, colonial buildings on the Shameen (modern Shamian) Island; Wuchou (port, missionaries' houses and others), several views of the West River with boats and junks; Macao (facade of the ruined Catholic church) et al. Thirteen photographs show Manila (numerous views of churches), Singapore and Malaysia (Penang). Ceylon photographs (19) include interesting views of Colombo’s colonial architecture and harbour, ruins of Kandy and Anuradhapura, and a portrait of the traveler holding a cobra in an open basket (the photo captioned "Snake charmer").
The largest group of photographs, over 70, relate to India and Burma and show: temples of Trichinopoly; pagodas of Rangoon and Mandalay, trip on the Irrawaddy River (Burma); botanical garden and street views of Calcutta, Ganges ghats and temples of Benares, palaces and ruins of Lucknow; Taj Mahal, Fort and numerous mosques of Agra and Delhi; views of Kanpur, Jaipur, Amber, Ahmedabad. Very interesting are the Himalayan views taken in Darjeeling, including the one with travelers in a sedan chair waiting to be taken "to Tiger Hill to see Mt. Everest." And, of course, a portrait of the traveler with two local women in national dress, captioned "A thorn between two roses (Darjeeling)." Overall a very interesting album with excellent images.

 

12. [HILLARY, EDMUND]
HERBER, John
[Attractive Well Executed Pencil Portrait of Edmund Hillary, the First Man on the Top of Everest, Autographed by Him].

Ca. 1953. Pencil drawing on an album leaf, ca. 25x35,5 cm (9 ¾ x 14 in). Hillary’s ink signature on the left margin. With a pencil drawing of a rugby player and fifteen signatures of the Canterbury rugby players on verso. Recently matted. A very good drawing.
Captivating pencil drawn portrait of world-known New Zealand mountaineer Edmund Hillary (1919-2008), created not long after his famous first ascent of Mount Everest on 29 May 1953. Together with Sherpa mountaineer Tenzing Norgay, Hillary became the first climbers known to have reached the summit of Everest. They were part of the ninth British Expedition to Everest, led by John Hunt.
The portrait was drawn by New Zealand artist John Herber who in the 1950s and 1960s created a series of drawings portraying notable personalities of the day. Each portrait was later sent to the person depicted with the request to autograph it. Our portrait shows Hillary in his expedition parka, with a captivating smile, and is signed “E.P. Hillary” on the left margin.
The verso of the portrait is an interesting illustration in the history of the New Zealand rugby. It is dedicated to the game between the Canterbury and Springboks teams during the 1956 Springboks tour (21 July 1956, Lancaster Park Stadium, Christchurch). Canterbury won 9:6. There is a pencil drawn portrait of a Canterbury player, and signatures of fifteen players who took part in the game (K. Stuart, R. Smith, A. Elsom, M. Dixon, S.K. Henderson, S.G. Bremner, P. Vincent, N. Roberts, J. Buxton, R. Duff, S.F. Hill, H. Burry, W.J. Whineray, D. Young, E. Hern).

 

13. [INDIA & CEYLON]
[Album with Forty-Six Original Photographs of India and Ceylon].

Ca. 1890. Oblong Small Quarto (18x25 cm). 25 leaves. With 46 silver gelatin prints (6 of these are duplicates), each 11x16 cm (4x6 in), many with contemporary manuscript captions on verso. Period gilt tooled half morocco with brown cloth boards. Rebacked in period style, mounts slightly foxed, some images mildly faded but overall a very good album with good clear images.
The images are uniform in format and non-commercial. The photographer was likely a missionary as several of the photographs deal with missions. The photographer documents a wide area from the Khyber Pass to Peshawar, Simla, Delhi, Agra, Ratnapura, Lucknow, Cawnpore, Kotla, Megnanapuram and across to Ceylon.
The images include: A house at Palamcottah, Residency at Lucknow, Kandy, a church in Peshawar, a missionary group with camels, Batala, a house in Colombo, tea plantation, Avisawella, the Kutub, Delhi, Khyber Pass, a desert fortress, church at Megnanapouram, Gates, Courts of Justice, Agra, Mrs Kember's Mission House, Palamcottah, scene in Ceylon, Tamarind tree, Megnanapouram, Sacred elephant in the Temple, Tinnevelly, Forts, Agra, house in Hatton, Ceylon;,scene at Ratnapura, tomb at Old Delhi, Girls at Cotla Mission School, Cotla School boys, tea plantation, Amritsar, Mission House, Lucknow, Cawnpore monument to massacre, church at Cawnpore, burnt down in the Mutiny, Peshawar church, monument in the Residency grounds, Lucknow, Himalayan scene (Simla, Darjeeling), ruins of Delhi Gate at Lucknow etc.

 

14. [INDIA]
FRANCIS FRITH & CO.
[Collection of Forty-Four Original Photographs of India, with Views of Temples, Mosques and Palaces in Delhi, Agra, Lucknow, Bombay, Fatehpur Sikri, Benares, et al.].

Ca. 1870. With forty-four albumen prints ca. 16x20,5 cm (6 ¼ x 8 in), mounted on original leaves, disbound from an album. All but three images with the studio’s blind stamp “Frith’s series” in the left lower corners, more than half captioned in negative. Over twenty with additional period manuscript captions on the mounts. Some mounts with minor tears and chipping on extremities, several images with creases, but overall a very good collection.
Attractive collection of classical architectural photos of India from the studio of Francis Frith, mostly known for his views of Egypt and the Middle East, as well as for his extensive archive of photos of over 7000 British towns and villages, “the only nationally important photographic archive of its kind still in private hands” (francisfrith.com).
Sharp and detailed, the images show some famous examples of the ancient Hindu and Mughal architecture in India: Delhi (the palace, Qutub Minar tower, mosques of Jama Masjid and Moti Masjid, tombs of Humayun and Mirza Jahangir, Alai Darwaza gateway et al.); Agra (the gateway and mausoleum of Taj Mahal, Sikandra, zenana in the Agra Fort, Itmad-Ud-Daulah's Tomb et al.); Lucknow (Qaisar Bagh complex, the Residency, Asfi mosque of the Bara Imambara complex, gate of the Hosseinabad Bazaaret al.); Bombay (stone carvings in the Elephanta and Ellora caves et al.); Fatehpur Sikri (the palace, Tomb of Sheikh Salim Chishti); ancient Hindu temples of Benares and Bendrabund et al. Several photos give an excellent insight into 1870's India, i.e. Panorama of Bombay taken from Mazagaon Fort, pyramids of cotton sacks loaded in the Cotton Green suburb of Bombay; a bull-driven “Hackery”, or a view of Delhi taken from the top of Jama Masjid. Overall a very good collection.
Francis Frith“is noted for his studies of the Middle East and for establishing the largest photographic publishing firm in the 19th century. He was one of the founder-members of the Liverpool Photographic Society in 1853 and he exhibited portraits and landscapes to much critical acclaim. He made three trips to Egypt and the Holy Land between 1856 and 1860.<…> Although Frith was not the first European photographer to visit Egypt, his work was wider in its geographical scope and more systematic in its coverage than that of, for example, Maxime Du Camp. Frith photographed most of the key monuments several times, combining general views with close studies of their significant details and broader views of their landscape environment. The clarity of his images proved to be of immense value to archaeologists. The photographs are also often powerfully composed, revealing an understanding of the poetic qualities of light that gives them lasting aesthetic value.
Frith’s earlier experience as a printer proved useful in the commercial exploitation of his photographs. They were exhibited widely, sold through print dealers and issued in serial form to subscribers. In 1858-60 he published Egypt and Palestine Photographed and Described by Francis Frith, the first of a series of magnificent albums containing mounted albumen prints accompanied by letterpress commentaries. In 1862 he also produced a limited edition of The Queen’s Bible, illustrated with his photographs of the Holy Land. He had set up his own publishing firm in Reigate in 1859 and he specialized in picturesque scenes for the rising tourist market. <…> Through his shrewd exploitation of the picture postcard the firm quickly became the largest of its kind in the 19th century. The business remained in the Frith family after his death and was wound up in 1971. Material salvaged from the premises was later reissued as the Francis Frith Collection” (Ray McKenzie; Grove Art Online).

 

15. [INDOCHINA]
CASPARI, Chrétien Edouard (1840-1918)
[Eleven Original Watercolour Views of Saigon, Bangkok and Scenes of Everyday life in French Indochina].

1877-1878. Watercolour and ink on paper; seven larger sketches, ca. 13x21 cm (5x8 in), and four smaller ones, ca. 10,5x14 cm (4 x 5 ½ in). All captioned and dated in ink in the lower margins of the images, with additional pencil captions or notes on the mounts. Watercolours mounted on ten period watermarked laid paper leaves. Mounts slightly soiled and stained, but the watercolours are bright and in very good condition.
Beautiful sketches taken from life by a skilful amateur artist, a French colonial engineer, while serving in Indochina. The collection includes several interesting views of Saigon showing the La Sainte Enfance School, St. Joseph Seminary (‘Seminaire annamite’), the house of the director of the French arsenal, a horse-driven carriage or ‘Malabar’ et al. The watercolours include some nice portraits of the locals, including a sketch of a Chinese merchant followed by a servant carrying his goods, portraits of Vietnamese women with children, people driving oxen carts, villagers et al. There is also a great view of Dong Nai River near Bien Hoa city (32 km east from Saigon) – a peaceful picture of a river with two people paddling in a boat and several village houses amidst lush tropical greenery on shore. The earliest watercolour in the collection, dated 1877, is a view of Bangkok. One sketch shows local plants – mango tree, bamboo and an Erythrina tree covered with bright red flowers.
Chrétien Édouard Caspari was a French hydrographer and astronomer. He graduated from École polytechnique in 1860, and in 1862-1902 he worked as a hydrographer and engineer in France, the Caribbean and French Indochina (the Gulf of Siam, Annam and Tonkin). Caspari was the author of an astronomy textbook for the Service Hydrographique de la Marine, and of numerous scientific papers, some relating to Indochina. He was awarded with the Prix Montijon of the French Academy of Sciences (1878), and in 1905 he became President of the Astronomical Society of France.

 

16. [JAPAN, HONG KONG, SINGAPORE & HAWAII]
[Attractive Lacquered Album with 112 Original Photographs of Japan, Hong Kong, Singapore and Hawaii Taken During an Around the World Trip Titled]: Around the World, 1900.

1900. Oblong Folio (ca. 32,5x41 cm). With112 gelatin silver prints of various size mounted on 21 stiff card leaves, including 10 large images, ca. 25,5x29 cm (ca. 10 x 11 ½ in), and three large colour photos, ca. 20x26 cm (ca. 8x10 ¼ in). Manuscript ink captions on the mounts. Original lacquered Japanese album with leather spine, marbled paper endpapers, all edges gilt. Rebacked in style, boards slightly rubbed and neatly repaired on the corners, minor foxing of the endpapers, otherwise a very good album.
The album includes photos taken by a British traveller during a trip around the world, dated 20 March – 31 August 1900. The author left London in the beginning of March on the P.& O. Steamer Arcadia and proceeded to Port Said and Colombo, where he changed to the R.M.S. Chusan for Hong Kong. After calling at Penang and Singapore he arrived to Hong Kong, and visited Canton and Macao. Then he proceeded to Japan, arriving to Kobe on 4 May and travelling around the country until the end of June. On 20 June he left on S.S. “Futami Maru”, calling at Manila, Samoa, and Hawaii. One of the last photos dated 31 August 1900 shows the Niagara Falls.
The images of Japan comprise the majority of the album (63) and include views of Yokohama harbour, Tokyo (Kameido shrine, private house owned by certain Englishman Milne et al.), Kiga, a series of images of the Nikko shrines with the “celebrated Red Lacquer Bridge”, Eaimitsu temple, Karamon gate, bronze Torii, “Avenue of criptomenia trees”, botanical garden et al. Interesting in the image of the “fish flags” waving in Nikko during the Tango no Sekku or the Boys Holiday – “the idea is that as the fish swims against the stream, so may the boy ‘swim’ through life”. The author also took a series of photos of a temple procession in Nikko, with a picture of “3 gold shrines, 75 men to carry each. These are not allowed to be photographed”. Other images shows street musicians, small tea houses and hotels, Kyoto geishas, Nagoya Castle, Nara City et al. Three colour photos show Lake Hakone and Mount Fuji. The album opens with a self portrait of the compiler shown mounted on a horse, with his guide Hirakata, at the Otome Toge pass where “one gets a magnificent view of Fujiyama”.
A series of interesting photos of China include view of the Hong Kong harbour with the building of the Club, “the Queen’s road” and monument to the Queen Victoria in Hong Kong, view of Macao taken from the hotel ‘Boa Vista’, several dreadful images of execution of pirates in Canton, native boats crowded on the Canton river, a portrait of the travelling party at the palace of “Li Hung Chang” (Li Hongzhang, 1823-1901, a noted Chinese politician) et al. The beginning of the album numbers 14 views of Port Said, Colombo, Penang and Singapore, with street views, native boats with painted eyes in the bows, diving boys, and islands near Singapore which “we were passing nearly all day & each one seemed more beautiful that the last”. In the end of the album there are over a dozen photos of Manila, Samoa and Hawaii with large views of Honolulu, scenes of “Cricket at Apia”, portraits of natives, Hawaiian dancers et al.

 

17. [KANCHENJUNGA EXPEDITION 1955]
EVANS, Charles (1918-1995)
[Two Typewritten Letters Signed by Charles Evans, the Leader of the 1955 British Kanchenjunga Expedition, on Official "Kanchenjunga Expedition 1955" Letterhead, and Addressed to the Manager of the Swiss Watchmaking Company Baume & Mercier, with a Carbon Copy of the Answer].

1955. Three letters, 28, 29 & 31 December 1955. Two Quartos (ca. 25,5x20 cm) and one letter with the blank lower margin cut off, ca. 17,5x20 cm. Each 1 p. Two letters on printed blue letterheads of the Kanchenjunga Expedition, signed by Charles Evans; the letter by Baume unsigned. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good collection.
An interesting collection of three letters about the supply of the 1995 British Kanchenjunga expedition with chronometers. Charles Evans, the expedition leader, writes to L.C. Baume, the head of the London branch of Baume & Mercier watchmaking company, saying that he had received Baume’s offer to supply the expedition with watches. Evans declines the offer with regret since he had already agreed to take wrist watches from Rolex and “to regard them as our exclusive suppliers.” Nevertheless he would like to have “alarm of travelling clocks, which that company does not supply” and which “do not come under this agreement.” In his reply written the next day L.C. Baume says that “apart from electrical timing systems and industrial clocks, I can only supply ordinary wrist and pocket watches, sundry stop watches and navigational instruments. I do not manufacture either alarm or travelling clocks but if you have any difficulty in obtaining some of these, I could no doubt get some for you.” He also wishes Happy New Year and a success expedition to Evans and all other members.
“Charles Evans was John Hunt's deputy leader on the 1953 British Mount Everest Expedition which made the first ascent of Everest in 1953. With Tom Bourdillon, he made the first ascent of the South Summit, coming within three hundred feet of the main summit of Everest on 26 May 1953, but was forced to turn back. Everest was summited by their teammates Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay three days later, on 29 May 1953. Evans was the leader of the expedition which first climbed Kangchenjunga, the world's third highest peak, in 1955. He served as the Principal of the University College of North Wales (now called Bangor University), from 1958 to 1984. He was President of the Alpine Club from 1967 to 1970” (Wikipedia).

 

18. [KASHMIR AND THE HIMALAYAS]
[Album with 99 Original Snapshots, Titled on Front Pastedown:] Two Months Wanderings in Kashmir, Jhelum Valley, Srinagar & the Himalayas, and Murree to Rawalpindi and N.W. Frontier. (September-November 1917).

1917. Octavo (ca. 22,5x17 cm). 24 card leaves. With 99 gelatin silver prints, the majority ca. 6x10,5 cm (2 3/8 x 4 1/8 in); with 11 images ca. 5,5x8,5 cm (2 ¼ x 3 ¼ in) or slightly smaller. All photos captioned in white pencil on the mounts. Original green cloth “Newlyn” album, slightly rubbed on the extremities. About 40 images faded, one photo with creases and tears, but overall a very good album.
Interesting collection of original snapshots documenting a travel of a group of British officers and officials around Kashmir and the Northwestern Frontier during the last stage of the WW1. The first part of the travel started at the Bhurban camp (Punjab, modern Pakistan), from where the party drove up the Jhelum Valley road to Srinagar; among the snapshots are views of villages and locals in Kohala, Chinar, and Rampur. A series of Srinagar views numbers over twenty images, showing Amira Kadal Bridge in its initial wooden state (in was reconstructed in concrete in 1982), the Bund and the post office, Srinagar museum and banqueting hall, Maharaja’s Palace, 3rd Bridge and Hari Parbat fort, Hari Singh’s Palace, local dwellings named “the Shanks” et al; several views depict the Dal Lake and famous Nishat Bagh and Shalimar Bagh gardens nearby . There are also vivid portraits of Kargil peasants and local children named “mudlarks.”
The second leg of the travel was a hike to the Harmukh Mountain in northwestern Himalayas. Over 30 images illustrate the undertaking, with stunning views of the Tsurlat Pass, mountain ranges nearby, the Harmukh Mountain with its glaciers, Wangat Nala and ruins of a Hindu temple; portraits of coolies and the British travellers crossing streams, resting in camp and taking notes. The photos taken on the way back include views of Ganderbal and the Sind River, Lake Manesbal, Chinar Bagh, Takht-i-Suleiman Mountain, a bank of Jhelum showing old Kashmir road, portraits of Pathan peasants (Pashtuns), a marauder in the Bhurban camp, a caravan of “Barbary camels on a long journey” and others. Overall a very interesting collection.

 

19. [KUSAKABE, Kimbei] (1841-1934)
[Collection of Forty-Six Original Photographs of Japan].

Ca. 1880. Forty-six handcoloured albumen photographs each ca. 20x26 cm (8 x 10 ½ in), most titled in negative. Photographs mounted on both sides of original card mounts. Generally good strong images but with a few mildly faded ones, a few mounts with mild foxing but overall a very good collection.
The titled images in this collection include: 8. Kago, Travelling chair; 11. Palying Samisen Tsudzumi Fuye & Taiko; 14. Buddist Priests; 16 Wind Costume; 67. Home Bathing; 80. Visiting Ceremonial; 84. Freight Cart; 87. Collie Winter Dress; 94. New Year's Ceremony; 97. Farmer's House; 123. Dancing Party; 131 Sumiyoshi Dance; 167. A Fiddler and the Guiteress; 172. Hair Dressing; 195. Street Amazake Seller, a kind of drink made of fermented rice; 217. Group of Children; 175. Dogashima; 934. Tennoji Pagoda at Osaka; 129. Yomeimon Gate Nikko; 233. Nunobiki at Kobe; 484. Daibutsu Nara; 509. Shijo Bridge at Kioto; 626. Main Street Tokio; 629 Cherry bank at Koganei; 901. Hozugawa, a Rapids at Kioto; 902. Hozugawa, a Rapids at Kioto; 917. Kinkakuji Garden at Kioto; 921. Kinkakuji Garden at Kioto; 1016. Enoshima; 1018. Daidutsu Bronze Image Kamakura; 343. Tennoji Temple Osaka; 1087. Lake of Biwa from Miidera; Jinrikisha, (Carriage), Osuwa; Burial Place, Nagasaki; Entrance to Nagasaki Harbour; Nagasaki Harbour; Bund, Nagasaki; Road to Mogi, (Tagami); Takaboko, (Pappenberg), Nagasaki; Nakashima-Gawa, Nagasaki; Budhist Temple, Nagasaki & five untitled images.
“Kusakabe Kimbei was a Japanese photographer. He usually went by his given name, Kimbei, because his clientele, mostly non-Japanese-speaking foreign residents and visitors, found it easier to pronounce than his family name. Kusakabe Kimbei worked with Felice Beato and Baron Raimund von Stillfried as a photographic colourist and assistant before opening his own workshop in Yokohama in 1881 in the Benten-dōri quarter, and from 1889 operating in the Honmachi quarter. He also opened a branch in the Ginza quarter of Tokyo. Around 1885, he acquired the negatives of Felice Beato and of Stillfried, as well as those of Uchida Kuichi. Kusakabe also acquired some of Ueno Hikoma's negatives of Nagasaki. He stopped working as a photographer in 1912-1913. Most of his albums are mounted in accordion fashion” (Wikipedia).

 

20. [KYOTO, JAPAN]
[Collection of Twenty-eight Original Photos Taken by a German Traveler Mostly in the Vicinity of Kyoto, Including Views of Temples, Streets, Gardens and a Number of Interesting Group Portraits of the Local People].

Ca. 1900s. Twenty-eight gelatin silver prints ca. 10,5x15,5 cm (4 ¼ x 6 in) mounted on recto and verso of original cardboard leaves (unbound, ca. 23,5x31 cm). All but one image with short period ink captions in German on the mounts. Mounts slightly soiled, one leaf with a corner bent (not affecting the image), a couple of photos slightly faded, but overall a very good collection of strong sound images.
Interesting collection of original snapshots taken by a German traveler in Kyoto and its environs in the early 1900s, with lively views of Kyoto streets, temples and gardens, photos of a river bank with boats and houses nearing the water, a cemetery, a private yard with an outdoor shower and others. Photos of local people include vivid group portraits of Japanese peasants, children, and picnic parties (one of them featuring a woman playing shamisen); there is also an image showing a Japanese artillery column on a road observed by local spectators (probably, a part of the Japanese force departing to the front of the Russian-Japanese War). Six photos show German travelers posing with Japanese peasants, on a river bank, in rickshaw carts on in a garden. Overall a fascinating firsthand account of everyday life of the early 20th century Japan.

 

21. [LANZHOU, CHINA]
FILCHNER, Wilhelm (1877-1957)
[Original Unsigned Ink Drawing Titled in Pencil on Verso:] … bei Lantschou…

Ca. 1905. Ink drawing on thick paper ca. 23x35,5 cm (9 x 14 in). Recently matted, with some repair of marginal chipping and one repaired tear in margin, but overall in good condition.
This well executed ink drawing shows a temple complex near Lanzhou. Lanzhou "is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China" (Wikipedia). This ink drawing was created by an artist under Filchner's direction after a photograph made by Filchner enroute to Tibet on his 1903-5 "expedition to Tibet to carry out geomagnetic and topographical surveys on the high plateau. In addition to its scientific work the expedition carried out a significant intelligence-gathering role and was contemporaneous with similar missions by Francis Younghusband and others" (Howgego, 1850-1940 Polar Regions etc., F6).

 

22. [NIKKO, JAPAN]
[Photo Album of 26 Original Photographs of Nikko, Japan].

Ca. 1890. Oblong Folio (28x38 cm). 26 leaves. 26 large photographs ca. 20,5x26 cm (8 x 10 ¼ in) mounted on 26 stiff cardboard leaves. All photographs numbered and captioned in negative, 15 photographs with custom made labels with type written text. Period brown gilt lettered half morocco with cloth boards neatly rebacked and re-cornered in style with new endpapers. Overall a very good album.
The album includes early large photographs of the main sites of Nikko, a mountainous resort approximately 140 km north of Tokyo, which became especially popular among foreign visitors in the end of the 19th century. "In 1890 first railway connection to Nikko was provided by the Japanese National Railways, which was followed by the Tobu Railway in 1929 with its Nikko Line" (Wikipedia). Nowadays Nikko is also a popular destination for Japanese and international tourists, famous for its ancient temples, tombs of great Japanese shoguns Tokugawa Ieyasu and Tokugawa Iemitsu, the Futarasan Shinto Shrine and numerous hot springs. The shrine of Nikko Tosho-gu, Futarasan Shrine, and a Buddhist temple complex Rinno-ji now form the UNESCO World Heritage Site Shrines and Temples of Nikko (Wikipedia).
The photographs show Hatsuishi Street (numbered 1197), the Sacred Bridge (748) leading to the Futarasan Shrine, Manganji Garden (1129 and 1132), and a large group of views of the Tosho-gu Shrine. The latter includes pictures of several gate: Ishidorii (740), Yomeimon (715 and 729), Karamon (733), Niomon (716), Torii (709), Eaimitsu (427); views of Five-storied pagoda (757), Eaimitsu temple (702), tomb of Iyeyasu shogun (710, 711, 714); a sculpture of Three Wise Monkeys (1052), stone lions of Tobikoye Shishi (1145), Korean bronze lantern (358), lavish wall carvings (761), buildings of Koro (739), Futatsudo (1147), Kaguraden (1210), Mizuya (713), an alley with stone idols (807) et al.

 

23. [NORTHERN INDIA]
[Two Photo Albums with 94 Original Photographs of Northern India].

Ca. 1910. Quarto, 2 vols. Albums with 12 leaves and generally with 4 photos per leaf. With 94 mostly glossy silver gelatin photographs ca. 11x17 cm (4 ¼ x 6 in). Images captioned in white ink on mount. Two green period gilt tooled half morocco alums with green cloth boards. Albums rebacked to match. About a dozen images yellowed and faded but the rest are strong unfaded images.
Interesting photo-documentation of travels through northern India, the images include views of: The outward voyage with Aden; Manik Bagh in Indore; Luggage being transported at Indore station; the state stables; Udaipur; Hotel Cecil, Agra; Ambala; a station on the Simla-kalka railway; monkies on roofs, Simla; Mashobra; the Kashmir Gate in Delhi; an ancient minstrel in Kutab; Bhopal Station; Beaters in Bhopal; Sanchi; a mortar mill in Meerut; Sardhana; homeward journey with Messina & Reggio, etc.

 

24. [OLDEST DRUGSTORE IN THE PHILIPPINES]
RÜMKER, Paul (1869 – after 1929)
[Extensive Archive of Paul Rümcker, one of the Owners of Botica Boie - the first Drugstore in the Philippines, Containing over 220 Original Photos, Including Portraits of Rümcker and other Members of the German Community in the Philippines, Photos of the Botica Boie, German Estates, Scenes from their Trips around the Islands, Views of the Local Villages and People et al.; with over 80 Postcards with the Views of the Philippines, Including 18 Written by Rümcker or Addressed to Him or His Associates].

The Philippines, ca. 1900-1910s., several items ca. 1930s. Over 220 loose gelatin silver or albumen prints of various size; some mounted on card, the majority unmounted. Photos from ca. 6x10 cm (2 ¼ x 4 in) to ca. 15,5x20,5 cm (6x8 in). Several with period pencil captions in German on verso. With over 80 printed and real photo postcards, including 18 filled in and with German or Philippine postal stamps on verso. Some photos with mild creases, several slightly faded or with silvering, but overall a very good collection. With: Centennial Memorial. Botica Boie. Philippine American Drug Co. 1830-1930. Manila: Sugar News Press, [1930]. Octavo. [4], 104 pp. With two folding plates, numerous illustrations in text. Original publisher’s illustrated wrappers. A very good copy. Paul Rümcker’s pencil inscription on the front wrapper.
With: The Manila Times: Investors and Settlers Edition. [Manila], February 1910. Elephant Folio. 124 pp., with numerous illustrations in text. Period cloth hard cover with original both publisher’s illustrated wrappers attached to the front and rear boards. A very good copy.
Extensive and interesting photographic archive of Paul Rümker, one of the German owners of “Botica Boie” – famous drugstore in Manila and the oldest in the Philippines, with important materials on the history and business operations of “Botica Boie” and the German community in the Philippines at the time.
The collection includes eight original photos of the drugstores in the Philippines, including the exterior and interior of the Botica Boie (three photos show its storefront facing the Escolta Street in Manila, with one image of the storefront under reconstruction); American drugstore in Manila (apparently, the one on the Escolta Street), and a large photo (in three copies) of Botica Boie’s branch in Vigan (Luzon Island). Historically important are Paul Rümker’s cabinet portrait photo and 18 postcards sent or received by him in the Philippines and Germany (all but one dated 1900-1910s, one - 1930). Very interesting are real photo postcards showing a group portrait of German businessmen in Manila, German Club in Manila (1931), Rümcker’s land lot in Baguio and flooded Escolta Street where the Botica Boie was located.
There are also 24 individual and group portraits of the members of German community in the Philippines; two photos are with pencil captions on verso, identifying 12 people, including P. Rümker, R. Germann, the owner of “Germann & Co.” (exporters, importers and insurance agents in Manila), and Gustav Kiene, head brewer of the San Miguel Brewery, the only brewery in the Philippine Islands at the time. Sixteen original photos depict German owned houses, mansions and estates in the Philippines, with the Germans and sometimes local servants posing to the camera. One photo shows three Germans sitting at the open terrace of a restaurant in the Philippines with the sign “Waldkneipe!”
Over 70 photos depict various regions the Philippines, apparently taken by Germans during their travels to the countryside and showing them posing next to their summer houses, in native villages, with the locals, inspecting a train crash on a railway, being carried in palanquins by the locals et al. There are also interesting group portraits of the Philippine people from different tribes, native villages, a view of a destroyed port and damaged vessels in the Philippines (apparently, after a tsunami) et al. A series of seven photos depicts a German party on a holiday trip to Calamba, 54 km south of Manila.
There are also over thirty photos depicting Rumker’s railway travel through Manchuria (apparently, on his way to China; he arrived to Manila from China and entered the service of Botica Boie in 1894). The photos are housed in the envelope signed “Mukden,” and include views of the Dalian vicinity (signed “Dalny”), and South Manchuria railway (views of rails, train cars, locals, Chinese villages, and landscapes, obviously taken from a car window).
The collection also contains 27 blank printed postcards and 36 blank real photo postcards showing the Philippines (series of views of Baguio, the Benguet Road, two real photo postcards showing a wreck on a steamer on the Philippines’ coast; views of Manila, Zamboanga City, the Jolo Island, Mayon Volcano, interiors of the Manila Hotel et al.) With over seventy photos, apparently from Rümker’s family archive, generally, portraits of German relatives.
The collection is supplemented with a historical overview of Botica Boie published to its centennial jubilee, with Rümker’s autograph on the front wrapper. There is also a special issue of the “Manila Times” dedicated to the most important businesses of the archipelago; the volume contains an extensive article on the “Botica Boie,” as well as other German-owned businesses in the Philippines.
“Botica Boie” dates back its history to 1830 when it was founded in Manila Dr. Lorenzo Negrao, a Spanish physician. It received its famous name in 1884 when it was bought by Reinhold Boie. In 1902 the business was bought by Friedrich Stahl and Paul Rümker, “both having had many years of service in the company”. The firm name changed into Botica Boie, Stahl and Rümker, Proprietors. In 1906 Stahl & Rümker established a buying office in Hamburg which the partners took turns in managing. In 1914 Mr. Stahl went there to relieve Mr. Rümker and was caught by the war. They asked Ernst Israel, who had been with the firm for eight years, to manage the business in Manila.
In 1916 the Botica Boie moved to new quarters, needing more space to accommodate the growing business of the establishment, after having occupied its former building for the period of eighty-six years. In 1918 the United States Alien Property Custodian sold Botica Boie to the Philippine American Drug Company fo P. 1,250,000 (See more: Centennial Memorial. Botica Boie. Philippine American Drug Co. 1830-1930, Manila, 1930). The company continues its operations nowadays under the name “BOIE, INC. - Pioneer Filipino Pharmaceutical Company”.
The German Dispensary, “one of the pioneer houses in this field, which began business in Manila three-quarters of a century ago. This well known establishment is situated on the Escolta, the principal business street of Manila, and is one of the largest concerns of its kind in the city. Here one may purchase, not only well known remedies, but the rarest of drugs. This store carries in stock about everything known to the sciences of medicine, botany and surgery. <…> This firm has what is perhaps the most complete line of surgical instruments to be found in the Orient <…>
Besides its drug business, which is both wholesale and retail, the German Dispensary also operates one of the largest bottling works in the Philippines. Here waters of all kinds are prepared with the scrupulous care that characterizes all of the products of this firm. <…> The firm is also the oldest distiller of ylang-ylang, the flower which grows only in the Philippine Islands and from which is made some of the finest perfume in the world. <…> The drug store itself is fitted with all the elegant simplicity that is characteristic of the largest drug store in the United States. The fittings are of hardwood, and rows of modern glass showcases furnish attractive means for displaying the many things for sale” (The German Dispensary// The Manila Times: Investors and Settlers Edition, February 1910, p. 107).
Germans started to actively settle in Manila in the 1850-1870s, and in the end of the 19th century formed the largest after the British non-Spanish foreign group in Manila. In the late 1890s Germany’s aspiration of acquiring the Philippines as a colony grew, which resulted in the German navy squadron participation in the manoeuvres in the Manila Bay together with US Commodore George Dewey shortly after the American Victory in the Battle of the Manila Bay (1 May 1898) of the Spanish-American War. Although the Philippines became the American colony, German presence was strong, with 264 people in the early 1900s, and the Casino Union as a German cultural and social club being formed in the 1880s.

 

25. [PHILIPPINES]
[Album with 171 Original Snapshot Photographs and 16 Real Photo Postcards with the Views of the Philippines and Hong Kong].

Ca. 1920s. Oblong Folio (ca. 28x36 cm). 14 green card leaves. With 171 gelatin silver prints, the vast majority ca. 5,5x7,5 cm (ca. 2 1/8 x 3 in), three larger photos are ca. 10x7,5 cm (4x3 in). Ten images with period ink captions in English on the mounts. The 16 postcards are titled and numbered in negative. Later green pebbled cloth album with gilt lettered and decorated morocco title label on the front board (the title reads “Philippines”). Overall a very good album with strong images.
An interesting album apparently compiled by a family couple of American residents or visitors to the Philippines who went on an automobile journey around the archipelago. The album opens with a series of views of Manila, showing a road to Baguio, harbour of Manila, several birds-eye views and street views of the city, a snapshot of the travellers’ car getting its wheel fixed in Manila, “motoring on Pasaya Beach” and others. The snapshots apparently taken in Cebu and around include its street views, photos of the office of the “Oquinena & Co. Ltd.,” a series of snapshots depicting a public procession to the port, views of the boats in the harbor et al. Other uncaptioned images portray local children, villagers plowing with carabou (water buffaloes), public gatherings; a series of images shows European or American residents of the Philippines in their estates, another group of photos shows the travellers and their car going through a mountain serpentine in the Philippines. The last two pages of the album include eighteen snapshots most likely taken during a trip to Hong Kong, with nice views of its harbor and the streets. The real photo postcards depict the Escolta Street and the Kneedler Building in Manila, Pasig River, Pasay Beach, Pagsanjan (Laguna province), a market in Maro, a dog market, Philippine hogs, a Philippine python and others. Overall a nice visual account of the life on the Philippines during the American period of its history (1898-1946).

 

26. [ROYAL ASIATIC SOCIETY]
OUSELEY, Gore, Sir (1770-1844)
[Autograph Letter Signed, Regarding Ouseley Activities in the Royal Asiatic Society and Mentioning George FitzClarence and the First Edition of "The Travels of Ibn Batuta"].

Woolmers, Hertford, 22 October 1829. Octavo (ca. 20,5x16 cm). 1 pp. Brown ink on paper. Mild folds, light toning, remains of guards, but overall a very good letter.
An interesting letter from Sir Gore Ouseley, British diplomat and orientalist, noted for preparing the Treaty of Gulistan (1814) between Russia and Persia while serving as ambassador in Persia in 1810-1815. The letter relates to the Royal Asiatic Society which was founded in 1823 with the close participation of Ouseley. "He was one of those responsible for the founding of the Royal Asiatic Society in London in 1823 and was associated with the formation of the oriental translation committee, of which he was elected chairman. He became president of the Society for the Publication of Oriental Texts, formed in 1842" (Oxford DNB).
In the letter Ouseley thanks his addressee for "information about Col. FitzClarence" - obviously, meaning George Augustus Frederick FitzClarence (1794-1842), a military officer who served in India and also became an orientalist and a founder of the Royal Asiatic Society. Noteworthy is the fact, that FitzClarence "was a member of the society's committee preparing plans for publishing translations of oriental works, and was subsequently deputy chairman and vice-president of the Oriental Translation Fund" (Oxford DNB). It explains Ouseley writing that "in the course of a day or two I shall have a letter ready for the Ambassador at Constantinople to accompany the Copy of Ibn Batuta for the Sultan." He obviously meant "The travels of Ibn Batuta" - a history of travels of a famous Medieval Muslim explorer Ibn Battuta (1304-1368 or 1369) which has just been published by John Murray "for the Oriental Translation Committee" where Ouseley and FitzClarence were both members .
At the end of the letter Ouseley gives his opinion on the circulation of the reports, probably of the Society: "I think 40 or 50 might be selected to have them sent to, but certainly not more! And I [?] find that the number I have mentioned is much greater that those who would take the trouble of reading them." A nice letter revealing details of the history of the Royal Asiatic Society.

 

27. [RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR]
[Collection of Three Official Reports Regarding the Reconnaissance and Communication Services of the 1st and 2nd Russian Manchurian Armies during the Russo-Japanese War 1904-1905: Reconnaissance Report “Strength and Organisation of the Japanese Army” (1905); Report of the Communication Services of the 2nd Manchurian Army (1906); and Original Manuscript of the Lecture about “Foot Reconnaissance” (ca. 1910s)].

[1905, 1906, ca. 1910s]. Three documents, all Folio, housed in the original archival folder of the pre-revolutionary 4th Finnish Rifle Regiment. Folder slightly faded and worn and documents with minor tears on extremities, but overall a very good collection. 1) Mimeographed report “Strength and Organisation of the Japanese Army”. 22 August 1905. [11] pp.; 2) Typewritten Report “Communication Services”. [11] pp. Dated in pencil on the first page “25/7 1906”; occasional pencil marks in text. Pencil inscription in Russian on the last blank page: “For handing over to Count Kamensky from Riga”; 3) Manuscript lecture “Reconnaissance on Foot”. [2 – typewritten table of contents], 35, [2 - blank] pp.
Interesting collection of military archival documents uncovering the work of reconnaissance and communication of the 1st and 2nd Manchurian Armies during the Russo-Japanese War (27 January/9 February 1904 – 23 August/5 September 1905). Both armies were formed in October 1904; 1st Manchurian Army under command of General Linevich took part in the Battles of Shasho and Mukden; 2nd Manchurian Army under command of General Grippenberg took part in the Battles of Port Arthur, Shasho, Sandepu and Mukden.
First document is a mimeographed copy of the report by colonel Rozanov of the reconnaissance department of the Staff of the 2nd Manchurian army. Dated 9 January 1905 O.S., the report relates to the second phase of the war, after the fall of Port Arthur on 20 December 1904/2 January 1905, when the frontline transferred to the area around Mukden. The report titled "Strength and Organisation of the Japanese Army” was specially prepared for the planned advance of the Russian army which resulted in the battle of Sandepu (12-16/25-29 January 1905). The report thoroughly analyses the positions, number and equipment of the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th Japanese armies (under command of generals Kuroki, Oku, Nogi and Nozu); and gives several probable scenarios of their actions during the advance. Our copy was prepared on 22 August 1905 O.S. (a day before the end of the war) and was verified by “Shtab-rotmistr [Staff Captain of Cavalry] F. Krusenstern [?]”.
The second document is a “Report of the Communication Service of the Administration of the Quarter-Master of the 2nd Manchurian Army” (25 July 1906), covering the period “from the formation of the 2nd army to 20 September 1905” (with the main attention paid to the activity after 10 January 1905). The report is finishes with the “Main conclusions about the organisation and use of particular types of communication”, emphasizing the importance of telegraph and telephone lines, wireless telegraph, and recommends the establishment of the special Communications Cavalry Regiment, and improvement of work of orderly officers (ordinartsy). “It is necessary, that not only senior officers and the General Staff, but all troops, regular officers and lower ranks (especially in cavalry) realise all futility of their best intentions to defeat the enemy, if there is no communication, in the mean of the complete mutual awareness of the battle order throughout the whole front”.
The third document is an original manuscript text of the lecture about the “Reconnaissance on foot”, apparently prepared in the 1910s for the staff and reconnaissance officers. The manuscript with several inserts and corrections occupies 35 pages and is supplemented with a typewritten table of contents. The author was obviously a veteran of the Russo-Japanese war, and the lecture gives examples of work of the reconnaissance service of the 1st Manchurian Army. The lecture explains the goals and significance of military reconnaissance and gives a detailed characteristic of the reconnaissance on foot, divided into R. With the close approach to the enemy, R. From different dislocations, and R. During the battle. Separate paragraphs analyse foot reconnaissance of the Russian and Japanese armies during the war.

 

28. [SAKHALIN]
DINESS, Aglaya Pavlovna
[Collection of Five Original Photographs of the Town of Korsakov in Southern Sakhalin by a Russian Female Photographer, Including a Two-Part Panorama of Korsakov].

Ca. 1890s. Five albumen prints, three ca. 15x20,5 cm (5 7/8 x 8 in) including two comprising a two-part panorama, and two photos ca. 10,5x16 cm (4 1/8 x 6 ¼ in). All mounted on original album card leaves, one titled and signed in negative. Very good sound photos.
A collection of five rare early photos of southern Sakhalin made by Russian Far East female photographer Aglaya Diness. After her husband’s death Diness chose an unusual, for a Russian woman, profession and became a photographer and widely travelled across the Russian Far East and China. In the 1890s she took numerous photos of Kamchatka, Sakhalin, Khabarovsk, Ussuriisk and Manchuria, together with a series of excellent views of Port Arthur (now Lüshunkou, China). In 1899 Diness was awarded with the diploma of the Industrial and Agricultural Exhibition in Khabarovsk.
Our collection represents early interesting views of Korsakov town at the southern end of the Sakhalin – the oldest Russian settlement on the island. There is a two-part panorama of the town, titled and signed “Photo A. Diness” in the right lower corner (in Cyrillic), and a view of Korsakov’s logging depots on the shore of the Aniva Bay; two smaller images show a forest log house and a waterfall, apparently in the Korsakov’s vicinity. The images are especially interesting, as they show Korsakov still under the Russian rule, before it had been ceded to Japan after Russia’s defeat in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-1905. Overall a very interesting historically significant collection.
“While under Russian administration fort Korsakovsky was an important administrative center in Sakhalin's penal servitude system and a final destination for hundreds of prisoners from European Russia, sentenced to forced labor for particularly serious crimes. Such prisoners and their families comprised early settlers of fort Korsakovsky until its hand-over to the Japanese. Prominent Russian writers, including A.P. Chekhov and V.M. Doroshevich, visited Korsakovsky and left keen observations of its unsavory trade. In 1905, Korsakovsky was handed over to Japan after Russia's defeat in the Russo-Japanese war of 1904–1905” (Wikipedia).

Item #28

29. [SOUTH-EAST ASIA]
Three Albums of over 540 Original Photographs Showing a Voyage Through the Suez Canal and Indian Ocean to the Dutch East Indies, and the Pacific Including Images of Port-Said, Ceylon, Sumatra, Java, Singapore, Malaysia, Siam, French Indochina, China, Hong Kong and Hawaii; Also a Few Additional Commercial Photographs Obtained During the Trip.

1934-1935. All albums Oblong Folio (27x36 cm), with 23, 22 and 30 stiff card leaves respectively. Over 500 mounted images, mostly ca. 6x6 cm (2 ¼ x 2 ¼) and slightly bigger 6x8,5 cm (2 ½ x 3 ¼ in); but also with a large panorama ca. 13x30,5 cm (5 ¼ x 12 in) and over 75 postcard-sized images ca. 9x14,5 cm (3 ½ x 5 ¾ in). All images with period captions related either to individual image or to series of them; all albums with manuscript labels pasted on verso of the front cover. With over 50 postcards showing sites visited on the trip. Period Chinese decorative cloth albums, spines are stitched through on top and bottom with decorative strings. Very good albums with strong clear photographs.
Photographs taken by a French couple on their trip around the world in 1934 and 1935 on board of the diesel-powered Dutch ship Baloeran and later on Empress of Canada, an ocean liner owned by the Canadian Pacific Steamships Company.
They journeyed through Port Said, the Suez Canal, Ceylon (Colombo), Sabang in Indonesia, Sumatra (lake Toba, Padang), Java (Batavia, Java’s Kawah Ratoe volcano, Borobudur temple compounds), Singapore, Malaysia (Penang), Bangkok in Thaïland, Angkor (53 photographs and 34 postcards), Vietnam (Saigon, the road up to Dalat), Hong Kong, China (Pekin, the Summer Palace, the Temple of Heaven, the Great Wall of China), Japan (Kyoto, Nikko), Honolulu, Pebble Beach in California, the Grand Canyon, and New York (6 postcards of New York buildings in the last pages of the album).
Several images show the couple with fellow travellers encountered along the way; scenes of local life, many monuments and strings of pictures about local economies: tea and rubber tree plantations in Indonesia and Vietnam; a gold mine in Vietnam and five images about venom collection at Institute Pasteur in Bangkok. Also, there are a series of nine postcards about the rubber crop and rubber manufacturing in Malaysia.

 

30. [SUMATRA TOBACCO PLANTATION]
[A Portfolio of Twenty-one Large Original Photographs of a German Tobacco Plantation near Medan in Sumatra, 1888 Titled:] Erinnerung an Sumatra.

May 1888. Large Folio (50x40 cm). Portfolio with 21 original albumen photographs with 19 larger ones ca. 27x36 cm (10 ½ x 14 in) and slightly smaller, one image in duplicate. Many captioned in German in ink on mounts. Two photo are smaller group portraits each ca. 17x22,5 cm (7x9 in). Period brown decorative gilt titled cloth portfolio. With mild wear at extremities, mild foxing of photograph mounts, and some corners with minor chipping and wearing of mounts, but overall a very good collection of strong photos.
This portfolio documents photographically the tobacco plantation of the Bekalla Estate, Deli, Sumatra O.K.. The strong images show a tobacco warehouse, the plantation, surrounding hills, the plantation owners' house with European staff (several named), "Bekalla River" running through the estate, house of the local chieftain with locals outside, group portrait of locals, process of tobacco sorting in a factory, group portrait of plantation leadership, tobacco plants, group portraits of workers, inside of Jacob Weil's house, an inside view of a veranda etc.., The Bekalla Estate was in the Deli Serdang Regency, in Northeastern Sumatra, surrounding the city of Medan. "Medan did not experience significant development until the 1860s, when the Dutch colonialists began clearing the land for tobacco plantations. Medan quickly became a center of government and commercial activity, dominating development of Indonesia's western region" (Wikipedia). The present portfolio documents the development of such a tobacco plantation.

 

31. [TSINGTAO, CANTON & NANKING]
[German Imperial Naval Officer's Photo Album of 63 Original Photographs of China including Tsingtao, Canton & Nanking; With: Nine printed and colour postcards of Chinese life; With: Two hand Coloured Albumen Photographs of Japan].

Ca. 1900. Oblong Folio (30x41 cm). The 63 silver gelatin photographs ca. 12x17 cm (5x7 in) with some larger and smaller ones. Period burgundy gilt tooled diced half sheep with brown and dark brown patterned cloth boards. Extremities slightly rubbed, but overall in very good original condition.
The strong images include 63 images of Tsingtao, Canton & Nanking including street scenes, panoramas, colonial and military life and establishments, temples and pagodas, Chinese and their dress and monuments and cemeteries."The Kiautschou Bay concession was a German leased territory in Imperial China which existed from 1898 to 1914. Covering an area of 552 km2 (213 sq mi), it was located around Jiaozhou Bay on the southern coast of the Shandong Peninsula (German: Schantung-Halbinsel). Jiaozhou was romanized as Kiaochow, Kiauchau or Kiao-Chau in English and as Kiautschou or Kiaochau in German. The administrative center was at Tsingtau" (Wikipedia).

 

32. [VIETNAM RAILWAYS]
[Collection of Four Large Folding Maps of Railways in Southern Vietnam during French Colonial Rule, Titled:] Carte du Sud del’Annam. Ligne des Chemins de Fer [Leaf 1: General Map from Saigon to Qui-Nhon; Leaf 2: Line from Phanrang to Nhatrang; Leaf 3: Line from Phanrang to Dalat; Leaf 4: Line from Phanrang to Phanry].

Ca. 1899. Four large folding lithographed maps, ca. 79,5x70,5 cm (31 ¼ x 27 ¾ in), ca. 92,5x43,5 cm (36 ½ x 17 in), ca. 91,5x31 cm (36 ¼ x 12 ¼ in), and ca. 88,5x34,5 cm (34 ½ x 12 in). All bound together but disbound from a larger volume, the first map with a period manuscript title “Ligne des Chemins de Fer. Echelle 1/500,000.” The last map detached from the others, otherwise a very good collection.
Interesting map collection illustrating the development of the railway network in Southern Vietnam during French colonial rule. The general map outlines the railway from Saigon to Quy Nhon, with all stations and distances from Saigon. The three other special maps show the railway and its stations, as well as transitable and non-transitable roads from Phan Rang to Nha Trang, Dalat and Phan Ry. The maps also mark main cities, towns and villages, rivers and heights above the sea level.

 

33. [VLADIVOSTOK]
[Anonymous Large Original Photograph Panorama of Vladivostok].

Ca. 1890s. Large folding albumen print panorama ca. 24x74 cm (9 ½ x 29 ¼ in), dissected in two parts and mounted on original card. Unsigned. Beautiful sharp strong image, this panorama is in near fine condition.
Beautiful panorama of downtown Vladivostok looking east, with the Golden Horn Bay and numerous naval and commercial ships on the right, and Eagle’s Nest Hill on the left. The central part of the panorama shows a perfect overview of the city’s downtown core – the conjunction of Svetlanskaya and Aleutskaya Streets, with busy commercial and residential developments. Among the buildings shown are: Vladivostok Dormition Cathedral (completed in 1899, destroyed by Soviet government in 1938); rails and cars of the Trans-Siberian Railroad in the foreground; newly built bank offices; city wharfs with administrative buildings et al.

 

34. [XINING, CHINA]
FILCHNER, Wilhelm (1877-1957)
[Original Signed (Illegibly) Ink Drawing Titled in Pencil:] Haupttor von Si-Ning-Fu [Main Gate of Xining].

Ca. 1905. Ink drawing on thick paper ca. 16x26 cm (6 ½ x 10 ½ in). Recently matted, with a minor tear of blank margin, but overall in very good condition.
This well executed ink drawing shows the main gate at Xining, China. "Xining has a history of over 2,100 years and was a chief commercial hub on the Hexi Corridor caravan route to Tibet, handling especially timber, wool and salt in ancient times. The trade along the Hexi Corridor was part of a larger trade corridor along the Northern Silk Road, whose use was intensified in the 1st century BC after efforts by the Han dynasty to control this route" (Wikipedia). This ink drawing was created by an artist under Filchner's direction after a photograph made by Filchner enroute to Tibet on his 1903-5 "expedition to Tibet to carry out geomagnetic and topographical surveys on the high plateau. In addition to its scientific work the expedition carried out a significant intelligence-gathering role and was contemporaneous with similar missions by Francis Younghusband and others" (Howgego, 1850-1940 Polar Regions etc., F6).

 

35. BONVALOT, Pierre Gabriel Édouard (1853-1933)
[Autograph Note Signed ‘G. Bonvalot’ to André Liesse, with the Original Envelope with Postal Stamps].

Lyon, 20 February 1896. Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper with printed letterhead ‘Quai de la Charite, 3’. With the original envelope inscribed by Bonvalot, with Lyon postal ink stamps. Both the letter and the envelope are mounted in a paper folder (ca. early 20th century) titled in ink ‘Bonvalot, explorateur français’. Two newspaper clippings with Bonvalot’s portraits are also mounted in the folder on the opposite side. The folder is worn at extremities, with a tear on the hinge, but the letter and the envelope are in very good condition.
A short note by Pierre Gabriel Édouard Bonvalot, French explorer of Central Asia and Tibet. Bonvalot writes to André Liesse, a French Journalist and economist, thanking him for his ‘precious information’ and asking about a forthcoming meeting with M. De Chambrice.
By the time when this note was written Bonvalot had already become famous after his expeditions to Russian Central Asia in 1880-82 and 1886 (Pamir, Alai and Karakoram Mountains), and to Tibet in 1889-1890 when he crossed Asia from Chinese Turkestan to the French Indochina through the Tian Shan Mountains, the Tarim Basin, the Lop Nor and the Tibetan Plateau. The letter is supplemented with two newspaper clippings with the portraits of Bonvalot, one of which shows him with Prince Henri of Orléans (1867-1901) who accompanied Bonvalot during two of his travels to Central Asia.

 

36. BORZHIMSKII, Fedor Kondratievich (1883-1919?)
[Russian-Chinese Border] Kratkoe Istorico-Geograficheskoe i Statisticheskoe Opisanie Khulunbuirskoi Oblasti [Brief Historical, Geographical and Statistical Description of the Hulunbuir Region]. In: Izvestiia Voctochno-Sibirskogo Otdela Imperatorskogo Russkogo Geograficheskogo Obshchestva [Proceedings of the East-Siberian Department of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society]. Vol. XLIV.

Irkutsk: T-vo Pechatnogo Dela, 1915. First Edition. Octavo. [2], iii, 266, [3] pp. With a folded chromolithographed map, photographic portrait and a statistical plate. Period style brown quarter sheep with marbled boards and gilt tooled spine. Title with a neatly restored tear, minor stains on the portrait; the plate bound in, in four separate parts, otherwise a very good clean copy.
Rare Siberian provincial imprint. First Russian description of the Hulunbuir region which was called "a gateway between Russia and China." Hulunbuir is located in North-Eastern Inner Mongolia region of China, with the administrative center in Hailar, and borders Russia on the river Argun in the north and Mongolia in the west. On assignment of the East-Siberian Department of Russian Geographical Society Borzhimskii went from the Manzhouli station of the Chinese Eastern Railway to Hailar, then around the eastern shore of the Hulun Lake to the mouth of the Kherlen River and from there departed to Urga (Ulan Bator) and Kyakhta. He described the territory of the Hulunbuir region, its relief, climate, main rivers and lakes, history and administrative system, different tribes and their occupations (mostly animal produce, but also agriculture), main roads etc. He also produced the first map of the region outlining its borders and inner districts (banners).
Fedor Borzhimskii was a Siberian Cossack, historian, cartographer and ethnographer, a member of Russian Geographical Society. He spoke Chinese, Mongolian and Japanese, and compiled a Russian-Mongolian dictionary. He fought during the World War I and died in the Ukraine during the Russian Civil War 1917-1923.
The issue also includes the articles: "Legends and songs of Buryats" by Podgorbunskii, "First settlements in the Irkutsk province" by Serebrennikov, Mongolian folk story "Badarchin" retold by Borzhimskii, "Workers of the goldfields on the river Lena" by Merkhalev and others.

 

37. BOWERS, Alexander
[Autograph Manuscript of a Detailed Report to "The Chairman of the Chamber of Commerce Glasgow," on Burma and the Sladen Mission sent from Mandalay to the Chinese Frontier to Establish "Overland Communication with Western China," with Detailed Descriptions of People and Places and on the Goods Available in the Region and the Trade Possibilities].

[Glasgow], ca. 1870. Quarto (ca. 25x19 cm). 32 leaves. Brown ink on beige wove paper. Text mainly on recto of leaves. With minor edge wear, very minor foxing and with small pieces of tape on left outer leaf edges, with corrections and additions in pencil and ink. Overall a very good manuscript.
In 1868, Edward Bosc Sladen (1827-1890) "was placed in charge of a political mission sent to the Chinese frontier to inquire into the causes of the cessation of overland trade between Burma and China, and to obtain information respecting the Shans, Kakyens, and Panthays. Leaving Mandalay on 13 January, he proceeded via Bhamo to Momein (Tengyue), the frontier town of the Chinese province of Yunnan, where he stayed six weeks, but was prevented from proceeding further by the disturbed state of the country. The mission reached Bhamo, on its return journey, on 3 September, having acquired much valuable information about an almost unknown country" (Oxford DNB). "The journey proved for the first time the navigability of the river beyond Mandalay, and charts were drawn up by Captain Bowers who accompanied the expedition" (Howgego, Continental Exploration 1850-1940, S39).
The present manuscript is a detailed report including the historical and political background with mentions of "the Panthay Rebellion (1856-1873), a rebellion of the Muslim Hui people and other (non-Muslim) ethnic minorities against the Manchu rulers of the Qing Dynasty in southwestern Yunnan Province" (Wikipedia) and the relationship between Burma and Western China. It includes details and findings of the Sladen expedition to Yunnan to explore re-opening ancient trade routes, descriptions of cities such as Talifu (the headquarters of the Mohammedan "Sultan" during the rebellion), and the influence of political and religious factors on trade and the workforce, with descriptions of goods traded (such as gold and cotton). Bowers describes the governor of the city and district of Momein ""Ja Su Kone?" [as] a man of most liberal ideas, and generous impulses was anxious to reciprocate trade relations with us, and entered heartily into a treaty of commerce with Major Sladen." Further, Bowers says of the capital of the Panthay's "Talifoo [Dali]," is described as a city of the first class, it is situated on the banks of an immense lake [Erhai Lake] or inland sea, and is the seat of the Panthay Govt., their King "Suliman the first" has his courts there, it is described as being 12 days march in "N" direction from Momein. The city has sixteen gates to it, and is about 3 miles long." Bowers descriptions of the people and places of this Burmese-Chinese border region is supplemented with much detail on the products and trade possibilities available there.

 

38. BRINE, Lindesay, Commander R.N. (1834-1906)
[CHINA: A Panoramic Signed and Dated Watercolour of Chefoo (Yantai) During the Taiping Rebellion, 1850-1864].

23rd June 1860. Watercolour ca. 23x38 cm (9x15 in) mounted on larger card. Overall a very good painting. Recently matted.
An attractive and skillfully executed pencil drawing heightened with watercolour. The artist, who entered the Royal Navy in 1847 was the author of "The Taeping Rebellion in China; a narrative of its rise and progress, based upon original documents and information obtained in China" (London: Murray, 1862). This watercolour was made on the spot during his service as commander in the China Seas. The painting is captioned in ink on the image: "HMS Gunboat Opossum - Junk by Chefoo - The French Troops are Encamped on the Hill." "While serving in the Far East, [Brine] took much pains to collect accurate information on the troubles then prevailing, and in 1862 published the results of his observations and inquiries in a volume entitled ‘The Taiping Rebellion in China’"(Obituary in The Geographical Journal 27,3 (March 1906)).

 

39. CANNING, Charles John‚ Earl Canning (1812-1862)
[An Autograph Letter Signed to Sir Benjamin Hawes K.C.B.‚ War Office‚ making “the painful announcement of untimely death” of Sir Hawes’ Son‚ Captain Arthur Hawes‚ during a Jail Outbreak in Mundlaisir‚ Central India].

Calcutta, 6 September 1859. Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm). 8 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Blind stamped monograms in the left upper corners. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
A dignified‚ yet personal‚ letter from Charles John Canning‚ Earl Canning‚ Governor-General and Viceroy of India in 1856-1862‚ conveying tragic news to Sir Benjamin Hawes (1797-1862), Under-Secretary for War and the Colonies in 1846-1851, and Permanent Under-Secretary in the War Office since 1857. The letter informs Hawes about untimely death of his son Captain Arthur Hawes during a jail uprising in Mundlaisir (now Mandleshwar, Madhya Pradesh, Central India).
“I named him little more than 3 months ago to act in the place of an absent Officer as Political Agent in Nimar; a post of some trouble‚ and requiring activity and a sound judgement‚ but certainly not‚ so far as human foresight could perceive‚ of any danger. He would probably have held that post for about a year‚ by which time‚ if the officer in possession of it had returned it might have been in my power to replace Captain Hawes in permanent Civil Employment. But this has been cut short. A jail outbreak at Mundlaisir‚ unprovoked as far as I yet know by any political cause‚ and against which the close proximity of 200 men of a Bombay Regiment ought to have sufficiently guarded‚ has caused his Death. He displayed admirable promptitude of action‚ and fearlessness‚ - but in the performance of his duty he has laid down his life. <…> your son has left a high name with all under whom he has served for ability and zeal, and <…> he was in the fare path to distinction in the branch of the service for which he had been selected.”
See a brief contemporary comment on the matter: “Central India. The chief item is a rising of the prisoners in the Mundlaisir gaol, on the 22nd ultimo. They overpowered the guard, killing one, and then seized one of the bastions, whence they fired on Captain Hawes, acting political agent, and his men, unhappily with fatal effect. Captain Hawes fell beneath two bullets. The prisoners seem to have escaped, having first plundered the treasury” (The Sydney Morning Herald. No. 6691, 17 November 1859, p. 3)

 

40. CARTHEW-YORSTOUN, Morden, Lt. Colonel (1832 - after 1905)
[Mawlamyine, Burma: Original Double-Page Watercolour Showing a Panoramic View of Moulmein].

Ca. 1853. Watercolour and pencil on two conjoined leaves, total size ca. 25,5x70 cm (10 x 27 ½ in). Weak pencil caption "M. Carthew. Moulmein" on verso. Recent matting. A very good watercolour.
An impressive panoramic view of Mawlamyine or Mawlamyaing (formerly Moulmein), the third-largest city in modern Burma and an important port and trade centre in British Burma and its first capital in 1826-1852. The wide panorama shows the city from the Taungnyo hills on the right to the Thanlwin (Salween) River on the left, with the British ships in the harbor and rice fields, houses and small pagoda also shown. Most likely the watercolour was made from the famous viewpoint on Kyaikthanlan Pagoda located on the hills overlooking Moulmein.
The artist, Lt. Colonel Morden Carthew, was a prominent British colonial officer who served in India and Burma for 12 years and had several important posts in the administration of Moulmein.
General Morden Carthew, C.B., started in 1848 as a cadet in the Madras Presidency of the East India Company. In around 1850 with his own regiment, the 26th Madras Native Infantry, he was sent to Moulmein, Burma. "When the second Burmese war broke out in 1852, young Carthew, then a Lieutenant, was in England on sick leave; but he hastened out and rejoined his regiment just after a capture of Martaban, a fortified town belonging to the Burmese on the opposite side of the river on which Moulmein stands. Some tedious months of garrison work in Martaban followed, which Carthew utilized by setting to work to study the Burmese language." Thanks to his skills he obtained a place in the Civil Department of the British province of Moulmein as an officer assisting "in the pacification and civil administration of the newly annexed territory." "During the course of the war in 1852-53 Carthew saw a good deal of what was going on, and was present at several of the small actions that took place, for there were no pitched battles, the Burmese troops being very inferior in armament and courage." Carthew made the first survey of the town of Sittang and after "obtained a regular certificate for surveying." He was awarded with the Burmese war medal.
"On getting to Moulmein early in 1853, Morden Carthew, at twenty years of age, was appointed Assistant Magistrate of Moulmein, a large town and seaport of over 40,000 inhabitants of every race"; at twenty one he became a Civil Judge in the Civil Court of the Moulmein town and province. In 1855 he was appointed the Senior Magistrate of Moulmein "with all its police duties, with a convict jail chiefly composed of prisoners transported from India to the number of about 1500 men, charge of all the roads and bridges in the town district, and with a multitude of the other duties that only one accustomed to the life and work of an Indian soldier civilian can understand or even count." In 1858 he took the post of the Deputy Commissioner of the Province of Mergui, "the most southern point of British possessions on the Malay Peninsula, under the Indian Government." Altogether he spent 12 years in India and Burma and returned to England in 1860. He afterwards lived in Dumfriesshire (Scotland) and took an active part in the county affairs. He was known of his wood carving skills and exhibited his work in London and Edinburgh.
[Abstracts of the] Carthew Yorstoun family [genealogy] // The Gallovidian: An Illustrated Southern Counties Quarterly Magazine. Spring 1905. # 25. Vol. Viii. P. 1-9 (Open Library on-line).

 

41. CHIKHACHEV, Petr Alexandrovich (1808-1890)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Pierre Tchihatcheff” Regarding the Publication of His Classic Work “Asie Mineure”, and His Translation of J. De Liebig’s Book about Francis Bacon].

Rome: Hotel Costanzi, 1 December 1868. Octavo (ca. 20,5x13 cm). 2 pp., with an integral blank leaf. Brown ink on laid paper with Chikhachev’s monogram, text in French written in a legible hand. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
An interesting informative letter by Petr Chikhachev, a renowned Russian explorer of the Altai Mountains where he discovered the richest coal deposit in the world (Kuznetsk Coal Basin). He was also famous for his extensive travels to the Asia Minor in 1847-63 which resulted in the classic work about the region “Asie Mineure: Description physique, statistique et archéologique de cette contrée” (Paris, 1853-1869; text in 8 vols. And atlas in 3 vols.). This edition was prepared in cooperation with a number of experts in different branches of natural science, and describes geography, climatology, zoology, botany, geology, and paleontology of the Asia Minor. For this book Chikhachev was elected an honorary member of the Russian, Berlin and Munich Academies of Sciences and several other European scientific societies.
The letter contains important information about publication of the “Asie Mineure”: Chikhachev informs his correspondent that his ‘grand ouvrage’ on Asia Minor has just been finished with the two last volumes, which the publisher, Mr. Guérin is going to issue under the title “Géologie de l’Asie Mineure”, the whole edition thus comprising eight volumes. “This was the work I was desperate to finish, and I am very happy that I have done it” [in translation]. Chikhachev also mentions a small volume he has just issued under the title “Une Pages sur l’Orient” (Paris, 1868, first edition), which was intended to popularise his scientific works about Asia Minor.
Chikhachev thanks the addressee for his very interesting communication regarding “Bacon” (“Lord Bacon” by Jusdus de Liebig, translated by Chikhachev from German and published in Paris, 1866). He reassures that he will consider the remarks during the work on the second edition and that he will be happy to forward them to Mr. de Liebig as well. He also notes that the first edition will be out of print soon. Overall a very interesting letter.

 

42. COLQUHOUN, Archibald Ross (1848-1914)
[Autograph Letter Signed "Archie Colquh[oun]" to Mrs MacGregor and Discussing Work on his Book "Across Chrysê: Being the Narrative of a Journey of Exploration through the South China Border Lands, from Canton to Mandalay" (London, 1883)].

Edinburgh: 11, St. Bernard Court, 19 November 1882. Octavo ca. 18x11,5 cm (7 x 4 ½ in). Two pages; ink on laid paper, written in a legible hand. The text of the letter is clear, despite parts of three words on verso having been trimmed away in detaching the leaf from the second leaf of what was previously a bifolium. These include the last three letters of Colquhoun's signature. Letter with folds but overall in a very good condition.
In his letter Archibald Ross Colquhoun, an explorer, colonial administrator and author, talks about his work on a prospective book, dedicated to his travels in China and Burma in 1881-1882: the "narrative is to be 2 vols: and to be entitled | ACROSS CHRYSÊ | being the narrative of an exploration Through the South China Borderlands from Canton to Mandalay." In a short footnote he describes the derivation of "Chrysê" and afterwards asks Mrs MacGregor to "tell all yr. Friends to make certain of securing tickets for a certain lecture by a certain distinguished Ind<o> China traveller!" Seeing Mr MacGregor "amongst the audience at the c/commerce [i.e. Chamber of Commerce] on Wedy." brought back to him "days wh. Seem very far off now <..,> and indeed hardly part of my own life!" Colquhoun's book was published shortly afterwards under the same title by Sampson Low, Marston, Searle & Rivington (London, 18830.)
Colquhoun "joined the Indian Public Works Department in 1871 as an assistant surveyor. In 1879 he was secretary and second in command of a government mission to Siam and the Shan States, and in 1881-2 he travelled from Canton (Guangzhou) to Bhamo to find the best railway route between China and Burma. Widely regarded as an explorer of the first rank, his Indian administrative obligations prevented him from accepting an offer from Henry Morton Stanley to act as second in command of his Congo expedition <..,> He was in reality an accomplished writer of more than fourteen scholarly books and numerous articles on colonial administration, comparative ethnography, railway and canal construction, land settlement, trade prospects, and geopolitics and defence in the European colonial empires, Russia, China, east Asia, and the Americas. He was a regular contributor on these subjects to British, North American, and German journals and newspapers. He was one of the most widely respected travel authors of his time and he built up a series of influential friendships, counting sometime American presidents Theodore Roosevelt and William Taft, and the Canadian imperialist Sir George Parkin, among his friends" (Oxford DNB).

 

43. CONOLLY, Arthur, Lieut. (1807-1842)
Journey to the North of India, Overland from England, Through Russia, Persia, and Affghaunistan.

London: Richard Bentley, 1838. Second Edition, Revised. Octavo, 2 vols. viii, 350; iv; 358, [2] pp. With two copper engraved frontispieces, two other copper engraved plates and a hand-coloured folding map. With the engraved book plate of William Tayler in both volumes. Handsome brown period elaborately gilt tooled polished full calf. Recased with original spines laid down, a couple of very minor worm tracks in text margins and with a very minor repaired tear of map, but overall a very good set in very original condition.
Arthur Conolly, "participated in many reconnaissance missions into Central Asia and coined the term The Great Game to describe the struggle between the British Empire and the Russian Empire for domination over Central Asia" (Wikipedia). "In 1829, Conolly obtained leave to return to India through central Asia. He left London on 10 August 1829, travelled through France and Germany to Hamburg, then continued by sea to St Petersburg, where he stayed a month, and then travelled via Tiflis and Tehran to Asterabad. There he disguised himself as an Asian merchant, with a stock of furs and shawls, hoping to reach Khiva. He left Asterabad for the Turkoman steppes on 26 April 1830, but when the little caravan to which he attached himself was about halfway between Krasnovodsk and Kizil Arvat he was seized by nomads and robbed. The Turkomans were undecided whether to kill him or sell him into slavery. Tribal jealousies in the end secured his release, and he returned to Asterabad on 22 May 1830, from where he travelled to India by way of Mashhad, Herat, and Kandahar, visiting Sind, and finally crossing the Indian frontier in January 1831. He published a lively narrative of the journey—reflecting his bright, hopeful temperament—A Journey to Northern India (1834)" (Oxford DNB); Howgego, 1800-1850 C49.

 

44. D'ANVILLE, Jean Baptiste Bourguignon (1697-1782)
Eclaircissemens Geographiques sur la Carte de l'Inde [Geographical Elucidations on the Map of India].

Paris: Imprimerie Royale, 1753. First Edition. Quarto. vi, [i], 161, [11] pp. Period style brown gilt tooled half calf with marbled boards and a red gilt label. With a couple of unobtrusive library blind stamps, otherwise a very good copy.
This is the description of the D'Anville map of India published in 1752. D'Anville "was both a geographer and cartographer who greatly improved the standards of map-making. His maps of ancient geography, characterized by careful, accurate work and based largely on original research, are especially valuable. He left unknown areas of continents blank and noted doubtful information as such; compared to the lavish maps of his predecessors, his maps looked empty" (Wikipedia).

 

45. EDEN, Sir Ashley (1831-1887)
Political Missions to Bootan, comprising the reports of the Hon’ble Ashley Eden, - 1864; Capt. R.B. Pemberton, 1837, 1838, with Dr. W. Griffiths’s Journal; and the Account by Baboo Kishen Kant Rose.

Calcutta: Bengal Secretariat Office, 1865. First Edition. Octavo. [ii], xi, 206 pp. With a large folding outline hand colored engraved map and a folding topographical engraved profile of the route. Period style light brown gilt tooled half sheep with light brown cloth boards and a light brown gilt morocco label. Map backed on Japanese paper and browned and title page with remnants of old library stamp, otherwise a very good copy.
A collection of early interesting accounts on relations between the British India and the Kingdom of Bhutan in 1860's, which was a time of growing tension between the two countries which resulted in the Duar War (1864-1865). The book includes the account by Sir Ashley Eden, later Governor General of British India. "In 1861 Eden was appointed special envoy to Sikkim and, backed by an army, wrung from the maharaja a treaty guaranteeing free trade and the cessation of raids into British territory. In 1863 he was sent on a similar mission to Bhutan but without the same military support and he found himself taken virtual prisoner by the Bhutanese and forced to sign a treaty humiliating to the British. The insult was amply repaid when Britain went to war against Bhutan in November 1864" (Oxford DNB).
The second account is by Captain Robert Boileau Pemberton (1798-1840) who led a diplomatic mission to Bhutan in 1837-8, together with the account by the member of the same embassy, Doctor William Griffith (1810-1845). The last account is an English translation of the relation by Baboo Kishen Kant Bose. The book is supplemented with a subject index.
The Duar War (1864-65) lasted only five months and, despite some battlefield victories by Bhutanese forces, resulted in Bhutan's defeat, loss of part of its sovereign territory, and forced cession of formerly occupied territories. Under the terms of the Treaty of Sinchula, signed on November 11, 1865, Bhutan ceded territories in the Assam Duars and Bengal Duars, as well as the eighty-three-square-kilometer territory of Dewangiri in southeastern Bhutan, in return for an annual subsidy of 50,000 rupees (Wikipedia). In 1863 Henry Haversham Godwin-Austen joined the "Political mission to Bhutan under Ashley Eden. In 1864 he carried out topographical surveys between Sikkim and Punakha, and produced a detailed map of Bhutan that would remain in use for thirty years" (Howgego 1850-1940 Continental G27).

 

46. ELLIOTT, Edward Christian & WHITEHEAD, F.J.
Tea Planting in Ceylon.

Colombo: The Times of Ceylon Co., 1926. First Edition. Octavo. Xix, [2], 278 pp. With 22 plates, plans, and diagrams, some in colour, some folding. Original publisher’s green cloth binding. Owner’s ink inscription “G. George Dias. Panadure. 10.5.29” on the half title. Binding with water damage and discolouration, but overall a good copy.
Rare Sri Lanka imprint, with a period ink inscription written in the town of Panadura, south of Colombo. Comprehensive illustrated guide and history of tea planting in Ceylon, containing detailed descriptions of land clearance for a tea plantation, weeding, tea plucking, pruning, cultivation, diseases and pests, tea seed bearers, manufacture, plantation buildings, machinery, transport, electric lighting, labour, coolly welfare etc. The illustrations are either reproduced from original photographs by F.J. Whitehead, or provided by the engineering department of the Colombo Commercial Co.

 

47. FILCHNER, Wilhelm (1877-1957)
[A Collection of Seven Original Ink Drawings (Three initialed "C.A.") Used as Illustrations in Wilhelm Filchner's Book " Das Kloster Kumbum in Tibet. Ein Beitrag zu Seiner Geschichte" (The Monastery Kumbum in Tibet. A Contribution to its History), Berlin: Mittler & Sohn 1906].

Ca. 1905. Seven ink drawings on thick paper ca. 27x23 cm (11x9 in) and slightly smaller. The original ink drawings are recently matted together with the corresponding printed text illustration leaves from the book. One drawing with an expertly repaired corner chip, but overall the ink drawings are in very good condition.
This historically important collection of ink drawings show 1. A Tibetan Rosary (p.47); 2. Lama d Ge ss Long with yellow hat and cloak etc. (p.48); 3. A travelling lama (p.63); 4. Illustration of an Indian legend (p.85); 5. A prayer drum partially made with human skull parts (p. 103); 6. A water-powered prayer wheel (p.104); 7. Tibetan cairn with prayer flags on mountain top (p.128). The illustrations are supplemented with the matted title page and map of the monastery from the book. The preface states that the ink drawings were created by an artist under Filchner's direction based on photographs made by Filchner.
The purpose of Filchner's 1903-5 "expedition to Tibet [was] to carry out geomagnetic and topographical surveys on the high plateau. In addition to its scientific work the expedition carried out a significant intelligence-gathering role and was contemporaneous with similar missions by Francis Younghusband and others" (Howgego, 1850-1940 Polar Regions etc., F6). "Kumbum Monastery is a Buddhist monastery in present day Qinghai, China. Kumbum was founded in 1583 in a narrow valley close to the village of Lusar in the Tibetan cultural region of Amdo. Its superior monastery is Drepung Monastery, immediately to the west of Lhasa. It was ranked in importance as second only to Lhasa" (Wikipedia).

 

48. FRITSCHE, Hermann (1839-1913)
[From Peking to Saint Petersburg] Astronomicheskie, Magnitnie i Gipsometricheskie Nabliudeniia, Proizvedennie v 59 Punktakh na Puti ot Pekina, Cherez Mongoliiu, Nerchinskii Zavod, Irkutsk, Barnaul, Ekateriburg i Perm v S.-Petersburg [Astronomical, Magnetic and Hypsometrical Observations Executed in 59 Points on the Way From Peking, Through Mongolia, Nerchinsk, Irkutsk, Barnaul, Ekaterinburg and Perm to Saint Petersburg]. In: Izvestija Imperatorskogo Russkogo Geograficheskogo Obschestva [Bulletins of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society] 1875. Vol. 6, issue 1.
Bound together with: RYKACHEV, Mikhail Alexandrovich (1840-1919). Podniatie na Vozdushnom Share v S.-Peterburge 20 Maia/ 1 Iiunia 1873 [Balloon Flight in S.-Petersburg on the 20th May / 1st June 1873]. In: Izvestija Imperatorskogo Russkogo Geograficheskogo Obschestva [Bulletins of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society] 1875. Vol. 6, issue 12

Saint Petersburg: Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1875. First Edition. Large Octavo. [6], 276; [2], 77 pp. With five lithographed maps, and three lithographed tables. Handsome period style red straight grained half morocco with raised bands and gilt lettering on the spine. A very good uncut copy.
Interesting account of Hermann Fritsche’s travel in 1873 from Peking where he worked as a director of the Russian meteorological station, to Saint Petersburg through Mongolia. On assignment of Russian Academy of Sciences he needed to inspect Siberian meteorological stations and the newly constructed telegraph lines in Siberia. Fritsche mentions Ferdinand Lütke who instructed him "to try to expand our geographical knowledge on Central Asia." The article gives an interesting and detailed account of the Northern China and Eastern Mongolia.
The second article belongs to Mikhail Rykachev, a Russian meteorologist, director of the General Physical Observatory in Saint Petersburg (1896-1913) and a member of Russian Academy of Sciences. He was known for organising several flights on balloons with scientific purposes, and participated in them himself. Rykachev became the first head of the Aeronautical Department of the Russian Technical Society (1881), and the first Chairman of the International Aeronautical Congress (1904). The article describes his balloon flight in 1873, together with several statistical tables.

 

49. GOLDSWORTHY, Walter Tuckfield (1837-1911)
[Large Archive of 138 Letters and Documents on 276 Pages Charting the Career of Walter Tuckfield Goldsworthy from Volunteer Trooper in the Indian Mutiny to Brigade Major in Abyssinia under Lord Napier in 1868 as well as Later Administrative and Regimental Postings].

1857-1909. The letters and documents are generally in very good to near fine condition.
The core of the archive is its copies of the many testimonials from commanding officers and of mentions in dispatches of particular actions which describe him as an ideal staff officer – zealous, understanding the nature of his many duties, and always tactful and resourceful. These are supplemented by original letters discussing or appointing him to particular posts. This archive charts Goldsworthy career from Volunteer Trooper with Havelock’s Mobile Column in 1857, 8th (the King’s Royal Irish) Hussars, 1857-1864, 91st Foot, 1864-1868 and finally Major-General, M.P. 1885-1900.
In mid-June 1857, Sir Henry Havelock set off from Calcutta to relieve Cawnpore and Lucknow with his ‘Mobile Column’, consisting of infantry and a few guns. His only cavalry were volunteers – civilians including the Goldsworthy brothers, with planters and officers whose regiments had mutinied, just 18 sabres in all.. Havelock’s son testifies how, without them, his father and the column would have been “entirely crippled”, and how they endured in rain and burning sun often on outposts, when the regular soldiers had occasional rest in huts or tents. Though Havelock did not reach Lucknow till 25th September, on the way he won victories at Oonau (Unao, 29th July) and Busserutgunge (Busherutgunge, 29th July and 5th August), three of the nine occasions when Goldsworthy is mentioned in dispatches. Soon the volunteers were re-deployed, and in October Goldsworthy was gazetted Cornet in the 8th Hussars, which had charged in the Light Brigade at Balaklava. He was still Cornet the next summer at Gwalior, the last major stronghold of the rebels, and still Cornet with the Rajpootana Field Brigade operating in Central India, acting as its Brigade Major (senior staff officer) and being mentioned in dispatches by Sir Robert Napier (August 1858). Promoted Lieutenant on merit at the end of 1859, he held many responsible posts in his Regiment, including Adjutant for 3½ years. Despairing of advancement, in 1864 when the 8th Hussars were back home, he borrowed money to buy a Captaincy and then transfer to the 91st (Argyllshire) Foot, a cavalry Captaincy “in England” being too expensive. The 91st went out to India, and when Napier was preparing for Abyssinia (1867-1868) he telegraphed for Goldsworthy to join him once again as a Brigade Major of Cavalry, even though he was now with the Infantry. As a reward, Goldsworthy was made Brevet Major, but on half pay and unattached, and he spent the next seven years seeking employment.
The archive includes:
A. ORIGINAL DOCUMENTS AND LETTERS REGARDING APPOINTMENTS, 1857-1868 AND 1875. 40 items in 46 pages
B. SUMMARY OF ACTIONS AND MENTIONS IN DISPATCHES 1857-1859. 2 items in 4 pages
C. EXTRACTS FROM DISPATCHES AND COMMANDING OFFICERS’ LETTERS TO H.Q., 1857-1859. 9 items in 27 pages
D. COPIES OF CORRESPONDENCE BY COMMANDING OFFICERS WITH THE DUKE OF CAMBRIDGE, recommending Goldsworthy for Promotion, 1861-1865. 10 items in 17 pages
E. COPIES OF CERTIFICATES (TESTIMONIAL LETTERS) about Service in India and Abyssinia, 1857-1868. 14 items in 18 pages
F. GOLDSWORTHY’S STATEMENTS OF SERVICE, c.1865 and c. 1872. 4 items in 12 pages
G. POSSIBLE EMPLOYMENT, Correspondence with Horse Guards about, 1868-1875. 20 items in 28 pages
H. CARDWELL’S ARMY REFORMS, Effect on Goldsworthy, with drafts of his evidence to the Royal Commission, no date and 1873-1877. 16 items in 57 pages
I. MONEY and FAMILY LETTERS, 1863-1909. 23 items in 67 pages
A full detailed list of all documents and letters is available upon request.

 

50. GOUGH, Bloomfield, Captain (d. 1904)
[SECOND ANGLO-AFGHAN WAR, SIEGE OF THE SHERPUR CANTONMENT: Autograph Letter Signed Addressed to the Author's Father From Besieged Sherpur, Providing Vivid Details of the Siege].

Sherpur, Kabul, 20 December 1879. Octavo (ca. 21x13,5 cm). 14 pp. Brown ink on paper. Old folds with minor tears on margins, paper lightly browned, overall a very good letter.
Expressive first-hand account of the Siege of the Sherpur Cantonment (15-23 December 1879) during the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878-1880). The Siege took place during the second phase of the war when in October 1879, Kabul was occupied by the British troops after the British Resident Sir Pierre Cavagnari had been murdered there. In November mutinous Afghan troops amassed to the north of Kabul and, on December 15 mounted a siege on British troops in the Sherpur Cantonment. The siege was raised with arrival on December 23 of the relief column under the command of Brigadier General Charles Gough.
Captain Bloomfield Gough was serving with the 9th Queen’s Royal Lancers cavalry regiment, and took active part in the defence of the Sherpur Cantonment. In his extensive and emotional letter written when the siege was still on, Gough gives a "full and true account of my battles and the siege of Sherpore as far as it has gone."
The account starts with the period from December 9, and describes at length the ferocious fight in Kabul’s neighbourhood Kila Kizi on December 11. Gough recreates all the events of the day in strict consistency, names all officers in command (Brig.-Gen. Macpherson (infantry), Capt. Stewart-Mackenzie and Lieut.-Col. Cleland (9th Queen’s Royal Lancers), Major Smith Widham (artillery) et al); and gives amounts of wounded and killed officers, men and horses.
Gough’s letter provides remarkable descriptions of battle scenes: "After going about 4 or 5 miles the advance partly were fired upon and soon afterwards we saw the enemy collecting in great numbers to our left front. I got my troop under cover of a hillock and the enemy numbering (I am told 1200) began advancing with standards and tom toms and great shouting. Our guns soon came into action and the enemy guns replied. As soon as they came within 800 yards, I opened fire with half my troop dismounted, and owing to our being under cover and the enemy advancing in the open, succeeded in stopping them on our right, however seeing the guns retire and fearing I should be cut off, I remounted my troops and retired over a lot of stony ground at a gallop, keeping my troop well in hand. [To?] turn upon then, if as I expected they (the enemy) would come after me. Well we retired about ¾ of a mile, and the enemy cavalry pursued, coming on with shouts of Allah and Bismillah, and as I hoped in very straggling order. When I thought they were far enough away from the enemy I got my troop into a trot and gave the order Right about Wheel - Charge! - Well I never seen such a scene of consternation [emphasis added]. My men came with a shout and the enemy who were at first so brave appeared thunder struck. Some came on, most stood still and some ran away <..,> The charge was a great success."
Gough is fascinated with an Afghan standard bearer, who "fought in a most desperate way and I never saw such a brave man. He had several lances through him before he fell off his horse and when they got down to take his standard away, though half dead and lying on the ground, he raised himself up and snatched a lance away from one of our men with which he thrust at anyone who came hear him as long as he had a drop of life left in him." He also notes the bravery of British officers who "were a long way in front in the charge and a long way behind in the retreat and every one of them do the same thing that Bill Beresford got the V.C. For." The battle description is illustrated with a nice little drawing in text (leave 2, inside) showing the lancers’ attack on the enemy positions.
Gough’s account of December 13 describes a fierce fight near Siah Sung Heights in which the 9th Lancers commander was killed: "Poor Batson shot dead with a bullet through his heart, Chrisholme being wounded with a shot through the leg and Trowers’ other horse, a very nice black whaler shot dead. 4 men dead and 9 wounded and about 30 dead Afghans lying in heaps. I am awfully sorry for Batson, poor fellow. We also lost several horses, killed or wounded."
Then follows the description of the Siege and the state of the British garrison: "The place is fortified and a desultory fire kept up all and every day from the walls <..,> Every night we have the whole regiment in picquet for fear of an attack. You must not suppose we are in a bad way, as we have plenty of ammunition to defend ourselves, only not enough to go out and drive off the enemy who are in the city and have been having great games looting it. We are perfectly safe here and are only waiting for Charley who is coming up with reinforcements and ammunition, when we shall go out and make an example of them."
In the end Gough states that "I am beginning to think war is not such good sport as people say and think hunting far better for fun and much less dangerous" [emphasis added], and describes the Afghans who "are quite different from those we met at first; <..,> mostly armed with Sniders, and are not out of the way cowards, though fortunately they are very bad shots," and notes that "it is terribly cold with snow on the ground wherever the sun cannot get at it”. He hopes that “Charley will arrive soon and that I shall give them a proper beating and then pursue them with all the cavalry, only the country is so hilly and so intersected with ditches and water that it is not an easy place for us to work on."
Bloomfield Gough came from a noted Irish noble family with a long military tradition. During the Second Afghan War he served as Aide-de-Camp to his relative, Brigadier General Sir Charles Gough (1832-1912) and was present at the taking of Ali Musjid (November 1878). Subsequent to this letter he took part in the march from Kabul to Kandahar and was present at the battle of Kandahar. He was twice mentioned in dispatches (January and September 1880).
Gough exchanged into the 9th Lancers from the Rifle Brigade in April 1873 and rose to command the regiment as Lieut. Colonel from December 1895. He accompanied the 9th Lancers to the Boer War in 1899 but was unjustly relieved of his command in the field in November. Gough retired in 1900 when commanding the regiment with the rank of Lieut. Colonel.

 

51. GUIGNES, Chretien Louis Joseph de (1759-1845)
[A Series of Eight Views of Peking (Beijing) out of the Atlas Volume of Voyages a Peking, Manille et l'Île de France faits dans l'intervalle des années 1784 a 1801. Included are: 1. Arc de Triomphe a une Lieue et Demie Avant Peking; 2. Vue des Jardins de L'Empereur a Peking; 3. L'Empereur Prenant un Divertissement sur un Lac Glace; 4. Porte de la Ville Tartare a Peking; 5. Fete Donne Devant L'Empereur a Yuen-Ming-Yuen; 6. Enceinte Exterieure du Palais; 7. Enceinte Interieure du Palais a Peking; 8. Interieur de Peking. All engravings drawn by De Guignes and engraved by Deseve.]

Paris: De l'Imprimerie Impériale, 1808. Uncoloured copper engravings ca. 21x35 cm (8 ½ x 14 in) and slightly smaller. Some very mild foxing otherwise very good wide margined engravings.
These fine and detailed engravings give us a vivid impression of late 18th century Beijing. "Guignes, like his father before him, became an Orientalist scholar. He was appointed French resident in China and Consul in 1784. Ten years later, in 1794-95, he was an interpreter with the Dutch Embassy to Peking. In all, he spent seventeen years in China. This book, quite a comprehensive account, touches upon such subjects as industry, trades, professions, foreign trading companies etc." (Hill 733); The Titsing Mission to China in 1794-95 Included "Guignes, who had lived in Canton for ten years and knew Chinese, and six others. The embassy spent fifty days crossing China, many of the roads proving impassable because of the unusually cold weather. They arrived exhausted at Peking on 11.1.95, but were received by the emperor on the following day" (Howgego T45); Cordier Sinica 2351-2; Lust 336.

 

52. GUNDRY, Richard Simpson, C.B. (1838-1924)
[Private Archive of R.S. Gundry, a Well-Known British Journalist in China and a Founder of the China Association, including His Manuscript Journal Kept while in Shanghai during the Taiping Rebellion; Large Album with over 200 Clippings of Gundry’s Articles on China and Japan, published in “The Times” in 1863-1878; 14 Books and Brochures on China from Gundry’s Library; Two Original Photos of China by H.C. Cammidge; an Issue of “The Times” with the Announcement of Gundry’s election as the President of the China Association, and Several Books, Private Notebooks and Letters from Gundry’s Archive].

Gundry was The Times correspondent in China and editor of the North China Herald, in Shanghai from 1865 to 1878. On his return to England he became a founder, with Sir Alfred Dent, of the China Association, and became its Honorary Secretary (1900-01) and President (1905-07). Gundry authored two books: China and Her Neighbours (1893) and China Present and Past (1895). Additionally, Gundry was awarded the C.B. In 1904.
The collection includes:
1) [Manuscript Journal Kept in Shanghai during the Taiping Rebellion, also with the Description of a Voyage to Nagasaki, Titled in Manuscript:] Vol. 2 of Journal. From 1st February 1863 to 30th October 1864. Shanghai, 1863. Small Octavo (19,5x12 cm). 131 pp. of manuscript in brown ink, including three newspaper clippings on 20 pp. Original notebook in cherry full sheep binding, with marbled endpapers and coloured edges.
The journal dates to the last phase of the Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864), when British and Imperial China troops had advanced in the countryside west of Shanghai, with noted Charles Gordon in command of the “Ever Victorious Army.” A sub-editor of the “North China Herald” at the time, Gundry vividly describes his trip to a nearby city of Quinsan, “which Gordon had retaken from the rebels a week or two previously,” gives an overview of the situation at the front before the capture of Suzhou and follows with an extensive account of his visit to the captured city. “News of the surrender of Soochow reached Shanghai on the 7th, though the rumour was very confused. It was said that Gordon had only succeeded in getting possession of a portion of the city, while the rebels were vigorously defending the remainder. Partly in order to ascertain the true state of affairs, partly in order to see a place of so much note, I gladly accepted an offer from Drucker to accompany him a steamer he had chartered, and in which he was going direct to Soochow.” There is also an account of Gundry’s excursions in September 1864 to the nearby towns of Nanxiang – “formally a town of villa residences of wealthy Chinese, but now a pile of ruins,” and to Tsingpoo – “a city which was twice taken and retaken during the rebel occupation of Kiangsu <…> Formerly it evidently contained good houses, more so than many other towns of greater note which I have visited. The walls which alone stand are of greater [?], and the courtyards paved with slabs of granite <…>, ornamental columns and bronzes are still to be seen, which can only have belonged to a superior class of houses.”
An extensive entry in the middle of the journal narrates about Gundry’s trip to Nagasaki in June 1864 on HMS “Swallow,” which started with a voyage to the Rugged Islands (Hangzhou Bay, China), “which Sir Henry parker had requested Wilds [the commander of the Swallow] to survey, with a view to the establishment of a sanitarium [?] there if they were eligible.” There are also interesting description of the fire at Miller’s Hotel in Shanghai where Gundry stayed in early 1863, newspaper clipping of Gundry’s article about the typhoon of July 1864, printed in the “North China Herald,” manuscript description of Nagasaki, and others. A very interesting journal written in quite legible hand.

2) [Large Album with an Extensive Collection of Mounted and Loose Clippings from “The Times” and other newspapers, with articles about China and Japan, the vast majority authored by Gundry, September 1863-1878].
Extensive collection of over 200 articles written by Gundry as “The Times” special correspondent in China, starting with his early essays dated 1863 and embracing the next 15 years. The album also contains a letter to Gundry from an editor of “The Times” regarding the publication of one of his articles, dated 18 Jan. 1877. Two clippings dated 1868 and mounted at rear inform that R.S. Gundry won “the Challenge Cup” in one mile race and a Prize Cup of the merchants of Shanghai in Steeple Chase on April 24th. In the latter “he cleared a 17 feet water jump at the last in splendid style – the other competitors all plumbing into it” [In reading the account of these sports it is gratifying to find that even a long residence in an Eastern climate neither damps the ardour, nor exhausts the physical energies of our British Athletes]”. The album was most likely compiled by his mother Mary Gundry and additionally houses a number of newspaper clippings from different English magazines and newspapers of the 1860-1870s on different topics.

3) [14 books on China from Gundry’s library]:
WILLIAMS, Wells, Sir. The Middle Kingdom: A Survey of the Geography, Government, Education, Social Life, Arts, Religion, &c., of the Chinese Empire and its Inhabitants: 2 vols. New York & London: Wiley and Putnam, 1848. First edition. Small Octavo. Xxii, 590; [2], viii, 614 pp. With two portrait frontispieces, two wood-engraved title pages, and a folding engraved map of China loosely inserted. Two original publisher’s quarter sheep with gilt lettered titles on the spines and illustrative paper covered boards. Occasional pencil notes in text. Bindings slightly rubbed and soiled, paper age toned, but overall a very good copy.

The Natural History of the Chinese Boy and the Chinese Girl: A Study in Sociology. By the Author of “Chinese Characteristics.” Shanghai: “North China Herald” Office, 1890. Octavo. 27 pp. Original publisher’s wrappers, with mild creases.

VAUGHAN, H.B., Liet.-Col. St. George and the Chinese Dragon: An Account of the Relief of the Pekin Legations by an Officer of the British Contingent. London: C. Arthur Pearson Ltd., 1902. First edition. 12mo. 206 pp. Portrait frontispiece (loosely inserted), plates, illustrations in text. Occasional period pencil marginalia in text. Overall a very good copy.

[Larkin Gallery, London]. A few examples of Oriental Art, Illustrated in Colour selected from the Larkin Gallery, 104, New Bond Street, W., Consisting of Blue and White Famille Verte, Famille Rose, and Monochrome Porcelains, Pottery, Bronzes, Cloisonné, Hardstones, Rugs, etc. [London]: The Norman Davy Printing Co., ca. 1910s. Small Octavo. [14] pp., 10 plates. Original publisher’s wrappers. A fine copy.

Dickinson, L. Letters from John Chinaman. London: J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1911. 12mo. [4], 63 pp. Original publisher’s cloth. A very good copy.

The School of Oriental Studies: A New Pillar of Empire & Commerce: [Prospect]. Ca. 1914. 12mo. 18, [2] pp. Original publisher’s wrappers. A very good copy.

8 offprints published by the “China Society,” “Japan Society” or “Asiatic Review,” 1916-1919:
BINYON, L. The Art of Asia. A Paper Read at a Joint Meeting of the China Society and the Japan Society, held at Caxton Hall, on Wednesday, November 24, 1915/ The China Society. Extract from the Transactions of the Japan Society. London: The Eastern Press Ltd., [1915]. Octavo. 23 pp. 6 leaves of plates. Original publisher’s wrappers.
CHENG, S.G. The Chinese as a Warrior in the Light of History. A Paper read before the China Society on January 27, 1916. London: East & West Ltd., [1916]. Octavo. 15 pp. Original publisher’s wrappers.
SHINJI ISHII, F.R.A.I. The Island of Formosa and Its Primitive Inhabitants: A Paper Read at a Joint Meeting of the China Society and the Japan Society, held at Caxton Hall, on Thursday, February 24, 1916/ The China Society. Extract from the Transactions of the Japan Society. London: The Eastern Press Ltd., 1916. Octavo. 24 pp. 18 leaves of plates and maps. Original publisher’s wrappers.
CARLES, W.R., C.M.G. Some Pages in the History of Shanghai, 1842-1856. A Paper read before the China Society on May 23, 1916. London: East & West Ltd., [1916]. Octavo. 20 pp. Original publisher’s wrappers.
CURRIE MARTIN, G., M.A., B.D. China in English Literature. A Paper read before the China Society at Caxton Hall, Westminster, on December 4, 1916. London: East & West Ltd., [1916]. Octavo. 27 pp. Original publisher’s wrappers.
GILES, L., M.A., D. Litt. Chi’iu Chin: A Chinese Heroine. A Paper read before the China Society at Caxton Hall, Westminster, on March 29, 1917. London: East & West Ltd., 1917. Octavo. 22 pp. Original publisher’s wrappers. With a printed balance sheet of the China Society for 1916-1917 loosely inserted.
WILLOUGHBY-MEADE, G. The Grotesque in Chinese Art. Reprinted from the “Asiatic Review,” April 1918. 24 pp. No binding. Two last leaves with tears at the bottom margins, affecting two lower lines of text. Overall a good copy.
WALEY, A. The Poet Li Po A.D. 701-762. A Paper read before the China Society at the School of Oriental Studies, on November 21, 1918. London: East & West Ltd., 1919. Octavo. 29 pp. Original publisher’s wrappers.

4) [Two albumen prints by H.C. Cammidge, Titled in Negative:] Paou-tai Bridge of 53 arches. 5 miles S. Of Soochow, No. 58; Woo-leang Temple, without beams or rafters. Soochow. No. 40.
Ca. 1870s. Two albumen prints mounted on original cards, each image ca. 21x25,5 cm. Each titled, numbered and signed “H.C. Cammidge, Shanghai” in negative.

First image depicts the Precious Belt Bridge (Baodai Bridge) at the intersection of the Grand Canal and Dantai Lake south-east of Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. The second image shows a temple near Suzhou, of a wuliang or beamless construction.

5) An issue of “The Times”, London, March 16, 1905, with the announcement of Gundry’s election as the President of the China Association.

A group of private items from Gundry’s archive includes a letter to him from his cousin Emily Simpson, with the envelope (Lebanon, 21 March 1898. 9 pp.) about family matters; three notebooks with Gundry’s school studies, his small manuscript account book kept in the 1860-1870s, a scrapbook with written poems and numerous book and magazine clippings pasted in, a copy of masonic “Rules and Regulations” listing Gundry as a member of the masonry (Rules and regulations for the government of the degrees from the 4th degree to 32nd degree... London, [1913]. Gundry was a supernumerary member of 31st degree since 1875, see p. 65); six volumes of Gundry’s textbooks from his time in Eton, and others.

 

53. HAMILTON, Charles, Esq (1752/3-1792)
An Historical Relation of the Origin, Progress, and Final Dissolution of the Government of the Rohilla Afghans in the Northern Provinces of Hindostan. Compiled from a Persian Manuscript and other Original Papers.

London: Printed for G. Kearsley, 1787. First Edition. Octavo. xvii, 298 pp. Original grey papered boards rebacked in style with beige paper and printed paper label. A very good copy.
Charles Hamilton, Esq. An Officer in the Service of the Honourable East-India Company on the Bengal Establishment. The Rohillas, described by Macaulay as ?the finest population in India? Were military adventurers from Afghanistan who had entered India some 35 years earlier and settled in Rohilkind, a stretch of country between the Ganges and Himalayas on the north-western borders of Oudh. In 1774 Shuja-ud-daula, with the assistance of a brigade of the East India Company's troops provided by Warren Hastings, invaded Rohilkind, killing their principal chief, Hafiz Rahmat, and annexing the country. This action figured later in the charges against Hasting during his impeachment. Hamilton, a lieutenant in the Indian army, served in the campaign against the Rohillas where he collected materials for this, his first book. He was a noted orientalist, and one of the first members of the Asiatic Society of Calcutta. In 1791, whilst in England, he was appointed resident at the court if the grand vizier at Oudh, but died, aged 39, before he could take up the appointment. A second edition was published in 1788. Cox I, p 256; Bibliography of Afghanistan 2480.
"A student of oriental languages, Hamilton was one of the first members of the Asiatic Society of Bengal. During an expedition against the Rohillas of Afghanistan he obtained a collection of Persian manuscripts from which he wrote his Historical relation of the origin, progress, and final dissolution of the government of the Rohilla Afghans in the northern provinces of Hindostan (1787). In the year before its publication Hamilton gained permission to return home for five years in order to translate from the Persian the Hedaya (published in 1791 as Hedaya, or, Guide), a commentary on Muslim laws, for which task he had been selected by the governor-general and council of Bengal" (Oxford DNB).

 

54. HANWAY, Jonas, Sir, 1st baronet (1712-1786)
[Victualling Board Document Signed by Jonas Hanway, Joah Bates and John Slade, ordering a payment to William Wilkinson, owner of the Three Sisters Victualler, which had been chartered 27 December 1779 ‘to carry Provisions for the use of His Majesty’s Ships on the West Indies’].

London: Victualling Office, 15 November 1780. Folio (ca. 30,5x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink in secretarial hand on ‘R. Williams’ laid paper, numbered and docketed on verso. Signed ‘Bates’, ‘Jonas Hanway’, ‘J. Slade’. Fold marks, slightly trimmed on the upper and lower margins, otherwise a very good document.
Interesting document illustrating the posterior career of a renowned British traveller Jonas Hanway. He is most famous for his travel to Persia and Russia in 1743-45 which he undertook in order “to sell English broadcloth for Persian silk and to evaluate the potential of trade with Persia, then ruled by the last great steppe conqueror, Shah Nadir Kuli Khan (1688–1747). […] Hanway was robbed on the way to Persia, by the rebellious Khars on the southern shores of the Caspian Sea and was rescued by merchant colleagues. […] He was later partially compensated by Nadir Shah, who desired cordial relations with the British in order to enlist British artisans to construct a Persian navy for the Caspian. […] In 1753 he published the description of his adventures “An Historical Account of the British Trade over the Caspian Sea” (4 vols., 1753), the most original entertaining of all his books” (Oxford DNB).
Our document relates to Hanway’s activities as the chairman of the Marine Society (which he founded in 1756) and the Commissioner for victualling the British navy, the latter post he held for almost 20 years (1762-1783). The official paper of the Victualling Board orders to pay to a certain Wilkinson, the owner of a ship engaged in supplying British ships at the Caribbean Theatre of the American War of Independence (1775-1783). The document is signed by two other members of the board, Joah Bates (ca. 1741-1799) and John Slade (d. 1801).

 

55. HEDIN, Sven Anders 1865-1952
[A Signed Photo Postcard of Hedin].

Stockholm: Paul Heckscher, ca. 1910. Postcard ca. 13,5x8,5 cm (5 x3 ½ in). Postcard in very good condition.
"Between 1894 and 1908, in three daring expeditions through the mountains and deserts of Central Asia, he mapped and researched parts of Chinese Turkestan (officially Xinjiang) and Tibet which had been unexplored until then. Upon his return to Stockholm in 1909 he was received as triumphantly as Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld. In 1902, he became the last Swede (to date) to be raised to the untitled nobility and was considered one of Sweden’s most important personalities. As a member of two scientific academies, he had a voice in the selection of Nobel Prize winners for both science and literature. Hedin never married and had no children, rendering his family line now extinct.
Hedin's expedition notes laid the foundations for a precise mapping of Central Asia. He was one of the first European scientific explorers to employ indigenous scientists and research assistants on his expeditions. Although primarily an explorer, he was also the first to unearth the ruins of ancient Buddhist cities in Chinese Central Asia. However, as his main interest in archaeology was finding ancient cities, he had little interest in gathering data thorough scientific excavations. Of small stature, with a bookish, bespectacled appearance, Hedin nevertheless proved himself a determined explorer, surviving several close brushes with death from hostile forces and the elements over his long career. His scientific documentation and popular travelogues, illustrated with his own photographs, watercolor paintings and drawings, his adventure stories for young readers and his lecture tours abroad made him world famous" (Wikipedia).

 

56. KITLEY, Henry Bartlett (1874-1959)
[Collection of 218 Illuminated Leaves with Calligraphic Text of Edwin Arnold’s Poem “Light of Asia,” Including the General Title to the Poem executed as a Full Page Watercolour, Over Sixty Leaves with Illustrations or Especially Wide Decorative Borders, Separate Half-titles to Five Parts, and Separate End Pages to Four Parts; With Several Items from Kitley’s Archive, including over 90 leaves of his other works in Calligraphy and Book Illumination].

Ca. 1930s. 218 loose Folio leaves (ca. 30,5x22,5 cm). Black ink calligraphic text on various sorts of paper (thicker card, Canadian made “Holland Parchment,” thinner writing paper). Leaves elaborately illuminated in watercolour and gold. Kitley’s pencil manuscript note on top of the title page to part 5 “June 1933.”
Beautiful collection of original illuminated leaves of Edwin Arnold’s famous poem “The Light of Asia” illustrated by a Vancouver artist H.B. Kitley. The text is written in calligraphic manner, and each page is executed in its own original design. Among the illustrations are beautiful scenes illustrating Prince Siddhartha’s early life, views of Indian palaces, cities, landscapes, portraits of the king, Prince Siddhartha, his wife, various Indian people, images of Indian insects (numbered and named on verso) et al.; beautiful illuminated borders are decorated with various floral and architectural motifs and small inserted scenes. From the later manuscript note accompanying the collection: “The borders are collected round Sir Edwin Arnold’s poem “The Light of Asia” and the motifs used are to be found in Indian manuscripts, fabrics, architecture, embroideries, fans, musical instruments, carved ivories, metal, pottery and wood utensils, frescoes, paintings and miniatures.” The leaves embrace first six books of the poem, thus giving the full account of Prince Siddhartha’s life from his birth to his transformation as the “Enlightened One,” or Buddha (the last two chapters not illustrated by Kitley depict Buddha’s subsequent travels). In all the leaves comprise the complete text of chapters 2-5, with several gaps in chapter one and without the end of chapter 6 (but the last leaf of chapter 6 hasn’t been finished, indicating most likely, that Kitley never completed the illustration of the whole poem).
The collection is supplemented with two pocket editions of Arnold’s “Light of Asia” (London, 1928, and New York, n.d., ca. 1880s), both inscribed “H.B. Kitley, 4463 8 West [Ave]” on the first free endpaper or the title page; 120 colour slides reproducing separate leaves of the manuscript; collection of Kitley’s other calligraphic and illumination works, including fifty folio leaves from “The Hope of the World” (with calligraphic text, illustrations and ornaments inspired by Christianity, Ancient Egypt, Taoism, and Japanese Buddhism), and 48 quarto leaves with calligraphic texts and black watercolour drawings illustrating Japanese history, folklore and art.
H.B. Kitley was a Vancouver artist and calligrapher. The City of Vancouver Archives hold “The motifs of the design illuminating Vancouver's Mayoral and Aldermanic welcome to the Right Honourable the Lord Mayor of London, Sir Percy Vincent” designed and scribed by H. B. Kitley. The artist’s archive was purchased or passed to doctor Hugh Carlyle Winbigler (d. 1973), a resident of Vancouver and one of the proprietors of the Holden Building in the 1930s. The collection includes a leaf with Winbigler’s printed letterhead (the address is 4431 West 10th Ave, Vancouver), and several of his private seals.

 

57. MAILLA, Joseph Anne Marie Moyriac de (1669-1748) & GROSIER, Jean Baptiste Gabriel Alexandre (1743-1823)
Histoire générale de la Chine, ou Annales de cet Empire; Traduites du Tong-Kien-Kang-Mou, par feu Père Joseph-Anne-Marie de Moyrac de Mailla, Jésuite françois, missionnaire à Pékin.., Ouvrage enrichi de figures et de nouvelles cartes géographiques de la Chine ancienne et moderne, levées par ordre du feu Empereur Kang-Hi, et gravées pour la première fois [General History of China, or Annals of the Empire Translated from Tong Kien Kang Mou, by the late Father Joseph Anne Marie Moyriac Mailla, French Jesuit missionary in Beijing .., the work enriched with engravings and new maps of ancient and modern China...].

Paris: Pierres et Clousier, 1777-1783-1785. First Edition. Quarto, 13 vols. cc, 349; [iv], 590; [xii], 588; [iv], 594; [viii], 564; [iv], 587; vii. 484; [iv[, 662; [iv], ii, 658; [iv], 579; [iv], 610; [xxiv], 348; [iv], 798 pp. With sixteen copper plates (one folding), 2 text copper engravings, five folding tables, and bound with two (of a possible three) folding maps which seems to be the case with some copies. Original publisher's thick gray papered wrappers with beige paper labels with manuscript titles. Spines chipped and worn with several missing completely, but uncut text in very good condition. Overall this set is in a very original condition.
"Joseph Anne Marie Moyriac de Mailla drew extensively upon Chinese sources including Zhu Xi's Tongjian Gangmu, the famous "Chinese Annals" in his Histoire Generale. The history of the Ming and Qing period, supplemented from more recent sources, is contained in vols. 10 & 11. The manuscript of this compilation came to France in 1737. With the abrogation of the Society of Jesus (Dominus ac Redemptor, 1773) it came into the hands of Grosier who had it published. Vol. 12 contains an alphabetical index to the work and three supplements" (China Illustrata Nova II 599); Cordier Sinica 583-5; Lust 409. The thirteenth volume, titled "Volume de Supplement, "was published in 1785 by Grosier, and was also published separately as "Description générale de la Chine..,"

 

58. MOHAN LAL (1812-1877)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Mohan Lal,” Informing his Correspondent that “a Ticket for admission to the Botanical Garden has been forwarded to me by Mr. Oliveira & therefore I beg you not to take any trouble”].

[London]: 53 Manchester Street, 11 June 1845. Duodecimo (ca. 13,5x9 cm). 2 pp., with an integral blank leaf. Brown ink on paper with a blind stamped monogram in the upper left corner. Mild fold marks, minor stains on verso of the second blank leaf, otherwise a very good letter.
A rare letter by Mohan Lal (Zutshi) – one of the few native Indian players of the Great Game who greatly contributed to the British victory in the First Anglo-Afghan War (1838-1842). The letter was written in England where Mohan Lal lived after the end of the war. His two major books, “Travels in the Panjab, Afghanistan & Turkistan to Balk, Bokhara, and Herat” and “Life of the Amir Dost Mohammed Khan, of Kabul” were to be published in London the following year. The latter is considered a primary source on the First English-Afghan War.
An offspring of a Kashmiri noble family from Delhi, Mohan Lal attended the newly formed Delhi English College. In 1832-1834 he accompanied Sir Alexander Burnes on his expedition to Central Asia with the aim of political and military intelligence; they became close friends. “Later, Lal was the Commercial Agent for the British on the Indus and Political Assistant to Burnes in Kabul during the first Afghan War. Unlike Burnes, he survived the massacres of 1841 and continued to keep Calcutta informed of events in the Afghan capital from the house of a merchant where he had taken refuge […] Mohan Lal played a major role in securing the release of British prisoners held hostage in Bamiyan” (Wikipedia).
In the letter Mohan Lal mentions Benjamin Oliveira, a British politician and businessman, writer, philanthropist, Member of Parliament and Director of the British Institution of Beaux Arts and Painting (See more: British Armorial Bindings/ University of Toronto Libraries on-line).

 

59. OSBORN, Sherard Rear Rear-Admiral (1822-1875)
[Autograph Letter Signed by Sherard Osborn to "My Dear Rogers" about his current illness and his time in China].

Ca. 1870. Octavo (18x11,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on wove paper. With a small printed paper label on the foot of page one "Capt. Sherard Osborn." With a small cloth strip on left, fold marks but otherwise a very good letter.
Judging by the content, Rogers is most likely a naval officer Osborn served with in China. Osborn discusses that he has been ill "for the last three weeks and [is] still very sicketty (sic)." Further he discusses China and mentions Admiral [Sir Alexander Inglis] Cochrane (1758–1832) who he served under in China: "Do know I sometimes regret ever having left China. I had the strangest letters in my favour sent out to Ad. Cochrane by an old friend of his.., I begin to pine for its bright sunny days and Eastern Delights. Those dear old Straits of Malacca. I always look back with pleasure to the days I spent there."
"In September 1837 [Osborn] was entered by Commander William Warren as a first-class volunteer on board the sloop Hyacinth, fitting for the East Indies. The Hyacinth arrived at Singapore in May 1838, and in September was ordered to blockade Kedah, then in a state of revolt. Osborn was appointed to command a tender and so from December 1838 to March 1839 he was ‘captain of his own ship’. The responsibility thrust on him at such an early age went far to strengthen and mature his character. Parts of his journal during the time were published in 1857 as Quedah, or, Stray Leaves from a Journal in Malayan Waters. In 1840 the Hyacinth went to China, and took part in the operations in the Canton River. In 1842 Osborn was moved into the Clio with Commander Troubridge, and in her was present at the capture of Woosung (Wusong) on 16 June. He was afterwards transferred to the Volage, and came home in the Columbine in 1843. He passed his examination in December, and, after going through the gunnery course in the Excellent, was appointed gunnery mate of the Collingwood, fitting out for the Pacific as flagship of Sir George Seymour.
On 4 May 1846 Osborn was promoted lieutenant of the Collingwood, in which he returned to England in the summer of 1848. He then had command of the Dwarf, a small screw-steamer, employed during the disturbances of the year on the coast of Ireland. In 1849, when public attention was turned to the fate of Sir John Franklin, Osborn entered into the question with enthusiasm and energy, and in 1850 was appointed to command the steam tender Pioneer, in the Arctic expedition under Captain Austin in the Resolute. Considered as a surveying expedition, it was eminently successful, and proved that Franklin's ships had not been lost in Baffin's Bay" (Oxford DNB).

 

60. PAAR, T[heodore] H.
[Photo Album with Ten Original Photographs of Kanchenjunga and Darjeeling].

Darjeeling, ca. 1900. With ten gelatin silver prints each ca. 21x28 cm (8 ½ x 11 in). Nine of the images with captions and photographers name in negative in lower margin. Period green cloth boards rebacked in green morocco. Photographs mounted on original card leaves, a couple mildly faded by overall in very good condition.
The captioned images included in this album are: #23. Kinchinjunga by Sunset; #85 Kinchinjunga from Phalut; #80 Kinchinjunga from Sandakphu; #78 Mt. Everest from Sandakphu; #79 Clouds from Phalut; #14 View from Senchal; #12 Kinchinjunga from Observatory Hill; #67 Darjeeling by moonlight; #42 Chinbatti Loop; one image of a statue not captioned. "Kangchenjunga is the third highest mountain in the world. It rises with an elevation of 8,586 m (28,169 ft) in a section of the Himalayas called Kangchenjunga Himal that is limited in the west by the Tamur River and in the east by the Teesta River" (Wikipedia).

 

61. PALLAS, Peter Simon (1741-1810)
Voyages de M.P.S. Pallas en Differentes Provinces de L'Empire de Russie, Et Dans L'Asie Septentrionale; Traduits de L'Allemand, Par M. Gauthier de la Peyronie, Commis des Affaires Etrangeres. [Travels of P.S. Pallas in different Provinces of the Russian Empire, and in Northern Asia, Translated from the German, By Mr. Gauthier de la Peyronie, Commisioner of Foreign Affairs].

Paris: Maradan, 1789-93. First French Edition. Quarto 5 vols. & Small Folio Atlas. xxxii, 773, [3]; [iv], 550, [1]; [iv], 491, [1]; [iv], 722, [2]; [iv], 559, [1]; [iv] pp. With a large folding hand-colored copper-engraved map on 2 sheets; 122 copper engravings on 107 sheets, 29 of them folding or double-page. Original pink papered boards, re-backed in style with new printed paper labels. A few leaves with very mild water staining, otherwise a very handsome large uncut set in very original condition.
"In 1767 Pallas received an invitation from Catherine II of Russia to take a position at the Academy of Sciences in St. Petersburg. From that position he was authorized to lead an expedition into Siberia to observe the transit of Venus. He took seven astronomers and five naturalists with him, and the expedition became primarily oriented toward natural history. The exploration continued from 1768 to 1774, during which time some of the information was prepared for publication. The first volume appeared in 1771, a German edition printed in St. Petersburg, with subsequent volumes issued to 1776. The text is a broad survey of all aspects of natural history, as well as a study of the various peoples of Siberia. The atlas includes a number of maps, plus natural history, costume, and scenery, etc" (PBA Galleries).
"The expedition set out from Moscow on 30.4.68.., The first summer was spent traversing the plains of European Russia, and the winter passed at Simbirsk on the Volga. The next year was spent on the borders of Kalmuk Tartary, when Pallas carefully examined the shores of the Caspian Sea. The transit of Venus on 3.6.69 was observed at Tobolsk. The party then proceeded through Orenburg and passed the next winter (1769-70) at Ufa. In 1770 Pallas crossed the Ural Mountains to Katarinenburg, examining the mines in the neighbourhood. In 1771 the members of the expedition reached the Altai Mountains, from where they travelled to winter at Krasnoyarsk, observing that the mercury froze in their thermometers. They also found a wide distribution of mammoth and rhinoceros fossils in the Siberian Ice. In the following spring (1772) Pallas penetrated as far as Lake Baikal, and followed the caravan route as far as Kiakhta on the Mongolian border. For the next two years the members of the expedition slowly proceeded homewards, on the way visiting Astrakhan and the Caucasus Mountains. Pallas arrived back in St. Petersburg in July 1774 with a vast amount of data and many fossil specimens, but broken in health. His hair was apparently whitened with fatigue, and nearly all of his companions had died" (Howgego P10); Atabey 918.

 

62. PALLAS, Peter Simon (1741-1811)
[Atlas only]: Second Voyage de Pallas, ou Voyages Entrepris dans les Pays Méridionaux de l’Empire de Russie, Pendant les Années 1793 et 1794. Planches [Second Voyage of Pallas, or Travels to the Southern Parts of the Russian Empire, Undertaken in 1793 and 1794].

Paris: L.M. Guillaume et Deterville, 1811. Second French edition. Oblong Folio. Title page, fifty-five copper engraved plates and maps (one folding) by J. Couché and Robert de Launay after drawings by G. Geissler. Period light green paper wrappers. Atlas with mild creases, paper slightly soiled, with mild foxing, but overall a very good copy.
Atlas to the second French edition of travels across southern Russia by Peter Simon Pallas published under the title “Second voyage de Pallas ou Voyages entrepris dans les pays méridionaux de l'Empire de Russie, pendant les années 1793 et 1794” (Paris, 1811, 4 vols. And atlas). Most of the drawings for the plates were made by Christian Gottfried Geissler (1770-1844) who accompanied Pallas during his travels. The plates include views of the Caspian steppes, Bakhchysarai, Sevastopol harbour, monastery of Saint George in Balaklava, Theodosia, old Genovese fortress in Sudak, ancient monuments and inscriptions on stones, antiquities, costumes of Tatars, Kirghizes, Kossaks and other local people, animals et al.
The six maps show the Great Madzhary (Majar, medieval city of Golden Horde on Kuma River); Caucasian mountains with the valleys of Narzan, Emnoka and Podkuma rivers; Taman peninsula; Caspian steppe with the mouth of Volga and Astrakhan; a part of the Caucasus between the Caspian and the Black sea; and a general overview of southern Russia with Crimea, the Sea of Azov and a part of the Caucasus
“Between 1793 and 1794, Pallas led a second expedition to southern Russia, visiting the Crimea and the Black Sea. He was accompanied by his daughter (by his first wife who had died in 1782) and his new wife, an artist, servants and a military escort. In February 1793 they travelled to Saratov and then downriver to Volgograd. They spent the spring exploring the country to the east, and in August travelled along the banks of the Caspian Sea and into the Caucasus mountains. In September they travelled to the Crimea, wintering in Simferopol. Pallas spent the spring of 1794 exploring to the southeast, and in July travelled up the valley of the Dnieper, arriving back in St Petersburg in September” (Wikipedia).
Abbey Travel 222 (English edition); Atabey 918; Howgego P10).

 

63. PEREYRA, Antonio Pinto (d. 1587)
Historia da India no Tempo em que a Gouernovo Viso Rey Dom Luis de Ataide [History of India During the Government of Viceroy Don Luis de Ataide].

Coimbra: Nicolau Carvalho, 1616. First Edition. Small Folio. [24], 151, [8] pp.; [6], [2 - blank] pp., 162 leaves, [12] pp. Title within ornamental border and with a large woodcut armorial (printer's?) device; tail-pieces and decorative initials. Very handsome period brown elaborately gilt tooled full sheep with minor repairs on the spine. A very good copy.
Very Rare first edition of this early history of the Portuguese in India, with only three copies found in Worldcat (Yale University, the University of Leiden and the British Library). "Mui raro" (Salva y Mallen, P. Catalogo de la Biblioteca de Salva. Valencia, 1872. Vol. II, p. 621).
The book consists of two parts, each with an extensive index of names. The work describes the history of the Portuguese viceroyalty in India during the time of the rule of Don Luís de Ataíde, Count of Atouguia (1517-1581), the 10th Vice-Roy of India in 1568-1571, and 1578-1580. It was the time of the height of Portuguese naval power and of the prosperity of its East-Indian Viceroyalty, especially of Goa which became the capital of the Viceroyalty in 1610. "In 1542, St. Francis Xavier mentions the architectural splendour of the city; but it reached the climax of its prosperity between 1575 and 1625. Travellers marvelled at Goa Dourada, or Golden Goa, and there was a Portuguese proverb, "He who has seen Goa need not see Lisbon." <..,> Until the 18th Century, the Portuguese governor in Goa had authority over all Portuguese possessions in the Indian Ocean, from southern Africa to southeast Asia" (Wikipedia).
"Antonio Pinto Pereira, a native of the village of Mogadour, well-versed in the science of Political History, left a work published some years after his death which occurred in 1587" (Pope, E. M. India in Portuguese Literature. 1937. p. 147)

 

64. POLIAKOV, Ivan Semenovich (1845-1887)
[Siberian Arctic and Khanty Tribes] Pisma i Otcheti o Puteshestvii v Dolinu Reki Obi, Ispolnennom po Porucheniu Imperatorskoi Akademii Nauk [Letters and Reports of the Travel to the Basin of the River Ob, Executed on Assignment of the Imperial Academy of Sciences]. Supplement #2 to the Volume XXX "Proceedings of the Imperial Academy of Sciences."

Saint Petersburg: Imperial Academy of Sciences, 1877. First Edition. Octavo. [6], 187 pp. Period brown half sheep with marbled boards and red sheep label on the spine with faded gilt lettering. A very good copy.
Very rare short-run imprint as no copies found in Worldcat. The book is based on the expedition undertaken in the summer of 1876 on assignment of Imperial Academy of Sciences. Poliakov went from Saint Petersburg through Perm, Yekaterinburg and Tumen to Tobolsk, sailed down the Irtysh and Ob rivers to Ob’s mouth, went up the Gulf of Ob to the River Nadym and turned back.
Poliakov thoroughly described the Irtysh, Ob and Nadym rivers, the shores of the Arctic Ocean at the Gulf of Ob; its geography, flora and fauna. A separate part was dedicated to the Khanty tribes (Ostiaks) inhabiting the region, conditions of their life, occupation, customs, food, costumes etc. The purpose of the book is "to draw a picture of the most remarkable features of the nature of this land and its inhabitants" (Preface).
Ivan Poliakov was a Russian geographer, zoologist and writer, the Curator of the Zoological Museum of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. Born near the River Argun on Russian-Chinese border, he studied in Irkutsk, and later in Saint Petersburg University. After meeting members of the Eastern-Siberian department of the Russian Geographical Society, Poliakov went on several scientific travels to Siberia (Olekma basin, Lake Baikal, Sajani), Northern and Central Russia, Caucasus, Sakhalin and Japan. He edited "The Proceedings of the Russian Geographical Society" and wrote about 50 articles on numerous topics of natural history and geography. For his work Poliakov was awarded with the silver and small gold medals of the Russian Geographical Society.

 

65. RENOUARD DE SAINTE-CROIX, Felix
Voyage commercial et politique aux Indes Orientales, aux iles Philippines, a la Chine, avec des notions sur la Cochinchine et le Tonquin, pendant les années 1803, 1804, 1805, 1806 et 1807, contenant des observations et des renseignements, tant sur les productions territoriales et industrielles que sur le commerce de ces pays; des tableaux d'importations et d'exportations du commerce d'Europe en Chine, depuis 1804 jusqu'en 1807; des remarques sur les moeurs, les coutumes, le gouvernement, les lois, les idiômes, les religions, etc.; un apperçu des moyens à employer pour affranchir ces contrée. [Commercial and Political Voyage to the East Indies, Philippine Islands, China, and Cochin China and Tonquin, during the years 1803, 1804, 1805, 1806 and 1807..,].

Paris: Crapelet for Clament frères, 1810. First Edition. Octavo, 3 vols. x, 301; [iv], 390; [iv], 291, [1] pp. With two engraved hand colored folding maps and four folding tables. Period brown gilt tooled quarter sheep with orange gilt labels and marbled boards housed in a matching slip case. A very good set.
Sainte-Croix was a French officer, responsible for the defence of the Philippines. Renouard de Sainte-Croix arrived in Pondicherry, India, in 1802 and was almost immediately imprisoned by the English. After he was liberated, he stayed for two more years in India and went amongst others to the coasts of Coromandel and Malabar. He then travelled to the Philippines where he visited Manila, and the gold mines of Mabulao. Cordier Indosinica, 2425; Howgego 1800-1850, D12; Lust 384.

 

66. RICH, Edmund Tillotson, Colonel, C.I.E., R.E. (1874-1937)
[Historically Important Private Archive Containing Official and Confidential Materials, Maps, Letters, Photographs, Manuscript Addresses et al. Related to E.T. Rich’s almost 20-year Service in the Burma Circle of the Survey of India, in 1896-1900, 1911-1916 and 1920-1929, including interesting Materials on the Railway Survey in the Upper Burma, Burma-China Frontier and the 1920s Expeditions to the Hukawng Valley and the Naga Hills for the Liberation of Slaves and Abolition of Human Sacrifice].

Rich started his work in Burma in January 1896 as an engineer of the Burma Railways and carried out several surveys, including that of the Salween Railway, until autumn 1900 when he was transferred to India. In 1911 Rich returned to work in Burma, becoming the head of the No. 10 Party, and surveyed on the confines of China and in the adjoining unadministered areas. In 1914-1915 he carried out survey works during the Kachin rising in northern Burma. In 1916-1919 Rich was employed on the Mesopotamian and Persian fronts of the WW1 and returned to Burma in 1920, in order to work as the head of the No. 10 Survey Party again. His work concentrated on the hitherto practically unknown and unsurveyed areas to the north and north-east of the settled districts of Burma and in the wild unadministered territory between north-west Burma and Assam. “From 1920 to 1922, while surveying the unadministered territory between Burma and Assam, you were brought into contact with slavery and human sacrifices still practiced there; and you were largely responsible for bringing these abhorrent rites to the notice of the Government of Burma. Indeed, you had personally made arrangements for the liberation of several slaves and had saved at least two victims from sacrifices, before you accompanied and assisted the Mission under Sir Harcourt Butler to the Hukawng Valley in 1925 to suppress these abominations” (from the special address to Rich, included in the collection). Rich was promoted the director of the Burma Circle and retired in 1929.
The majority of the materials from the archive are dedicated to Rich’s expeditions to the Hukawng Valley and the Naga Hills undertaken in order to release Indian slaves captured in Assam and to abolish the practice of human sacrifice. The materials include:
1) Two similarly bound volumes of official and confidential materials on the expeditions to the Hukawng Valley and the Naga Hills in the northern Burma for the liberation of slaves and abolition of human sacrifices in 1922-1928. Both volumes are bound in brown/green cloth with paper labels reading “Slavery & Human Sacrifice on the North East Frontier of Burma.”
Vol. [1] includes 102 bound leaves of manuscript, typewritten and printed papers (many confidential) relating to Rich's work in Burma, commencing with the Kachin rising, but principally concerning operations in Hukawng Valley and Naga Hills for the suppression of slavery and human sacrifice, 1913-1928. The papers include Rich’s confidential reports, official correspondence with his superiors (letters and telegrams), accounting documentation on the expeditions (e.g. A Bill of contingent charges), official resolutions, dispatches etc. With a folding map, 7 leaves of plates bound at rear, also with nine folding maps of Burma published by the Survey of India, in the pocket at rear (including general map of Burma, maps of its districts and of the Assam-Burma border).
Vol. [2] contains five printed confidential reports:
A) Barnard, J.T.O., C.I.E., B.F.S. Confidential. Report on the Hukawng Valley Expedition for the Liberation of Slaves. Season 1925-26. Rangoon: Office of the Superintendent, Govt. Printing & Stationary, Burma, June 1926. 26 pp. With a folding lithographed map. Both original publisher’s wrappers bound in.
B) Barnard, J.T.O., C.I.E., Deputy Commissioner. Confidential. Report on the Expedition to the “Triangle” for the Liberation of Slaves. Season 1926-27. Rangoon: Office of the Superintendent, Govt. Printing & Stationary, Burma, July 1927. [2], 8-38 pp. With three folding lithographed maps. Lower part of p. 33 cut out. Both original publisher’s wrappers bound in.
C) Dewar, T.P., B.F.S. Confidential. Report on the Naga Hills (Burma) Expedition for the abolition of Human Sacrifice. Season 1925-26. Rangoon: Office of the Superintendent, Govt. Printing & Stationary, Burma, August 1927. 50 pp. With a folding lithographed map. Both original publisher’s wrappers bound in.
D) Dewar, T.P., O.B.E., Burma Frontier Service. Confidential. Report of an Expedition to the Hukawng Valley and Naga Hills (Burma) during the season December 1927 to May 1928. Rangoon: Office of the Superintendent, Govt. Printing & Stationary, Burma, June 1928. 15, 12 pp. With a folding lithographed map. Both original publisher’s wrappers bound in.
E) Mitchell, H.J., O.B.E., Assistant Superintendent, Burma Frontier Service. Confidential. Report on the Naga Hills (Upper Chindwin) Expedition for the Abolition of Human Sacrifice. January to March 1928. Rangoon: Office of the Superintendent, Govt. Printing & Stationary, Burma, June 1928. 42 pp. With two folding lithographed maps. Both original publisher’s wrappers bound in.

2) Two Typewritten Folio Reports compiled by Rich in the end of his service as the head of the No. 10 Survey Party and addressed to H.A. Thornton, Commissioner of the North-East Frontier Division. The reports are dated March 1923 and represent: “Brief account of the survey operations of No. 10 Party, Survey of India, in the North-East Frontier Division, Burma, from 1909 to 1923” (6 leaves, with the accompanying official letter), and “Report of the Hukawng and adjoining Unadministered Territory” (18 leaves, with the accompanying official letter).
3) Two Autograph Signed Letters from H.A. Thornton, Commissioner of the Burma North-East Frontier Division, thanking Rich for his service during the slave liberation expeditions to the Hukawng Valley. 12mos. April and July 1929. In all 9 pp. Of text.
4) A printed leaflet “Survey of India. Notes for May 1923” with the short note of the release “of kidnapped Indian slaves in the unadministered Hukawng Valley through the agency of Colonel Rich…” (Folio, 2 pp.).

Rich’s early service on the railway survey in the Upper Burma (1896-1899) is includes the following materials:
1) Two autograph letters signed to his mother, written from Thibaw (Hsipaw) and Maymyo, and dated 1896-1897. In all ten pages of text, with two small ink drawings in text. Interesting letters describing the survey for a railway in the area.
2) Early 20th century “Copy of Letters written by Edmund T. Rich from Burma, when he was a railway engineer.” Folio. Manuscript copy of two letters, dated “Rangoon, 1 March 1898” (2 pp.), and “Kunlon, Upper Burma, 6 March” (3 pp., unfinished, with a small ink drawing in text). Interesting note on the survey of the railway line to Kunlon. With a printed view of the Gokteik viaduct near Kunlon (photogravure by the Survey of India, 1901).
3) Original manuscript by Rich titled in pencil (on the original envelope in which the manuscript is housed): “A week’s Diary in Burma, 1899.” Folio. 14 pp., unbound. The diary embraces the period from the 8th to 16th of May 1899 and describes the survey on the prospective Salween Railway in the Shan state of Burma; with two ink sketches of the Kachin houses in text.
4) Two copies of an etching signed and titled in pencil on the lower margin “The Moat. Mandalay” (image size ca. 8x10,5 cm or 3 ¼ x 4 in).

Other materials include:
1) Two autograph letters signed by Rich to his aunt, dated Maymyo, 14 March 1912, and Myitkuina, 4 December 1915, with some interesting notes on Rich’s survey works in the Burma-China frontier and the Irrawaddy River. Both 12mos, in all 10 pp. Of text.
2) Collection of 75 original gelatin silver prints with the views of Burma, taken by Rich or/and somebody from his circle. Ca. 1910-1920s. The majority of images are of postcard size or slightly larger, with three small images ca. 6x9 cm (2 ¼ x 3 ¼ in). The images are uncaptioned; the views include those of the coastal Burma, Upper Burma and the surroundings of Myitkyina, Ayeyarwady (Irrawaddy) River and river steamers, hilly areas, native villages and their inhabitants et al.
3) Three Elephant Folio certificates presented to Rich on his retirement from the Burma Circle, including two manuscript and illuminated ones: in English (ca. 55x36,5 cm or 21 ¾ x 14 ½ in) and Arabic (?) (ca. 51,5x39cm or 20 ¼ x 15 ¼ in), both with elaborate watercolour ornamental frames; and a printed address (ca. 56x36,5 cm or 22 x 14 ¼ in; with pencil corrections in text, mild creases and foxing). The certificates give a brief summary of Rich’s work in the Survey of India and particularly in the Burma Circle, 1896-1929.
4) Original photograph portrait of Rich (ca. 20,5x15 cm) by the “Elliot & Fry Ltd.” (London), ca. 1930s.
5) Collection of four Royal Proclamations “for making known within His Majesty’s Dominions the celebration of the Solemnity of the Coronation of His Majesty,” printed by order of the Government of Burma in December 1911. Proclamations are ca. 34,5x22 cm and printed in English, Burmese (one by Burmese and one by Latin characters), and Arabic.

Edmund Tillotson Rich was a British military engineer and surveyor, Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. He graduated from Sandhurst with the Pollock Medal and was gazetted as 2nd Lieutenant in the Royal Engineers. In 1895 he went out to India and was posted to railway survey work in Burma. In 1905-1909 Rich worked as survey officer on the Indian North-West Frontier, and took part in the Bazar Valley and Mohmand Campaigns of 1908 (as a divisional and a chief survey officer respectively). During the latter he was slightly wounded and for his services was promoted brevet-major. In 1911 Rich was appointed the head of the survey office on the Burma frontier post at Myitkyina, where he carried out the survey of the border with Tibet and Yunnan. In 1916-1917 he was in charge of the survey party looking for the alternative routes between Bandar Abbas and Kerman in South Persia; in 1918 – in charge of the North West Persia Survey Detachment which accompanied British intervention in the Caspian under command of General Dunsterville. Rich carried out important surveys in Baku, Batum and Tiflis.
After the WW1 Rich returned to Burma where he became the head of the Burma Circle of the Survey of India. In 1920-22 while surveying the unadministered territory between Burma and Assam he encountered slavery and human sacrifices still practiced there; in 1925 he took part in the Sir Harcourt Butler’s Mission to the Hukawng Valley to suppress slavery. Rich retired with the rank of Colonel and C.I.E. In 1929.
“Colonel Rich was a great linguist, and besides his knowledge of Urdu, Pushtu, and Persian, he was able to converse in Yunnanese and several dialects of Burma – Kachin, Maru, and Lisaw. <…> He was a keen explorer throughout his career and did much to encourage a spirit of adventure in younger officers who served under him” (Obituary/ The Geographical Journal, Vol. 91, No. 1. Jan. 1938, p. 96).

 

67. RICH, Edmund Tillotson, Colonel, C.I.E., R.E. (1874-1937)
[Photograph Album with 65 Original Gelatin Silver Prints and with the Embossed Title:] Views of the Bazar Valley Field Force, 1908. Photographed by Captain E.T. Rich, R.E.

Calcutta: Compiled at the Photo-Litho. Office of the Survey of India, [1908]. Oblong Elephant Folio (ca. 30x48,5 cm). 33 thick card leaves with printed numbers, and tissue guards. 65 gelatin mounted silver prints of various size, including one large four-part panorama ca. 13x89 cm (5 ¼ x 34 ¾ in), two three-part panoramas ca. 13,5x70 cm (5 ½ x 27 ½ in), two two-part panoramas ca. 13,5x45,5 cm (5 ½ x 17 ¾ in), sixteen large photos ca. 15x25 cm (6 x 9 ¾ in), and four smaller panoramas ca. 8,5x26-29 cm (3 ½ x 10 ¼ - 11 ½ in); the rest of the images are ca. 7x9 cm (2 ¾ x 3 ½ in) or slightly larger. All but one image with detailed captions printed on the mounts. With a four-leaf printed description of the “Field Operations, Fort William, the 20th March 1908” bound in at rear. Original dark green full morocco album with gilt lettered title on the front board and gilt tooled decorative borders on both boards and the spine; marbled endpapers. Album rubbed on extremities, with scratches on the rear board, a crack on the centerfold of the first endpaper, slightly weak on hinges, several tissue guards detached and loosely inserted, several images with minor silvering. Overall a very good internally clean album with good strong photos.
Interesting album with official photographs illustrating the Bazar Valley Campaign, a punitive expedition against the Zakka Khel clan of the Afridi tribe inhabiting the mountains on the Peshawar border of the North West Frontier province of British India. The expedition was undertaken by the Bazar Valley Field Force under command of General James Willcocks on the 13 February - 1 March 1908.
The album was compiled on the basis of reports of E.T. Rich who was a divisional survey officer accompanying the Bazar Valley Field Force, and contains original photographs made by Rich. This particular album is a rare example of the special luxury edition issued by the Office of the Survey of India (Rich was its survey officer). This large format album on thick card, in full morocco binding, most likely is the special copy published on the base of a smaller and simpler Peshawar edition of the same album (Mela Ram Photographer, ca. 1908). The photos are placed in the following order (as in the printed Index on the title page, prepared by E. Rich): Khaibar Pass, Chora, Walai, China, Halwai, Miscellaneous; and include large panoramas of the Bazar Valley, Walai camp, China; battle scenes, photos of destruction of Zakka Khel fortifications, jirgas, or councils of Afridi headmen and British commanders; portraits of soldiers at bivouac, sepoys in trenches, staff of the Bazar Valley Field force et al.
The album is supplemented with a large folding lithographed “Map to Illustrate the Operations of the Bazar Valley Field Force, 1908” (ca. 49,5x88,5 cm), with Rich’s lithographed signature in the right lower corner, published by the Survey of India in March 1908, shortly after the end of the campaign. There are also two folding mimeographed maps: “Sketch of camp east of China” (ca. 34x21 cm, with mimeographed Rich’s signature and date “25/2/08”), and “Sketch of Bazar Valley between Walai and Halwai” (ca. 22,5x34 cm, also with Rich’s mimeographed signature). The collection also includes a typewritten “Report on the Survey Operations Carried out by the Survey Detachment with the Bazar Valley Field Force” (Folio, 7 leaves, ink corrections in text by Rich); two period newspaper clippings (from “The Times” and “The Journal”) with detailed reports about the Bazar Valley and Zakka Khel Expeditions, a typewritten obituary of Rich, titled “Colonel E.T. Rich. Indian Frontier services” (2 pp.), and an original photograph portrait of Rich (ca. 20,5x15 cm) by the “Elliot & Fry Ltd.” (London), ca. 1930s.
Edmund Tillotson Rich was a British military engineer and surveyor, Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. He graduated from Sandhurst with the Pollock Medal and was gazetted as 2nd Lieutenant in the Royal Engineers. In 1895 he went out to India and was posted to railway survey work in Burma. In 1905-1909 Rich worked as survey officer on the Indian North-West Frontier, and took part in the Bazar Valley and Mohmand Campaigns of 1908 (as a divisional and a chief survey officer respectively). During the latter he was slightly wounded and for his services was promoted brevet-major. In 1911 Rich was appointed the head of the survey office on the Burma frontier post at Myitkyina, where he carried out the survey of the border with Tibet and Yunnan. In 1916-1917 he was in charge of the survey party looking for the alternative routes between Bandar Abbas and Kerman in South Persia; in 1918 – in charge of the North West Persia Survey Detachment which accompanied British intervention in the Caspian under command of General Dunsterville. Rich carried out important surveys in Baku, Batum and Tiflis.
After the WW1 Rich returned to Burma where he became the head of the Burma Circle of the Survey of India. In 1920-22 while surveying the unadministered territory between Burma and Assam he encountered slavery and human sacrifices still practiced there; in 1925 he took part in the Sir Harcourt Butler’s Mission to the Hukawng Valley to suppress slavery. Rich retired with the rank of Colonel and C.I.E. In 1929.
“Colonel Rich was a great linguist, and besides his knowledge of Urdu, Pushtu, and Persian, he was able to converse in Yunnanese and several dialects of Burma – Kachin, Maru, and Lisaw. <…> He was a keen explorer throughout his career and did much to encourage a spirit of adventure in younger officers who served under him” (Obituary/ The Geographical Journal, Vol. 91, No. 1. Jan. 1938, p. 96).

 

68. RICH, Edmund Tillotson, Colonel, C.I.E., R.E. (1874-1937)
[Interesting Private Archive Compiled during Rich’s Service in the Survey Unit of the Dunsterforce in Mesopotamia and Baku (May-September 1918), and during British Occupation of Tiflis (February-September 1919)].

In May-September 1918 E.T. Rich was put in charge of the North West Persia Survey Detachment which accompanied General Dunsterville’s famous march through Persia to the Caspian and to the city of Baku. Shortly after the Armistice Rich was sent to Tiflis (Tbilisi), then occupied by the British troops, where he was in charge of a survey office compiling maps from Russian sources. The small archive related to this period of Rich’s career contains mostly original documents related to his work in Tiflis and Batumi (a Georgian port on the Black Sea):
1. Three letters (with two original envelopes) addressed to Rich and written in French by Russian emigrant ladies who worked in his office in Tiflis and Batumi, all dated September 1919.
One of the letters bears Rich’s extensive manuscript note on verso, revealing the history of his service in Georgia: “During the British Occupation of Tiflis in the Caucasus, Russia, I organized a drawing office of 70, 18 being Russian, Georgian and Armenian ladies, all young and of the highest Russian etc. families, 6 of whom were princesses. They were all very badly off, so I helped them all I could. I was in Tiflis from Feb. To Sept. 1919 & then moved my office to Batum, taking only 6 of the ladies & 1 Russian officer with me. The letter was written by the 6 in Batum. The first 2 lines of page 2 are most pathetic, considering how rich they all were before the revolution, poor things. No less than 4 of them were daughters of generals, a fifth was a princess and another a daughter of a princess. The comfort was that of a dak bungalow in India & we hired entirely in army rations.
In Tiflis I founded & became the president of a society for giving dinners to Russian aristocrats who had been ruined by the revolution & were on the verge of starvation. We began by feeding 20 & in 4 months had risen to 80, with arrangements for later on feeding 150. There were American relief committees for soup kitchens & such like, but nothing for the old society ladies who preferred to starve to death rather than stand with professional beggars in a bread cue. My society cost no more per dinner per head than the soup kitchen, but everything was beautifully served by voluntary workers in nice rooms with tablecloths, napkins etc. & flowers on the table, all given gratis & it put fresh heart into the poor people.”
2. Seven group photo portraits of the staff of Rich’s Tiflis and Batum offices, 1919 (of postcard size or slightly smaller). For are with annotations or names on recto or verso.
3. Seven leaves of original humorous ink drawings by Rich, portraying the British officers and the associates of his drawing office in Tiflis, 1919, including portraits of Brigadier General Beach (Director of British Military Intelligence in the Caucasus), Mayor Kingscote, interior of the drawing office, and its associates: Mr. Kosmin, Musa Kiknadze, Leila Chavchavadze, Miss Machkalov, Miss Ditsman, Mr. Rotinian and others.
4. Large pencil drawn and signed portrait of Rich dated 7 August 1919 (ca. 29x22 cm).
5. Official typewritten invitation for Rich to the dinner given by the government of the Georgian Democratic Republic “in honor of British High Command and Officers” on the 4th of September 1919. Rich’s pencil note on verso “Dinner given by Georgian Government when the British left Tiflis, Sept. 1919.”
6. Large pre-1917 Russian map of the Caucasus (60,5x71,5 cm or 23 ¼ x 28 in); large plan of Tiflis issued by the General Head Quarters of the British Force in Tiflis, 1919 (ca. 26,5x58 cm or 10 ½ x 22 ¾ in), with Rich’s pencil remark on the lower margin “Drawn in Tiflis in Feb. 1919 by Mr. Rotinian under me. Hand printing by myself.”
7. Several small pieces of ephemera from Batum and Tiflis, and several related newspaper clippings.
The items related to Rich’s earlier service with the Dunsterforce and in Mesopotamia include:
A letter to Rich from Lt.-Col. Sir George Roos-Keppel (1866-1921), then the Chief Commissioner for the North West Frontier Province, on the official letterhead. 11 November 1918. Octavo. 3 pp. “It is most tantalizing your writing that I probably know all about the Baku business because I know nothing except that I have heard from home & that is very vague. I know Dunsterville had got the boot, he is here waiting for a passage home & is very gloom[?] but does not talk about Baku at all. Do let me know what did really happen there. It is pretty safe to write to me as since the beginning of the war not a single letter addressed to me has been opened. Besides I never talk about things & the truth about Baku cannot possibly be nearly as bad as the stories which are being sedulously spread by people in India who have returned from there.”
A certificate given to Rich that he passed a field service test in colloquial Persian (given by the General Headquarters, Mesopotamian Expeditionary Force, Baghdad, 18 November 1918).
Edmund Tillotson Rich was a British military engineer and surveyor, Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. He graduated from Sandhurst with the Pollock Medal and was gazetted as 2nd Lieutenant in the Royal Engineers. In 1895 he went out to India and was posted to railway survey work in Burma. In 1905-1909 Rich worked as survey officer on the Indian North-West Frontier, and took part in the Bazar Valley and Mohmand Campaigns of 1908 (as a divisional and a chief survey officer respectively). During the latter he was slightly wounded and for his services was promoted brevet-major. In 1911 Rich was appointed the head of the survey office on the Burma frontier post at Myitkyina, where he carried out the survey of the border with Tibet and Yunnan. In 1916-1917 he was in charge of the survey party looking for the alternative routes between Bandar Abbas and Kerman in South Persia; in 1918 – in charge of the North West Persia Survey Detachment which accompanied British intervention in the Caspian under command of General Dunsterville. Rich carried out important surveys in Baku, Batum and Tiflis.
After the WW1 Rich returned to Burma where he became the head of the Burma Circle of the Survey of India. In 1920-22 while surveying the unadministered territory between Burma and Assam he encountered slavery and human sacrifices still practiced there; in 1925 he took part in the Sir Harcourt Butler’s Mission to the Hukawng Valley to suppress slavery. Rich retired with the rank of Colonel and C.I.E. In 1929.
“Colonel Rich was a great linguist, and besides his knowledge of Urdu, Pushtu, and Persian, he was able to converse in Yunnanese and several dialects of Burma – Kachin, Maru, and Lisaw. <…> He was a keen explorer throughout his career and did much to encourage a spirit of adventure in younger officers who served under him” (Obituary/ The Geographical Journal, Vol. 91, No. 1. Jan. 1938, p. 96).

 

69. RICH, Edmund Tillotson, Colonel, C.I.E., R.E. (1874-1937)
[Historically Important Archive, Compiled by E. Rich and Containing Confidential Printed Reports, Eighteen Maps and Plans, as Well as Original Documents Related to the Survey of Potential Routes for a Motor Road between Bandar Abbas and Kerman in Southern Persia; the Survey was Carried out by Rich as a Part of the Persian Campaign during the First World War; the title on the front board reads:] Report and Estimates of Cost of Motor Roads in South East Persia between Bandar Abbas and Kerman by Major Rich, R.E., 1917. General Staff, India. Vol. I.

Simla-Delhi, 1917-1918. Folio. Custom made hardcover binding with the first publisher’s wrapper of the original report pasted to the front board. With a large folding linen backed map of Persia in the pocket at rear. Several leaves slightly age toned, but overall a very good custom made copy.
Special custom bound collection of original reports and documents on the survey of the potential motor road construction between Bandar Abbas and Kerman in Southern Persia, carried out by E.T. Rich on the special orders of the Chief of General Staff in India. As a part of military operations of the WW1 Bandar Abbas was occupied by British forces under command of Sir Percy Sykes in March 1916, and the survey was apparently undertaken in order to establish additional supply routes to the war’s Persian front. Rich was ordered “to report as soon as possible on the best route for a road to take motor lorry traffic from Bandar Abbas to Kerman and to frame estimates from the same and proposals as to the best way of carrying out the work.” The survey was done in December 1916-June 1917, and a year later Rich was promoted a Companion of the Order of the Indian Empire (C.I.E.) for his work. Nevertheless, the road hasn’t been constructed, probably because of the cardinal changes on the Persian front after the collapse of the Russian front line as a result of the revolution in February 1917.
The volume contains: confidential reports by Rich; printed “Working notes” on the survey; maps and plans of Bandar Abbas, Kerman, and the area in between; telegrams sent to him from the Chief of General Staff (Delhi & Simla), Surveyor General’s Office in Calcutta, British Consul in Bandar Abbas; tables with distances and estimates of construction, printed views of the area et al.
The volume consists of three main parts:
1) Confidential. Survey by Major E.T. Rich, R.E., of routes between Bandar-Abbas and Kerman. General Staff, India. Simla: Government Branch Press, 1917. 9, 13, [1], 7, 16 = 46 pp. With six maps and plans (two folding), a proof plate with two photo views, and thirteen leaves of original manuscript, typewritten and printed telegrams related to the report. Both original publisher’s wrappers bound in.

2) Confidential. Report by Major E.T. Rich, R.E., on the Construction of Motor Roads in South Persia between Bandar Abbas and Kerman. 1917. General Staff, India. Vol. I. Delhi: Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1918. [2], iv, 38 pp. With 12 leaves of plates (including one proof plate), and eight maps and plans (three folding). Occasional red ink notes by Rich in text and on the maps/plans; both original publisher’s wrappers bound in.

3) Confidential. Report by Major E.T. Rich, R.E., on the Construction of Motor Roads in South Persia between Bandar Abbas and Kerman. 1917. General Staff, India. Vol. II. Delhi: Superintendent Government Printing, India, 1918. Pp. 39-54. With three folding maps. Occasional red ink notes by Rich in text and on the maps/plans; both original publisher’s wrappers bound in.

The collection is supplemented with Rich’s copy of a typewritten dispatch from the British Vice-Consul in Bandar Abbas to the Chief of Roodbar (South Persia) Zarghan-us-Saltaneh, dated “Bandar Abbas, 2nd December 1916”. In the dispatch the consul asks for the assistance to Rich who is going to visit the area under the chief’s control during the course of his road survey. The copy is signed by the consul and has his manuscript note “Original sent by special messenger direct to Zarghan-us-Saltaneh.”
There are also two autograph signed letters by Rich, addressed to his aunt in London and written while on field service in Southern Persia. The letters are dated 10th and 25th of December 1916, housed in the original envelope with a postal stamp of “Bandar Abbas,” and contain some interesting notes about Rich’s work and his observations on the native life. [Near Kerman:] “It is Xmas evening & as I have no one to talk to, the nearest white man being over 100 miles away, I am writing instead. Being high up over 5000 feet in the mountains, it is bitterly cold & proper Xmas weather, but personally I’d prefer it a bit warmer as I can’t keep warm no how at night which means continuously waking up. <…> The food of the villagers about here is most strange, being dates & bread about 2 lbs of each per diem & nothing else. They feed the horses & cows on dates & even the dogs. I eat them once a day for lunch which consists of porridge, bread & cheese & dates. I often envy the meals my servants get at home when I am out on these expeditions.”
Edmund Tillotson Rich was a British military engineer and surveyor, Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. He graduated from Sandhurst with the Pollock Medal and was gazetted as 2nd Lieutenant in the Royal Engineers. In 1895 he went out to India and was posted to railway survey work in Burma. In 1905-1909 Rich worked as survey officer on the Indian North-West Frontier, and took part in the Bazar Valley and Mohmand Campaigns of 1908 (as a divisional and a chief survey officer respectively). During the latter he was slightly wounded and for his services was promoted brevet-major. In 1911 Rich was appointed the head of the survey office on the Burma frontier post at Myitkyina, where he carried out the survey of the border with Tibet and Yunnan. In 1916-1917 he was in charge of the survey party looking for the alternative routes between Bandar Abbas and Kerman in South Persia; in 1918 – in charge of the North West Persia Survey Detachment which accompanied British intervention in the Caspian under command of General Dunsterville. Rich carried out important surveys in Baku, Batum and Tiflis.
After the WW1 Rich returned to Burma where he became the head of the Burma Circle of the Survey of India. In 1920-22 while surveying the unadministered territory between Burma and Assam he encountered slavery and human sacrifices still practiced there; in 1925 he took part in the Sir Harcourt Butler’s Mission to the Hukawng Valley to suppress slavery. Rich retired with the rank of Colonel and C.I.E. In 1929.
“Colonel Rich was a great linguist, and besides his knowledge of Urdu, Pushtu, and Persian, he was able to converse in Yunnanese and several dialects of Burma – Kachin, Maru, and Lisaw. <…> He was a keen explorer throughout his career and did much to encourage a spirit of adventure in younger officers who served under him” (Obituary/ The Geographical Journal, Vol. 91, No. 1. Jan. 1938, p. 96).

 

70. RODEVICH, Vsevolod Mikhailovich (1878-1942)
[Russian Annexation of Tuva] Ocherk Uriankhaiskogo Kraia (Mongolskogo Basseina Reki Eniseia) [An Essay on the Uriankhai Region (Mongolian Basin of the Yenisei River)]. Issued as vol. XXIV of "Materiali dlia Opisaniia Russkikh Rek I Istorii Uluchsheniia ikh Sudokhodnikh Uslovii" [Materials for Description of Russian Rivers and the History of Enhancing the Navigation Along Them].

Saint Petersburg: Ministry of Transport, 1910. First Edition. Quarto. [2], II, [4], 206 pp. With 20 photographic plates and a large folding color lithographed map. Period style dark brown sheep with gilt lettered spine, with front publisher’s wrapper bound in. A few library stamps on the title and in the text, otherwise a very good copy.
Very Rare as only two copies found in Worldcat.

Important account of the Russian expedition 1907-1909 to the Uriankhai Region on the Upper Yenisei, between Sayan and Tannu-Ola Mountains, then a territory of China. The official purpose of the expedition was to determine how navigable the Yenisei River was on the way from Minusinsk to the Russian border and further, to its upper reaches. The expedition though had an obvious political intention as Uriakhai had for a long time been a sphere of Russian interests. It was attractive because of rich deposits of gold (the first two Russian gold mines were founded in the Sayan Mountains in 1838-39), profitable trade with the locals (started in 1840's) and vast territories suitable for Russian settlers who came there in large numbers in 1870's. In 1906-1910 the Russian government sent several expeditions to Uriankhai to prospect its deposits of gold and asbestos and determine the viability for the construction of the Usinskii Tract, the latter started in 1911.
Our account written by the Head of the research party, "can serve as a reference on the ‘Uriankhay question’ in its modern state" (Preface). Richly illustrated with photographs made by a member of the Minusinsk Photography Society, N. Fedorov, the book touches themes of Uriankhai geography, population, history of relations with Chinese, Mongolians and Russians; Russian population in the region and its main activities; transport; "Uriakhai border question," "Migration to Uriankhai"; "Measures of Support of Russian Entrepreneurs in Uriankhai" and others. Eight supplements include statistics on the Russian settlements, gold mines, trade turnover etc; main bibliography of the question and a detailed map of Uriankhai noting - railroads, caravan roads, mountain trails and passes, river rapids, gold deposits etc.
Russia’s annexation of Uriankhai was raised just two years after the book was published. With the end of the Xinhai Revolution in China (1911) a few major feudal lords in Uriankhai asked the Russian Emperor to take the region as a Russian protectorate. It happened on the April 17, 1914, and Uriankhai was included into the Irkutsk Province. In 1921 Uriankhai became the People’s Republic of Tannu-Tuva, in 1944 it was included into Russian Socialistic Republic, currently it’s the Tuva Republic, a south-Siberian part of Russian Federation. Several sources including the "Bulletin of Russian Academy of Sciences" (1994) defined Tuva (especially in 1990's) an unstable region with strong separatist tendencies and tension between Native ethnicities and a diminishing Russian population.

 

71. SCHERER, Alexander Nicolaus (1772-1824)
Versuch Einer Systematischen Uebersicht der Heilquellen des Russischen Reichs [Attempt of a Systematic Review of the Mineral Springs of the Russian Empire].

St. Petersburg: Kayserlichen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1820. First Edition. Octavo. xviii, 338, [2] pp. With eleven folding hand colored maps including one large map of the Russian Empire. Period brown gilt tooled half calf with marbled boards. Rebacked in period style using original boards. A near fine copy.
A rare work with only 15 copies found in Worldcat. First edition of this "for Russia meaningful work" (ADB), of the first systematic survey of spas in tsarist Russia. The eleven maps, which were most probably engraved after Julius Klaproth (1783-1835) by Carl Mar show all spas of the Russian Empire, with special maps of lake Baikal, Caucasus, Urals, Siberia, Caspian region and others.
Alexander Nicolaus v. Scherer (in Russian Alexander Ivanovich) was a Russian chemist of German origin, member of Russian Science Academy since 1815. The author of the first original chemistry textbook, published in Russian ('Rukovodstvo k prepodavaniiu khimii', 1808). Founder and first director of Saint Petersburg Pharmaceutical Society (1818). Actively promoted the progressive 'oxygen' theory of Antoine Lavoisier and significantly contributed in the development of Russian chemistry nomenclature.
Graduated from Jena University in 1794 and worked in Germany for several years. In 1803 returned to Russia and worked as a professor in Dorpat University, later, as a professor of chemistry in Medical Surgery Academy, Mining Cadet Corps and other educational institutions in Saint Petersburg. Also he a member of Copenhagen and Erfurt Science Academies, scientific societies of Berlin, Gottingen, Erfurt, Brussels, Paris, Leipzig and others. Created numerous scientific works regarding chemistry, pharmacology and mineralogy. In 1819-22 published in Saint Petersburg chemist magazine "Allgemeine nordische Annalen der Chemie." Russian Brokhaus Encyclopaedia; Russian Biographic Dictionary/ed. Polovtsov; Catalogue of Russian National library.

 

72. SCOTLAND, Archibald
[Autograph Letter Signed “A. Scotland” to an Associate of the Mogul Steamship Company, Reporting on his Voyage up the Amur River with a Cargo of Coal, and Containing Interesting Information on the Russian Steamship Navigation on the Amur River and the Far East].

S.S. Ghazee, Japan Sea, 19 August 1893. Octavo (ca. 25x20 cm). 9 numbered leaves filled in on rectos. Brown ink on watermarked paper with the printed letterheads of the “Gellatley, Hankey, Sewell & Co., Antwerp” in the upper left corners, all crossed by the author of the letter. Mild fold marks, the first and the last leaves age toned, but overall a very good extensive letter.
Interesting extensive letter related to the early Russian-British trade and steam navigation on the Amur River. The letter was written by Archibald Scotland, the captain of the S.S. Ghazee (1883) of the Mogul Steamship Company Ltd. (Gellatly, Hankey & Co, London & Antwerp) during its commercial voyage to Nikolayevsk-on-Amur with a cargo of coal and 350 Chinese workers. Reporting on the Ghazee’s navigation up the river from the port of De-Kastri (the Strait of Tartary), Scotland gives a detailed account of the ship’s proceedings, difficulties of movement in shallow waters, operations of unloading cargo and people et al. Very interesting is his characteristics of his Russian business partners – the “Amur Trade & Steamship Company” founded a year earlier by local merchants M. G. Shevelev, A.M. Serebriakov and N.P. Makeev.
“Ghazee” was supposed to unload its cargo of coal in De-Kastri because shallow waters of the Amur Liman didn’t allow it to approach Nikolaevsk-on-Amur. However, due to the lack of lighters, the ship had to move up the river under constant risk of being stuck in the mud. The navigation was successful “to the surprise of all Nikolaevsk as the merchants declared in the local papers that the ship could not be handled in the sharp bends and narrow channels.” Scotland moved the Ghazee even further, up the narrow Palbo Creek and succeeded again “to the astonishment of all this District.” He gives a detailed description of the complicated operation of turning the ship down the river in order to navigate back, “you can judge their [the locals] consternation and surprise when they saw the Ghazee swung head down the river and on our arrival to Nikolaevsk they seem all staggered.”
Scotland leaves some important comments of the recently founded Amur River Trade & Steamship Company (1893): "There is only one company here the Amoor River Company [Amur River Steamship Partnership, founded in 1871], and they hold the monopoly of all the lighters and steamers in the place and naturally it is to their interest to see this New Amoor River Company a failure and they would not land the cargo for them so it drove this company to select Palbo for the Ghazee as she could get alongside the bank and discharge her cargo on shore. The old River Company were very much against me going to Palbo and put all the obstacles in the way they possibly could <...> they seemed rather spiteful as they would not bring a letter or telegram down for me to be posted. The merchants seemed rather pleased seeing the New Company making a show as they have to pay high freights for conveying their goods into the interior. This new company is under bond to commence running in May next which I hope they will be successful…"
"The Company is Mr. Sheveloff of Vladivostok and Mr. Mackeef is the Director <…>. It seems to me that Mr. Sheveloff wants another steamer as he only has the old Edendale running between Vladivostok and Nikolaevsk and another steamer called the Strelok which only carries about 350 tons on 13 feet, so I think that little Provincial of yours would be just the thing for him <…> I see there is several small steamers from Hamburg out here with cargo but it is only Russians can carry coasting cargo".
Mikhail Grigorievich Shevelev (1847-1903) was the founder of the first private Russian sea steamship company on the Far East, notable merchant, tea trader, sinologist and patron of arts. Born in Kyakhta, he graduated from the city school of Chinese founded by famous Russian sinologist Iakinf (Bichurin) and participated in the Russian Orthodox Church Mission in Bejing; he took active part in Russian-Chinese tea trade, in 1879 founded first private Russian sea steamship company on the Far East “Shevelev & Co.” which navigated between Nikolaevsk-on Amur-Vladivostok-Shanghai-Hankou. In 1893-1899 Shevelev and other Vladivostok merchants founded the “Amur River Trade & Steamship Company” which successfully operated three steamers. Shevelev was the first to start prospecting oil deposits on Sakhalin, became one of the founders of the Society of History of the Amur Region and the first honorary patron of the Eastern Institute in Vladivostok; organized first art exhibition in Vladivostok (1886).

 

73. TEMPLER, Charles Bertram, Major (1860-1931)
[Album of Twelve Original Watercolours of Ladakh, with a Later Watercolour View of Rochefort, France].

Ca. 1886. Oblong Folio (28x37,5 cm). 5 leaves. Thirteen watercolours mounted on recto and verso of the card album leaves, including eight larger ones, ca. 17,5x25 cm (7x10 in) or slightly smaller, and five smaller ones, ca. 12,5x17,5 cm (5x7 in). All watercolours captioned in ink on the lower margins of the album leaves, all but one are signed “CBT” and dated 1886 and 1909 in the lower left or right corners of the drawings. Manuscript title of the album on the first free endpaper “C.B. Templer. Octr. 1928. Exmouth. With sketches dating from 1886.” With a large cabinet portrait photo ca. 20x15,5 cm (7 ¾ x 6 in), captioned “Charles Johann” [?] in the right lower corner, mounted on the front pastedown. Period black half sheep with green pebble-grain cloth boards. Expertly rebacked in style, card mounts slightly age toned, otherwise a very good album.
An album of interesting watercolours of Ladakh (now a part of the Jammu and Kashmir State, India) executed by Major C.B. Templer of the Indian Army, 19th Regiment of Bengal Lancers (Fane’s Horse). He served in India in 1880-1893 and took part in the second Mirazai Expedition of 1891. During his service with the 19th Lancers Templer participated in the horse races and was the first holder of the Indian Grand National Trophy (Some reminiscences of Indian Sport// The Field, The Country Gentleman's Newspaper, Christmas 1922, p. 5). After the end of his career Templer lived in Execliff (Exmouth), actively travelled around Europe and also visited South Africa.
The album includes eleven accomplished watercolours made in Ladakh in 1886, during Templer's time in the Indian Army, including a view of “Leh, capital of Ladakh” with the Leh Palace in the centre and the Ladakh mountain range in the background, a panorama of a “Tartar Camp” near Ladakh with tents made of woolen blankets, portraits of a Buddhist Lama with the prayer wheel, Ladakh shepherd “Bipari, trader in sheep's wool,” and of a woman coolie. Five watercolours depict local animals, with expressive notes by Templer: “Ladakh Transport!! Yak, goat & sheep,” “Spiti Pony. Very hard, never shod!! Feet as hard as iron!!,” “Fighting Cock!,” “Watch dog - Guards the sheep, goats &c., protected by iron collars against Leopards, wolves &c.,” “Kyang – wild horse of Ladakh.” Another drawing shows the grave of Templer’s charger Sweetheart somewhere in the Ladakh hills, with a note: “She was with me for 18 years, was my Charger and won me eleven races!! She was perfection in every way!!” There is also a beautiful view of snow covered peaks of the Himalayas taken from the Narkanda mountain station near Simla. The last watercolour dated 1903 depicts a small bridge & stream at Rochefort, France. Overall a beautiful illustrative account on Ladakh.

 

74. TIMKOWSKI, [Egor Fedorovich] (1790-1875)
Voyage à Peking, à Travers la Mongolie en 1820 et 1821. Traduit du russe par M. N******, revu par M. J.-B. Eyriès. Publié avec des Corrections et des Notes par M. J. Klaproth [Travel to Peking, through Mongolia in 1820 and 1821].

Paris: Dondey-Dupré père et fils, 1827. First French Edition. Octavo, 2 vols in 1 & Folio Atlas. xii, 480; 459; 32 pp. Atlas with a lithographed title, a large folding map, a large folding plan of the Forbidden city in Peking, a folding plan of the Russian embassy in Peking, and eight other lithographed plates. Handsome period dark green gilt tooled quarter sheep with marbled boards. Atlas expertly rebacked to match, text with some occasional foxing, otherwise a very good set.
Russia had maintained a church and school in Beijing since 1728, and every ten years a Russian mission was dispatched to allow a personnel change. This mission was particularly important from a geographic perspective because of Timkowski's accuracy in mapping their journey through the Gobi desert. First French edition of the first fundamental Russian travel account to Mongolia and China with an accurate plan of the Forbidden City in Beijing, the first in a western work. Henze V p.327; Howgego 1800-1850, K15.
The author, Egor Fedorovich Timkowsky was a Russian diplomat and writer, a member of Russian Geographical Society since 1846. He was a nobleman who studied in Kievan Theological Academy and Moscow University. In 1820 was appointed as an escort of the Russian Orthodox mission to China. Timkowsky travelled for a year (August 1820-August 1821), spending 9 months in Peking (Beijing). His voyage resulted in fundamental research, published in 3 volumes on a special commission and at the expense of the Russian government. The book gave a comprehensive description of everyday life, economy, customs and manners, religion of Mongols; contained precious information about China and its capital, also about Eastern Turkestan, Tibet and Korea. Especially interesting are the accurate map of the route of the journey through the Gobi desert.
The book was considered very valuable and was quickly translated into German (1825-26), Dutch (1826), French (1827), English (1827) and Polish (1827-1828). For a long time it remained the main source about inner China and Mongolia.
A significant amount of valuable information about China was given to Timkowsky by the remarkable Russian sinologist, priest Iakinf (Bichurin), who served as a head of Russian Mission in Peking and was supposed to be replaced by the mission escorted by Timkowsky. For many years Iakinf studied Chinese language and history, translated Chinese chronicles into Russian and prepared first Russian-Chinese Dictionary. Russian Brokhaus Encyclopaedia; Russian Biographic Dictionary/ed. Polovtsov; Catalogue of Russian National library

 

75. TURNER, Samuel (1759-1802)
[Atlas Only] Ambassade au Thibet et au Boutan : contenant des détails très-curieux sur les moeurs, la religion, les productions et le commerce du Thibet, du Boutan, et des États voisins ; et une notice sur les événemens qui s'y sont passés jusqu'en 1793 [An Account of an Embassy to the Court of the Teshoo Lama, in Tibet; Containing a Narrative of a Journey Through Bootan, and Part of Tibet; To Which are Added, Views Taken on the spot, by Lieutenant Samuel Davis; and Observations Botanical, Mineralogical, and Medical, by Mr. Robert Saunders].

Paris: F. Buisson, 1800. First French Edition. Quarto. With fourteen copper engraved plates, two folding, and one folding copper engraved map. Publishers original pink stiff paper wrappers with a printed paper label on front cover. With some minor water staining, otherwise a very good copy in very original condition.
"Turner made this journey of the second Mission to Tibet at the instance of Warren Hastings in 1783. The route is the same as the first Mission by Bogle in 1774; Khochi Bihar-Bhuksa-Crossing the Bhutan Himalaya from Bhutan to Gyantse and Shigatse through the Chumbi Valley and Tang La" (Yakushi T277), Lust 208. "News having reach Calcutta in February 1782 of the reincarnation of the Tashilhunpo Grand Lama of Tibet in the person of a child, Warren Hastings proposed to dispatch a mission to Tibet to congratulate the lamaist regency and strengthen the relations established by George Bogle. Turner was appointed as leader of the mission..., he followed a similar route from Calcutta to that of Bogle, passing through Cooch Behar and then that of Alexander Hamilton to Punaka in Bhutan where Davis was turned back. After some delay in Bhutan, Turner reached the lamasery of Tashilhumpo, near Shigatse and returned to Patna in March 1784" (Howgego T74). "This is without comparison the most valuable work that has yet appeared on Thibet; but it is to be regretted that the author could not advance further into the country" (Pinkerton XVII; Cox I p.346).

 

76. VAMBERY, Arminius (1832-1913)
[Autograph Letter Signed; With: Autograph Note Signed "A. Vambéry" to Martin Wood, sometime Editor of "The Times of India" and the author of several books on India; With one original envelope addressed by Vambéry. [Embossed heading] Athenaeum Club, Pall Mall, [London], 10 and 11 July 1892 respectively].

London, 1892. Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm). Total four pages with one envelope with stamp. The letter, note and envelope are all in near fine condition.
[10 July, 3pp.] He reacts to a letter sent by Wood, saying "In political questions of high importance, as the Central Asiatic is, diversity of opinions is very natural, and I am not the least astonished of [sic] the quite opposite view you exhibit in your letters." He would like to show his respect for his views with a personal meeting, and asks him to suggest a time and place. [11 July, one page] He confirms their appointment to meet the following day at the Athenaeum. Note: Vambery, a friend of Bram Stoker's, is said to have been the model for Van Helsing, the vampire hunter in "Dracula."
"Vámbéry was especially attracted by the literature and culture of the Ottoman Empire including Turkey. By the age of twenty, Vámbéry had learned enough Ottoman Turkish to enable him to go, through the assistance of Baron Joseph Eötvös, to Constantinople and establish himself as a private tutor of European languages. He became a tutor in the house of Pasha Huseyin Daim, and, under the influence of his friend and instructor, Ahmet Efendi, became a full Osmanli, serving as secretary to Fuat Pasha. About this time he was elected a corresponding member of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences in recognition of his translations of Ottoman historians.
After spending about a year in Constantinople, he published a Turkish-German dictionary in 1858. Later, he also published various other linguistic works. He also learned some twenty other Ottoman languages and dialects. Returning to Budapest in 1861, he received a stipend of a thousand florins from the academy, and in the autumn of the same year, disguised as a Sunnite dervish, and under the name of Reshit Efendi, he set out from Constantinople. His route lay from Trebizond on the Black Sea to Tehran in Persia, where he joined a band of pilgrims returning from Mecca, spending several months with them traveling across Central Iran (Tabriz, Zanjan, and Kazvin). He then went to Shiraz, through Ispahan, and in June, 1863, he reached Khiva (Central Asia). Throughout this time, he succeeded in maintaining his disguise as "Reshit Efendi," so that upon his arrival at Khiva he managed to keep up appearances during interviews with the local khan. Together with his band of travelers, he then crossed Bokhara and arrived at Samarkand. Initially, he aroused the suspicions of the local ruler, who kept him in an audience for a full half-hour. Vámbéry managed to maintain his pretences, and left the audience laden with gifts. Upon leaving Samarkand, Vámbéry began making his way back to Constantinople, traveling by way of Herat. There he took leave of the band of dervishes and joined a caravan to Tehran, and from there, via Trebizond and Erzerum, to Constantinople, arriving there in March 1864.
This was the first journey of its kind undertaken by a Western European; and since it was necessary to avoid suspicion, Vámbéry could not take even fragmentary notes, except by stealth. He returned to Europe in 1864. That following June, he paid a visit to London, where he was treated as a celebrity because of his daring adventures and knowledge of languages. That same year, he published his Travels in Central Asia, based on the few, furtive notes he was able to make while traveling with the dervishes. Returning to Hungary, Vámbéry was appointed professor of Oriental languages at the University of Budapest in 1865, retiring in 1905" (Wikipedia).

 

77. WINTERBOTHAM, W[illiam] (1763-1829)
An Historical, Geographical and Philosophical View of the Chinese Empire; Comprehending a Description of the Fifteen Provinces of China, Chinese Tartary, Tributary States; Natural History of China; Government, Religion, Laws, Manners and Customs, Literature, Arts, Sciences, Manufactures, &c. To Which is Added a Copious Account of Lord Macartney's Embassy Compiled from Original Communications.

London: J. Ridgway, 1795. First Edition. Octavo. [x], 435; 114 pp. With a copper engraved folding map and seven other copper engravings on plates, one folding. Period brown gilt tooled polished full calf, re-backed in style with a black gilt label. A near fine copy.
An important account of China in that it gives an account of the Macartney Embassy three years before the official account by Staunton. "The account of the Macartney mission "Narrative of the Embassy to China," found in the second section, pp. 1-114, is apparently based on information from Aeneas Anderson" (China Illustrata II 688); Cordier Sinica 2392; Cox I p.344; Lust 79.

 






 
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