Africa & Near East Catalogue Exploration, Travel & Voyages

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1. [ADEN]
[Large Photograph Panorama of Steamer Point in Aden]

Ca. 1880. Albumen print panorama ca. 20x52 cm (7 ¾ x 20 ½ in), dissected in two parts and mounted on original card. With the photographer’s numbers (5, № 2, 6) written in negative on the lower margin. Pencil caption in German on the mount. A very good sharp panorama.
Interesting panoramic view of the Steamer Point (modern Tawahi) part of Aden, an important port of call and coaling station for the steamers following the routes to India or Africa through the Suez Canal. The photo shows the port with barracks and a coal station, and a number of vessels, including larger ships, in the harbour. A very good detailed panorama.
“On 19 January 1839, the British East India Company landed Royal Marines at Aden to occupy the territory and stop attacks by pirates against British shipping to India. The port lies about equidistant from the Suez Canal, Bombay (now Mumbai), and Zanzibar, which were all important British possessions. Aden had been an entrepôt and a way-station for seamen in the ancient world. There, supplies, particularly water, were replenished, so, in the mid-19th century, it became necessary to replenish coal and boiler water. Thus Aden acquired a coaling station at Steamer Point and Aden was to remain under British control until 1967” (Wikipedia).


[Unsigned Watercolour View of the Town and Harbour of Alexandria with Pompey's Pillar and the Attarine Mosque in the Foreground, Titled:] Alexandria, Egypt.

[Alexandria, Egypt, ca. 1870. Watercolour on paper ca. 23,5x33,5 cm (9 ¼ x 13 ¼ in). A very good watercolour, mounted in a recent mat.
This attractive bright watercolour by an unknown artist shows the town and harbour of Alexandria with Pompey's Pillar and the Attarine Mosque in the foreground. "Pompey's Pillar is a Roman triumphal column in Alexandria, Egypt, and the largest of its type constructed outside of the imperial capitals of Rome and Constantinople. The only known free-standing column in Roman Egypt which was not composed of drums, it is one of the largest ancient monoliths and one of the largest monolithic columns ever erected" (Wikipedia).


[French Folding Board Game Based on Jules Verne’s Novel “Around the World in Eighty Days”].

[France], ca. 1880. Colour lithograph ca. 48x54 cm, dissected into four parts and mounted on linen and pink papered cardboard. The playing surface with minor stains on extremities, otherwise a very good game.
This is a rare children’s board game based on the famous novel by Jules Verne “Around the World in 80 Days”. Published at the time of the novel’s height of fame in the last quarter of the 19th century, it beautifully depicts the adventurous story of Mr. Phileas Phogg’s renowned fictitious circumnavigation. The game consists of 80 fields illustrating each day of his journey. A globe lies in the center of the board to symbolize the fact that the game takes the participants around the world. A jungle scene surrounds the center globe and illuminates just a few of the wild and rare animals that Phileas would have encountered.
Exotic destinations such as the Suez Canal, “Pagode a Bombay”, Calcutta, Ganges, “Le Paquebot, Rangoom”, Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan, San Francisco, Chicago, and New York are only a few of the places traveled to within the course of the game. Scenes of many different kinds of people are also incorporated into the marvelous artwork of the game, i.e. Bedouins, Indian Raja, Brahman, “Procession de la Deesse Kali”, “Les Femmes Mormons”, attack of the train by Sioux, and even a Japanese antique dealer (“Chez le Brocanteur Japonais”).
Jules Verne’s novel has inspired many games such as this. Even modern board games, to which this would be a predecessor, such as Ticket to Ride Europe, and the 2004 board game 80 Days Around the World which won the 2005 German Game of the Year award.


[Drawing Heightened with Watercolour, Unsigned but Titled and Dated:] "Ascension 1847."

1847. Drawing ca. 21,5x30 cm (8 ½ x 12 in). Recently matted, the drawing is in very good condition.
This historically important sketch most likely shows Fort Cockburn, the main British military installation on the island at the time.
"Ascension Island is an isolated volcanic island in the equatorial waters of the South Atlantic Ocean, around 1,600 kilometres (1,000 mi) from the coast of Africa and 2,250 kilometres (1,400 mi) from the coast of South America, which is roughly midway between the horn of South America and Africa. It is governed as part of the British Overseas Territory of Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, of which the main island, Saint Helena, is around 1,300 kilometres (800 mi) to the southeast. The territory also includes the "remotest populated archipelago" on earth, the sparsely populated Tristan da Cunha archipelago, some thirty degrees farther south and about half the way to the Antarctic Circle. The location of the island made it a useful stopping-point for ships and communications. The Royal Navy used the island as a victualling station for ships, particularly those of the West Africa Squadron working against the slave trade. A garrison of Royal Marines was based at Ascension from 1823" (Wikipedia).


5. [BARNARD?], [Frederick Lamport]
[Manuscript Map of Central Madagascar].

Mar. 17 1848. Manuscript map ca. 32x41 cm (13 x 16 in). Original manuscript map in pen on bluish paper. Folded, slightly age-toned otherwise in very good condition.
This interesting and important map dated March 17th 1848 has the following note:"N.B. Antsianaka, Imerina, and Betsileo are the three most central provinces of Madagascar, and believed to be by far the most populous. 2. The country between the coast and the plateau of the interior is forest and very thinly inhabited."
Possibly drawn by Frederick Lamport Barnard (author of: 'A three years' cruize in the Mozambique Channel for the suppression of the slave trade'), this map of central Madagascar shows the areas of influence of the London Missionary Society, the Church Missionary Society and the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. The main cities, mountains and rivers are also drawn in as well as the unexplored areas.
This map of the main population centers of Madagascar was made during the "33-year reign of Queen Ranavalona I (Ranavalona the Cruel), the widow of Radama I, began inauspiciously with the queen murdering the dead king’s heir and other relatives. The aristocrats and sorcerers (who had lost influence under the liberal régime of the previous two Merina kings) re-asserted their power during the reign of Ranavalona I. The queen repudiated the treaties that Radama I had signed with Britain..., She issued a royal edict prohibiting the practice of Christianity in Madagascar, expelled British missionaries from the island, and persecuted Christian converts who would not renounce their religion. Christian customs are not the customs of our ancestors, she explained. The queen scrapped the legal reforms started by Andrianampoinimerina in favour of the old system of trial by ordeal" (Wikipedia).
"An ill-managed attack by combined British and French forces on Tamatave in 1846 led to the total exclusion of all Europeans, and foreign commerce almost ceased" (Howgego 1800-1850, M5).


[Album with Ninety-nine Original Photographs from Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, and Zanzibar].

Ca. 1920. Oblong Folio (ca. 25,5x35,5 cm). 99 gelatin silver prints ca. 9x14 cm (3 ½ x 5 ½ in) mounted on 12 stiff card leaves. White pencil captions on the mounts. Original green full cloth album by ‘Wallace Heaton Ltd, London’ (paper label on the rear pastedown). Spine with minor tears on head and tail, otherwise a very good album with strong bright images.
A very interesting photograph collection of the native peoples of Kenya and Uganda. The album contains a series of images of Masaii, Kikuyu and “Kavirondo” people: shepherds with cows, family groups, women with distinctive jewellery, children, views of native villages, agricultural works and social gatherings. The people of Uganda are represented by pictures of natives of Fort Portal and the Aholi people from the Kitgum district in North Uganda. There are some impressive portraits of warriors with decorated and painted bodies and armed with spears; images of natives surrounding the traveller’s car; photos of mothers with children and young girls et al. The album also includes a nice image of a ‘ship on lake Victoria Nyanza’, and two photos of the true source of the Nile – the Ripon Falls, nowadays submerged after the construction of the Owen Falls Dam in 1954. The album starts with a dozen scenic photos of Dar es Salaam (“New Africa Hotel”, marching soldiers on a street), Zanzibar (“Africa Hotel”) and Mombasa (picturesque street views), and six photos of the Kenyan savannah with zebras and giraffes.


[Three Original Watercolour Views of Cape Town].

Ca. 1820. Watercolours on paper, two ca. 16,5 x 24 cm (6 ½ x 9 ¼ in) and a double-page leaf ca. 16,5 x 47 cm (6 ½ x 18 ½ in). All unsigned, two with pencil captions on verso "Table Bay, Cape of Good Hope." Recently matted, very good watercolours.
The first watercolour is a view of Cape Town from the harbour, with Table Mountain, Lion’s Head, Signal Hill and numerous boats and schooners in the harbour. A light shroud of clouds, or so called “Table cloth” is seen over the Table Mountain, pencil captions are added above the landmarks (Signal Hill is captioned “Lion’s Rump”). The second watercolour shows Table Bay from above, with numerous ships in the harbour. The third watercolour is a beautiful close-up view of Cape Town with nice examples of Dutch Cape style buildings and a carriage with horses in the foreground.
The watercolours were made during one of the voyages of ‘Elphinstone’, and the artist was very likely the crew member, Lieutenant William Bowater (the sketch book was inscribed in ink with the initials 'W.B.' on the front endpaper). Bowater was later dismissed from the navy.
“On the 2nd of November, 1829, a court-martial, presided over by Captain R. Morgan, of the Marine, was convened at Bombay, to inquire into certain charges for “insubordinate and disrespectful conduct” on the part of Lieutenant W. Bowater, of the Hon. Company’s ship ‘Elphinstone’, preferred against him by his commanding officer, Captain F.W. Greer and that the sentence of the Court, which was dismissal from the service, was confirmed by the Commander-in-chief of the Bombay Army, Lieutenant-General Sir Sydney Beckwith, K.C.B” (Low, C.R. History of the Indian Navy. 2 vols. Vol. 1. London, 1877. P. 498-499).
The Honourable East India Company’s sloop-of war ‘Elphinstone’, of 18 guns and 387 tons, “was built by Hilhouse & Sons and launched in 1824. She operated out of London as an East Indiaman and participated with the Royal Navy in the New Zealand land wars. She was sold in 1862” (Wikipedia). The ‘Elphinstone’ sailed to the Mediterranean, around the southern tip of Africa and on to the East Indies and Australia.
As Richard Burton noted in ‘First footsteps in East Africa’, the sloop carried out a naval blockade of the Somalian coast in 1825-1833, after a British brig from the Mauritius had been seized, plundered and broken up near Berberah in 1825. “The ‘Elphinstone’ sloop of war (Capt. Greer commanding) was sent to blockade the coast; when her guns opened fire, the people fled with their wives and children, and the spot where a horseman was killed by a cannon ball is still shown on the plain near the town”. <…> Eventually “the Somal bound themselves to abstain from future attacks upon English vessels, and also to refund by annual statements the full amount of plundered property. For the purpose of enforcing the latter stipulation it was resolved that a vessel of war should remain upon the coast until the whole was liquidated. When attempts at evasion occurred, the traffic was stopped by sending all craft outside the guardship, and forbidding intercourse with the shore. The ‘Coote’, the ‘Palinus’ and the ‘Tigris’, in turn with the ‘Elphinstone’, maintained the blockade through the trading season till 1833 (Burton, R. First Footsteps in East Africa. London, 1856. P. xxxiv-xxxv).



"Conakry" La Perle de l'A.O.F., [Conakry, French Guinea Photograph Album with Sixty-Nine Photographs].
Ca. 1915. Oblong Folio (30x41 cm). Sixty-nine gelatin silver photographs mounted on forty-one leaves. Most photos ca. 17x23 cm (7x9 in) but some smaller and oval. Most images with the blind stamp of A. Deschacht, Conakry, Guinee Francaise. Period patterned beige cloth with gilt title on front cover. Cloth covers with repair and some loss of cloth but overall a very good album with strong and sharp images.
This historically interesting album of Conakry includes strong images of the port, the main streets and government and colonial buildings including the Grand Hotel, a church, Ballay hospital, the market, post office, the Railway Company of Niger, as well as a railway bridge, the ocean promenade, a lighthouse, the radio station and several other images of local and colonial buildings. Additionally there are several images of the native inhabitants as well as seven oval images of Guinean women. "Conakry became the capital of French Guinea in 1904 and prospered as an export port, particularly after a (now closed) railway to Kankan opened the large scale export of groundnut from the interior" (Wikipedia).


[Anonymous Very Large Photographic Panorama of Constantinople from the Tower of Galata in Six Parts].

Ca. 1880. Albumen print panorama ca. 26x198,5 cm (10 ¼ x 78 in). The panorama is in six parts and mounted on recent board. Overall a very good strong image.
This panorama is very similar to larger ones of the same period by Joaillier & Sebah, so it's possible that the present panorama is a smaller six part verson of their regular ten part panoramas of Constantinople. This panorama offers "a sweeping view of the city walls and seven towers, the great mosques of Sultan Ahmed and Santa Sophia, the 'Green Mosque' and Mosque of Oulon, the Golden Horn, tower of Galatea and the Bosphorus" (Christies).


10. [COUNEAU, E.]
A Madame Ernest Callot. Biskra. Quatorze Eaux-Fortes Gravées sur des Dessins Originaux. Souvenir d'une Excursion en Algérie [Mrs. Ernest Callot. Biskra. Fourteen Etchings Drawings Originals Engraved on a trip to Algeria].

1881. First Edition Author's Signed Presentation Copy. Folio. [iv] pp. With fourteen full page engravings. Original publisher's light brown printed paper wrappers. Spine renewed in style, otherwise a very good copy.
Very rare work as only one copy found in Worldcat. Inscribed by the author "Souvenir Amical a L'Auteur a M. Teiloz, La Rochelle le 30 Mars 1911 E. Couneau." The well executed engravings illustrate scenes around Biskra, "the capital city of Biskra province, Algeria.., During Roman times the town was called Vescera, though this may have been simply a Latin transliteration of the native name. Around 200 AD under Septimius Severus' reign, it was seized by the Romans and became part of the province of Numidia. As a major settlement in the border region, it was significant even then. Its name was apparently bowdlerized by the Romans to Ad Piscīnam ("at the piscīna"), implying the presence of important waterworks" (Wikipedia).


Bronze Commemorative Wood Framed Bust Plaque of David Livingstone.

Ca. 1873. 10 cm (4 inch) diameter bronze commemorative bust plaque of David Livingstone with a 2.5 cm (1 inch) period black wooden frame. David Livingstone 1813-1873 written in ink on verso. Frame with a crack, otherwise the plaque is in very good condition.
This well executed plaque is an excellent example of a commemorative souvenir produced immediately after Livingstone's death. "In death Livingstone became once more a national hero.., He was acclaimed once again as a great abolitionist: his numerous reports on the slavers' advance across Africa from the east coast were seen to have led to the treaty against the trade enforced on the sultan of Zanzibar in 1873.., Stanley had, of course, taken the lead in reviving Livingstone's celebrity and his book, How I Found Livingstone (1872), presented the traveller as a genial saint. Horace Waller, who had been with the UMCA at Magomero, fastidiously edited Livingstone's Last Journals (1874), a poignant testimony to soul-searching, suffering, forbearance, and tenacity. These books, and their derivatives, contributed to a Livingstone legend which had begun with Missionary Travels. There was a peculiar romance about the lone missionary ever pressing into new country, concerned not to convert but to bear Christian witness by preaching the gospel, giving magic-lantern shows, and speaking against slavery. Livingstone became a symbol of what the British—and other Europeans—wished to believe about their motives as they took over tropical Africa in the late nineteenth century: in effect he redeemed the colonial project." (Oxford DNB).


"The Life and Work of David Livingstone, Missionary and Explorer" - Complete Set of Forty Numbered Magic Lantern Slides.

London Missionary Society, ca. 1880. Forty numbered magic lantern slides ca. 8x8 cm (3x3 in) The slides in near fine condition and housed in a period brown wooden red felt lined box stamped “Ludgate Circus House - Lantern Dept.”
This complete set of forty numbered magic lantern slides (glass positives) includes images of Livingstone's early life, the routes of Livingstone's travels, his missionary travels, his crossing of Africa, Victoria Falls, the Zambesi Expedition, his last expedition including his meeting with Stanley and finally his death and memorial.


[Portrait Pencil Drawing of David Livingstone].

Ca. 1879. Pencil on Whatman paper, watermarked “1879”, ca. 30,5x24,5 cm (12 x 9 ¾ in). Ink caption on the lower margin “Docteur David Livingstone, Exploratéur de l’Afrique centrale," Additional pencil caption in the right lower corner “L’univers illustre, 28 sept. 1863”. Recently matted, near fine drawing.
Skillful pencil portrait of the famous African explorer David Livingstone (1813-1873).
“David Livingstone, often misspelled as Livingston, was a Scottish Congregationalist pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and an explorer in Africa. His meeting with H. M. Stanley gave rise to the popular quotation "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?"
Perhaps one of the most popular national heroes of the late 19th century in Victorian Britain, Livingstone had a mythic status, which operated on a number of interconnected levels: that of Protestant missionary martyr, that of working-class "rags to riches" inspirational story, that of scientific investigator and explorer, that of imperial reformer, anti-slavery crusader, and advocate of commercial empire.
His fame as an explorer helped drive forward the obsession with discovering the sources of the River Nile that formed the culmination of the classic period of European geographical discovery and colonial penetration of the African continent. At the same time his missionary travels, "disappearance" and death in Africa, and subsequent glorification as posthumous national hero in 1874 led to the founding of several major central African Christian missionary initiatives carried forward in the era of the European ‘Scramble for Africa’” (Wikipedia).


Emin Pasha Relief Expedition 1887-1889. [Doulton Lambeth Commemorative Stoneware Jug].

London: Doulton Lambeth, ca. 1890. Commemorative jug in fine condition; height ca. 20 cm (8 inches), glazed in light and dark brown, front relief decorated with a portrait of Stanley within a wreath of leaves with the motto 'Out of Darkness into Light' below, vignettes to either side with the words 'Valour' and 'Enterprise' respectively, each vignette with the names of three officers (Valour: W. C. Stairs, R. H. Nelson, T. H. Parke; Enterprise: E.M. Barttelot, W. Bonny, A.J. Mounteney-Jephson) who accompanied Stanley below. Numbered and stamped by manufacturer on base, Stock No: 147521.
This well executed jug is an excellent example of a commemorative souvenir produced immediately after the return of Henry Stanley from the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition 1887-1889.
"Shortly before Stanley left for a lecture tour of the United States in November 1886, Mackinnon suggested that he might lead another expedition to relieve Emin Pasha, the beleaguered governor of equatorial Sudan. On receiving a telegram from Mackinnon on 11 December 1886, Stanley interrupted his tour to return to Britain. Eduard Schnitzer, generally known as Emin Pasha, had appealed for help following the Mahdist uprising which engulfed General Gordon in 1885. Mackinnon, chairman of the British India Steam Navigation Company, led a campaign to raise funds for a relief expedition, with the support of various missionary, commercial, and geographical societies, as well as the Egyptian khedive..,
Although Stanley was widely acclaimed as a hero on his return to Britain, the Emin Pasha relief expedition was far from a success. From the start, as even Sidney Low's sympathetic portrait in the Dictionary of National Biography records, ‘it was hampered by divided aims and inconsistent purposes’. Others went further in their criticism, Sir William Harcourt describing it as one of those ‘filibustering expeditions in the mixed guise of commerce, religion, geography and imperialism, under which names any and every guise of atrocity is regarded as permissible’ (A. G. Gardiner, Life of Sir William Harcourt, 1923, 2.94). In addition to the ‘relief’ of the unwilling Pasha, Stanley had a number of other objectives, including the enhancement of the authority of both Leopold's Congo state in the west and Mackinnon's newly formed Imperial British East Africa Company in the east. More immediately, he had hoped to obtain Emin's valuable cache of ivory. His imperious manner alienated even the most loyal of his men, and several of the surviving members of the expedition and their relatives publicly contested Stanley's account of their ordeal. The strikingly bitter controversy over the fate of the rear column, especially after the publication of Barttelot's diaries in October 1890, raised questions not only about Stanley's leadership, but also about the wider purposes of the expedition. Leading figures in the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society and Aborigines Protection Society charged him with using slaves as porters, and complained that the expedition had in fact opened up new routes for slave traders. These various challenges to Stanley's version of events were gleefully reported in the press, and resulted in numerous attacks, both sober and satirical, such as Henry Fox-Bourne's The other Side of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition (1891) and Francis Burnand's A New Light Thrown across the Keep it Quite Darkest Africa (1891). While Stanley had many influential supporters, the multiplication of different accounts of the expedition undermined his reputation just at the moment he had hoped it would finally be secured" (Oxford DNB).


15. [FLAMENG, Leopold]
[Etching of Sir Richard Francis Burton (1821-1890) after a painting by Sir Frederick Leighton].

[1879]. Etching ca. 22x18 cm (8 ½ x 7 in). A near fine wide margined etching.
This rare etching is based on the portrait by "Frederic Leighton, Baron Leighton (1830-1896). This austere, ponderous and intense image of one of the great explorers of Victorian England captures his slightly brutal character very effectively. The artist Frederic Leighton met Burton in 1869 while they were taking a cure at Vichy and they formed a firm friendship which lasted until Burton's death. On 26 April 1872, Burton began sitting for his portrait. According to Lady Burton, he was extraordinarily difficult about it, anxious that his necktie and pin might be omitted and pleading with the artist, 'Don't make me ugly, there's a good fellow.' Apparently the portrait was left unfinished when Burton departed for Trieste in October 1872 and it was not completed until 1875. It was exhibited at the Royal Academy the following year, but it is possible that Burton did not like it, because Leighton kept it at his house in Kensington. He intended to leave it to the National Portrait Gallery, of which he was a Trustee, but forgot, so the then Director, Lionel Cust, arranged for it to be donated by Leighton's sisters" (National Portrait Gallery).
"Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton was a British geographer, explorer, translator, writer, soldier, orientalist, cartographer, ethnologist, spy, linguist, poet, fencer and diplomat. He was known for his travels and explorations within Asia, Africa and the Americas as well as his extraordinary knowledge of languages and cultures. According to one count, he spoke 29 European, Asian and African languages.
Burton's best-known achievements include travelling in disguise to Mecca, an unexpurgated translation of One Thousand and One Nights (also commonly called The Arabian Nights in English after Andrew Lang's abridgement), bringing the Kama Sutra to publication in English, and journeying with John Hanning Speke as the first Europeans led by Africa's greatest explorer guide, Sidi Mubarak Bombay, utilizing route information by Indian and Omani merchants who traded in the region, to visit the Great Lakes of Africa in search of the source of the Nile. Burton extensively criticized colonial policies (to the detriment of his career) in his works and letters. He was a prolific and erudite author and wrote numerous books and scholarly articles about subjects including human behaviour, travel, falconry, fencing, sexual practices and ethnography. A unique feature of his books is the copious footnotes and appendices containing remarkable observations and unexpurgated information" (Wikipedia).


[Album of a 140 Early Photographs of the French Congo Showing the Second Engineer Expedition under the Command of Captain Belle Conducting the Survey for the Construction of a Railway Between Loudima and Stanley Pool].

Ca. 1894-1895. Quarto (ca. 24x22 cm). 140 mounted gelatin silver prints mounted on 12 stiff card leaves, all but one ca. 6x8,5 cm (2 ¼ x 3 ¼ in), the last one ca. 11x8 cm (4 ½ x 3 ¼ in). Manuscript pencil title on verso of the front free endpaper and manuscript pencil captions under the photos. Period black full morocco with gilt tooled inner margins and marbled paper endpapers; all edges coloured. Near fine album with generally sharp images.
An important collection of interesting photographs documenting Captain Belle’s expedition from Mindouli to Brazzaville including several portraits of the expedition members, also shown surveying and taking topographical measurements; scenes from the camp, images of the expedition's progress along the route, and many ethnologically interesting images of native Bateke, Bakongo, Oubanghi and Okota peoples. Portraits of the expedition members and porters are followed by the images of native families, children, chained prisoners in Brazzaville, et al. There are also interesting images a small Congo steamer in Brazzaville. The album finishes with 18 interesting views of Petit Loango and Libreville (Gabon), showing the residence of the governor, house of the Société d’Etudes, the cathedral, waterfront panoramas, Béribis canoes et al.


CAMERANO, Lorenzo (1856-1917)

[Custom Made Collection of All Articles by Camerano (Five) from the Account of the Expedition of Prince Luigi Amedeo of Savoy, Duke of the Abruzzi, to the Ruwenzori Mountains]: Estratto Dal Volume I dell' Opera Il Ruwenzore Relazione Scientifiche. [Presentation Copy from the Author to the Last King of Italy, Vittorio Emanuele III, with the King's Book Plate].
[Milano]: [Ulrico Hoepli], 1908. Author's Presentation Copy to the Last King of Italy. Five special offprints bound together. First Editions. Quarto. 66, [2]; 7; 22, [2]; 10, [2]; 6, [2]; 35 pp. With thirteen photogravure plates. Period light brown gilt tooled quarter calf with green gilt lettered label, marbled boards and endpapers, and a silk bookmark. All original publisher’s wrappers bound in. Author’s presentation inscription on the half-title “A Sua Majesta Vittorio Emanuele III Ré d’Italia. Omaggio, Lorenzo Camerano”. The King’s bookplate on the first free endpaper, paper label of the King’s library on the bottom of the spine. Handsome copy in near fine condition.
This special bound collection includes five articles by a noted Italian zoologist Lorenzo Camerano who took part in the 1906 expedition to the Ruwenzori Mountains led by Prince Luigi Amedeo of Savoy, Duke of the Abruzzi. The set includes the offprints of all Camerano’s articles from the “Zoology” volume of the official account of the expedition (the official account was published in 3 vols. in total: the travel narrative and two volumes of scientific data “Relazioni scientifiche"; Milano, 1908). All the offprints are bound together in their original publisher's wrappers, and contain illustrated articles about the colobus and red-tailed monkeys, Ruwenzori leopard, Grant’s zebra, and African buffalo (with photos of skulls, horns and skins), as well as a detailed systematized list of insects of Uganda and the Ruwenzori.
The set was presented by Camerano to the Italian King Vittorio Emmanuele III (who also was a cousin of Prince Luigi Amadeo of Savoy).
"An account of the expedition of H.R.H. Prince Luigi Amadeo of Savoy, Duke of the Abruzzi. Classic reference work on this tropical range; the expedition succeeded in climbing all the principal peaks" (Neate F27). “The second of the Duke's major expeditions. The Ruwenzori, Ptolemy's 'Mountain of the Moon', had never been seriously attempted before this remarkable expedition made the first ascents of this mountain group in central Africa between Lake Albert and Lake Edward on the boundary between Uganda and Zaire. With the rare second and third volumes of scientific data” (Howgego, Continental Exploration 1850-1940, F11).
Lorenzo Camerano was an Italian herpetologist and entomologist. He was a professor of zoology and anatomy in Cagliari and Turin Universities, chancellor of the University of Turin (1907-1910), Italian senator (elected in 1909), and the president of the Italian Alpine Club (1910-1916).


[Album with Forty-eight Rare Early Photographs of German South West Africa Including Images of its First Major Railway, Views of Swakopmund and Windhoek, and Portraits of Native People].

Ca. 1890-1900s. Oblong Quarto (ca. 18x25 cm). 48 gelatin silver prints, ca. 11,5x16,5 cm (4 ½ x 6 ½ in) mounted on 25 stiff card leaves. All images with period ink captions in German on the mounts; with three ink stamps of “Deutsche Kolonial Kriegerbund” on the leaves. Period green cloth album, neatly repaired on the spine. With two images apparently removed from the album, mounts soiled, some images faded and a photo of Habis with minor damage on the image, but overall a very good album.
Important collection of early images of the Staatsbahn (State Railway) – the first major railway in German South West Africa (Namibia) which was built by the German Colonial Authority in 1897-1902 and connected Swakopmund and Windhoek. The album contains good images of almost all Staatsbahn stations located between Swakopmund and Karibib (a city half way between Swakopmund and Windhoek). The images start with a view of the rails in the landing area of Swakopmund, and then show the stations of Richthofen, Rössing, Khan, Wellwitsch, Jakalswater, Sphinx, Dorstrivier, Kubas, Abbadis, Habis and Karibib. Most of the stations are finished, and the Karibib station is shown both completed and while still under construction. Another historically significant image shows a German freight train (Güterzug) and its crew, together with railway officials. There is also a photo of the steel railway bridge near Kubas.
Other interesting images include a portrait of Theodor Gotthilf Leutwein (1849-1921), the governor of German South West Africa in 1898-1904, photographed on verandah of his residence; a quarry near Swakopmund equipped with special machines; an ox wagon with German settlers and their native servants; several views of Windhoek, including those of a Christian mission and military barracks; a great photo of the Swakopmund bank, et al. There are also several group portraits of native people, including Bushmen and other tribes, and a specially arranged photo of a native woman shaking a German photographer, with his photo camera next to them. Curiously, a sign mounted on a pole nearby says: “Photographie von E. Hecker”.


A Pair of Attractive Historically Important Watercolour Views: "Angra Pequena (Lüderitzbucht) von der Höhe der Nautilus Spitze gesehen" [Angra Pequena (Lüderitz) Viewed from the top of the Nautilus Peak]; [With] "Blick von den Höhen östlich von Angra Pequena auf das Flugsandgebiet und die Berge östlich desselben. [View from the Heights east of Angra Pequena..,]."

Ca. 1884. Two watercolours each ca. 19,5x44 cm (7 ½ x 17 ½ in) Mounted on stiff card with manuscript titles on mounts. Mounts lightly dust soiled, otherwise two very good watercolours.
These two historically important views are most likely some of first views of the German occupation of Namibia. The first view shows the bay (Lüderitzbucht) with a cross (Magellan Cross) on the hill in the foreground with several barracks shown below which are most likely Fort Vogelsang. The second view shows the dune landscape of the area looking into the interior. "On 16 November 1882 a German merchant from Bremen, Adolf Lüderitz, requested protection for a station that he planned to build in South-West Africa, from Chancellor Bismarck. Once this was granted, his employee Heinrich Vogelsang purchased land from a native chief and established a city at Angra Pequena which was renamed Lüderitz. On 24 April 1884, he placed the area under the protection of Imperial Germany to deter British encroachment. In early 1884, the Kaiserliche Marine ship SMS Nautilus visited to review the situation. A favourable report from the government, and acquiescence from the British, resulted in a visit from the SMS Leipzig and SMS Elisabeth. The German flag was finally raised in South-West Africa on 7 August 1884. The German claims on this land were confirmed during the Conference of Berlin" (Wikipedia).


Major General Charles George Gordon. C.B. R.E. Hero of Khartoum.

London: Marlborough, Gould and Co. Publishers, ca. 1880. Lithograph, printed image ca. 49x32,5 cm (17x13 in). Proof copies 5 s. Each. Tears and minor losses on extremities, otherwise a very good wide margined lithograph.
Large well executed lithograph portrait of Major-General Charles George Gordon, CB (1833-1885), known as Chinese Gordon, Gordon Pasha, and Gordon of Khartoum. "It may not be out of place to mention that by far the best portrait of General Gordon , to our mind, is a large lithograph published by Marlborough and Co., 52, old Bailey, London, and within reach of all purses" (General Gordon’s life and letters // Littell’s The Living Age. Fifth Series, Vol. 1. Boston, 1885. P. 465).
"Major-General Charles George Gordon, was a British army officer and administrator. He made his military reputation in China, where he was placed in command of the "Ever Victorious Army", a force of Chinese soldiers led by European officers. In the early 1860s, Gordon and his men were instrumental in putting down the Taiping Rebellion, regularly defeating much larger forces. For these accomplishments, he was given the nickname "Chinese" Gordon and honours from both the Emperor of China and the British.
He entered the service of the Khedive in 1873 (with British government approval) and later became the Governor-General of the Sudan, where he did much to suppress revolts and the slave trade. When a serious revolt broke out in the Sudan, led by a Muslim reformer and self-proclaimed Mahdi, Muhammad Ahmad, Gordon was sent to Khartoum with instructions to secure the evacuation of loyal soldiers and civilians, and depart with them. After evacuating about 2,500 British civilians he retained a smaller group of soldiers and non-military men. As an ardent Christian evangelist he was determined to stand up to the Mahdi, his Muslim nemesis. In the build up to battle the two leaders corresponded attempting to convert the other to their respective faiths, but neither would comply. Besieged by the Mahdi's forces, Gordon organized a city-wide defence lasting almost a year that gained him the admiration of the British public, though not the government, which had not wished to become involved (as Gordon had known before setting out). Only when public pressure to act had become too great was a relief force reluctantly sent. It arrived two days after the city had fallen and Gordon had been beheaded" (Wikipedia).


"Voyage du Korrigan 1885. Grece, Turquie" [Album of 124 Photographs of Greece and Turkey].

1885. Large Oblong Folio (33x49 cm). 124 albumen photographs mounted on 83 stiff card leaves. Larger photographs 21x26 cm (8 ½ x 10 ½ in) and smaller ones 14 ½ x 10 ½ cm (6x4 in). Photographs captioned in French in manuscript on mounts. Many additionally captioned in negative and many of the Turkish ones signed P. Sebah in negative. Period black half morocco with black pebbled boards, gilt titled on front cover. Extremities slightly rubbed but overall a very good album of generally good strong images.
This large and impressive album of a Mediterranean voyage on the schooner "Korrigan II" owned by Pierre-Augustin-Joseph de Montaigu includes beautiful views, portraits and archeological finds from Greece and Turkey including images from Athens (16), Greeks in local costumes (8), Greek archeological finds (17), Argos, Kalabaka (9), Trikkala, Constantinople and environs (27), Turks in local costume (42) etc.
Many of the Turkish images are from the photographic firm started in Constantinople in 1857 by Pascal Sebah (1823-1886) which "was one of the most prolific studios in the Orient in the 19th century" (Jacobsen p 269-70). "Sebah's photographs of the period are among the best productions by a commercial photographer, and no doubt the silver medal he won at the Exposition Universelle of 1878 for his highly praised Egyptian photographs was well deserved" (Perez p.222).


[Album of Twenty-three Original Photographs of Eastern Ethiopia from Dire Dawa to Harar by Unidentified Photographer but most Likely the British Consul in Harar].

Ca. 1910. Oblong Quarto. 28 leaves. With 23 gelatin silver print photographs, each ca. 9x14 cm (3 ½ x 5 ½ in). Period brown gilt tooled half morocco with brown cloth boards. A very good album
The strong images of this album show Eastern Ethiopia from Dire Dawa to Harar and include the "Head of the Pass to Dire Dawa, "Lake Haramaya," "A Road" [to Harar], "Huts," camels and herders, and eighteen views of Harar including panoramas, "town from N.E., "West Gate," market scenes, British official on horseback (Consul?), sporting a pith helmet and uniform (likely the compiler of the album) and "Consular Hut from West." "Harar lost some of its commercial importance with the creation of the Addis Ababa - Djibouti Railway, initially intended to run via the city but diverted north of the mountains between Harar and the Awash River to save money. As a result of this, Dire Dawa was founded in 1902 as New Harar" (Wikipedia). This is a rare early and interesting photo documentation of the until about 1875 "Forbidden City" of Harar.


[Portrait Pencil Drawing of Henry Morton Stanley].

Ca. 1879-1880. Pencil on paper, ca. 32x24,5 cm (12 ½ x 9 ¾ in). Ink caption on the lower margin “H. M. Stanley, Voyageur anglais, Ne a Denbigh in 1840, Envoyé a la recherche de Livingstone en 1871, aussi connu sous le nom de John Rowland and Henry Moreton”. Artist’s [?] ink initials in the right lower corner. Recently matted, near fine drawing.
Unusual pencil portrait of Sir Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904), most likely executed for ‘L’Univers Illustré’, a popular French weekly illustrated magazine (Paris, 1858-1900). Stanley is shown up to the waist, almost in profile, sitting and supporting his head with his hand.
“Sir Henry Morton Stanley, GCB, born John Rowlands, Kongo byname Bula Matari (“Breaker of Rocks”), was a Welsh American journalist and explorer famous for his exploration of central Africa and his search for Scottish missionary and explorer David Livingstone. Upon finding Livingstone, Stanley allegedly uttered the now-famous greeting, "Dr. Livingstone, I presume?" Stanley is also known for his discoveries in and development of the Congo region. He was knighted in 1899” (Wikipedia).


LIND, J[ames] (1736-1812)

[Original Sepia and Ink Watercolour View of Anjouan Island in the Indian Ocean, Titled on Verso:] Island of Johanna from the Anchoring Ground May 1766. Signed in ink "J. Lind Delit" in the lower right corner.
1766. Mounted on larger sheet of laid paper with a hand coloured border ca. 13,5x29 cm (5 ½ x 11 ½ in). Recently matted, with a small minor stain on right upper margin, otherwise a very good watercolour.
This early and historically important watercolour shows a view of a settlement and its harbour with two native boats. Anjouan which also known as Ndzuwani or Nzwani, and historically as Johanna is an autonomous island, part of the Union of Comoros. The island is located in the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Mutsamudu which is most likely the settlement shown in the watercolour.
The artist was a physician, who "went out as surgeon in an East Indiaman in 1766 and visited China. In 1768 he graduated MD at Edinburgh, and his inaugural dissertation, on a fever in Bengal in 1762, was published at Edinburgh in 1768..., Thomas Pennant was indebted to Lind for the true latitude of Islay, and for a beautiful map of the isle, from which he derived his measurements (Tour to the Hebrides, 1790, 262). Lind accompanied Joseph Banks on his voyage to Iceland, in 1772. He reported several astronomical observations to the Royal Society, London, and a paper by him was read there in 1775.., In 1792 Joseph Banks recommended Lind as a useful member of Lord Macartney's embassy to the emperor of China" (Oxford DNB).


[Album with 72 Original Photographs of French Colonial Madagascar Showing Vivid Street Scenes in Antsiranana, Military Manouevres, Portraits of French Military Officers and Malagasy Nobility et al].

Madagascar, ca. 1896-1904. Oblong Quarto (ca. 19x26,5 cm). 25 stiff card leaves. With seventy-one mounted gelatin silver prints and one large cyanotype photograph. Images of different sizes including twenty-six large images ca. 12x27 cm (4 ¾ x 6 ¾ in), thirty-six small photos ca. 6x9 cm (2 ½ x 3 ½ in) and other images with measurements in between. The vast majority of images with detailed manuscript ink or pencil captions on the album mounts. With a carte-de-visite of ‘J. Niochet’ and a mounted newspaper clipping showing a native man. Period brown pebbled cloth album with decorative endpapers, neatly rebacked. Covers mildly rubbed at extremities, rear joint cracked but holding, some images slightly faded, but overall a very good album.
A very interesting photograph album illustrating the establishment of French colonial rule in Madagascar, with important images of French military forces and infrastructure, civil colonists and local nobility. Madagascar was proclaimed a French protectorate in 1885; local resistance led to the French military invasion of the country and capture of Antananarivo in September 1895. The earliest images from our photograph collection are dated June-July 1896, and thus relate to the time of establishment of French colonial rule in Madagascar, which was officially declared a French colony on August 6, 1896.
The album’s compiler was most likely J. Niochet (his carte-de-visite is mounted opposite his probable portrait on the first page of the album), who was according to the annual guide to French Madagascar, a 1st class administrative officer in the Particular Staff of the Colonial Artillery (État-Major Particulier de l’Artillerie Coloniale) in Tananarivo (Antananarivo) (Guide-Annuaire de Madagascar et Dependancies. Annee 1905. Tananarive, 1905. p. 53).
The images concentrate on northwestern Madagascar with the administrative centre in the port city of Antsiranana (named in the album "Antsirane" or "Diego-Suarez"). The images include several city panoramas, views of its harbour, governor’s house, prison, several street views (Rue de la Republique), native quarters et al.
Interesting images of the French military forces include pictures of the lodgings of Lieut.-Col. Brun, the Chief Commander of French troops in the city (dated July 1896); images of the officer’s house and soldiers’ barracks, two views of the ‘Ambohe’marine’ showing the post of ‘Sakalaves’ (Sakalava) sharpshooters, and a scene of military manoeuvres with ‘Malgaches’ (Malagasy) shooters attacking a command fort. Another image shows a group of officers and native soldiers with a cannon.
A large image shows the departure of a military mission to Tananarive, pointing to ‘explorateur Mr. Grandin’ on horse, and ‘Mr. Grosnier en filanzane’ (a type of Madagascar palanquin). The ‘explorateur’ was apparently Léonce Grandin, a French writer and adventurer who shortly after published "Les Français à Madagascar" (Paris, 1896).
There is also a very curious photograph showing Chinese workers building a Decauville railroad in Madagascar. This was a pioneer company in French industrial railroads - "Decauville's major innovation was the use of ready-made sections of light, narrow gauge track fastened to steel sleepers; this track was portable and could be disassembled and transported very easily <..,> The French military became interested in the Decauville system as early as 1888 and chose the 600 mm (1 ft 11 5⁄8 in) gauge track to equip its strongholds and to carry artillery pieces and ammunition during military campaigns. Decauville track was used during the French military expeditions to Madagascar and Morocco" (Wikipedia).
The collection also contains several portraits, including that of the queen and the princess of Nosy Be Island (this island off northwest coast of Madagascar became French protectorate in 1885); and three portraits of young Nosy Be girls.
Additionally there are several group and individual portraits of French military officers posing in the interiors of their quarters or outside, with families, on leisure walk or hikes, drinking with friends; while constructing a house; one group portrait shows them with two natives, while everybody is holding a shovel, a pick or a broom. Several images show a local settler and owner of coffee plantations in the Ambre Mountains near Antsiranana Antoine Mogenet, posing on his farm, with wife and daughter et al. Mogenet founded his plantation in 1893 and was the president of the ‘Comice agricole de Diego-Suarez’ in 1905 (Guide-Annuaire de Madagascar, p. 346).
Other images show forest scenery (Rivière des Caïmans), anchorage of boats in the Baie de Tamatave (Toamasina, east coast of Madagascar), villages, wells and local water carriers, carriages with bulls, a native hairdresser, Malagasy dances et al.


[Original Drawing of Nosy Ankarea Island, Madagascar].

Ca. 1840. Pencil on paper, heightened in white and colours, ca. 30,5x47 cm (12 x 18 ½ in). Mounted on larger sheet of card, ca. 39x56 cm (15 ½ x 21 ¾ in). Captioned in pencil "anKarea" in the left lower corner. Minor staining on blank margins, otherwise a very good drawing.
This detailed and nicely executed drawing represents a small pristine island in the Indian Ocean, known as a place of worship by the local people. The view was most likely taken from a ship and shows Nosy Ankarea’s steep rock (219 m), a small camp of tents, a group of local people and a canoe on the beach, and a boat with sailors going to shore.

[Album of Forty-one Photographs of Madeira, Gibraltar, Alger, Genoa, Monte Carlo, & Nice].

Ca. 1890. Oblong Folio (29x41 cm). Forty-one photographs (38 albumen prints, including one folding panorama; and three photochrom photos) mounted on 25 stiff card leaves. Most photographs 18x24 cm (7 x 9 ½ in). Some images captioned and signed in negative. Period pebbled black cloth boards, recently rebacked in period style brown gilt tooled quarter morocco. Panorama slightly creased but otherwise a very good album with strong sharp images.
This large attractive album has strong images which include views of Funchal (10); Gibraltar (2); Algiers (12), Genoa (4); Monte Carlo - Monaco (7); Nice (6). The large folding panorama is of Gibraltar. Images signed by the following photographers are included: Perestrello, Leroux, Noack, Brogi, G. J. And J. Giletta. Alexandre Leroux (1836-1912) became established in Algiers in the early 1870s. "He won a silver medal at the 1889 International exhibition of Photography" (Jacobsen p.251).


[Original Watercolour Panorama of Mombasa].

Ca. 1880. Watercolour and ink on paper, ca. 11,5x29,5 cm (5 ½ x11 ½ in). Mounted on period beige laid paper and recently matted. Captioned in ink "Mombasa through the Glass from the Anchorage" in the left lower corner; additional ink caption on the laid paper "Mombasa - a town on the coast north from Zanzibar." Minor creases on the left corners, with a minor stain, otherwise a very good watercolour.
A tranquil view of Mombasa, likely just before the time when it came under the administration of the British East Africa Association.


[Large Photograph Panorama of Lourenco Marques (Maputo), Portuguese East Africa].

Ca. 1900. Gelatin silver print panorama ca. 14,5x67 cm (5 ¾ x 26 ¼ in), in three parts and mounted in a recent mat. The prints are sharp impressions. With one small repaired tear and a couple of minor creases, otherwise a very good panorama.
This detailed panorama shows Lourenco Marques (Maputo) from Maputo Bay. "In the early 20th century, with a well equipped seaport, with piers, quays, landing sheds and electric cranes, enabling large vessels to discharge cargoes direct into the railway trucks, Lourenço Marques developed under Portuguese rule and achieved great importance as a lively cosmopolitan city. It was served by British, Portuguese, and German liners, and the majority of its imported goods were shipped at Southampton, Lisbon, and Hamburg" (Wikipedia).


DEGIDI [?], C.
[Mariner’s Artwork, with Manuscript Notes and Poems, and Seven Pencil Sketches, Including a View of Longwood House, Napoleon's Home-in-exile on St Helena].

May 1851. Seven pencil sketches and eight works of poetry on album leaf, ca. 21,5x26,5 cm (8 ½ x 10 ½ in). Signed and dated in ink in the lower margin. Recently matted, and in very good condition.
Album sheet with seven pencil sketches of a mariner’s life including one of Longwood House, Napoleon's home-in-exile on St Helena. The drawings are supplemented with eight stanzas of poetry in German, and a note stating that the sketches were made by a sailor in May 1851 while on board the Prussian bark Mercur (1833). The ship was built in East Prussia and made a series of voyages along the Western coast of Africa and to Brazil, visiting Cape Verde Islands, Bahia and Rio de Janeiro in 1850-52; it was eventually sold to Norwegians in 1854.
“Longwood House was the residence of Napoleon Bonaparte, during his exile on the island of Saint Helena, from 10 December 1815 until his death on 5 May 1821. It lies on a windswept plain some 6 km (3.7 mi) from Jamestown.
Following Napoleon's death, Longwood House reverted to the East India Company and later to the Crown, and was used for agricultural purposes. Reports of its neglect reached Napoleon III who, from 1854, negotiated with the British Government for its transfer to France. In 1858 it was transferred to the French Government along with the Valley of the Tomb for a sum of £7,100. Since then they have been under the control of the French Foreign Ministry and a French Government representative has lived on the island and has been responsible for managing both properties” (Wikipedia).


[Original Untitled Watercolour prepared for the “Graphic”, Titled]: "Combating the Difficulties of a new Route to Kumassi."

1 July 1899. Grisaille watercolour on cardboard, heightened in white, ca. 16x22 cm (ca. 6 ¼ x 8 ½ in), within hand drawn ink frame. Signed “F.C.D.” in watercolour in the left lower corner. Ink stamp “1 Jul 99” on verso. Mounted in a recent mat, overall a very good watercolour.
This captivating watercolour was published in “The Graphic” (# 1544, 1 July 1899, p. 8), as one of the four illustrations to "Railway enterprise in West Africa: With a surveying expedition to Kumassi”. The scene shows a European explorer on his way through the deep jungle of the “Dark” Africa, knee-deep in black mud and armed with a sword and a revolver. His white military uniform and pith helmet are shown in strong contrast with almost naked native porters, who are carrying heavy expedition supplies, including a surveyor's distance wheel.
The explorer shown was British railway engineer Frederic Shelford (1871-1943), who undertook the very difficult task of surveying the previously impenetrable jungle of the Gold Coast (Southern Ghana) for the prospective railroad from the gold mines of Tarkwa to Kumasi.
“The Graphic” described his expedition in these words: “We reproduce this week some sketches by Mr. Frederick Shelford, who has made many trips to some most outlandish parts of the African and American continents for the Colonial Office, seeking for desirable routes for the construction of light railways to open up and render accessible some of our beautiful and fertile, but very remote tropical possessions. <…> The sketches refer to Mr. Shelford’s latest exploration – namely, through the great West African forest belt to Kumassi, not by one of the well-known routes from the coast to the capital of Ashanti, but in a bee line from the Turkwa Gold Mines through unknown country, a journey involving a five weeks’ tramp of 360 miles. There being no road, and no native being found capable of guiding the expedition, Mr. Shelford had to pick his way through the forest by compass and such information as the few natives encountered were able to afford, and was compelled to follow bush hunters’ tracks densely overgrown and frequently knee deep in water and black, oozy mud.
Kumassi, so long a thorn in the side of Great Britain, was found now to be a smart up-to-date military station, with the only draw-back that a three-shilling bag of rice costs twenty-five shillings more to get there. There is a large fort, from which centre of the whole country for many scores of miles in every direction is administered by the British Resident, a post now ably filled by Captain Donald Stewart, C.M.G. <…> Mr. Shelford was accompanied during this trip by Dr. J.C. Matthews and sixty carriers” (# 1544, 1 July 1899, p. 7).


MONRO, Vere, Reverend (1801/2-1842)
[Two Autograph Letters Signed “V. Monro” to the Rev. John Richard Errington Talking about Monro’s travels from Constantinople to Belgrade and Various Private Matters].

N.p., n.d. (postal stamp “Sept, 1836[?]”), and Breding Priory, 2 January 1837. Two letters Quarto (ca. 23x18,5 cm or 8 ¾ x 7 ¼ in), each four pages. Brown ink on Whatman paper, watermarked “1834” and “1835” respectively. Both letters addressed, sealed and with the postal stamps on the 4th page. Fold marks, minor tears on folds neatly repaired, minor holes on the 4th pages after opening, but otherwise very good letters with legible text and important content.
Two autograph signed letters by Reverend Vere Monro, a traveller to the Near East and author of "A Summer Ramble in Syria, with a Tartar trip from Aleppo to Stamboul" (2 vols., London, 1835). Addressed to his friend Reverend John Richard Errington (1808-1882), Monro informs him about his new project – to write an account of his travel to Asia Minor – and asks Errington’s help in it: “I am just new employed in working up my Tartar journey from Constantinople to Belgrade, & very much want some local information about the places through which our route lay. These are chiefly Adrianople - Sophia - Nyssa Phillippopoli. The late history of Nyssa the capital of Servia [sic!] must be specially interesting, from the monuments of slaughter still extant near the town. I conclude the Xtians have always been in a state of rebellion there against the Turkish government. Georgio Milosch is their chief. If you chance to be idling about the Musee you might hit upon some book containing information about these countries, or you may perhaps learn from some quarter what are the books to apply to for information of which I am at present entirely ignorant & without some local aid, I fear I shall break down. Pray let me hear from you shortly & say if you can help me”.
Monro also notes his new assignment as a contributing author of the “Bentley’s Miscellany” magazine: “Bentley applied to me not long since, to write for his Miscellany which comes out this month. I am not clear that the subject I have chosen will suit it, but if not I think it may be disposed of elsewhere”. He gives a positive feedback on the Errington’s “paper upon the Vase [?]” which “will be very useful to me as the subject is an interesting [one] & some knowledge of their formation indispensable”; remarks on the situation in France calling Louis Philippe “a wretched being”; tries to arrange Errington’s visit to Breding and discusses the latest social news.
“Vere Monro entered University College, Oxford in 1819 and graduated B.A in 1823 and M.A in 1826. He was ordained in 1825 and in 1826 was appointed curate of Stokesley, Diocese of York” (Wikipedia). After that he extensively travelled in the Near East and upon return became curate of Upper Beeding (1834). The account of his travels was published by Richard Bentley in 1835 under the title “A Ramble in Syria, with a Tartar trip from Aleppe to Stamboul”. Extracts from his manuscript journal were also published in J.A. St. John’s book “Egypt and Mohammed Ali” (2 vols., London, 1834) which was dedicated to Monro: first about Monro’s confinement in the Lazzaretto of Alexandria during the quarantine period (vol. 1, pp. 535-542) and second about the Temple of Kalabsha (pp. 550-552).
Reverend John Richard Errington was a vicar in Ashbourne, Derbyshire, a member of the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures and Commerce (1859) and the National Society for promoting education of the poor.


[Album with Ninety-seven Early Photographs of Northern Nigeria Including Images from Trenchard’s 1907 Expedition with some of the Earliest Images of the Tiv (Munshi) People].

Ca. 1901-1906. Oblong Quarto (ca. 24x31 cm). 67 gelatin silver prints ca. 8x10,5 cm (3 ¼ x 4 in) or slightly bigger or smaller mounted on 21 stiff card leaves. Manuscript ink title on the first mount, and several manuscript captions at the beginning of the album. Leaves all edges gilt, rebacked recently in red strait grained half morocco with gilt tooled spine and moiré endpapers using the original boards. Images with different degrees of fading, but overall still a very good album.
Important Interesting collection of early photos of Northern Nigeria taken shortly after the British Northern Nigeria Protectorate (1900-1914) had been established. The most interesting images relate to Lieutenant-Colonel Hugh Trenchard’s expedition to the interior (1907-1908) during which he became the first white man to come into contact with the Tiv (Munshi) people. The images show the expedition’s heavily loaded native carriers crossing a village, a river, a grassy plain; several images showing the process of building a bridge in Nigerian wilderness. Photos captioned ‘Munchis’ some of the earliest images of the Tiv people. Other images include scenes of public sport competitions in Lokoja (1902), portraits of native dancers in masks, interesting shots documenting the stages of native house construction, a photo of a white man being carried by natives in a palanquin, et al.
“The Tiv are the 4th largest ethnic group in Nigeria.., The Tiv came into contact with European culture during the colonial period. During November 1907 to spring 1908, an expedition of the Southern Nigeria Regiment led by Lieutenant-Colonel Hugh Trenchard came into contact with the Tiv. The expedition consisted of only four officers, an interpreter, 25 men and three machine guns. Trenchard brought gifts for the tribal chiefs. Subsequently, roads were built and trade links established between Europeans and the Tiv” (Wikipedia).


[Attributed to MAYER , Luigi] (1755-1803)
[Watercolour View of Temple Ruins in the Ottoman Empire, most Likely in Egypt].

Ca. 1780-1790. Watercolour on paper, ca. 10x17 cm (4 x 6 ¾ in). Pencil sketch of antique columns on verso. Recently matted, very good watercolour.
Attractive watercolour sketch of temple ruins attributed (in pencil note on verso) to the renowned master of Middle Eastern landscapes Luigi Mayer. This sketch continues Mayer’s tradition of showing picturesque ruins, as shown in his works: “Views in Egypt…” (1801), “Views in the Ottoman Dominions” (1810), and “Interesting views in Turkey” (1819). Our watercolour, apparently made during his travels across the Middle East with Sir Robert Ainslie (1729/30-1812), shows ruins of a temple with a massive Egyptian style column and outlines of the bas-reliefs on the walls, and two shepherds with a goat. The artist once again gives us his impression of the Levant, where the remnants of long gone ancient world interact with its modern inhabitants – and he does it philosophically, but not less poetically.
“Mayer trained in Rome, yet very little is known about his origins or personality, nor even if he was German, Swiss or Italian in origin. After painting landscapes for the King of Naples, he found employment in about 1786 with the British Ambassador to Istanbul, Sir Robert Ainslie, as well as journeying with other English travellers. For a time he became the ambassador’s painter, paid 50 guineas a year, and had to paint swiftly whatever caught his Lordship’s fancy when travelling. This did not seem to quell his painterly vigour and enthusiasm, so that his lively watercolours of antiquities, architecture, landscapes, manners and customs of the inhabitants of Egypt, Syria, Turkey, Greece, Romania and even Suffolk are still eagerly collected. Mayer went to England with Sir Robert in 1794, and between 1801 and 1810 aquatints after his watercolours were published in several volumes sponsored by Ainslie. Luigi’s paintings necessarily reflect his employer’s attitudes to the peoples he visited. However, according to the Dictionary of National Biography, Ainslie was alleged to be ‘strongly attached to the manner of the people … in his house, his garden, and his table he assumed the style and fashion of a Musselman [Muslim] of rank; in fine, he lived en Turk, and pleased the natives so much by this seeming policy … that he became more popular than any of the Christian ministers’. (St James's Chronicle, 9 Dec 1790).
Luigi died in 1803, survived by his widow Clara, daughter of Mr. Barthold, an interpreter employed by Sir Robert. Clara continued to live in London, painting and selling her own landscapes, publishing her own work and assisting in the publication of her late husband's paintings” (Victoria and Albert Museum on-line).


HANSON, Joseph, Lance-Corporal, Royal Engineers
[Autograph Letter Signed 'J. A. Hanson, Explorer for the Palestine Exploration Fund' to his Parents Regarding the Excavations in Old Jerusalem].

Jerusalem, Palestine, 31 May 1868. Quarto (ca. 26,5x21 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on paper. 105 lines of text, clear and complete. Paper aged and sometimes mildly worn on folds, otherwise a very good letter.
Important eye witness account of the first major excavation of Jerusalem’s Temple Mount undertaken in 1867-1870 by Captain Charles Warren (1840-1927) on assignment of the Palestine Exploration Fund. This is a private letter by a member of the excavation party Lance Corporal J. Hanson who was mentioned in Warren’s account of the mission “The recovery of Jerusalem: a narrative of exploration and discovery in the city and the Holy Land” (New York, 1871). The letter is semi-literate, and all quotations are given according to the original.
First of all, Hanson witnesses the troubles caused to the Warren’s party by the Muslim Governor of Jerusalem who often stopped the excavations. The permission letter from Constantinople authorized Warren “to excavate anywhere, except in the Haram Area, and sites sacred to Christians and Moslems” (See: Our work in Palestine: an account of the different expeditions sent out to the Holy land by the committee of the Palestine exploration fund. London, 1873, p. 97), which in fact didn’t allow any works on the Temple Mount (Haram Ash-Sharif). Hanson reports that Warren had embarked for England “also to make a complant against the Governor, the "Pasha" of this City who is interfering with our Excavations without us Giveing Him Any couse whatsowever. He couse us a very great del of trouble in trying to stop our works […] I trust he [Warren] will gain us permit ‘that is the Palestine Exploration Fun [sic] is atplieing to Constantinoble for permission from the "Sulton" to proceed further in our Excavation within the "Walls" of this "Holy City"”.
Hanson gives very interesting notes about the progress of the excavation: “I am now excavatin to the west of mount "Sion" and also out Side of the east Walles of the City. I have found a great number of peaces of Pottery also carved Stones Marble Glass of all colors also a number of ancient Monny &c. Those ar found at the depth of 60 feet and apward and at this depth from the Surface it is very dangerious Work”. Hanson reports that he is excavating “the ancion wall of the city of Jerusalem […] with 40 [or 70?] Laborers”, many of whom he has lost to “the ferver”. He also notes that he has '”dellings with a great Number of Criston Jews” and has them employed “as overseers on the works”.
Hanson vividly describes the new harvest in Jerusalem: “Ere this Avineyard is looking most Magnificence also the apricots Trees this Fruit is very plentifull in Palestine you can by apricots 14lb. For one penny very fine the Figs also is very fine. Vegtable-Marrow and cucumbers come into this City in cartlodes from Jaffa, and the surrounding Villigis”. He mentions a “Great fested with the "Jewes" of all nacsions in this City on the 27th. Of this Month”, complains about the heat, and bright sun in Jerusalem, so strong that there are “a very great number of people of all nactions totally Blind in this city”; as well as about “confounded Miscakco” [moskitos?] who “bit very hard”.
Overall a very interesting historical document adding nice details to the history of the first major excavation in Jerusalem.


ROBLES, Alonso de, Fray

[Most Likely the Preliminary Draft with Corrections of a Letter by Fray Alonso de Robles, “Comisario General de Jerusalem” Regarding the Restitution of the Holy Places to the Custody of the Franciscans from the Greeks]: La maravilla que Dios ha obrado en favor de la Religion serafica y de los Santos Lugares restitutiendo los a su Antigua possession y verdadero Culto; pide sobre continuas alabanzas…
[PALESTINE?], ca. 1691. On a double Folio leaf (ca. 30x21 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Text in Spanish, in legible hand writing. With some period corrections in text and marginalia. Overall a very good letter.
Historically significant document showing the rivalry between the Orthodox and Catholic Churches for the custody of the Holy Places in the 16th-17th centuries. The letter was written after a long period of hostilities in the 17th century when at first the Orthodox Church became the only custodian of the Golgotha (1634) and ousted the Catholics from the Sepulchre (1676), but eventually the Latins recovered their exceptional rights for the Sepulchre and Golgotha (1691).
The author praises God who acted in favor of the “Religion Serafica” (Franciscans) and returned the Holy Places to the “ancient possession of the true faith”. At the same time he points to his addressee to the necessity of dealing with Greeks with “Grande moderacion”. [Rough translation]: “We should show them kindness and friendship and give them places where they could have their service, by shortening ours. We should focus on the mission in Cypress and teach Greek language to some of our brothers, so that we can understand them in Jerusalem. It will help with the conservation of the Holy Places instead of disputing about them”.
Then he talks about the necessity of expanding the Franciscans’ presence in the Hebron area, so that the local Christians could be protected from the Muslims; construction of “hotels” and hospitals on the way from Constantinople to Jerusalem; setting up a convent on Monte Libano, so that Franciscans could learn Arabic language, et al. A large part of the letter is dedicated to the “conquista spiritual de los Drusos” – the author gives a brief description of the Druze spiritual movement (it derived from the Ismailism school of Shia Islam), and notes that “they consider themselves Christians and they want to remain so”. Then follows a lengthy description of the Druze’s history in the 17th century, including a story of “Emir Frekedrin” (Fakhreddine), who “was beheaded by the Grand Turco in 1635”, and certain “De Sidonia Joseph Maronita […] hombre docto y piadosissimo” who visited Druzes many times in the 1650-1660s and “was welcomed with great love”.
The letter has a period manuscript title (summary) in the end, written in another hand: “Carta del P[adr]e Fr[ay] Alonso de Robles Comisario gen[era]l de Jerusalem al P[adr]e guardiary […?], y […?] religios de aquella Custodia, en la occasion de […?] restitucio los Santo Lugares y usurpacion los Griegos Scismaticos”.


[Two Original Watercolour Panoramas of Port Louis in Mauritius].

Ca. 1820-s. Watercolours on paper, first ca. 16,5x23,5 cm (6 ½ x 9 ¼ in) and second ca. 16,5x33 cm (6 ½ x 13 in). Both watercolours unsigned, but with period ink captions on verso. Recently matted, very good watercolours.
Two early captivating views of Mauritius taken from life by a skillful amateur artist during a voyage of the East India Company’s sloop ‘Elphinstone’ in the 1820-es. The first watercolour is an early depiction of Port Louis from the harbour, with surrounding mountains of the Moka Range (including Le Pouce) in the background, mostly wooden houses on the shore and several naval vessels in the harbour. The second view shows Port Louis from above, with the famous Champ de Mars Racecourse in the foreground. “The Racecourse was inaugurated on 25 June 1812, by The Mauritius Turf Club (MTC) which was founded earlier in the same year by Colonel Edward A. Draper. The Mauritius Turf Club is the oldest horse-racing club in the Southern Hemisphere and the second oldest in the world” (Wikipedia).
The watercolours were made during one of the voyages of ‘Elphinstone’, and the artist was very likely the crew member, Lieutenant William Bowater (the sketch book was inscribed in ink with the initials 'W.B.' on the front endpaper). Bowater was later dismissed from the navy.
“On the 2nd of November, 1829, a court-martial, presided over by Captain R. Morgan, of the Marine, was convened at Bombay, to inquire into certain charges for “insubordinate and disrespectful conduct” on the part of Lieutenant W. Bowater, of the Hon. Company’s ship ‘Elphinstone’, preferred against him by his commanding officer, Captain F.W. Greer and that the sentence of the Court, which was dismissal from the service, was confirmed by the Commander-in-chief of the Bombay Army, Lieutenant-General Sir Sydney Beckwith, K.C.B” (Low, C.R. History of the Indian Navy. 2 vols. Vol. 1. London, 1877. P. 498-499).
The Honourable East India Company’s sloop-of war ‘Elphinstone’, of 18 guns and 387 tons, “was built by Hilhouse & Sons and launched in 1824. She operated out of London as an East Indiaman and participated with the Royal Navy in the New Zealand land wars. She was sold in 1862” (Wikipedia). The ‘Elphinstone’ sailed to the Mediterranean, around the southern tip of Africa and on to the East Indies and Australia.
As Richard Burton noted in ‘First footsteps in East Africa’, the sloop carried out a naval blockade of the Somalian coast in 1825-1833, after a British brig from the Mauritius had been seized, plundered and broken up near Berberah in 1825. “The ‘Elphinstone’ sloop of war (Capt. Greer commanding) was sent to blockade the coast; when her guns opened fire, the people fled with their wives and children, and the spot where a horseman was killed by a cannon ball is still shown on the plain near the town”. <…> Eventually “the Somal bound themselves to abstain from future attacks upon English vessels, and also to refund by annual statements the full amount of plundered property. For the purpose of enforcing the latter stipulation it was resolved that a vessel of war should remain upon the coast until the whole was liquidated. When attempts at evasion occurred, the traffic was stopped by sending all craft outside the guardship, and forbidding intercourse with the shore. The ‘Coote’, the ‘Palinus’ and the ‘Tigris’, in turn with the ‘Elphinstone’, maintained the blockade through the trading season till 1833 (Burton, R. First Footsteps in East Africa. London, 1856. P. Xxxiv-xxxv).


Annaes Maritimos e Coloniaes. Publicação Mensal Redigida sob a Direcção da Associação Maritima e Colonial [Maritime and Colonial Annals: Monthly Publication Issued under the Direction of the Maritime and Colonial Association].

Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional, 1840-1846. First Edition. Octavo, 6 vols. 533, [3], 12; 583, [5]; 346, [2], 641, [2]; [1 – t.p.], 409, [2], [1 – t.p.], 455, [2]; 235, [1], 512, [2]; 56, 135 pp. With a total of thirteen lithograph maps, plans and charts (twelve folding, three in color), nine lithograph plates (seven folding; one large), and one large folding table, plus many tables in the text. Handsome period maroon and brown gilt tooled quarter sheep with marbled and papered boards. Bound in a similar but not quite uniform style. Vol. 2 bound without a title page. A couple of plates with repairs and markings of removed old adhesive tape, a couple of places of mild foxing, two volumes with slight cracking of hinges but holding. Overall a clean very good set.
A complete set (103 issues in 6 vols.) of the first and only edition of this important Portuguese periodical dedicated to navigation, geographical exploration and colonial issues, and published by the Associação Maritima e Colonial in Lisbon. The materials include important original articles on the Portuguese colonies in Africa (Angola and Mozambique), India (Goa), China (Macau), Indonesia (Timor and other islands, e.g. Solor); official documents by the Portuguese government regarding maritime and colonial issues, as well as current statistical information from the colonies; first publications of the accounts of Portuguese voyages of exploration (e.g. In the Central Africa); interesting archival documents regarding Portuguese voyages and discoveries from the XVth century onwards and many others.
The collection includes three lengthy articles serialized through many issues: one is on the Portuguese colonies in Asia, including Macau and Timor, one on Portuguese explorations in the interior of Africa (diary of Dr. Francisco Jose de Lacerda e Almeida), and one on Portuguese colonies on the west coast of Africa (Angola). Other articles are dedicated to the Solor Island (Indonesia), Mozambique, the trade with the Malay Archipelago, the priority of Portuguese explorations in the Northern and Central Africa; problems of Christianisation and public education of the population of the Portuguese colonies et al. There are also accounts of the most important international expeditions of the time, e.g. Dumont-Dourville’s travel to the Antarctic (1837-40), Dupetit-Thouars’ circumnavigation of the frigate Venus (1836-39), Canadian Arctic exploration by the Hudson’s Bay Company vessels, the US Exploring Expedition in the South Pacific in 1838-40 et al. The publications also include texts of international anti-slavery treaties, documents on exports and imports, articles on the latest navigation techniques and machines, e.g. Steam ships, et al.
The charts are aimed at helping sailors to navigate in difficult ports, and show the harbors of Lisbon, Goa, Quellimane (Mozambique, hand coloured), Dilly (Timor), Mossamedes (modern Namibia, Angola) and Lobito (Benguela province of Angola); there are also folding plans of the city of Goa, a Portuguese fort in Pungo an Dongo (Angola); a topographical chart of the National Forest of Leiria (Portugal) and others. Plates include two views of the rapids de São Salvador da Pesqueira on the river Douro (Portugal) – before and after the works which removed the rapids and made the river navigable at this point; a nicely executed large folding view of the façade of the famous ruin of St. Paul’s Cathedral in Macau, a reprint of a document in Chinese, a draft of a vapour vessel, a statistical table of the population of the Portuguese Goa and others.
Volume I contains 11 issues and a supplement (pp. 529-33), followed by an index (3 pp.), as described in Fonseca, and "Estatutos da Associação Maritima" (12 pp., paginated separately), which is not mentioned in Fonseca. In volume II, there are 12 issues. Volumes III, IV and V each contain 24 issues: 12 in the "Parte Official," 12 more in the "Parte Não Official." In volume VI, only 4 issues each of the "Parte Official" and "Parte Não Official" were published. Fonseca calls for only 1 folding plate and 3 maps in the "Parte Não Official" of volume III, where this copy has 3 plates and 4 maps. Fonseca also fails to mention the single leaf preceding the text in both "Partes" of volume IV.
Innocêncio I, 72; Sabin 1577a.


MORAL, Felix

Prinzeninseln Antigone, ‘Halki’ und Proti im Marmara Meere. Von der Insel Prinkipo aus gesehen [Princes‘ Islands Antigone, Halki and Proti in the Sea of Marmara, taken from the Prinkipo Island].
January 1879. Watercolour on paper, ca. 21,5x45,5 cm (8 ¼ x 18 in). Watercolour within double ink border, signed in the right lower corner ‘Nach der Natur gezeichnet von Felix Moral and 5/17.1.79 und 9/21.1.1879’. Extensive ink caption under the image. Paper slightly soiled, but overall a very good watercolour.
Bright watercolour panorama of the Princes’ Islands in the Sea of Marmara, with the minarets and greenery of Istanbul (Constantinople) seen in the distance. The view was taken from the main island of the group – Büyükada (Prinkipos) and shows the second and the third largest islands – Heybeliada (Chalki) and Burgazada (Antigoni), with a small Kaşık Island (Greek: Πίτα or νήσος) in the background.
The watercolour is supplemented with an extensive caption and several notes about the buildings shown on the islands, including Greek trade school (Handelsschule) on Kasik Island; Greek Orthodox seminary (Priesterschule), a village and a Turkish marine school (Seeschule) on Heybeliada. The outlines of Istanbul in the background are captioned ‘Constantinopel’. The Greek seminary is known today as Halki seminary (defunct since 1791), and the Turkish marine school is now a Cadet School of the Turkish Navy.
“The Princes' Islands (Turkish: Prens Adaları "Prince Islands", or more commonly Kızıl Adalar "Red Islands" or just Adalar as they are officially named; classical Greek: Prinkēpōn nēsoi), are a chain of nine islands off the coast of Istanbul, Turkey, in the Sea of Marmara. During the summer months the Princes’ Islands are popular destinations for day trips from Istanbul. As there is no traffic on the Islands, the only transport being horse and cart, they are incredibly peaceful compared with the city of Istanbul.
During the Byzantine period, princes and other royalty were exiled on the islands, and later members of the Ottoman sultans’ family were exiled there too, giving the islands their present name. They were taken by the Ottoman fleet during the siege of Constantinople in 1453. During the nineteenth century, the islands became a popular resort for Istanbul's wealthy, and Victorian-era cottages and houses are still preserved on the largest of the Princes' Islands” (Wikipedia).


Décret sy Didy Mandamina Indray ny Fitsarana Malagasy eto Madagascar [Decret and Law to Establish Again the Malagasy Seat of Judgment in Madagascar] / Colonie de Madagascar et Dépendances.

Tananarive: Imprimerie Officielle, 1909. First Edition. Duodecimo. [4], 118 pp. Text in Malagasy. Later green cloth with front publisher’s wrapper bound in. Minor foxing throughout the text, the wrapper soiled and with minor losses on corners, otherwise a good copy.
Very rare imprint with no copies found in Worldcat. Interesting collection of official papers related to the establishment of the legal system in the colonial Madagascar. The book contains texts (in Malagasy) of seven decrees and official letters authored by Victor Auvagneur (the Governor of Madagascar in 1905-1910), Raphaël Milliès-Lacroix (Minister of the French Navy and the Colonies in 1906-1909), and Clément Armand Fallières (President of France in 1906-1913).


Fanoharana [Fables].

Tananarive: Imprimerie De la Mission Catholique Mahamasina, 1901. Second Edition. Duodecimo. 178 pp. Text in Malagasy. Original publisher’s green printed papered boards. Rebacked and cornered in recent green leather, new endpapers, covers soiled and with some minor foxing, but overall a very good copy.
Very rare early Madagascar imprint. A collection of 99 fables – either Malagasy folk stories or retold European parables, including “The Fosa and the Grapes”, “The Snake and the Cat”, “The Heron”, “The Hazomby shrub and the Pumpkin” etc. Only three copies of the first edition (1889) are found in Worldcat, and no copies of this second edition.

[Photograph Album with Forty-six Photographs Showing British colonial rule in Zimbabwe and Zambia].

Ca. 1905. Oblong Large Octavo. Twenty-three leaves. Oblong Octavo (16,5x22,5 cm) with 46 original gelatin silver print photographs (each ca. 12x17 cm), with manuscript captions on the mounts. Period mauve cloth covers, neatly rebacked. Period presentation description on verso of the front cover: "To Dear (?) Old George." Covers slightly soiled and faded, margins slightly browned, otherwise a very good album.
A very interesting album depicting British colonial rule in Zimbabwe and Zambia, (Southern and North-Western Rhodesia). The album is from first decade of the 20th century, when the brutal First and Second Matabele Wars (1893-94 and 1896-97) had finished and the region started to experience a quick development of the tourist industry. However, the memory of the wars still existed and thus one of the photographs included is "Indaba tree under which Lobengula rendered barbaric justice" (Lobengula Khumalo (1845-1894) was the second and last king of the Ndebele people; his death during the First Matabele war resulted in the destruction of the Ndebele kingdom and its conquest by the British South Africa Company).
The album consists of artistic views of the natural wonders and exact observations of Rhodesian life at the time, and comprises a highly interesting collection. The strong photographs show views of the Victoria Falls, including those of Livingston island, Devil’s Cataract, the Main Fall, local boaters waiting to take passengers across Zambezi River, "The Zambezian Regatta Course" and several views of the Victoria Bridge from different positions (including a view of the unfinished bridge which was under construction in 1904-5). As the owner of the album mentioned a hotel where some pictures had been taken (‘Beautiful view taken in front of the Hotel,' ‘View taken in the front of the Hotel showing spray & bridge’), it’s logically to presume that the town Victoria Falls (northern Zimbabwe) was meant. The town lies on the southern bank of the Zambezi River at the western end of the Victoria Falls; it became a major tourist centre after the Victoria Bridge had been opened in April 1905 (Wikipedia).
Another group of pictures include detailed views of Bulawayo, an important centre of British Southern Rhodesia: Government House, Market Hall, Main Street, Grand Hotel, public library, Memorial Hospital, the Rhodesian Club and others. Bulawayo, a former capital of the Ndebele kingdom, severely destroyed during the First Matabele War and which had survived a siege during the Second war, was rebuilt and populated with colonial settlers very quickly, thanks to numerous goldfields in its vicinity.
There are also interesting views of the ruins of Khami, a capital of the ancient African Kingdom of Butua, located 22 km west of Bulawayo. Khami (UNESCO Heritage Site since 1986) was the capital of the Torwa dynasty for about 200 years from around 1450 and appears to have been founded at the time of the disappearance of the civilization at Great Zimbabwe (Wikipedia).
Moreover, there are great views of the memorial to the Shengani Patrol and the grave of Cecil John Rhodes (1853-1902), the founder of Rhodesia, situated on so called ‘World's View’ in the Matobo National Park (Zimbabwe).
The Shangani Patrol was a group of white Rhodesian pioneer police officers killed in battle on the Shangani River in Matabeleland in 1893. The incident achieved a lasting, prominent place in Rhodesian colonial history. The Shangani Patrol became a part of the mythology of white conquest, with its leaders Allan Wilson and Henry Borrow hailed as national heroes. A memorial to the Patrol was erected at the request of Cecil Rhodes in 1905 on the Matobo Hills, a sacred place for local tribes. Designed by John Tweed, it is an austere, oblong monument, 33 feet (10 m) high and made of granite blocks hewn from the neighbouring kopje, with a panel on each of the four sides depicting the members of the patrol in bas relief. Rhodes’s grave is located nearby. One of the photographs shows workers, leaving the monument after unveiling it.
‘Zambia’ views include pictures of the Kafue Bridge, which was built over the Kafue River in 1906. It is a steel girder truss bridge of 13 spans each of 33 metres (108 ft) supported on concrete piers. The bridge was built for the Mashonaland Railways, which later merged into Rhodesian Railways and operated the line from 1927. With a length of 427 metres (1,401 ft) the Kafue Railway Bridge was the longest bridge in the Rhodesian Railways network.


[Album with Thirty-five Original Photographs of the Second Boer War, Showing the Main Boer Military Commanders, Battlefields, Artillery and Everyday Life of British Prisoners of War in a Camp near Pretoria; Supplemented with Seven Group Portraits of the British Officers and Residents in India].

Ca. 1899-1900. Oblong Folio (ca. 24x30,5 cm). 35 gelatin silver prints, including 26 larger ones ca. 15x20,5 cm (5 ¾ x 8 in), and 9 smaller ones ca. 12x18 cm (4 ½ x 7 in) mounted on 20 stiff card leaves. Photos either signed, dated and captioned in negative, or with typewritten captions mounted underneath. With five large and two small group portraits taken in India in 1897-1898 (mounted at rear). Rebacked recently in red half morocco using the original cloth boards, leaves with all edges gilt, and with gilt tooled spine and moiré endpapers. Some images slightly faded, but overall a very good album.
Important collection of original photographs of the Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902). The album was evidently compiled by an officer of the First Battalion of the British Army Gloucester Regiment which saw active service during the war, in particular during the Battle of Ladysmith (30 October 1899) and the consequent Siege of Ladysmith (30 October 1899 – 28 February 1900).
The album contains a number or portraits of distinguished Boer leaders and military commanders, including Petrus Jacobus Joubert (1834-1900), Lucas Meyer, Louis Botha (1862-1919), Daniel Jacobus Erasmus (1830 - 1913), General Snyman, and Pieter Arnoldus Cronjé (1836-1911). Five important photographs show 155 mm Creusot Long Tom field guns which were used by Boers during several war operations – in this case, during the Sieges of Ladysmith and Mafeking. The photos show one Long Tom being unloaded at a railway station and transported to Ladysmith, and another gun in action, being used by the people of Pieter Arnoldus Cronjé at Mafeking. Another impressive photo shows Boers at Mafeking posing next to a Maxim-Nordenfelt Gun. There is also a group of sharp collective portraits of different Boer commandos, including that of a “Hollander Corps O.V.S.” under command of Russian General Yevgeny Maximov (1849-1904); and the trenches of Boksburg Command at the Battle of Colenso (15 December 1899).
Several photographs of the war areas include a general view of Elandslaagte (after the famous Battle of 21 October 1899), Nicholson’s Kop (one of the grounds of the Battle of Ladysmith), Pretoria Commando camp at Laingsnek; images of bridges and railways destroyed with dynamite (across Wasbank river and Tugela river) et al. Later photographs show “Raising of British flag in Pretoria” (5th June 1900), and a monument to the Gloucester Regiment men fallen at the fight near Rietfontein and the Siege of Ladysmith. There is also a group of good images showing everyday life of British POW in Waterval war camp near Pretoria. Many photos in the album were taken by important local studios, both Boer (J. Van Hoepen, Stoel & Groote) and British (Spratt Photo, Barnett & Co).
The album starts with a collective portrait of the officers of the Gloucester regiment’s 1st battalion taken in Ladysmith shortly before the war (29 September 1899). The seven photographs at the end relate to the regiment’s early service in India and include both official and family portraits.


[Collection of five items, including: Two Typewritten Manuscript Memoirs about the Second Boer War: Unpublished Text “A Remarkable Trek. 17 Days with De Wet” by “Prisoner of War”, and Typescript Titled “Bloemfontein, Friday December 14th 1900”; With a Photographic Portrait, Most Likely of Menzies, and two Reference Letters Highly Recommending him].

Ca. 1896-1900. The collection is in aged but very good condition.
Five items, including two vivid and informative accounts of a little-known incident in the Second Boer War, by a highly educated English army officer. Both typescripts date from the first half of the 20th century.
Prisoner of War. A remarkable trek. 17 days with De Wet. Quarto (ca. 25,5x20 cm). 22 numbered leaves. Typewritten manuscript with a number of minor corrections in text. Text of cropped last leaf legible, despite some damage and loss.
The narration describes the events from 23 November to 9 December 1900. Menzies explains how he was 'one of a garrison in a village about 40 miles from Bloemfontein, when De Wet and Steyn collected six different Commandos in the immediate neighbourhood and swooped down on us'. Garrison casualties, after 'three days desperate fighting', stood at twenty per cent on surrender. There followed 'a most disgusting scene of robbery and pillage'. 'De Wet is a short, thick-set man with a dark beard, he was riding then a white horse and was wearing a dark tail coat and a square topped "bowler", a great characteristic of his, and armed with a revolver. I had occasion to speak to De Wet and drew his attention to the way his men were looting and smashing up some mess stores of ours [...] De Wet answered me in English and said he would have them taken away; I am merely quoting this, as it seems to have been the prevailing opinion that De Wet does not talk English.'
After crossing the Caledon River the 'trek' ended with 'the Boers being obviously surprised' when 'the British guns a 15 pounder and a pom pom opened on the Column' near Helvetia Farm. 'My indignation knows no bounds when I reflect that enemies of Great Britain from all countries are now successfully urging the Boers to carry on a hopeless struggle which is bringing untold misery and ruin to the country. [...] the curious thing is too that they do not like De Wet, [...] not a single Boer spoke well of him, one Commandant going so far as to describe him as a "Heartless Brute", and I can conceive no better description of this successful guerrilla leader; I cannot call a man who countenances the disgraceful treatment of prisoners-of-war as he did, a soldier'.
Bloemfontein, Friday December 14th. 1900. Quarto (ca. 25x20 cm). 15 leaves, numbered 73-87. Typewritten manuscript, docketed at head of first page 'Letter from Alfred during the South African War reprinted from "The Times"'.
A different account, filling in some gaps in Typescript One, e.g. 'just fancy De Wet with over 3,000 men being round us for 5 days within 8 hours' ride of Bloemfontein!! [...] We had 92 casualties out of about 400 and they took 30 wounded men prisoners with us. [...] At the end we all fixed bayonets to charge down the hill, but the Commandant would not allow it, not a man would have survived it and, although magnificent, it would have been useless and served no purpose except making the tremendous fight we had look better on paper.'
The two letters relate to Menzies application for the position of Assistant Registrar at the University of London four years before, and allow us to evaluate Menzies' trustworthiness as a narrator.
Letter one: BRODRICK, George C. (1831-1903). To the Senate of the University of London. 21 March 1896, Merton College, Oxford. 3 pp., 12mo. 'I have known Mr Alfred Menzies since he came up to Merton as a "Postmaster" in 1882, and have a high opinion of his capacity & character. He was in all respects an excellent member of the College, and stood well in the estimation of his fellows, as he did in that of the Tutors.' Brodrick recommended Menzies to family members as a private tutor. 'He is essentially a gentleman, [...] I should feel great confidence in his conscientious performance of [the position's] duties.'
Letter two: GRANT, Charles. To 'My Lords and Gentlemen'. 21 March 1896, on letterhead of Drove, Chichester. 3 pp., 12mo. 'My boys have had several holiday-tutors at different times - all men of high standing and character; but I considered none of the others at all equal to Mr Menzies in some practical qualities which would fit him as well for a much more responsible post [...] He had a rare combination of strength of character with tact, sense and temper [...] I consider Mr. Menzies eminently qualified for any position, in which firmness, tact and knowledge of the world are essentials.'
The photograph: oval, ca. 10x8 cm, with the label of C. Vandyk of 125 Gloucester Road, Queens Gate, S.W. The photo shows the head and shoulders of a military man [Menzies no doubt], with close-cropped hair and bushy moustache, dressed in fatigues.


[Original Watercolour prepared for the “Graphic”, Titled]: "A Hospital Piquet on guard at night. The Siege of Buluwayo: The Ambulance Corps at Work."

1896. Grisaille watercolour, heightened in white, ca. 15,5x23 cm (ca. 6x9 in), on a larger cardboard sheet, within hand drawn pencil frame. Unsigned, manuscript ink title on the lower margin. From a sketch by F.J. Mackenzie. Ink stamp “20 Jun 96” and pencil remark “The Siege of Bulawayo” on verso. Minor staining on the margins, not affecting the image, otherwise a very good watercolour.
The watercolour was published in “The Graphic” (# 1386, June 20, 1896, p. 729) at the height of the Second Matabele War, or Matabeleland Rebellion (March 1896-October 1897). This expressive artwork shows a night scene in the outskirts of Bulawayo besieged by the Ndebele rebels. British defenders of the city – most likely members of the Bulawayo Field Force – quietly sit under cover of sand-bags and wrap themselves in warm coats to protect from the night mist. The Maxim gun pointing to the enemy is covered with a blanket.


GOLDSMITH, George, Captain RN (1806-1875)
[Original Watercolour showing an African Village with Native Inhabitants, Titled]: "Sir R. Baker’s Source of the Nile."

Ca. 1866. Grisaille watercolour and pencil on an album leaf, ca. 18x27 cm (ca. 7 x 10 ½ in). Captioned in pencil on the lower margin. With a pencil sketch of a native African man on verso. Mounted in a recent mat, overall a very good watercolour.
The talented artist was British navy officer George Goldsmith. He joined the Royal Navy in 1821 and was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant (1828), Commander (1841), Captain (1842), Vice-Admiral (1867) and Admiral (1875). Goldsmith served in the Mediterranean, West Coast Africa and the East Indies. He took part in the 1st Anglo-Chinese War, with HMS Hyacinth; and the Crimean War, with HMS Sidon under his command. Upon return to Britain he became Superintendent of the dockyard at Chatham and was created Companion of the Bath for his services in the Crimea.
The watercolour shows a native village, apparently near Lake Albert – one of the African Great Lakes which was discovered by Baker during his travel to the region in 1861-1865. Baker proved the lake to be, together with Lake Victoria, the source of the Nile – and for this achievement he was knighted and awarded with the gold medals of the Royal Geographical Society and Paris Geographical Society.
Curiously, Baker’s name in the caption is initialed as “R”, instead of “S”[amuel].


[Two Unsigned Watercolour Views: Mindelo, St. Vincent - Washington's Head, St. Vincent [Cape Verde Islands].

Ca. 1840. Watercolours each ca. 16x34 cm (6 ½ x 13 in). Recently matted in one mat, watercolours in near fine condition.
The two well executed watercolours show 1.) Mindelo with its harbour and several boats and ships; 2.) Washington's Head with a ship and launch with sailors diving and swimming in the foreground. St. Vincent (São Vicente) "was discovered on Saint Vincent's Day (January 22) in 1462. Due to its lack of water, the island was initially used only as a cattle pasture by some proprietors of the neighboring island of Santo Antão. The island remained practically uninhabited until the middle of the 19th century. It was only in 1838, when a coal deposit was established in Porto Grande to supply ships on Atlantic routes, that the population started to grow rapidly. Due to the lack of rain and consequent lack of natural resources, the economy of São Vicente is based mainly on commerce and services...,Because of its excellent harbour, Mindelo (on the island of São Vicente) became an important commercial centre during the 19th century"(Wikipedia).


[Large Folding Hand Drawn and Coloured Plan of Mineral Concessions in Swaziland, Titled]: General Plan Showing the relative positions & boundaries of the Mineral Concessions in Conflict with Mineral Concession № 44, Swaziland. Scale 400 Cape Rds = 1 inch.
Ca. 1880. Ink and watercolour on parchment ca. 80x95,5 cm. Ink drawn title and the plan’s legend in the left lower corner. Parchment with mild yellowing in the central area, otherwise a very good plan.
Important documentary evidence illustrating the notorious “concession” period in the history of Swaziland. The plan gives a detailed layout of the numerous claims on the mineral resources in the western Swaziland made by a group of British and Boer entrepreneurs. The main purpose of the plan is to ascertain the borders of the mine concession № 44, which is marked as belonging to “T. Shepstone”, or Theophilus (Offy) Shepstone. Younger son of a noted South African statesman Sir Theophilius Shepstone (1817-1893), Offy was a resident adviser and agent to the Swazi king Mbandzeni in 1886-1889 and took an active part in the concessions to white settlers of different background.
The plan details the area between the Little Usuto (Lushushwana) and Umbeloos (Umpilusi) Rivers in northwestern Swaziland (modern Nhohho district). It marks the territories of over 10 concessions belonging to Elisha King, L. Albu and Davis, A.H. Neumann, David Purcocks, William Bird, G. Halle, David Forbes, Charles Lennox Stretch, J.G. Pullen, Hemerson & Forbes and others. Borders between the lots are outlined in colour, with blue lines marking grounds not claimed by Shepstone, brown lines showing undisputed borders, and red, yellow and green – disputed territories belonging to other owners, but claimed by Shepstone.
The settlements shown on the plan include Mbabane, the present capital of Swaziland, marked as “Mbabane Township” on the bank of Mbabane River, and several kraals scattered across the region: Didmi, Mbabanes, Embekelweni Hanskraal et al. The plan borders on the northwest with the Transvaal Colony and with the Great Usutu River and its tributary Umtuchan on the south. Other topographical landmarks shown include tributaries of the Little Usuto (Motjan, Tambono, Impaca, Umtilaan) and Umpilusi Rivers; waterfalls on the rivers; roads, a store in the Transvaal colony on the border with Swaziland, and three peaks used as a basis of the topographical survey: Mshange (3960 ft), Nyonyan (3580 ft) and Kalagalame (3670 ft).


"Syria and Judea Vol. 1" [Album of a Hundred Photographs of Syria, Lebanon and the Holy Land].

Ca. 1880. Large Oblong Folio (48x41 cm). One hundred photographs (93 albumen prints, including one folding panorama of Bethlehem, seven photochrom and one cabinet portrait photo) mounted on 50 stiff card leaves. Photos captioned in pencil on mounts and many additionally captioned, numbered and signed "Bonfils" in negative, most ca. 22x28 cm (9x11 in). Period brown gilt tooled half morocco with brown pebbled cloth boards and raised bands. Some mounts with mild foxing, a few images with mild fading but overall a very good album of photographs.
This very large attractive album has strong images including views of Tripoli, Dog River (2), Beirut (3), Grove of Cedars, Baalbek (16), Zahleh, Anti-Libanus, Bridge on the Litani, Mount Hebron, Valley of the Arnon, Damascus (35), Camel Caravan, Sidon, Tyre, Acre, Mount Carmel, Casarea, Jaffa (5), Ramallah, Lydda, Wall of the Magi, Bethlehem (6), Pools of Solomon (2), Abraham's Oak, Hebron (2) Gaza (4), Bedouin, Field of Boaz etc.
Maison Bonfils was started by Paul-Felix Bonfils (1831-1885) in Beirut in 1867 and was "to become one of the most successful photographic businesses in the world. They photographed most of the important sights in the Middle East and their views were widely distributed" (Jacobsen p. 216). Bonfils' "stock had variety enough to please all and ranged from classical landscapes and biblical scenes to ethnographic portraits and subtly erotic images of Oriental men and women. A close examination of Bonfils photographs reveals quite clearly that Felix had a different eye than the others, and at least in the beginning, a more naive and less commercial approach to image making" (Perez p. 141).


[French Traveller's Photograph Album of West Africa with Fifty-Three Original Photographs].

French West Africa, ca. 1880. Oblong Small Folio (23x34 cm). 53 leaves. With fifty-three mounted albumen photographs each ca. 11x17 cm (4 ½ x 6 ½ in), many captioned in French in negative on image. Period black gilt titled half morocco with cloth boards. Rebacked in style, some images mildly faded, otherwise a very good album.
The images include: Ile de Goree, Ste. Marie de Bathurst "Gambie," Guinee Francais, Dakar, Conakry, Rio Nunez, Rio Pongo, Freetown, Sierra Leone and additionally many interesting ethnographical images of the indigenous peoples in these areas are included. The album covers the coastal areas between Dakar and Freetown which was at the time French, Portuguese and British colonial West Africa and today encompasses Senegal, The Gambia, Guinea Bissau, Guinea and Sierra Leone.
"As the French pursued their part in the scramble for Africa in the 1880s and 1890s, they conquered large inland areas, and at first ruled them as either a part of the Senegal colony, or as independent entities. These conquered areas were usually governed by French Army officers, and dubbed "Military Territories". In the late 1890s, the French government began to rein in the territorial expansion of its "officers on the ground", and transferred all the territories west of Gabon to a single Governor based in Senegal, reporting directly to the Minister of Overseas Affairs" (Wikipedia).


Report from the Select Committee on the West Coast of Africa; Together with the Minutes of Evidence, Appendix, and Index. [In two Parts:] Part I.- Report and Evidence; Part II.- Appendix and Index.

London: [House of Commons], 27th February 1843. First Edition. Small Folio. xxvi, 744; iv, 637 pp. With four outline hand coloured folding maps, one very large. Original publishers blue printed wrappers. Some very minor chipping of wrapper extremties, otherwise a very good set.
These exhaustive reports are filled with details on the administration of and lucrative trade with these English West African colonies. Much information is also included on English efforts to suppress the slave trade which are highlighted by the reports by Dr. Richard Robert (1798-1886) Madden, who in 1839 "became the investigating officer into the slave trade on the west coast of Africa."(Wikipedia). "He was sent to west Africa as a commissioner of inquiry into the administration of British coastal settlements, where he exposed the ‘pawn system’, which was a disguised form of slavery" (Oxford DNB). The maps shows the Gold Coast, Gambia, Sierra Leone and the coast of West Africa.


GOLDSMITH, George, Admiral RN (1806-1875)
[Two Early Albums with Over Forty Watercolours and Pencil Drawings Showing the West Coast of Africa, including Seven Beautiful Double-Page Watercolour Panoramas of the ‘Slave Castles’ on the Coast of Ghana, Coastal Views of Fernando Po and Ascension Islands; a Double Page Watercolour Showing Five Ships of the West African Squadron; Colourful Portraits of the Natives of the Cape Coast, Including “Billipah, King of the Boobies, Fernando Po” et al. With a number of detailed drawings of British sailing vessels, Chinese warships and fishing boats (taken during the First Opium War), views of Malta, and others].

Ca. 1837-1838.
Album 1: Oblong Octavo (ca. 14x21 cm). 41 leaves. With 66 pencil drawings and sketches, including 44 full or partly coloured. Over thirty drawings are related to West Africa; the majority of drawings with extensive pencil captions and notes. Album signed in pencil by the artist on the last leaf. Original brown half sheep album with marbled boards. Binding slightly worn and loose on hinges, otherwise a very good album with bright drawings.
Album 2: Oblong Quarto (ca. 18x24 cm). 21 leaves. With 25 pencil drawings and sketches, including 11 full or partly coloured. Ten drawings show coastal views of West Africa, all but one are captioned and extensively noted, informing of the geographical names, coordinates, heights et al. Original marbled paper wrappers. Brown stains on one of the double-page watercolours, wrappers rubbed and with minor tears on the spine, otherwise a very good album.
A beautiful collection of historically important watercolour panoramas and scenes of the West African Coast taken by a talented British navy officer George Goldsmith. He joined the Royal Navy in 1821 and was promoted to the rank of Lieutenant (1828), Commander (1841), Captain (1842), Vice-Admiral (1867) and Admiral (1875). Goldsmith served in the Mediterranean, West Coast Africa and the East Indies. He took part in the 1st Anglo-Chinese War, with HMS Hyacinth; and the Crimean War, with HMS Sidon under his command. Upon return to Britain he became Superintendent of the dockyard at Chatham and was created Companion of the Bath for his services in the Crimea.
Our watercolour collection was created by George Goldsmith in his late 20-s, during service as a Lieutenant on brig-sloop Childers, which was a part of the West African Squadron in 1834-1838. Combining excellent sense of colour with the exactness of detail, the artist produced some outstanding views of parts the West Coast of Africa. Among the best pieces is a series of bright watercolours showing famous “Slave Castles” on the Gold Coast (Ghana), with double-page panoramas of St. Georges Castle in Elmina, Cape Coast Castle, and English fort in Accra; beautiful coastal views of Dixcove, Dutch fort in Accra, Danish Forts Prinzenstein near Keta (“Quitta”) and Christiansborg (now Osu Castle, the seat of the government of Ghana), and others. Among other locations in West Africa depicted by the artist are the islands in the Gulf of Guinea: Fernando Po (now Bioko, Equatorial Guinea), and São Tomé and Príncipe; and Ascension Island, an important British naval station in the Atlantic Ocean. The views include three beautiful double-page panoramas of Ascension Island and Fernando Po with the towering Clarence peak; and several unfinished panoramas and views of the George Bay (Fernando Po), “Princes” island and “St. Thomas”. The drawings are extensively captioned and noted – with the names of mountains, bays and coves, geographical coordinates, distances, heights, or landscape descriptions, e.g. “a yellow sandy beach all along with a very heavy surf breaking on it” (about the area near the Cape Coast Castle).
Very interesting also is a double-page coloured drawing of the “African Squadron” in the Bight of Benin, showing HMS Pylades, Columbine, Pelican, Scout and Goldsmith’s home ship Childers – these are five of sixteen vessels engaged in West Africa at the time. There is also a group of excellent portraits and sketches of the native inhabitants of the region, including a native woman “of Dutch Accra” wrapped in traditional garment and wearing heavy gold necklace; pencil drawn double-page portrait of a native group “Tom-Tomming” (playing drums) near Cape Coast Castle; and three large colour sketches of the natives of Fernando Po, one of them showing “Billipah, King of the Boobies, Fernando Po”. Curious pencil notes explain details of their cloth, e.g. “straw Cap with monkey skin”, “skin red with earth and palm oil, hair red mud” et al.
The albums also contain six drawings made in Macao during the First Opium War (dated ‘1841’) and depicting Chinese war junks, fishing boats and flags; two pencil sketches of the ‘Chinese Mode of Fishing’ showing elaborate system of nets in the shallow water. There are also two pencil profiles of the Cape of Good Hope (dated ‘October 1828’), four drawings and sketches of a Dominican convent in Malta, double page pencil panorama of Port Mahon (Menorca), eighteen drawings and sketches of different ships and their details (e.g. Sails in different stages of completeness) et al.
All in all a historically important and beautifully illustrated pair of watercolour albums.


[By a member of the AL-BARWANI Family, Prominent Sunni Scholars in Zanzibar]
[Album with Eighteen (Including Cover Illustration) Superb Watercolour Views of Zanzibar, Titled]: Water-Colour By M.S. Ali. El-Barwani.

Ca. 1920. Octavo (ca. 25x18 cm). Eighteen (one on cover) watercolours ca. 17,5x12,5 cm mounted on the album’s leaves within ink drawn frames. Each watercolour signed in ink by the artist in the left lower corner (in Arabic and English), and captioned in ink on the mount. Original blue cloth album with custom made pictorial dust jacket (decorated with a watercolour and a hand drawn title on the front). Period ink inscription on the jacket of the inner side of the front board. One of the leaves loose, minor stains on the front dust jacket cover, but internally very good clean album with bright watercolours.
Beautiful watercolour album of Zanzibar views most likely compiled by Sheikh Muhsin Ali Isa al-Barwani (1878-1953), father of Zanzibari politician, diplomat and writer Ali Muhsin Al-Barwani (1919-2006), known for his translation of the Qur'an into Swahili. The watercolours represent an elegant reflective look at the old architecture of Zanzibar, and pictures of the famous sites – the Sultan’s Palace, “Beit-al-Ajaib” or the House of Wonders, old Portuguese fortress, and ruins of the Mahurubi palace – alternate with everyday life on the city’s “Main Road”, Malindi, Vuga, and Indian Streets. There are also views of the British colonial sites, like the Court House, city museum, or famous Livingstone House which David Livingstone and other explorers such as Burton, Speke and Stanley used as a starting point for the expeditions into eastern and central Africa. Other drawings depict interesting architectural details, i.e. Beautiful “Arabic carved door”, or a milestone showing distances from Zanzibar City to London and smaller settlements on the Zanzibar Island – Cukwani (Chukwani, Zanzibar), Fumba, Chwaka, and Fuoni et al.
“The Barwani clan have their origins in Oman, but by the close of the nineteenth century they had assimilated to the Swahili way of life, several members emerging as prominent Sunni scholars, of whom Sheikh Ali's father was one. During the years of the Busa'idi Sultanate based in Zanzibar the Barwani were involved in the development of the east African coast from Barawa (in the north, in what was to become Italian Somaliland) to Lindi, in the south, a town founded by Sheikh Ali's maternal grandfather (in what was to become German East Africa)” (Coastweek Kenya on-line/ Obituaries/ April 21-27, 2006).
Ali Muhsin Al-Barwani was a Zanzibari politician and diplomat under the Sultanate of Zanzibar. He was the only Arab foreign minister of an independent Zanzibar before the establishment of the People's Republic of Zanzibar. When his government was overthrown in January 1964 Barwani was held in detention centers across Tanzania until his release in 1974, when he fled to Kenya as a refugee. After obtaining refugee status, Barwani moved to Cairo then back to Kenya then to Dubai in the United Arab Emirates. In the UAE, Barwani translated the Qur'an into Swahili (Swahili kiUnguja) Qur'ani Tukufu for which he is most prominently known.


[Album with Twenty-five Original Photographs of Durban and the Zululand after its Annexation by the British Colony of Natal, South Africa].

Ca. 1890. Small Folio (ca. 31,5x24,5 cm). 25 mounted gelatin silver photographs ca. 14x19 cm (5 ½ x 7 ½ in) mounted on 14 stiff card leaves. One later image mounted on the first leaf and dated “1901” in negative. All images numbered, signed and captioned in negative, all but the first one numbered in hand from 29 to 52, some with manuscript ink captions in German on the mounts. Period black half sheep album with black cloth boards and decorative endpapers. Album mildly rubbed at extremities, but otherwise a very good album with strong bright images.
Interesting collection of rare early photos of Durban and the surrounding territories of the African Zulu Kingdom which was annexed by the British Colony of Natal in the 1880-1890s. The photos were taken by a local photographer (with initials “J.E.M.”) and include five detailed and sharp panoramas of Durban, with its harbour and wharf, several street views (Gardiner street and West street, with a significant photo of one of Durban’s first street cars), a photo of the Central Avenue of the Durban Botanic Gardens with “hot houses” et al.
Several nicely executed photos of native people include group portraits of Zulu families, young men, children, a couple of arranged scenes, like two Africans fighting “for possession of a [leopard] skin” or a picture of a family meal captioned “Three times a day Zulus eating porridge”; views of native villages, interiors of Zulu houses et al. Two photos show young men with elaborate hairdos; others show “Matabele” women carrying water, Natives typical for the East coast of Africa” et al. As a reminder of the recent Anglo-Zulu War (1879) the last photograph shows an elderly Zulu chief who turns out to be a brother of the famous Zulu king Cetshwayo kaMpande (1826-1884) who lead the nation during the war. The photo is captioned “Chief Umdabaun Kulu, Cetshwayo’s brother”.
The first images is of the Second Boer War and shows a “81 Gun Salute” in Mafeking, given on the Jan 25th 1901, i.e. Several months after the relief of the famous Siege of Mafeking (13 October 1899 – 17 May 1900) which became of the most significant British victories of the war.


55. ANDREWS, Lieutenant-Colonel Mottram
A Series of Views in Turkey and the Crimea, from the Embarcation at Gallipoli to the fall of Sebastopol.

London: Thomas McLean, 1856. First Edition. Folio. With a lithographed pictorial title page, dedication leaf, subscribers' leaf, nine descriptive leaves and seventeen tinted views, two folding. Handsome period style maroon elaborately gilt tooled half straight grained morocco with cloth boards and original cloth cover title mounted on front cover. Several plates with repaired margins, not affecting printed surface, title and a few plate margins with some mild finger soiling, otherwise a very good copy.
Mottram Andrews served during the Crimean War (1853-56) as a Captain of the 28th Foot (North Gloucester) Regiment of the British Army; he retired and was promoted to an honorary rank of Lieutenant Colonel on September 9th, 1855 (Colburn’s United Service Magazine. 1855, Part 1, p. 315). The 28th (North Gloucestershire) Regiment of Foot participated in the Battles of Alma (20th September) and Inkerman (November 5, 1854) of the Crimean War, as well as in the Siege of Sevastopol (October 1854 – September 1855).
The plates, executed, as noted on the title page, ‘with the latest improvements in tinted lithography’ show the views of war affected areas in Turkey – environments of Gallipoli and Varna, with a nice folding panorama of the lake of Devna; and the main battle grounds in Crimea – Balaklava, Inkerman and Sevastopol with the surroundings, including a large folding panorama of Sevastopol with its harbour. The interesting views show British encampments and weapon magazines, military barracks in the Korabelnaya harbour of Sevastopol.
Abbey Travel 238.


56. ARTHY, E.
[Original Manuscript] List of Death Among the Late African Company Officers in the Settlements on the Gold Coast from the 1st of January 1812, to 1st of January 1822 Being a Period of Ten Years.

Gold Coast, 1822. 4 pages. Folio manuscript ca. 34x21 cm (13x8 in). Manuscript with tears but no loss of text housed in a blue cloth custom made portfolio with a red gilt morocco cover label. In very good condition.
This report by the Assistant Surgeon in the African Company of Merchants concerns the mortality rate among the Company’s officers during a period of ten years (1812-1822) and includes a list of fifty people (indicating their names). The “Remarks” section explains the statistics: "The African Company Establishment when fully appointed consisted of forty-five commissioned and non commissioned European officers but during the period of time stated above, there was not more than thirty-five residing in the Settlements on a yearly average & the deaths among them being five annually on an average." Arthy also counts the number of the native workers of the Company: “170 non commissioned officers and private soldiers, and 334 artificers, labourers and labouresses”, and states that the mortality amongst them “except on occasional visitations of the Small Pox, was generally at the rate of one percent per annum, and very rarely exceeded two percent”.
Arthy concludes that “there is much reason to believe that the Climate of the Gold Coast would be found considerably less destructive of the health and lives of Europeans than that of any other intertropical country round the world. In reality to decide this question, it does not seem necessary to enquire further that Sierra Leone, Charlestown, the Havannah, Surinam and Batavia, wherein the mortality among Europeans annually so excessive and lamentable and so generally known as might serve to remove all Doubts of the superior salubrity of the Climate of the Gold Coast to that of all other tropical countries”.
"The African Company of Merchants was a Chartered Company in the Gold Coast area of modern Ghana, in the coastal area where the Fante people lived. It was founded in 1752 and replaced the Royal African Company which was dissolved in that year. In 1817 the Company had signed a treaty of friendship that recognized Asante claims to sovereignty over large areas of the coast, including areas claimed by the Fante. The Company was abolished in 1821, as the slave trade had not been suppressed in these privately held areas. Authority over the area was given to Governor Charles MacCarthy, the governor of Sierra Leone, who was subsequently killed in the First Anglo-Asante War" (Wikipedia).

57. ATTWOOD-MATHEWS, Mrs., Of Llanvihangel Court, Monmouthshire, Florence Blakiston
[Important Archive of Watercolours and Memorabilia Related to British Egypt and Sudan, Including]:
[“The Book of Egyptian Fame”: Unique Keepsake Album with 38 Original Watercolour Views of Egypt and the Nile, Autographs, Letters, Inscriptions and Cartes-de-visite of Over a Hundred Important Military Officers, Civil Administrators, Scientists, Adventurers and Travellers in Colonial Egypt and Sudan; With: Three Original Photos, including a Photo of a Plane above an Egyptian Crowd, and Two Portraits of the Rebel Dervishes Captured by the British-Egyptian Forces at the end of the Mahdist War].

Ca. 1898-1914. Oblong Octavo (ca. 13x20,5 cm). 54 leaves. With 38 original watercolour and pencil drawings, all but one: 23 January – 5 March 1898 (one – 6 January 1901); all watercolours with pencil captions on the adjacent leaves. With numerous signatures, inscriptions, mounted cartes-de-visite, newspaper clippings, and three original photographs captioned by Mrs. Attwood-Mathews. Original white cloth album by “L. Cornelissen & Son”, decorated with hand drawn Egyptian hieroglyphs and a scarab on the front cover. Album soiled and worn, weak on hinges, some leaves loosely inserted, but overall a very good album.
[With: Album of 19 Watercolour Views and Scenes in Egypt and Sudan].
Ca. November 1913 – July 1914. Oblong Folio (ca. 23,5 x 27,5 cm). 32 leaves. With 16 full page watercolour views, a leaf with two sketches of a Sudanese boy; one small sketch of a Nile boat in Khartoum, and a view of the Beni Hassan ancient Egyptian Cemetery (on a smaller leaf, presumably from another album). All watercolours are with pencil captions on the adjacent leaves. The album is signed by the artist on the inner front cover. Original white cloth album by “L. Cornelissen & Son." A very good album with beautiful watercolours.
A fantastic private archive containing rich first-hand material on the history of the British rule in the 19th century Egypt and Sudan. The first album starts with a series of watercolours taken by Mrs. Attwood-Mathews during her travel up the Nile in January-March 1898. This journey was obviously closely connected with the final offense of the British-Egyptian forces towards the Mahdist Sudan in the spring 1898. The military expedition under command of Horatio Herbert Kitchener defeated the Mahdist army at the Battle of Omdurman on 2 September 1898 and completely conquered the Sudan by November 1899.
The watercolours taken from the “post boat ‘Amenartas’” comprise a series of Nile panoramas, often taken on sunrise or sunset and showing the pyramids of Giza, Saqqara and Meidum, minarets of Hawara, Assirit and Sohag; bright, almost electric colours of Aswan and Beni Hassan; and “Libyan Hills” coloured in tender pink by the morning sun. Wartime reality becomes obvious with the portrait of six British military officers travelling with Mrs. Attwood on board “Amenartas”: they are dressed in the uniform of different regiments (Royal Horse Guards, Cameron Highlanders, and A.M. Staff), with a pencil caption: “Field Service Cup, side view”. Another watercolour shows “the boat towed behind the post boat “Amenartas” with the troops on board: Cameron Highlanders, Lincolns & A.M.S.” There are also beautiful scenes of a sand storm in Sheikh Fadl, a street view in Nag Hammadi; pictures of Nile feluccas and boats “with ripen sugarcane”, papyrus reeds, windmills, local women “filling water jars in the Nile” and others.
The idea to collect autographs and inscriptions of interesting contemporaries in Egypt and the Sudan might have come to Mrs. Attwood “in the train from Aswan to Shellah, en route for Omdurman”, as the caption says to over a dozen signatures of British military officers in the album. However, it was this idea that eventually transformed the small album into a real “Book of Egyptian fame” (nicknamed so by one of the contributors), with hundreds of inscriptions and signatures by famous figures of the colonial Egypt and Sudan, supplemented with original letters, photographs and newspaper clippings.
Mrs. Attwood-Mathews seems to have been in the centre of the social life of the upper class of the British colonial administration in Egypt and Sudan where she obviously resided in 1898-1906 and travelled in 1914 (according to the dates of inscriptions). Her album represents almost an exhaustively full record of everyone more or less important who resided in or visited the region in the period of 1900-1910. The signatures (to name only a few) include those of: Colonel E.S. Stanton, the Governor of Khartoum; Governor-General of Sudan Sir Reginald Wingate (curious note about the books taken from the hotel library in Luxor); John Evans, President of the Egypt Exploration Fund; Sir Colin Scott-Moncrieff killed in Sudan in 1916; G.E. Matthews, Governor of the Upper Nile Province; Butler, Governor of the White Nile Province; Rudolph von Slatin Pasha; Carl Neufeld, famous “Khalifa’s Prisoner”; British MP Daniel Ford Goddard; Ernest St. George Tucker, “Chief Engineer” of gunboat “El Fateh” who “had the honour of bringing Major Marchand from Fashoda to Atbara, the first time he came to Cairo, early in 1900” (relates to the famous Fashoda Incident, summer-autumn 1898) et al.
The inscriptions include those of many British military officers, e.g. F. Burghes who “afterwards captured Osman Digna” (Digna – renowned military commander of the Mahdi forces), Herbert Ravescroft from the “Slavery Department, Khartoum”, several managers of the National bank of Egypt, inspector of Postal Service in Upper Egypt; judge of the Aswan Court and many others. A collection of its own is a group of signatures and inscriptions of renowned Egyptologists, which include: Howard Carter, the famous discoverer of Tutankhamun’s tomb; Sir Ernest A. T. Wallis Budge who wrote his inscription in Egyptian hieroglyphs; Walter L. Nash whose “visit to Egypt this year has been made specially agreeable by the acquaintance of so many who are interested in Egyptology”; A. H. Sayce, a pioneering British Assyriologist and linguist, and a close friend of Mrs. Attwood-Mathews; Georges Legrain (1865-1917), “Inspecteur dessinateur du Service des Antiquites, Temple de Karnak”; visiting staff members of Columbia University and Harvard, et al.
Interesting items also include a note by Colonel James J. Harrison who made a sensation in Britain when in 1905 he was the first to bring six Pygmies from Congo. In a note dated 16 January 1905, Harrison wrote: “en route after Pygmies and okapi”. There is also a note by another traveller, Burchard Heinrich Jessen, F.R.G.S., attached to “W.N. Mc.Millan’s Expedition in the Sudan and Abyssinia." Another note from Philae by American painter Henry Roderick Newman (Feb. 6, 1902), and in the same place, but four years later - British painter Frederick Ogilvie (“Feb. 12, 1906 – painting on Philae”). The inscriptions are supplemented with numerous newspaper clippings mounted in by Mrs. Attwood-Mathews with short biographies or notes about the inscribers.
Original photos include a picture of a plane flying over a crowd in Egypt – most likely, piloted by famous early aviator John-Herbert Spottiswood who also left his inscription in the album; there is also Mrs. Attwood’s note: “came to Aswan in the hydroplane and Khartoum by rail on March 5th, 1914." Additionally there are two original portraits of the Dervish leaders who continued to struggle against the British-Egyptian forces after Mahdi’s death in 1885. Among the portrayed are Emir Mahmoud - “the Dervish leader at the famous battle of El Atbara”, Emir Abou Zeid, and son of famous general Khalifa. The caption says: “The Dervishes brought down the Nile by Captain Elgood & photographed at the railway station at Luxor. The Khalifa’s son has his face partly covered up”. The entry is supplemented by an extensive inscription by “captain Elgood” himself, who called himself “Lieut.-Col. Percival G. Elgood, Commandant, Aswan Province, Upper Egypt” (1900), and modestly noted: “My sole title to a niche in this book of Egyptian fame is that I was the conductor of “the last of the Derwishes” (Mahmoud, Sheikh Addis et cet.) in their […?] official journey from Kordofan to Rosetta!”
Among several letters or notes from the album is a letter to Mrs. Attwood-Mathews from the bishop of Khartoum Llewellyn Henry Gwynne who “should much like to see some of your paintings of the Cathedral of Khartoum” (23 February, 1914), and a fragment of the letter by major Hugh Watson Channer of the Egyptian army with a humorous picture of a man going in the direction of a “Hareem” (maybe, a self-portrait?).
The beautiful large watercolours from the second album include several Nile panoramas taken in Abu Girgeh, Nagh Hammadi, Denderch, and Khartoum; a view of the city of Aswan; interiors of the Shepherd’s Hotel in Cairo, garden views of the Grand Hotel in Khartoum (with some expressive notes, e.g. “100 Farengheit in the shade!!”) and others. Two interesting views of the ancient Egyptian temples in the Lower Nubia - Wadi es-Sebua Temple and Amada Temple - give a good picture of their original location, as both temples were relocated in 1964 during the construction of the Aswan Dam project. Two other watercolours refer to the events of the Mahdist War (1881-1899): e.g. A serene panorama of the Nile with the distant hills in the background, taken from the hotel balcony in Khartoum; it is supplemented with a caption “Sand dunes where our troops lay the night before the battle of Omdurrman” (sic!). Another Nile view shows the spot “Where the battle of Toski was fought, under these hills” (the Battle of Toski (Tushkan), near Abu-Simbel, was fought on August 3, 1899, between the Anglo-Egyptian forces and the Mahdist Sudanese).
Florence Blakiston Attwood Matthews was the second daughter of a British Swedenborgian writer and homeopathic doctor James John Garth Wilkinson (1812-1899). She was a noted watercolour painter of the time, and her watercolour view of Pontrilas Court (Herefordshire) is now in the National Library of New Zealand. In 1860 she married Benjamin St. John Attwood Mathews, a J.P. And D.L. For Herefordshire (High Sheriff 1891), and one of the Founders of the Alpine Club. In 1857 he took part in the first British accent of the Finsteraarhorn (Bernese Alps), together with his cousin, famous mountaineer Charles Mathews (1834-1905).


58. BARNIM, Adalbert von (1841-60) & HARTMANN, Robert (1831-1893)
[Text Volume] Reise des Freiherrn Adalbert von Barnim durch Nord-Ost-Afrika in den Jahren 1859 und 1860 [Travels Through North-East Africa].

Berlin: Georg Reimer, 1863. First Edition. Folio. xvi, 651, xi, 108, [3] pp. Text volume with one lithographed portrait frontispiece, two other lithographed plates, three (two folding) lithographed maps, two wood engraved plates and 26 wood engravings in text. Original publisher's dark green gilt blind stamped cloth. Some scattered mild foxing, rear hinge with small crack, otherwise a very good copy.
"The Party ascended the Nile into Sudan, explored from Old Dongola to Khartoum, then proceeded up the Blue Nile as far as Fazogli on the border of Ethiopia. Von Barnim died during the expedition at Roseres but Hartmann returned to Germany and in 1863 published [this] account of the expedition. Hartmann was appointed professor of zoology at the University of Berlin in 1867" (Howgego, Continental Exploration 1850-1940, B17). "In 1859-60 he accompanied Adalbert von Barnim , the son of Adalbert of Prussia (1811-1873) on a mission to northeastern Africa (Egypt, Sudan and Nubia). Here Hartmann performed ethnographical, zoological and geographical studies in the region. On the journey, Adalbert von Barnim became ill and died on June 12, 1860 at Roseires in the Sudan. Hartmann wrote about the expedition in a 1863 treatise called Reisen des Freihern von Barnim durch Nordostafrika" (Wikipedia).


59. BEKE, Charles T[ilstone] (1800-1874)
A Lecture on the Sources of the Nile and on the Means Requisite for their Final Determination. Delivered in the Theatre of the London Institution, on Wednesday, January 20th, 1864.
[With] A Mounted Photograph (8.5 x 6 cm) of Mr. & Mrs. Beke ca. 1870 London: Ernest Edwards.
With Six Pages of Loose Descriptive Text.

London: Board of Management of the London Institution, 1864. First Edition. Octavo. 35 pp. With three maps, one outline hand colored. Recent gray wrappers. A fine copy.
Very Rare publication as only three copies found in Worldcat. Published after Speke's 'Discovery of the Sources of the Nile.' In this lecture to the London Institution, Beke took issue with Speke's claim that he had discovered the source of the Nile. Beke's counter claims were based on Beke's knowledge gained during his previous journeys to the region. "Beke spent the years 1840 to 1843 travelling in Abyssinia, spending most of his time in the provinces of Shoa and Gojam. His governing concerns were to advance commerce; aid the suppression of the slave trade; and make further geographical discovery, with the elucidation of the sources of the Nile River as his goal.., In the 1860s Beke's lifelong passions again brought him into the public eye. He continued, by lecture and articles, and his Sources of the Nile (1860), to debate the geography of the Nile basin" (Oxford DNB).


60. BLUNT, Lady Anne Isabella Noel (1837-1917) & BLUNT, Wilfrid Scawen (1840-1922)
A Pilgrimage to Nejd, the Cradle of the Arab Race. A Visit to the Court of the Arab Emir, and "Our Persian Campaign."

[With]: A two page Autograph Letter Signed by Lady Anne Blunt to the Secretary of the Interior dated May 22nd 1885 about a letter by her husband published in the "Times" that day.
[With]: A Four page Autograph Letter Signed by Wilfrid Scawen Blunt (1840-1922) to Herbert Vivian dated Feb. 8th 1891 discussing the publication of a journal "The Whirlwind," Lord Randolph Churchill's visit in Egypt, the suitability of Cairo as a winter holiday destination, building houses in Egypt and Blunt's wish to write and publish something about Egypt in the spring.

London: John Murray, 1881. Initialed Presentation (?) First Edition. Octavo, 2 vols. xxxi, [iii], 273; xi, [iii], 283, 24 pp. With fourteen wood engraved plates and one folding map. Original publishers grey decorative pictorial gilt cloth. Spine ends mildly worn, some mild foxing, otherwise a very good set.
With the pencil inscription: “Julia Mary O'Brien from A.J.N.B.” in vol. 1 and the ink inscription “Julia O'Brien from A. B.” in vol. 2. Additionally with the ownership inscription of noted American geographer and librarian of the American Geographical Society, John Kirtland Wright (1891-1969) dated March 1911.
"In late 1878 the Blunts decided to return to the Middle East, this time to penetrate Northern Arabia and the Nejd, the highlands sacred to all Syrian Bedouin as their ancestral homeland. They took with them a certain Muhammad ibn Aruk, whom they had met in Syria on their previous visit and who claimed to be descended from one of the three brothers of an ancient family of Nejd who had fled the country on a single camel. Each brother had stopped off in a different place and Muhammad was anxious to retrace their path in the hope of finding a cousin that he might claim as a bride. The party left Damascus in December 1878 and made its way southeast along the Wadi Sirhan route towards Ha'il. They had not gone very far before the Blunts, having wandered away from their companions, were captured by a tribal raiding party. Lady Anne was knocked down by a lance and Wilfrid had the stock of his gun broken over his head. However, the matter was settled amicably when it turned out that the raiders were friends of Muhammad. On arrival at Jawf, Muhammjad found the cousin he was seeking and on payment of 50 Pounds acquired her hand in marriage. At Ha'il the Blunts were received with the greatest courtesy by the emir, Muhammad ibn Rashid, who showed them his stable, one of the finest in Arabia. It was winter, and Wilfrid was at first disappointed by the ungroomed condition of the horses but noted their transfiguration once mounted and set in motion. The Blunts stayed about a fortnight in Ha'il, then set out for the east in the company of some pilgrims returning to Persia, passing through Ash Shu'aybah and following the chain of oases that stretch north to the Euphrates and Tigris. Arriving eventually at Baghdad, they descended the Tigris as far as Al Kut, then diverted southeast into Persia to arrive on the Persian Gulf at Bushehr" (Howgego, Continental Exploration 1850-1940, B49).


61. BOWDICH, T[homas] Edward (1791?-1824)
Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee with a Statistical Account of that Kingdom, and Geographical Notices of Other Parts of the Interior of Africa.

London: John Murray, 1819. First Edition. Quarto. [x], 512 pp. With two engraved maps (including folding frontispiece map), a folding engraved facsimile, seven hand-coloured aquatint plates (including two folding) containing ten views, and three leaves of music, two double sided. Handsome period style brown elaborately gilt tooled half calf with marbled boards and a red gilt labels. A few leaves with mild browning and minor marginal staining, otherwise a very good copy.
"In 1816 the African Company planned a mission to the Asante, and initially contemplated appointing Bowdich to lead it. On reaching Cape Coast Castle the second time, he was judged too young and Frederick James (governor of Fort Accra) was appointed to lead the expedition. In the course of the journey, however, Bowdich superseded his chief (a bold step afterwards sanctioned by the authorities), and, through negotiations which subsequently proved controversial, formed a treaty with the king of the Asante, which promised peace to the British settlements on the Gold Coast in return for commercial and political co-operation. In 1818 he returned to England in poor health, and in the following year published a detailed account of his expedition, A Mission from Cape Coast Castle to Ashantee. This work, with its glowing account of Asante society and culture, attracted considerable interest. Bowdich presented a small collection of African objects and specimens to the British Museum" (Oxford DNB); "Bowdich was appointed by the African Company to lead a mission to Ashanti in 1815. He subsequently spent much time in Africa before his death at the mouth of the Gambia" (Howgego 1800-1850, C19); Abbey Travel 279; Cardinall 492; Hess & Coger 6355; Tooley 95.


62. BOYD, A[lexander] S[tuart](1854-1930)
[Original Ink Drawing prepared for the “Graphic”, Titled]:"Chamberlain & Natives in Africa (Witnessing a Zulu War Dance in Natal)."

26 Feb 1903. Ink on paper, ca. 24,5x35 cm (ca. 9 ¾ x 13 ¾ in). Signed in ink in the right lower corner, the remnants of a printed title (cut out of the magazine) tipped to the lower edge. Ink stamp “6 Feb 93” and pencil caption “Chamberlain & Natives in Africa” on verso. A very good drawing.
This interesting drawing shows one of the most influential British politicians of late 19th – early 20th centuries – Joseph Chamberlain (1836-1914). The drawing was taken during Chamberlain’s official visit to South Africa while he was the State Secretary for the Colonies. Chamberlain was in control of the British military actions during the Second Boer War, and his tour across the Imperial colonies in South Africa (Cape, Natal, Transvaal and Orange River) was meant to politically stabilize the region. This ink sketch shows the stark contrast between the Zulus and Chamberlain’s group as they meet in an open African field.
“Chamberlain visited South Africa between 26 December 1902 and 25 February 1903, seeking to promote Anglo-Afrikaner conciliation and the colonial contribution to the British Empire, and trying to meet people in the newly unified South Africa, including those who had recently been enemies during the Boer War. In Natal, Chamberlain was given a rapturous welcome. In the Transvaal, he met Boer leaders who were attempting unsuccessfully to alter the peace terms reached at Vereeniging. The reception given to Chamberlain in the Orange River Colony was surprisingly friendly, although he was engaged in a two-hour argument with General Hertzog, who accused the British government of violating three terms of the Treaty of Vereeniging <…> During the tour, Chamberlain and his wife visited 29 towns, and he delivered 64 speeches and received 84 deputations” (Wikipedia).
Alexander Boyd was a “British artist and illustrator who worked as a Punch artist for many years. He and his wife, Mary Stuart Boyd, visited New Zealand about 1898 and he illustrated his wife's book Our Stolen Summer: the Record of a Roundabout Tour, 1900 with 170 pen and ink sketches. They returned to New Zealand about 1920 and settled in Takapuna, Auckland. Exhibited with ASA in 1921–29” (Nineteenth Century New Zealand Artists: A Guide & Handbook. Christchurch, 1980. P. 50).


63. BROMLEY, John Charles (1795-1839) [engraver]
Lt. Coll. Denham FRS late Lt. Governor of Sierra Leone. From a picture painted on his return from Bornou in Central Africa in 1825 by Thos. Phillips Esq. RA in the possession of John Murray Esqr.

London: Dominic Colnaghi & Co., 1831. Mezzotint, printed image ca. 28,5x17,5 cm (11 ½ x 7 in). Mildly age toned, with minor edge wear, otherwise a very good wide margined mezzotint.
Excellent mezzotint portrait of the famous African explorer Dixon Denham (1786-1828), after the portrait by Thomas Phillips (1826).
"In 1822 Denham was diverted to a British government expedition to establish trade links with the West African states, intending to join Dr Walter Oudney and Lt. Hugh Clapperton, at Murzuk, in Fezzan, where they had been stranded since early in the year. Denham reached Murzuk in November 1822, finding his two compatriots in a wretched condition, Clapperton ill of an ague, and Oudney with a severe cold. Nevertheless, the expedition started on the 29th November, and made its way due south across the Sahara reaching Kuka in the Bornu Empire, (now Kokawa, Nigeria) on 17 February 1823. It was from Kuka that Denham, against the wish of Oudney and Clapperton, accompanied a slave-raiding expedition into the Mandara Mountains south of Bornu. The raiders were defeated, and Denham barely escaped with his life. By this time, a deep antipathy had developed between Clapperton and Denham <..,>
When Oudney and Clapperton set out for the Hausa states in December 1823, Denham remained behind to explore the western, south and south-eastern shores of Lake Chad, and the lower courses of the rivers Waube, Logone and Shari, proving beyond doubt that Lake Chad was not the source of the Niger, as had been widely believed. During this time Oudney died, and Clapperton returned to Kuka barely recognizable after his privations. In August 1824, Denham left Kuka alone for the return journey to Tripoli and England; Clapperton followed in January 1825. In June 1826 Denham was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society. In December 1826 Denham, promoted lieutenant-colonel, sailed for Sierra Leone as superintendent of liberated Africans. In 1828 he was appointed governor of Sierra Leone, but after administering the colony for five weeks died of fever at Freetown" (Wikipedia).
"John Charles Bromley was the son of prominent engraver William Bromley. He was the first of William Bromley's sons to achieve reputation as an engraver, engraving plates for River Scenery after Turner and Girtin in 1826 and exhibiting at the Royal Academy in 1827 and 1829. In 1830, he engraved The Trial of Lord William Russell after Sir George Hayter, and in 1837, he published his mezzotint of Haydon's The Reform Banquet" (National Portrait Gallery on-line).


64. BUCKINGHAM, James Silk (1786-1855)
[Autograph Letter Signed “J. S. Buckingham” to 'J. Upcott Esq' (English librarian and antiquary William Upcott) regarding his lectures at the Library of the London Institution].

12 February 1830. On a folded Octavo leaf (ca. 21x12,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on aged paper. Text complete and legible, addressed on verso of the second leaf. Traces of the old mount and minor holes on the last page, caused by removal of the letter from a stub, otherwise a very good letter.
Autograph signed letter by James Silk Buckingham, a noted British traveller, journalist and politician (MP in 1832-37), author of “Travels in Palestine” (London, 1821) and “Travels among the Arab Tribes Inhabiting the Countries East of Syria and Palestine” (London, 1825).
The letter obviously relates to the twelve lectures on “the Countries of the Eastern World” given by Buckingham in 1830 in the Library of the London Institution [for the advancement of Literature and the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge] (see: A Catalogue of the Library of the London Institution. London, 1835, vol. 1, p. Xi). Addressing William Upcott (1779-1845), a sub-librarian in the London Institution at the time, Buckingham is sending him the paragraphs, which he would 'be glad to have written out in some other hand than my own if it were possible'. He will be 'infinitely obliged to the kindness of Mrs. Phillipps if she can procure their insertion in any of the Papers'. In a long postscript covering the whole of the second page Buckingham invites Upcott and Mrs Phillipps 'to attend the Public Lectures on the Indian Question' which he is giving. He is sending half a dozen tickets 'as a very poor return for your great civility.'


65. BURTON, I[nger] M[aria] (1828-1897)
[Two Signed Stone Town, Zanzibar Watercolours Created at Around the Time When David Livingstone was There Preparing for his Last Expedition].

Ca. 1865. Two matted watercolours each ca. 14 x 37 cm (5 ½ x 14 ½ in). The upper watercolour with some mild foxing, otherwise very good watercolours.
The two well executed and scenic watercolours show port scenes in Stone Town, Zanzibar.
"In 1840, Sultan Said bin Sultan moved his seat from Muscat, Oman, to Stone Town, which thus entered an era of quick development as the new capital of the Sultanate of Oman and Zanzibar. In 1861, as a consequence of a war of succession within the Omani royal family, Zanzibar and Oman were separated, with Zanzibar becoming an independent sultanate under Sultan Majid bin Said.
In the 19th century Stone Town also flourished as a trading centre. It was especially renowned for the commerce of spices (mostly cloves) and slaves. Around middle of the century, the sultanate had a close relationship with the British; David Livingstone, for example, is known to have stayed in Stone Town in 1866 while he was preparing his final expedition into the interior of East Africa. In the same period, several immigrant communities from Oman, Persia and India formed as a consequence of the town's intense commercial activity" (Wikipedia).


66. CAPELLO, H[ermenegildo] (1841-1917) & IVENS, R[oberto] (1850-1898)
De Benguella ás terras de Jácca descripção de una viagem na Africa central e occidental Comprehendendo narracões, aventuras e estudos importantes sobre as cabeceiras dos rios Cu-nene, Cu-bango, Lu-ando, Cu-anza e Cu-ango, e de grande parte do curso dos dois ultimos; alem da descoberta dos rios Hamba, Canali, Sussa e Cugho, e larga noticia sobre as terras de Quiteca N'bungo, Sosso, Futa e Iácca por H. Capello e R. Ivens: Expedição organisada nos annos de 1877-1880 [From Benguella to the Territory of Yacca. Description of a journey into Central and West Africa…].

Lisboa: Imprenta Nacional, 1881. First Edition. Large Octavo, 2 vols. xviii, 379; xii, 391 +[24] pp. With many illustrations and maps on plates and in text. Original publishers period brown pictorial gilt cloth. Recased, otherwise a very good set.
The expedition was part of the attempt by Portugal to establish sovereignty over a corridor linking the territories of Angola and Mozambique. It forms a companion to the account of Serpa Pinto, who set out on his own expedition after parting in disagreement with Capello and Ivens. This present account being an important survey of the sources of the Rivers Cunene, Cubango, Luando, Cuanza, and Cuango, and also discussing the discovery of the River Hamba, Cauali, Sussa, and Cugho, as well as giving a detailed account of the Territories of Quiteca N'bungo, Sosso, Futa, and Yacca. Capello "was selected to direct a scientific expedition to carry out a survey of the relationship betwenn the watersheds of the Congo and Zambezi rivers and to determine the course of the major tributaries" (Howgego, Continental Exploration 1850-1940, C8).


67. CELLA, Paolo della & PEZANT, Adolphe [Translator]
[TRAVELS FROM TRIPOLI TO EGYPT] Voyage en Afrique au Royaume de Barcah et dans la Cyrénaique à travers le désert. Traduit et augmenté de notes historiques, géographiques et botaniques, et d'une notice sur l'ancienne et moderne Cyrénaique, sur le royaume de Fezzan, sur Temboctou, sur l'Oasis de Syouah, l'antique Oasis d'Ammon et le temple de Jupiter, sur le vent du Désert, sur l'Ibis sacré, sur le Lotus, sur le Papyrus égyptien, et sur le Silphium si recherché des Anciens. [Narrative of an Expedition from Tripoli in Barbary to the Western Frontier of Egypt in 1817 by the Bey of Tripoli].

Paris: Armand-Aubrée, 1840. First Edition. Octavo. xvi, 432 pp. With a lithographed frontispiece and seven other lithographs on plates and a large folding engraved map. Handsome period style red gilt tooled half straight-grained morocco with marbled boards. A very good uncut copy.
This rare work, originally published in Italian and then translated into German and English before this current French edition, was written by the physician attendant to the Bey. "The author gives an animated description of what he saw"(Playfair, Tripoli 146).These coastal travels in what is present day Libya, took the author from Tripoli via Misrata, Ajdabiya, Benghazi, Derna to Bombah near the border with Egypt. The most valuable scientific contribution of the work is on Libyan flora, some of which is illustrated on the plates, as three hundred botanical specimens were collected, including twenty-six species new to science.


68. COOKE, Lt-Col A. C. (compiler at the Topographical & Statistical Department of the War Office)
Routes in Abyssinia.

London: HMSO by Harrison and Sons, 1867. First Edition. Large Octavo. [iv], 252 pp. With a large folding map, hand coloured in outline (by E G Ravenstein), and smaller folding map by Keith Johnstone) Period style blue marbled papered boards with a brown gilt label. Title page with some library markings on recto and verso, otherwise a very good copy.
A particularly interesting work produced at the time of the Abyssinian Campaign reviewing the different routes of exploration taken up to that date in Abyssinia, beginning with the 1541 Portuguese Expedition and continuing with the routes taken by Salt, Pearce, Ferret et Galinier, Mansfield Parkyn, Munzinger, Merewether, Harris, D'Hericourt, Isenberg & Krapf, Coffin, Hamilton, Bruce, Beke, Combes & Tamisler, Mendez, Lefebvre, and Steudner. The last twenty pages describe and discuss the Line of Advance of the British Expedition. Also, a detailed description of Abyssinia is given and the large folding map is most likely the most detailed and accurate map of the country to that date.


69. CORDEYRO, Antonio S.J. (1641-1722)
[History of Portugal's Atlantic Islands..,] Historia Insulana das Ilhas a Portugal Sugeytas no Oceano Occidental.., Para a confirmaçam dos bons costumes, assim moraes, como sobrenaturaes, dos nobres antepassados Insulanos, nos presentes, e futuros Descendentes seus, & só para a salvação de suas almas, & mayor gloria de Deos.

Lisboa: Antonio Pedrozo Galram, 1717. First Edition. Folio. [xvi], 528 pp. With woodcut vignette on title-page, woodcut headpieces, tailpieces and initials. Handsome period brown elaborately gilt tooled full sheep. Title page with repaired upper right corner, not affecting text, rear cover with some repaired cut marks, otherwise a very good copy in very original condition.
Important history of Portugal's Atlantic islands, covering the prehistory and ancient history (including rumors that they were Atlantis) of the Canary Islands, Cabo Verde, Madeira (including Porto Santo), the Azores (sections on Santa Maria, São Miguel, Ilha Terceira, São Jorge, Graciosa, Fayal, Pico, Flores, and Corvo).
The author, a Jesuit, was a native of Angra on the island of Terceira in the Azores. He died at the Collegio de Sancto Antão in Lisbon."This work is an important source for the history and description of the Azores, Terceira in particular. Much of the material is derived from the Saudades da terra of Caspar Frutuoso. There are also chapters describing the Canaries, Cape Verde islands and Madeira, as well as some references to Brazil and the Americas. The section on Madeira includes an account of the introduction of sugarcane from Sicily, and the development of the industry. This declined with the gradual depletion of wood-fuel stocks and then moved first to Sao Tom, and then to Brazil"(Sotheby's); "A history of Portuguese exploration, colonization, and colonial administration in the islands of the Canary, Madeira, Azores, and Cape Verde groups" (Bell C619); Innocêncio I, 114; Sabin 16759.


70. DAPPER, Olfert (1636-1689)
[AFRICA: MOST COMPLETE 17TH CENTURY DESCRIPTION] Umbständliche und eigentliche Beschreibung von Africa und denen darzu gehörigen Königreichen und Landschaften als Egypten, Barbarien, Libyen, Biledulgerid, dem Lande der Negros, Guinea, Ethiopien, Abyssina und den Africanischen Insulen zusamt deren verscheidenen Nahmen, Grentzen, Städten, Flüssen...: aus unterschiedlichen neuen Land- und Reise-Beschreibungen mit Fleiss zusammengebracht.

[Africa: Being an Accurate Description of the Regions of Aegypt, Barbary, Lybia, and Billedulgerid, the Land of Negroes, Guinee, Aethiopia, and the Abyssines, with all the Adjacent islands, either in the Mediterranean, Atlantick, Southern, or Oriental Sea, belonging thereunto; with the several Denominations of their Coasts, Harbors, Creeks, Rivers, Lakes, Cities, Towns, Castles, and Villages ; Their Customs, Modes, and Manners, Languages, Religions, and Inexhaustible Treasure].
Amsterdam: Jacob van Meurs, 1670-1671. First German Edition. Folio, 2 parts in one. [viii], 695, [13] [i], 101, [3] pp. Title to part one printed in red and black, engraved additional title, engraved portrait, forty-three engraved folding maps and plates and fifty-six engraved illustrations in text. Beautiful period style crimson very elaborately gilt tooled full morocco with a black gilt label. A near fine copy.
Beautifully and vividly illustrated, this "work is one of the most authoritative 17th-century accounts on Africa published in German. Dapper never travelled to Africa but used reports by Jesuit missionaries and other explorers. The fine plates include views of Algiers, Benin, Cairo, Cap Town, La Valetta, Marrakech, St. Helena, Tangier, Tripoli, Tunis, as well as, animals and plants" (Christies). Translated into German by F. von Zesen. This copy has the engraved title, dedication and portrait leaves lacking in most copies. "An important early work on Africa in general, which was translated into several European languages.., "it was carefully compiled from the best sources of information"" (Mendelssohn I, p. 414).
Dapper "wrote a book on the history of Amsterdam. Later he also wrote about Africa, China, India, Persia, Georgia, and Arabia, although he had not visited these exotic destinations himself. In fact, he never travelled outside Holland. His books became well-known in his own time.., To this day, Dapper's book Description of Africa Naukeurige Beschrijvinge van Africa gewesten (1668) is a key text for Africanists" (Wikipedia); Cox I, p. 361; Gay 219.


71. DRUMMOND, William, Sir (1770-1828)
[Autograph Letter Signed‚ Reporting on the Latest Actions between the Ottoman Army and Mamluks in Egypt].

Boucarest, 13 December 1803. Large Octavo (ca. 23,5x18,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on laid paper. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
Interesting historical commentary to the struggle between the Ottomans and Mamluks in the early 19th century Egypt which consequently brought to power famous Muhammad Ali, the founder of modern Egypt. The letter was written by a British scholar and diplomat Sir William Drummond who at the time was the ambassador to the Ottoman Empire (1803-1806).
Drummond notes: “When I left Constantinople there were no news of any importance‚ unless it were that the Beys had raised the siege of Alexandria and had retired to Cairo. This event is attributed to a mutinous spirit‚ which had manifested itself among the Albanian troops‚ the new allies of the Mamelukes. I am sorry to add‚ that the French interest among the Beys has taken a decided ascendancy.” He also complains that he has been delayed in Bucharest for ten days “by the bad state of the roads, and must wait here until another fall of snow will enable me to put my carriage on a sledge”; after that he plans to reach Berlin via Jassy and Cracow.


72. DU CHAILLU, Paul Belloni (1831/35/39-1903)
[Autograph Letter Signed Regarding Du Chaillu’s Prospective Lectures in Leeds].

129 Mount Street (London), 2 October 1866. Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on Joynson laid paper with Du Chaillu’s monogram. Mild fold marks, overall a very good letter.
A letter by a noted African explorer and anthropologist Paul Belloni du Chaillu. In the course of his two major expeditions to West and Central Africa (1856-59, 1863-65) he became famous as “the first modern outsider to confirm the existence of gorillas, and later the Pygmy people” (Wikipedia).
“During his travels from 1856 to 1859, he observed numerous gorillas, known to non-locals in prior centuries only from an unreliable report by Hanno the Navigator of Carthage in the 5th century BC and known to scientists in the preceding years only by a few skeletons. He brought back dead specimens and presented himself as the first white person to have seen them. A subsequent expedition, from 1863 to 1865, enabled him to confirm the accounts given by the ancients of a pygmy people inhabiting the African forests. Du Chaillu sold his hunted gorillas to the Natural History Museum in London and his "cannibal skulls" to other European collections” (Wikipedia).
In the letter written just a year after his return from the second expedition, Du Chaillu turns down a proposal of his correspondent to give lectures at Leeds, saying that he is “not a professional lecturer. I do not seek such occupation and only can make such provincial visits at considerable personal inconvenience to myself and it will not be convenient for me to lecture at Leeds the coming winter”. Du Chaillu was in great demand at the time, giving public lectures in London, Paris and New York.


73. DURAND, Jean-Baptiste-Léonard (1742-1812)
[Voyage to Senegal]. Voyage au Sénégal, ou mémoires historiques, philosophiques et politiques sur les découvertes, les établissemens et le commerce des Européens dans les mers de l'Océan atlantique, depuis le Cap-Blanc jusqu'à la rivière de Serre-Lionne inclusivement ; suivis de la relation d'un voyage par terre de l'île Saint-Louis à Galam, et du texte arabe de trois traités de commerce faits par l'auteur avec les princes de pays.

Paris: Chez H. Agasse, An X, [1802]. Second Edition. Text 8vo. 2 vols, & Quarto Atlas. lvi, 359, [1]; 383, [1]; 67 pp. Atlas with a copper engraved portrait frontispiece, forty-three numbered engraved plates, including sixteen folding maps. Handsome period brown gilt tooled mottled full (text) & half (atlas) calf. Atlas with marbled boards. One text volume rebacked, otherwise a very good set.
In 1785 Durand was appointed head of the Third Company of Senegal on the Isle of St. Louis where he was a director between 1785-86. He then made a trip to Galam and concluded several treaties with the Moors, to promote the gum trade.
A Voyage to Senegal was inspired by the works of Father Labat and other writers, and includes a description of the journey of Mr. Rubault, who went to Galam and much information on the history, trade and commerce of the western African coast from Cape Blanc to the Sierra Leone River, which was the heart of the African slave trade in the 18th century. The work contains a very detailed map of the region and also engravings of local life, fauna and flora.
"During the eighteenth century the factories and settlements on the coast of Senegal had changed hands several times between the British and the French. The island of Goree had been returned to the French in 1763 at the conclusion of the Seven Years War, and 1779 Louis Philippe Rigaud, marquis de Vaudreuil, had recovered Saint Louis" (Howgego 1800-1850, W23); Wikipedia.


74. ESTCOURT, James Bucknall (1802-1855)
[Three Works: a Watercolour, an Ink and a Pencil Sketch of Tangier].

Ca. 1825. Each on separate album leaves, one double-page. Image sizes 55x21 cm (21 ½ x 8 ¼ in); 25,5x20 cm (10x8 in); 28x19,5 cm (11 x 7 ¾ in). All captioned in ink with the same hand on verso. Very good set.
The group includes a watercolour panoramic view of Tangier Bay captioned "№ 15 & 16. Two views of the point of Malabat. Tanjir Bay. The Light House and Isla at Tarifa. The bank of sand which unites the Isla to the main land" (with the second description regarding view № 16 not present here). The view represents Cape Malabata (6 miles east of Tangier) facing the Strait of Gibraltar; the mentioned lighthouse still exists. The Isla de Tarifa (modern La Isla de las Palomas) is the island opposite the town of Tarifa at the southern end of the Punta de Tarifa, the southern most point of the Iberian Peninsula.
The second view of Tangier Bay is in pencil and captioned "The Castle and port of the Fortifications of Tanjirs taken from the harbour." There is also a smaller monochrome brownish watercolour and ink sketch captioned "A View from the top of the British Vice Consul’s House in Tetuan" and dated "Jan. [?]th 1825." Tetouan is a city in northern Morocco, one of the two major ports of Morocco on the Mediterranean Sea. It lies a few miles south of the Strait of Gibraltar, and about 40 mi (60 km) east of Tangier. Historical Text Archive on-line notes that in 1825 the post of British vice-consul in Tetuan was held by a Moroccan Jew Salvador D. Hassan, who also acted as Consul of Portugal and Italy.
Estcourt "purchased a commission as ensign in the 44th foot on 13 July 1820, exchanging on 7 June 1821 into the 43rd foot (Monmouthshire light infantry) before purchasing promotion to lieutenant (9 December 1824) and captain (5 November 1825). Estcourt served with the regiment, which formed part of Lieutenant-General Sir William Clinton's division sent to garrison towns in Portugal (1826-7) during disruption over the succession to the throne. He appears then to have returned with the 43rd to Gibraltar, before sailing for Plymouth and, in 1832, Ireland. From January 1835 until June 1837, he was second in command to Colonel F. R. Chesney during his expedition to the Euphrates valley, which sought to prove that the river was navigable from within overland reach of the Mediterranean to its mouth on the Persian Gulf, thus shortening the journey to India. Despite a torrid period, during which one steamer was wrecked and twenty lives lost at Basrah on 31 August 1836, Estcourt produced a detailed report for Chesney, anticipating ‘no difficulties’ in passage during the ‘season of high water’, provided that accurate knowledge of the deep channel and a vessel of suitable length were acquired. He was less sure about the ‘low season’, owing to lack of information, though he was confident that local Arabs would not be hostile, once they became used to the steamers" (Oxford DNB). This collection was obviously made from Estcourt first posting in Gibraltar.


75. EWAN, Frances
[Original Watercolour prepared for the “Graphic”, Titled]: "Preparing for Emergencies in Johannesburg: A Promising Young Uitlander."

19 Sept. 1899. Grisaille watercolour on paper, heightened in white, ca. 15,5x21,5 cm (ca. 6 x 8 ½ in). Signed and dated in watercolour on the right, printed title (cut out of the magazine) tipped to the lower edge. From a photograph by Horace W. Nicholls, Johannesburg. Ink stamp “19 Sept 99” on verso. A very good watercolour.
This illustration made less than a month before the beginning of the Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902) shows a young British boy practicing his marksmanship with an air rifle in the wilderness of South Africa. The intensity of the pre-war atmosphere is shown clearly - that everyone, even young boys, were preparing for the oncoming battle.
“Trained at Herkomer Art School, Bushey, Ewan worked on the staff of an illustrated weekly newspaper before moving to London in 1896. She illustrated a number of books on a wide range of subjects. By 1911 she had moved to St Ives, working from first 6 Porthmeor Studios, then from Number 2. Her early exhibits were aquatints and etchings, and later during the 1930s watercolours and oils. She produced some portraits and coastal and harbour scenes as well as flower studies in the 1950s. She was also a member of the Arts Club” (Cornwall Artist Index on-line).


76. FORBIN, Louis-Nicolas-Philippe-Auguste, de (1777-1841)
[Egypt] Ruines du Temple de Carnak à Thébes. Egypte.

[Paris]: [Imprimerie Royale], 1819. Uncoloured aquatint, printed image ca. 46x53,5 cm (18 ½ x 21 ½ in). Engraved by M. Debucourt. Aquatint slightly waved, descriptive text closely trimmed, otherwise a very good aquatint.
Plate 62 from the Atlas to Forbin’s "Voyage dans Le Levant en 1817 et 1818" (Paris, 1819; two editions were published the same year, our plate is from one of them). This was "one of the first important French books to use lithography on a grand scale, with the scarce first edition, of which Brunet states that only 325 copies were printed. Most of the plates, after Lecomte, Deseynes, Castellan, Carle and Horace Vernet, Fragonard, Thienon, Legros, Isabey and others, illustrate views in Egypt and Syria, including the famous view of Drovetti, French consul in Egypt, measuring a giant head" (PBA Galleries).
"In 1816 Forbin replaced Denon as Director of Museums, and in August 1817 he undertook a semi-official year-long voyage to the Levant, having been authorized to purchase antiquities for the Louvre. He travelled to Milos, where his son-in-law Marcellus had negotiated the purchase of the recently discovered Venus de Milo, and from there to Athens, Constantinople, Asia Minor, Syria and Palestine, from Jaffa he travelled overland to Alexandria and visited Egypt" (Blackmer 614).

77. FREIRE DE ANDRADE, Alfredo Augusto
[Twenty-Four Mounted Photographs of the Expedition of the Comissao de Delimitacao de Fronteiras Entre o Distrito de Lourenco Marques e o Transvaal 1890 [Commission to Deliminate the Border Between Mozambique and Transvaal in 1890].

1890-1. Folio. 24 leaves. With twenty-four albumen photographs mounted on stiff card, each photograph with a manuscript caption. Photographs: 15x20 cm (6x8 in), Card: 30x36 cm (12 x 14 ½ in). Several mounts with mild foxing and some mounts with some mild water staining, mainly of blank margin, additionally several mounts with edge wear, several images mildly faded and a couple of images with some minor damage of image surface but overall a very good collection.
This rare collection of images show: Lourenzo Marques (Maputo) (2 photographs), Officer Corps of the Mozambique Expedition & Armoury; Massikesse (Macequece) (2 photographs) Camp & Detachment; Guelimane (Quelimane) (2 photographs) Armoury & Market; Also, Mafakase, camp on the River Muanze, Beira, Vincent beach (Zambezi), military headquarters in Mossurize, camp by Mount Gorungue, Mount Wengo north side, departure of the expedition boats, River Limpopo, group of inhabitants of Gouvea, native troops, government wagons, Portuguese detachments (2) and several other images.
Mozambique had reached a critical period with Britain because of the question of the Shire mountains following the British ultimatum of 1890, which forced a period of inactivity until Portugal and Britain reached an agreement on the demarcation of their spheres of influence in East Africa.
Once those issues were resolved, the Commission to deliminate the borders between the district of Lourenço Marques and the Transvaal Republic began its work. The leadership was entrusted to engineer Freire de Andrade who then started to explore the Limpopo River. This exploration unfortunately led to more conflict with the British. "Massi Kessi has historic significance for a conflict that took place there on May 11, 1891, between the Portuguese (Under the command of Caldas Xavier) and the British South Africa Company. As a result, the British government pushed through a treaty on June 11, 1891, that ensured ownership of Manica by the British South Africa Company; until then, the Portuguese colonial area had extended to the Mazoetal river, almost to Harare, Shamv and Mount Darwin" (Wikipedia).


78. HAMMER-PURGSTALL, Joseph Freiherr von (1774-1856)
[Autograph Letter in Secretarial Hand Signed by Hammer-Purgstall to “Charles Fellows, Esquire” Regarding the Latter’s Book.

Vienna, 12 January 1841. Quarto (ca. 25x20,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Clear and complete text in secretarial hand, signed by “Your obedient much servant J. Hammer-Purgstall”. Addressed, sealed and with the postal stamps on the 4th page. Paper soiled and slightly worn on folds, a hole on the 4th page after opening, not affecting the text, overall a very good letter.
Fine example of a scientific correspondence between two European Orientalists: Joseph Freiherr von Hammer-Purgstall, founder and the first president of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (1847-1849) and British archaeologist and traveller in Asia Minor Sir Charles Fellows (1799-1860).
In the letter Hammer-Purgstall informs his correspondent, that Mr Arneth, director of the Vienna Imperial Cabinet of Antics “has just transmitted to me in a small box sealed with the seal of the cabinet, the cast of all the coins which you desire and which the cabinet is possessed of. I’ll deliver this small box immediately at our Secretary of State’s office, to be forwarded with the next messenger”. He advices Fellows about the fastest way of the parcel’s delivery to London and later notes: “If you mention in our work the Vienna coins, be so good as to record Mr. Arneth’s name in order to encourage him to further communications of this kind. I am myself eager for the appearance of your work, of which I promise myself much pleasure and information”.
The letter most likely relates to one of the Fellows’ works about the archaeology of ancient Lycia: “An Account of Discoveries in Lycia, being a Journal kept during a Second Excursion in Asia Minor”, published later that year, or “Coins of Ancient Lycia before the Reign of Alexander; with an Essay on the Relative Dates of the Lycian Monuments in the British Museum” (1855).


79. HARTUNG, George (1822-1891)
Die Azoren in Ihrer Ausseren Erscheinung und nach Ihrer Geognostischen Natur Geschildert. [A Description of the Azores, Especially Their Geological Features].

Leipzig: Wilhelm Engelmann, 1860. First Edition. Large Octavo & Small Folio Atlas. viii, 350+[1] pp. Atlas with one map and nineteen other lithographed plates, many colored and folding. Handsome period style red gilt tooled half morocco with marbled boards. A very good set.
Georg Hartung was a pioneer German geologist. His work "on the Azores contains illustrations of great scientific interest. Georg Hartung also met and corresponded with Charles Darwin and with Sir Charles Lyell, the pioneer of modern geology, from whom he received scientific samples. He visited the Canary Islands in the winter of 1853 and the spring of 1854" (Wikipedia).


80. HECQUARD, [Louis] Hyacinthe (1814-1866)
Voyage sur la côte et dans l'interieur de l'Afrique Occidentale [Voyage to the Coast and Interior of West Africa].

Paris: ‎Imprimerie de Bénard et Cie, 1855. First Public Edition. Quarto. [iv], 409 pp. With a tinted lithograph frontispiece and three other tinted lithographs on plates, three folding lithographed maps, and a plan. Handsome period style brown gilt tooled quarter calf with marbled boards and vellum tips. Maps and plan mildly browned otherwise a very good copy.
The frontispiece shows Grand Bassam, the main French base in Côte d'Ivoire.
This account is "an important source of ethnographic and art historical information.., Hyacinthe Hecquard, geographer, military officer, and diplomat, arrived in Senegal in 1843 to serve with the "Spahis Senegalais.' In 1849 he was named commanding officer of the French fort at Bakel in the Senegal Valley, a position he held for sixteen months. As a geographer, Hecquard was anxios to travel to the Niger River. In 1849 the French administration in West Africa authorized this journey, which was to follow an unusual and, ultimately, an impractical route. Hecquard arrived at Grand Bassam to begin his overland trek on November 19, 1849. For three months he struggled to convince recalcitrant Muslim traders, whom he called "Bambaras," to guide him into the interior. He finally admitted defeat and returned to Grand Bassam. In August 1850 he set out again, this time from Casamance (present-day south-western Senegal). The revised itinerary took him to Futa Jallon, which was then just beginning to attract the attention of the French in St. Louis for its commercial prospects. The venture was successful and Hecquard spent four months in the Futa Jallon" (Peter Mark, "France took an interest in the 1840s, enticing local chiefs to grant French commercial traders a monopoly along the coast. Thereafter, the French built naval bases to keep out non-French traders and began a systematic conquest of the interior." (Wikipedia); Hess & Coger 5538‎USD


81. JANSSONIUS, Johannes (1588-1664)
Mar di Aethiopia Vulgo Oceanus Aethiopicus. [Map of the South Atlantic with Africa, South America and Antarctica].

Amsterdam, 1647. Outline hand coloured copper engraved map ca. 44x56 cm. (17x22 in). A strong impression. With some very mild foxing, otherwise the map is in very good condition.
"The sea chart of the Atlantic Ocean featured here first appeared in Jansson's Atlantis Majoris and includes almost the whole of South America and the western and southern coastlines of Africa.., An elongated landmass along the lower border is labelled Terra Australis Incognita..," (Norwich 240). Janssonius "formed a partnership with his brother in law Henricus Hondius, and together they published atlases as Mercator/Hondius/Janssonius. Under the leadership of Janssonius the Hondius Atlas was steadily enlarged. Renamed Atlas Novus, it had three volumes in 1638" (Wikipedia).


82. LABAT, Jean-Baptiste, Père (1663-1738)
Voyage du Chevalier Des Marchais en Guinée, Isles Voisines, Et a Cayénne, Fait En 1725, 1726 & 1727. Contenant une description très exacte & très étendue de ces paîs, & du commerce qui s'y fait : Enrichi d'un grand nombre de cartes & de figures en tailles douces par Labat. [Chevalier Des Marchais's Voyage to Guinea, the Adjacent Islands, and Cayenne, Made In 1725, 1726 & 1727. Containing a very accurate & very expansive description of these countries & trade done there..,].

Amsterdam: Aux dépens de la Compagnie, 1731. First Amsterdam Edition. Small Octavo. [iv], xxii, 335; [viii], 292; [iv], 330, [24; [iv], 392 pp. Engraved additional title, 31 maps and plates (many folding). Very handsome period brown elaborately gilt tooled mottled full calf. Extremities with mild wear, hinges with crack but holding, otherwise a very good set.
"The author made several voyages to Africa and America. He gave an exact account of everything he saw, for which he was well qualified, "being a person of great understanding and curiosity, an able draughtsman, a good geometer, and an excellent navigator" (Cox I, p.381). "Jean-Baptiste Labat, also known as Pere Labat, was a French clergyman and explorer who was additionally an accomplished engineer and mathematician. He modernized the sugar industry and developed new production techniques while living in Martinique" (Heritage Auctions). "Labat had a wide reputation as a mathematician and won recognition both as a naturalist and as a scientist" (Howgego L43). "Vols. III and IV relate almost entirely to the French possessions in South America, and are illustrated with D'Anville's maps" (Sabin 38414); "The genus of the tropical fruit tree family Sapotaceae Labatia, first described in 1788, was named after Labat" (Wikipedia); Gay 2819.


83. LAING, Alexander Gordon, Major (1794-1826)
Travels in the Timannee, Kooranko, and Soolina Countries, in Western Africa.

London: John Murray, 1825. First Edition. Octavo. x, [ii], 465 pp. With seven aquatint plates and one folding engraved map. Period brown gilt tooled half calf with marbled boards. Re-cased using the original spine, otherwise a very good copy.
In this book Laing describes his expedition in 1822, during which he explored regions which had only been known by name up to then. He went to Falaba, the capital of the Sulima, where he was prevented from going on by the war of the Ashanti. During his next expedition he was the first European to reach Timbuktu but was killed on his further journey. "In 1821 the government decided that there were commercial and political advantages to be gained by establishing contact with some of the peoples of the interior, and at the end of the year the governor of Sierra Leone, Sir Charles McCarthy, proposed a mission to Kambia and the Mandingo Country. Laing was chosen to lead the expedition and set out in January 1822, proceeding first to Malacouri, a Mandingo town on the river Malageea. There he learned that Sannassee, the chief of the district of Malageea and a friend of the British government, had been captured by Amara, the king of the Soolimas, and was about to be put to death. Laing therefore resolved to go to the Soolima camp and intercede for the life of Sannassee. He crossed the Malageea near its source, reached the camp, negotiated the release of Sannassee, then returned to the coast" (Howgego 1800-1850, L5).
"His Travels, published in 1825, give a lively account of his adventures, including not only observations on the customs of the peoples he encountered, illustrated with his own rather amateurish drawings and a good map, but also an oral history of Solima Yalunka back to the seventeenth century, useful to later historians. Laing was transferred to the Gold Coast in 1823 and edited the first newspaper to be published there. Then, stationed on the frontier, he participated in some skirmishes with the Asante army before the disastrous battle of Nsamanko, in which MacCarthy and almost all his men were killed" (Oxford DNB).


84. LEAKE, W[illiam] M[artin], Lieutenant Colonel, Royal Engineers (1777-1860)
Map of Egypt [With Inset] Supplement to the Map of Egypt or Course of the Nile from Essouan to the Confines of Dongola.
London: J. Arrowsmith, 1840. A very large outline hand coloured copper engraved map ca. 130x76 cm (51x30 in). The map is dissected into 40 sections and backed on linen. The map is in very good condition.
"This extremely detailed map of the course of the Nile was produced by William Martin Leake, a leading British authority on the topography of the region. In March 1802, Leake was employed to make a general survey of Egypt together with W.R. Hamilton and Charles Hayes. On his return to England, his ship sank and all Leake's valuable notes on the Egyptian survey perished. His chart was subsequently published in 1818 after his retirement, incorporating additional material from Sir Alexander Bryce, M. Nouet, and others. The map provides extensive information on the Nile, ancient ruins, the Suez Canal, roads and railways, and is filled with voluminous notations. It extends south to Aswan, and beyond in an inset, as far as Dongola" (Old World Auctions).
"A journey through Asia Minor in 1800 to join the British fleet at Cyprus inspired [Leake] with an interest in antiquarian topography. In 1801, after travelling across the desert with the Turkish army to Egypt, he was, on the expulsion of the French, employed in surveying the valley of the Nile as far as the cataracts; but having sailed with the ship engaged to convey the Elgin marbles from Athens to England, he lost all his maps and observations when the vessel foundered off Cerigo in Greece.
Shortly after his arrival in England he was sent out to survey the coast of Albania and the Morea, with the view of assisting the Turks against attacks of the French from Italy, and of this he took advantage to form a valuable collection of coins and inscriptions and to explore ancient sites. In 1807, war having broken out between Turkey and England, he was made prisoner at Salonica; but, obtaining his release the same year, he was sent on a diplomatic mission to Ali Pasha of Ioannina, whose confidence he completely won, and with whom he remained for more than a year as British representative.
In 1810 he was granted a yearly sum of £600 for his services in Turkey. In 1815 he retired from the army, in which he held the rank of colonel, devoting the remainder of his life to topographical and antiquarian studies. He was admitted a Fellow of the Royal Society on 13 April 1815.
The marbles collected by him in Greece were presented to the British Museum; his bronzes, vases, gems and coins were purchased by the University of Cambridge after his death, and are now in the Fitzwilliam Museum. He was also elected a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, received the honorary DCL at Oxford (1816), and was a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences and correspondent of the Institute of France" (Wikipedia); Tooley K-P, p.104.


85. LUGARD, Frederick John Dealtry, Baron (1858-1945)
Two Autograph Letters Signed "F.J.D. Lugard" to "Thomas" and "Fagan" (of Natural History Museum) Dated 1 Sept. 1895 and 15 Feb. 1896 Respectively.

[South Africa], 1895-6. Octavo. 3 pages each. Octavo letters each ca. 18x11 cm (7 x 4 ½ in). The letters are written in a legible hand and are in near fine condition.
The two interesting letters are full of content and in the 1895 letter Lugard discusses what "Thomas" has in his collections (especially the horns and skin of a hartebeest) and asks for a spare Kobus Kob skin. He has immature Kobus Kob horns if he wants them from" South of Lokoja on Niger bank." Perhaps he is discussing the results of his expedition to Borgu.
In the 1896 letter Lugard describes in detail the sort of man he wishes to employ looking after stores and doing "miscellaneous work", a taxidermist or collector. Presumably he is preparing for the expedition to Lake Ngami (1896-7).
"West Africa, 1894-1895:
Despite any disenchantment over his experience of two companies and his longed for but dwindling hope of returning to east Africa in senior government service, Lugard now embarked, however hesitatingly, on another roving company expedition. An offer of service came from Sir George Goldie, who had obtained a charter for his Royal Niger Company and in 1894 was busily concluding treaties with local chiefs so as to strengthen the company's capacity to repel the encroachments of the French in the Niger region. Aware that they were preparing an expedition to Borgu, Goldie wanted Lugard to proceed to Nikki, its chief town, and to forestall the French and Germans by securing a treaty from the ruler. In a rapid and remarkable march through unexplored country, Lugard won the so-called ‘steeplechase to Nikki’, to the dismay of the French, who had no doubt about the motives of one whom they stigmatized as ‘the conqueror of Uganda’.
Southern Africa, 1896-1897:
A brief interlude in southern Africa followed. Lugard left the Niger in April 1895, still hoping that the government would ask for his services in Africa. Agonizingly, his appointment as CB brought nothing more with it, so he accepted an offer from yet another African company, the new British West Charterland Company, and set off to explore a mineral commission near Lake Ngami in Bechuanaland. Here the main problem was not fighting but transport. The journey involved 700 miles across the Kalahari Desert, and a rinderpest epidemic had emptied the country of trek cattle. Nevertheless, the journey was accomplished by September 1896. In the following August, Lugard received an urgent and surprise message from the new colonial secretary, Joseph Chamberlain, inviting him to take up work in west Africa. It was an imperial appointment at last. What Lugard called his ‘destiny to Africa’ entered its third phase: after central and east Africa, henceforth it was to be west Africa. It turned out to be the longest connection of them all" (Oxford DNB).


86. MACKAY, J., Royal Engineers
[Large Signed Watercolour Panorama of Gibraltar, Titled]: Gibraltar.

1889. Watercolour on paper, heightened in white, ca. 30,5x45,5 cm (ca. 12x18 in) within hand drawn ink border. Traces of an old mount visible on verso, otherwise a very good watercolour.
This attractive scenic and skillfully executed watercolour shows the panorama of Gibraltar from across the Bay of Gibraltar in Algeciras with a merchant boat and fishing boats in the foreground. The skilled artist was probably serving in Gibraltar with the Royal Engineers when he created the painting.
"Gibraltar became a key base for the British Royal Navy and played an important role prior to the Battle of Trafalgar and during the Crimean War of 1854–56, due to its strategic location. Its strategic value increased with the opening of the Suez Canal, as it lay on the sea route between the UK and the British Empire east of Suez. In the later 19th century there were major investments in improving the fortifications and the port" (Wikipedia).


Breve Relazione del Viaggio nel Regno di Congo Nell' Africa Meridionale [Brief Relation of Travels in the Kingdom of Congo in Southern Africa].

Napoli: Per Francesco Mollo, 1692. First Edition. Small Octavo. [xxiv], 466, [39] pp. With an engraved frontispiece and twenty other engraved plates. Beautiful period Italian style crimson very elaborately gilt tooled full morocco with a black gilt label. Several expertly removed library stamps, otherwise a very good copy.
Extremely Rare Work as no copies of this first edition found in Worldcat. Girolamo Merolla was "a Capuchin from Sorrento who went to Africa in 1682. Between 1684 and 1688 Merolla worked largely in the region of Songo, about 150 miles northeast of Luanda. His Viaggio del Regno di Congo provides an interesting picture of life in seventeenth-century Angola and is often cited for its anecdotal observations. He was possibly to note the use of drums for military signalling. During a confrontation with an English slaver who was attempting to trade under the pretext that the Duke of York, the president of the Royal African Company, was a Catholic, Merolla infuriated the captain by suggesting that he would send a complaint about the behaviour of the English to his countrywoman Mary of Modena, Duchess of York. Apparently the King of the Congo did trade privately with the English, behind the back of the Capuchins"(Howgego M151). The author, who "comments upon the influence of the Portuguese in the Congo, describes in detail the life of the people and the natural resources of the region.., his narrative contains some interesting pictures of the life there and presents a good account of the superstitions of the natives" (Cox I, p373).
"The Capuchins generally had three or four missionaries in the whole of Kongo, occasionally they had as many as ten, never enough to truly take over the instruction of the people or educate more than an elite of political actors and their own staff. The Capuchins generally constructed hospices near political centers, such as São Salvador, Mbamba, and Soyo or in territory relatively far from the political centers such as the hospice at Nsuku in the north of the country. There they and their staff of freed slaves (nleke) who carried them on their annual rounds of the countryside. While travelling they stopped at centrally located villages for a few days while people from neighboring settlements came in, and then they performed the sacraments, especially baptism, to thousands. It was not uncommon for a long serving missionary to record tens of thousands of baptisms in their reports, and many fewer marriages and communions" (Wikipedia).


88. MOFFAT, John Smith, Reverend (1835-1918)
[Autograph Letter Signed “John Smith Moffat” to “Master Alfred William Gough” about Latter’s Desire to Become a Missionary in Africa].

Kuruman, [?] Hopetown, Cape of Good Hope, 25 January 1876. Quarto (ca. 27x21,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on blue laid paper. Paper aged, weak on folds and with minor tears neatly repaired, otherwise a very good letter, written in a very legible hand.
Historically interesting letter from Reverend John Smith Moffat, a noted British missionary in South Africa and a brother-in-law of David Livingstone. The letter written in a very personal manner, is addressed to a young boy and reveals Moffat’s thoughts on the essence and purpose of Christian missions. The letter was most likely addressed to Alfred William Gough (1862-1931), who was 14 at the time, and later became a renowned Christian activist and author, Prebendary of St. Paul’s Cathedral.
“My dear young Friend, I was glad to have your note, and to hear that you would like to be a missionary. It is much better to be missionary than to be anything else. A man who lives for himself may get rich and powerful and have a great many things that a missionary cannot have, but he can never have such happiness; and when the world has passed away he will have nothing to show for all the time he lived and enjoyed the world. But every act of love & kindness will then live; like the seeds which we bury and see no more for a time, and then we come back to find them beautiful fragrant flowers. <…> If you ever become missionary you must be prepared for a good many things that you are hardly like I think about now. Indeed I do not address you to become a missionary unless you are quite sure that God calls you <…> [when you are sure] that the Lord will be with you & that you will make a good missionary”.
“We are getting on very slowly here, but Africa is a slow country & patience is necessary for everything. It is a good thing however that when one set of missionaries dies, another is ready to take its place. <…> It is a pleasant thought to me that when I am gone there will be plenty of strong young fellows to come into my place. Perhaps this is not just the sort of letter you might have expected from me, but it does us all good, even jolly young cubs at school, sometimes to sit down and think about these things, which are just as real & true as the life you are now living & will all have to come to pass, so let us meet them bravely & pass away like heroes. Remember me to any of your schoolfellows who may know me. Perhaps someday I may be also to give you another letter like the last about the Bechuana or the Matebele”.
The letter was written in the famous Kuruman station of the London Missionary Society (modern Northern Cape, South Africa). Known as “the fountain of Christianity," it was founded in 1821 by Robert Moffat, the father of the author of this letter; and it was at Kuruman where David Livingstone arrived for his first position as a missionary in 1841. John Smith Moffat took over running the Kuruman station from his father in 1865 and worked there until 1879 when he joined the British Bechuanaland colonial service. An Interesting personal account on the Christian missionary activities in the 19th century Southern Africa by one its leading figures.


89. OWEN, W[illiam]. F[itzwilliam]. W[entworth], Captain (1774-1857)
Narrative of Voyages to Explore the Shores of Africa, Arabia, and Madagascar; Performed in H. M. Ships Leven and Barracouta, Under the Direction of Captain W. F. W. Owen, R.N. By Command of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty.

London: Richard Bentley, 1833. First Edition. Octavo, 2 vols. xxiii, 434; viii, 420 pp. With five lithographed plates, four large folding engraved charts and five wood-engraved illustrations in text. Period brown gilt tooled half calf with brown patterned cloth boards and brown gilt morocco labels. Plates mildly foxed, otherwise a very good set.
"In 1822 [Owen] was appointed by the Admiralty to command an expedition to survey the coast of East Africa. Remarkably, because no particular European nation had until that time felt a necessity for accurate charts, none existed. The survey team, with their flagship HMS Leven and support vessel Barracouta, started out in January 1822 and worked their way eastwards from Cape Town, then along the coast of Mozambique and the western coast of Madagascar.., Owen's charts remained in use for nearly a century and his remarks were still being reproduced in the Africa Pilot as late as 1893" (Howgego 1800-1850, O11).
This voyage "is chiefly known for [its] highly accurate surveys, many of which formed the basis of the charts that were used well into the twentieth century" (Christies). "Owen was appointed in 1821 to the sloop Leven, in which, with the brig Barracouta also under his command, he was instructed to survey the east coast of Africa from the boundary of Cape Colony to Cape Gardafui. The squadron arrived at Simonstown in July 1822, and returned there from their last surveying season in September 1825, having surveyed some 20,000 miles of coast, depicted in almost 300 charts" (Oxford DNB). "The journals of Captain Owen and his officers.., contain a large amount of varied information respecting many portions of Africa in the first quarter of the nineteenth century" (Mendelssohn II, p. 133); NMMC 221.


90. PAGET, H[enry] M[arriott]
[Original Watercolour prepared for the “Graphic”, Titled]: "The Transvaal Crisis: Despatching Gold from the National Bank of Johannesburg to catch the Cape Mail."

7 Oct. 1899. Grisaille watercolour on paper, heightened in white, ca. 17x25,5 cm (ca. 6 ¾ x 10 in), within hand drawn ink frame. Signed “HMP” in watercolour in the right lower corner, printed title (cut out of the magazine) tipped to the lower edge. From a photograph by Horace W. Nicholls, Johannesburg. Ink stamp “7 Oct 99” on verso. A very good watercolour.
The watercolour was published in “The Graphic” (# 1558, October 7, 1899, p. 480) less than a week before the beginning of the Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902). The printed caption underneath reads: "When the gold from the National Bank of Johannesburg is sent to the Cape, it is loaded up in a train in the presence of two officials armed with revolvers. When it is put in the train it is accompanied by armed man, who travel in a special strong-room car. Each of the small square cases contains gold to the value of about 4,000 l., and sometimes as much as 400,000l. In gold is despatched by the first mail of the month."


91. PARRY, William Edward, Sir (1790-1855)
[Autograph Letter Signed “W. Parry” to “My dear Buxton” regarding the Ale Supply for the Niger Expedition 1841-42; With: Lithographed Portrait of William Parry].

Admiralty, 8 December 4[1]. Small Octavo (ca. 17,5x10,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Written on verso of the official note from the Controller of Victualling Department of the Royal Navy, dated “Admiralty, Somerset House, 6 December 1841”. Paper aged toned, mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter. Portrait: lithograph on paper, ca. 1830-s, ca. 9,5x7,5 cm; lithographed titled and printer’s address on the lower margin.
An interesting item of the Niger Expedition 1841-1842, this letter from the famous Arctic explorer Sir Edward Parry, was written when he was a high ranking Admiralty official. The letter is addressed to Charles Buxton (1823-1871), English brewer, philanthropist, and Member of Parliament, the letter concerns the ale supplies for the participating steamers. It was Charles’ father, Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton (1786–1845), a noted British politician and abolitionist, who was the initiator of the expedition.
Parry forwards Buxton the official answer from the Royal Navy “Controller of Victualling” which says that “the Ale required for the Niger Expedition has been ordered from the Parties who supplied it on the last occasion, namely Mr.s Hodgson & Abbott, Captain Trotter having written favorably respecting the former supplies made by the same parties” [Henry Dundas Trotter (1802-1859) – the commander of the Niger Expedition]. Parry further notes “I have great hopes of receiving better accounts from the Niger, when we next hear <…> I hope to write to your father today”.
“The Niger expedition of 1841 was a largely unsuccessful journey in 1841 and 1842 of three British iron steam vessels to Lokoja, at the confluence of the Niger River and Benue River, in what is now Nigeria. It was mounted by British missionary and activist groups, with the backing of the British government. The crews of the boats suffered a high mortality from disease” (Wikipedia).
“In mid-August 1841 the expedition entered one of the mouths of the Niger. Early in October the last of its ships was limping back, its commander prostrated by fever, the cabins crammed with sick and dying, the geologist working the engines with the aid of a textbook. Those seven weeks cost forty-one European lives” (Dictionary of African Christian Biography on-line).


92. PATTERSON, John Henry (1867-1947)
[Autograph Letter in the Original Envelope, and Two Postcards Signed “J.H. Patterson” to H.K. Raymenton, a member of San Diego Historical Society].

La Jolla, California: 29 March, 8 June and 29 June 1944. Letter on a Quarto leaf, ca. 25,5x20 cm. Black ink on watermarked paper, 1 p. Envelope ca. 9x16 cm, postcards ca. 9x14 cm, all signed in black ink and with California postal ink stamps. Mild fold marks on the letter, otherwise a very good collection.
A small archive of British military man, hunter and author of the famous “Man-Eaters of Tsavo” (1907) – the account of the construction of a railway bridge over the Tsavo River in Kenia in 1898-1899. The book became the basis for an Oscar-winning movie “The Ghost and the Darkness” (1996) with Val Kilmer and Michael Douglas.
The letter and the postcards relate to Patterson’s last years which he spent in La Jolla, California. They are all addressed to a local historian, journalist and collector of ethnographical material H.K. Raymenton. Patterson schedules future meetings with him, thanks for the received letters or informs Raymenton, that he “might have to cancel my visit to your excellent Club” [the University Club of San Diego, founded in 1896].
“An important collector in this area [the Southwest Textile] was H. K. Raymenton. He was an avid supporter of the Museum and active Board member during the 1940s and 1950s. He was, in fact, President of the Board in 1940-41 and 1950-53 and wrote a history of the Museum, “Forty-Seven Years: History of the San Diego Museum Association”. He contributed many objects and photographs to the collections, including the famous “Railroad Rug” described in George Wharton James’s book “Indian Blankets and Their Makers” (1914) (See: San Diego Museum of Man on-line/ The Ethnographic Collections).


93. RAMUSIO, Giovanni Battista (1485-1557)
[Map of Western Africa] Parte del Africa.

Venice, 1565. Uncoloured wood block map ca. 27,5x38,5 cm. (11x15 in). With original centre fold, otherwise in near fine condition.
"Compiled by Venetian cartographer, Gastaldi, it appears in the third volume of Ramusio's Delle Navigatione e Viaggi" (Norwich 314). "Superb woodblock map of Western Africa compiled by the Venetian cartographer Gastaldi and published in this important 16th century description of voyages of discovery. The map covers from the Tropic of Cancer to the Equator and is filled with mountains and a variety of different trees, animals and natives. The sea is alive with sea monsters, native canoes and two European ships. Along the coast of Guinea is a scene of natives paying homage to a chieftain and below that is the Portuguese fort, Castel de la Mina (modern Elmina), which was founded in 1482 and became the major export center for African gold. The Senegal and Gambia Rivers and the Rio Grande are linked with the Niger River" (Old World Auctions).


94. ROCHET D'HÉRICOURT, Charles-Xavier (1801-1854)
[Autograph Letter Signed ‘Rochet d’Héricourt’ to a Magazine Editor].

Paris, 18 February 1846. On a folded Octavo leaf (ca. 19,5x12 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on white paper. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
Autograph letter by renowned French explorer of the East Africa, the leader of two expeditions to Ethiopia in 1839-40 and 1842-43, which resulted in his books, “Voyage sur la côte orientale de la Mer rouge dans le pays d'Adel et le royaume de Choa” (Paris, 1841) and “Second voyage sur les deux rives de la mer Rouge, dans le pays des Adels et le Royaume de Choa” (Paris, 1846).
In a letter to a magazine editor, Rochet d'Héricourt denies a proposal to publish his biography with the detailed description of his travels: “The relation of my travel has been published in the ‘Revue Novelle’ and I don’t have anything to add; regarding my biography the only event of my life which could be included are my travel adventures, and I don’t have anything to add to what I’ve published” [translated from French].
However he will send the editor a copy of the report to the French Academy of Sciences which will be printed soon, and is ready to give “verbal explanations” (“explications verbales“) which could be useful for the correspondent.
Interesting letter revealing the process of publication of the results of Rochet d'Héricourt’s second travel to Abyssinia (1842-43). He mentions the official account of the expedition (Arthus-Bertrand, 1846) and the extensive report prepared for the French Academy of Sciences (see: La Revue Novelle. Tome 9. 2-me année. Paris, 1846, p. 147-165) which were both published that year.


95. RUSSELL, Alexander (1714-1768)
The Natural History of Aleppo, and Parts Adjacent. Containing a Description of the City, and the principal natural productions in its neighbourhood; together with an account of the climate, inhabitants, and diseases; particularly of the plague.

London: G.G. & J. Robinson, 1794. Second Expanded Edition. Quarto, 2 vols. xxiv, 446, xxiii, [i]; vii, 430, xxxiv, [xxvi] pp. With twenty engraved plates (many folding), including eight of botanical subjects after G. D. Ehret. Handsome period style brown elaborately gilt tooled half calf with marbled boards and red and green gilt morocco labels. A very good set.
"In 1734 Russell was one of the first members of the Medical Society of Edinburgh University. In 1740 he came to London, and in the same year went to Aleppo as physician to the English factory. He learnt to speak Arabic fluently, and acquired great influence with the pasha and people of all creeds. In 1750 he was joined by his younger brother, Patrick, and in 1753 he resigned, returning to England by way of Naples and Leghorn, in order to supplement his study of the plague at Aleppo by visiting the lazarettos at those places. This work, which has been described as 'one of the most complete pictures of Eastern manners extant"(Pinkerton), Blackmer Sale 969; Cox I, p.227; In 1740 Russell "went to Aleppo in Syria as physician to the English factory. There, as he wrote in his Natural History of Aleppo (1756), he established an ‘extensive practice among all ranks and degrees of people’. He learned to speak Arabic fluently, and acquired great influence with the pasha. In 1750 he was joined by his younger half-brother Patrick, and in 1753 he resigned, returning to England by way of Naples and Leghorn, in order to supplement his study of the plague at Aleppo by visiting the lazarettos at those places. Russell had sent home to his fellow student and correspondent John Fothergill seeds of the true scammony, which were raised successfully by Peter Collinson and James Gordon of Mile End. Russell published a description of the plant, and the native method of collecting it, in the first volume of Medical Observations, issued in 1755 by the Medical Society of London, which he had helped to found in 1752. He also introduced Arbutus Andrachne.
Russell reached London in February 1755; following encouragement from Fothergill, he published his Natural History of Aleppo the next year. This work, which was described by John Pinkerton as ‘one of the most complete pictures of Eastern manners extant’, was reviewed by Samuel Johnson in the Literary Magazine, and was translated into German. A second edition was published by Patrick Russell in 1794" (Oxford DNB).


96. SALT, Henry (1780-1827)
A Voyage to Abyssinia, and Travels into the Interior of that Country, Executed under the Order of the British Government, in the Years 1809 and 1810; in Which are Included, an Account of the Portuguese Settlements on the East Coast of Africa, Visited in the Course of the Voyage; a Concise Narrative of Late Events in Arabia Felix; and some Particulars Respecting the Aboriginal African Tribes, Extending from Mosambique to the Borders of Egypt; Together with Vocabularies of Their Respective Languages.

London: F.C. & J. Rivington, 1814. First Edition, Large Paper Copy. Folio. [xv], 506, lxxv pp. Twenty-eight engraved plates on twenty-seven leaves, seven engraved maps and charts on six sheets, four folding, one hand-coloured, and two engraved vignettes. Handsome period style brown gilt tooled half calf with a red gilt morocco labels and marbled boards. A couple of plates with very minor repair of blank margins, otherwise a very good copy.
"Salt, a friend of Burckhardt, who had been trained as a painter, first visited Egypt when he toured India and North Africa with the Viscount Valentia, George Annesley. He returned to Africa in 1809 on a government mission to establish contact with the King of Abyssinia, which occupied him for 2 years. In 1815 Salt was appointed Consul-General in Egypt, and he reached Alexandria in March 1816. He financed the excavations of Belzoni, Caviglia and d’Athanasi. "In 1809-10 Salt returned to Ethiopia as a quasi-official envoy under Canning's Sponsorship, marching from the Red Sea coast with an escort of 160 bearers to explore trade and diplomatic links with the Ethiopian emperor Wolde Selassie. Britain, fearing a French alliance with Egypt, wished to secure a port on the Red Sea. Salt carried out a little archaeology, discovering at Aksum three large limestone tablets engraved with ancient Ethiopian inscriptions. Little came of the mission for the government but Salt earned over 1000 Pounds for the first edition of this book" (Howgego 1800-1850 S6).
"On 2 March 1809 Salt sailed on a mission from the British government to Abyssinia, to carry presents to the king and report on the state of the country. Owing to factious unrest, he was prevented from going to the king at Gondar and was obliged to deliver the presents instead to the ras of Tigré. While in Abyssinia he made many observations on the geography, the customs of the people, and the flora and fauna. He brought back many specimens, including a previously unknown dik-dik. Another member of Salt's party, William Coffin, chose to remain in Abyssinia when Salt returned to England in 1811. In 1812 Salt became a fellow of the Royal Society and of the Linnean Society, and a correspondent of the Institut de France. In 1812 he was elected one of the very few honorary members of the African Association in acknowledgement of information he had procured in its interest. In 1814 he published A Voyage to Abyssinia, which was received with some acclaim" (Oxford DNB); His account includes a lengthy glossary of local languages. Blackmer 1479; Gay 2683; Hess & Coger 892.


97. SALT, Henry (1780-1827)
[Large Hand Coloured Aquatint, Titled]: The Town of Abha in Abyssinia.

London: William Miller, 1 May 1809. Hand coloured aquatint on thick wove paper, ca. 46x60 cm (ca. 18x23 ¾ in). Engraved by L. Bluck. With a very small minor tear on the lower margin neatly repaired, margins trimmed, otherwise a very good aquatint.
Plate XVIII from Salt's "Twenty-four views in St. Helena, the Cape, India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia and Egypt."
"On 20 June 1802 Salt left England on an eastern tour, as secretary and draughtsman to Viscount Valentia (later the earl of Mountnorris). He visited India, Ceylon, and the Red Sea, and in 1805 was sent by Valentia on a mission into Abyssinia, to the ras of Tigré, whose affection and respect he gained, and with whom he left one of his party, Nathaniel Pearce. The return to England in 1806 was made by way of Egypt, where he first met the pasha, Mehmet Ali. Lord Valentia's Travels in India (1809) was partly written and completely illustrated by Salt, who published his own 24 Views in St Helena, India and Egypt in the same year" (Oxford DNB); Abbey Travel: 515

98. SALT, Henry (1780-1827)
[Large Hand Coloured Aquatint, Titled]: Sandy Bay Valley in the Island of St. Helena.

London: William Miller, 1 May 1809. Hand coloured aquatint on thick wove paper, ca. 44x59 cm (ca. 17 ½ x 23 ¼ in). Engraved by D. Havell. A very good aquatint.
Plate # 1 from Salt's "Twenty-four views in St. Helena, the Cape, India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia and Egypt."
"On 20 June 1802 Salt left England on an eastern tour, as secretary and draughtsman to Viscount Valentia (later the earl of Mountnorris). He visited India, Ceylon, and the Red Sea, and in 1805 was sent by Valentia on a mission into Abyssinia, to the ras of Tigré, whose affection and respect he gained, and with whom he left one of his party, Nathaniel Pearce. The return to England in 1806 was made by way of Egypt, where he first met the pasha, Mehmet Ali. Lord Valentia's Travels in India (1809) was partly written and completely illustrated by Salt, who published his own 24 Views in St Helena, India and Egypt in the same year" (Oxford DNB); Abbey Travel: 515.


99. SCHWEINFURTH, G[eorg August] (1836-1925)
Autographed Signed Note on a Mounted Decorative Pictorial Card with Egyptian Motiv Giving Happy New Year's Wishes for 1898 Signed G. Schweinfurth.
[With]: A Cabinet Photograph Portrait (Karl Wahl Berlin) of Schweinfurth Signed G. Schweinfurth and Dated 1914. Additionally Inscribed with a Signed Presentation to Prof. Dr. A. Wiedemann and Signed G. Schweinfurth and Dated 24th July 1916.

The autographed note on card ca. 11x16,5 cm (4 x 6 ½ in). Cabinet photograph portrait ca. 16x10,5 cm (6 ½ x 4 in). Photograph with a small scratch, otherwise the photograph and New Year's card are in very good condition.
Schweinfurth "returned to Germany with a most valuable accumulation of geographical and ethnographic data for regions never before visited by Europeans. He had made extensive observations of the flora and fauna of Central Africa and had delineated for the first time much of the watershed of the Bahr el Ghazal. His discovery of the pygmy Akka settled conclusively the question of the existence of dwarf races in tropical Africa. His important narrative, "Im Herzen vin Afrika," was published at Leipzig in 1874. Schweinfurth returned to Africa in 1873 to accompany Friedrich Gerhard Rohlfs in his exploration of the Western Desert of Egypt, during which he visited the oases of Farafra, Dakhla, El Kharga and Siwa. Schweinfurth settled at Cairo in 1875 and the following year under the auspices of Khedive Ismail, founded the Societe Khedivale de Geographie. He devoted himself to African studies, in 1876, in the company of Richard Paul Guessfeldt, exploring into the Arabian Desert and carrying out geological and botanical investigations in the El Faiyum region of lower Egypt. He removed to Berlin in 1889 but returned to Africa in 1891, 1892 and 1894 to explore Eritrea. Schweinfurth died at Berlin in September 1925 and was buried in a botanical garden created in his honour" (Howgego, Continental Exploration, 1850-1940, S14).


100. SEUTTER, George Matthaus (1678-1757)
[Map of Africa] Africa Juxta Navigationes et Observationes Recentissimas Aucta, Correcta et in Sua Regna et Status Divisa in Lucem Edita.

Augsburg: Engraved by Gottfried Rogg, 1728. Copper engraved map, full hand colour ca. 49x57 cm (19 ½ x 23 in). Original centre fold. A near fine map.
"This map of Africa was published by George Matthaus Seutter, a German cartographer and publisher of Augsburg. In the lower left corner is a large decorative title cartouche engraved by Gottfried Rogg, with natives, pyramids, animals, lighthouses and ships. Although all the decorative animals have disappeared from the mainland the enormous lakes are shown in Central Africa and the information about the southern extremity of the continent is largely fictitious. The Nile is shown not only originating in the south at lakes Zaire and Zaflan, but also continuing further south, and the Abyssinian province of Amhara is shown in the kingdom of Monomotapa. This map is in fact crowded with erroneous detail" (Norwich 80).


101. SHARPE, Alfred, Sir (1853-1935)
[Collection of 25 Autograph Letters and Notes Signed “Alfred Sharpe” to “Dear Colles” – his Literary Agent William Morris Colles, with a number of topics touched, including Sharpe’s prospective book about his travels Central Africa, polemics with the Labour Party’s idea of Postwar International Administration of Equatorial Africa, and politics in the Balkans during WWI].

Various places in Britain (the majority – Elmhurst, Lancaster), 1915-1918. Various sizes, from Small Octavo (ca. 17,5x11 cm) to Quarto (ca. 23x19,5 cm). 39 pp. in total. Brown ink on various paper (blue laid paper, blue San Remo linen paper, white “Basildon Bond” paper et al.). Eighteen letters with blind stamped address “Elmhurst, Lancaster” on the upper margin, and two with the “Plâs Nantyr, Glyn” ink stamp; one letter on the printed form of “Euston Hotel, London”, and one – on the form of the “Royal Societies Club, St. James’s Street, London”. All but one letters with the ink stamp “Received” on the first page, specifying the date of reception; all letters with blue pencil numbers apparently put by Colles. Mild fold marks, holes in one of the corners after the letters having been stapled together, some letters with minor creases and tears on the margins, but overall a very good archive of interesting letters written in a legible hand.
Very interesting historically important archive of Sir Alfred Sharpe, British traveller and colonial administrator in Central Africa, who was actively engaged in the formation of the British Central Africa Protectorate (after 1964 - Malawi), became its High Commissioner (1896-1907) and later, when the colony was renamed to Nyasaland – its first governor (1907-1910). Sharpe was also a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society (RGS) since 1891, received its Cuthbert Peak Award in 1898 and became a member of the Society’s Council in 1913-1917.
Much of the collection relates to the history of writing and publication of Sharpe’s memoirs about his travels in Africa. The first documents regarding this date from the end of 1916 (Nov 24 and Dec 11) when Sharpe had the diaries of his journey to South Africa retyped and sent to Colles “together with 100 photos from which a choice – or all – can be taken”. After that Sharpe went on another trip, writing to Colles: “I leave for Africa on Friday” (11 Dec, 1916), and already in July 1917 he sent to the agent “notes on my last journey” (9 Jul, 1917). From this time starts long correspondence about different aspects of the prospective book: what stories should be included, what should be edited or revised; whether it is possible to find paper to print a book (in wartime) et al. Some examples of the correspondence about “the Book”: Sharpe is talking about his travel to the German East Africa in 1904 – “to the magnificent high district immediately north of Lake Nyasa”. He encloses the diary he kept at the time saying that he can “complete a running narrative out of it” (5 March, 1918). “I can make out say 2000 or 3000 words on the German Kondeland – with a general description of that nice country, and the notes of the journey I sent you. Let me know if you want it” (6 March, 1918), “You said I owe a paper – Here is one of the Cape to Cairo fetish [?] <…> Would it do also to incorporate as a chapter in the book?” (9 March, 1918).
Several letters reveal the negotiation process with prospective publisher Edward Arnold: he is first mentioned in a letter from 9 July 1917. Almost a year after, on 1 May 1918 Sharpe writes to Colles that Arnold wants him to rewrite the manuscript and make “a fresh book”. Throughout the next five letters continues the discussion about Sharpe’s royalty: the author wanted “20 % and £200 down” and then was ready “to go down to the South coast & shut myself up for 2 to 3 months & make the thing to work”. The outcome on 21 May was unfavourable, Sharpe writing: “It is not sufficiently attractive for me to go in for four months hard work. Moreover it is a form of agreement which would bend me to write, but leaves A. Open to publish or not according to when he likes, and if paper goes to his price. Will you kindly inform him that I can not consider his offer”. Note: Sharpe’s book was eventually published in 1921 by H.F. & G. Witherby under the title “The Backbone of Africa: A record of Travel During the Great War, with Some Suggestions for Administrative Reform."
Other letters from the collection reveal a number of different interesting subjects: four letters touch on the idea of post-war international administration of the Equatorial Africa suggested by the Labour Party, the idea which Sharpe was a passionate opponent of: “What on earth the Labour Gentlemen have to do with our African possessions <…>”; Their idea of a mixed up Africa governed by a mixed up international Govt is of course a farce. Does anyone really looks on it seriously?” (2 Jan, 1918). The other letters are dedicated to the article by H.G. Wells which supported the Labour’s idea and was published in the Daily Mail (30 Jan 1918) under the title “The African Riddle”. Sharpe wrote a reply article for the Daily Mail for 1000 words, and another one for 3500 words – and is asking Colles to find a magazine to publish it (5 Feb, 1918). From the next letter we get to know that it went to the “Land and Water” magazine (10 Feb, 1918).
Six letters dated October-December 1917 contain some interesting contemporary observations on the events in the Balkans theatre of WW1, e.g. Extensive notes on the “present German actions in Greece” also discusses Greek Prime-Minister Eleftherios Venizelos (31 Oct); letter about the British politics regarding Bulgaria and its desire to ally with the Entente (2 Nov); description of Sharpe’s private meeting with Venizelos when the conditions of Bulgaria’s alliance with the Entente were discussed (15 Nov); or thoughts about the future of the Balkan and Mediterranean fronts: “It is now sticking out for anyone to see that Germany, after she has done what she can in Italy, will send her spare army down to the Balkans, & make a big effort to force us out to the sea. After that she will go for Mesopotamia & Gaza. And how can we do anything there to stand up to her? – These many fronts are our weakness” (6 Nov).
William Morris Colles (1865-1926) was English literary agent, the founder and managing director of The Authors' Syndicate, Ltd. (1890); a Member of the Council of the Society of Authors, and of the Copyright Association. His extensive correspondence with numerous writers is held in several depositories, including the library of UCLA (correspondence with James Barrie, Arnold Bennett, E. F. Benson, R. Haggard, and S. Maugham), and the University of Columbia (Thomas Hardy, Alfred Ollivant, John Pendleton, William H. Rideing, Peter Kropotkin and others).


102. SLATIN PASHA, Rudolf Carl von, Sir (1857-1932)
& WINGATE, Francis Reginald, Sir (1861-1953)
[Autograph Letter Signed to the “Richard Bentley” Publishing House Regarding the Publication of Slatin’s Account of his Service and Captivity in Sudan; Written by the Editor of the Book General Wingate, and Signed “R. Slatin”].

Cairo, 28 March 1895. Octavo (ca. 20,5x13 cm). 3 pp. Black ink on thin laid paper. The letter is written in a legible hand, paper slightly weak on folds, otherwise a very good letter.
Interesting letter written shortly after Slatin Pasha had escaped from the eleven years captivity in Omdurman controlled by the Mahdist forces. He stayed at the court of Mahdi’s successor, the Khalifa Abdullahi, from 1884 until 1895, reaching Aswan in March 1895 after three-week journey across the desert. The account of his experiences “Fire and Sword in the Sudan” edited by F. R. Wingate, was published in English and German in 1896 and quickly became a bestseller. “Slatin gave not only a personal narrative of fighting and serving the dervishes but a comprehensive account of the Sudan under the rule of the Khalifa” (Wikipedia).
The letter reveals how important the story of Slatin Pasha was to British society, and how high the competition was among the publishers for the contract with the author. On behalf of Slatin Pasha, Wingate writes to Richard Bentley, that “at present he [Slatin] is unable to give them any definite information as to the publication of his experiences during his captivity in the Sudan. He has already received a number of applications from both English and Continental publishing firms, but at the present stage he is not in a position to make any definite plans he wants.” Richard Bentley eventually didn’t get the contract with Slatin Pasha – his account was published in London by Edward Arnold.
"Slatin's career in the Sudan covered thirty-six eventful years. He started in January 1879 in the finance department as an inspector with the rank of a bimbashi (the Turkish equivalent of a major). Later that year he was appointed governor of Dara, in south-western Darfur, and after less than a year became governor-general of the whole province. In his major publication Fire and Sword in the Sudan (1896) Slatin was vague about his duties in Darfur. However, his life as governor-general was soon disrupted by Muhammad Ahmad ibn ‘Abdullahi, who in June 1881 declared himself the Mahdi of the Sudan. Soon the Mahdi and his followers (ansar) escaped from Aba Island, on the White Nile, to the Nuba Mountains and Slatin became actively involved in the uprising. Many of the tribal and religious leaders in Darfur joined the Mahdi. Slatin led his troops in numerous battles against the Mahdist forces and lost many soldiers. In January 1883 al-‘Ubayd, capital of Kordofan, fell into Mahdist hands and Darfur was cut off from Khartoum. Slatin decided ‘nominally to adopt the Mohammedan religion’ since he was told by his Egyptian and Sudanese followers that they had lost confidence in his ability, as a Christian, to win the war against the Mahdi. ‘I am not a foreigner, I am not an unbeliever’, he responded, ‘I am as much a believer as you "I bear witness that there is no God but God and Mohammed is his Prophet’ (Slatin, 216-17). However, disastrous defeats at the battle of Shaykan in November 1883 and the fall of al-Fasher, capital of Darfur, convinced Slatin to surrender. He sent a letter to the Mahdi in al-‘Ubayd declaring his submission and in December 1883 he and his troops surrendered at Dara. Slatin was renamed ‘Abd al-Qadir Salatin, a name he carried thereafter.
From 1884 to 1895 Slatin was a prisoner, first of the Mahdi and, following his death in 1885, of Caliph ‘Abdullahi al-Ta ‘aishi. After a brief period in Dara, where he was allowed to live in his old house and keep his servants, Slatin was ordered to join the Mahdi's camp at al-‘Ubayd and to take part in the march to Khartoum. During the siege of Khartoum, Slatin was asked by the Mahdi to write on his behalf to General Gordon and seek his surrender. Slatin, according to his account, attempted to explain to Gordon the circumstances of his conversion to Islam and to justify his surrender. Gordon was willing to forgive Slatin's surrender but not his conversion to Islam. After the Mahdi's death Slatin became the caliph's orderly, and was entrusted with confidential administrative and financial duties. He described the caliph as a ‘cruel beast’ and accused him of brutalities, but failed to mention how kindly he and some of the other European prisoners were treated. During this period Slatin apparently had two wives, Hassaniyyah, a Fur girl he brought with him when he surrendered to the Mahdi in December 1883, and an Abyssinian, Desta, who bore him a child shortly after his escape from Omdurman in 1895; the child died after a few weeks (Neufeld, 206-7). He left both women behind when he escaped in 1895" (Oxford DNB).


103. SONNINI, C[harles] N[icolas] Manoncourt de (1751-1812)
Voyage Dans la Haute et Basse Egypte. [Travels in Upper and Lower Egypt].

Paris: F. Buisson, An VII [1799]. First Edition. Text Octavo 3 vols. & Folio Atlas. [iv], vii, [i], 425, [3]; [ii], 417; [ii], 424; [2] pp. Atlas with a copper engraved portrait frontispiece, 38 other copper engravings (two folding) and a large folding engraved map by Tardieu after D'Anville. Period brown gilt titled papered boards. Extremities rubbed and spines mildly sunned, remains of a small private library label on volume one, otherwise a very good set.
This expedition was made with the intention of collecting rare Egyptian birds, however Sonnini includes some unusual and fascinating details of native life and customs such as female and male circumcision and homosexuality, leprosy and other diseases, serpent eating etc. "Sonnini set out with baron de Tott's expedition in 1777. On arrival at Alexandria he found orders to explore Egypt from Louis XVI awaiting him" (Blackmer Collection 1006); Atabey 1155.
This work relates to various subjects "with the utmost candor: such as Egyptian female circumcision, serpent eating, Egyptian lesbianism, women's cosmetics..," (Cox I, p.395); Gay 2250; Howgego S135; Ibrahim-Hilmy 245; "A naturalist, Sonnini de Manoncourt traveled extensively through Egypt (from Alexandria to Aswan), making notes on the flora and fauna, the customs of the people, and only incidentally, the antiquities.., Illustrated with excellent engravings, mostly of fish and birds"(Kalfatovic 0158).


104. SPARRMAN, Anders (1748-1820)
Resa till Goda Hopps-Udden, Södra Pol-kretsen och Omkring Jordklotet, samt till Hottentott- och Caffer-landen, åren 1772-76 [A Voyage to the Cape of Good Hope, towards the Antarctic Polar Circle and Round the World: But Chiefly into the Country of the Hottentots and Caffres, from the year 1772, to 1776].

Stockholm: Anders J. Nordstrom, 1783. First Edition. Octavo. xv, 766 pp. With nine folding copper engraved plates and one copper engraved folding map. Period brown gilt tooled half sheep with marbled boards. Covers and spine mildly worn, otherwise a very good copy.
This is the first volume of Sparrman's account of his travels in South Africa and of his voyage with Cook in the Resolution 1772-5. "It is the most interesting and most trustworthy account of the Cape Colony and the various races then residing in it, that was published before the beginning of the 19th century" (G. M. Theal).
This volume deals mainly with South Africa, but a resume of the voyage with Cook is inserted on pp. 86-108.., The second volume (in two parts) was not published until 1802 and 1818" (Du Rietz Cook 10). Sparrman "sailed for the Cape of Good Hope in January 1772 to take up a post as a tutor. When James Cook arrived there later in the year at the start of his second voyage, Sparrman was taken on as assistant naturalist to Johann and Georg Forster. After the voyage he returned to Cape Town in July 1775 and practiced medicine, earning enough to finance a journey into the interior" (Wikipedia). Sparrman "frequently draws attention to the inaccuracies to be met with in Kolbe's account of the Cape, and throws considerable doubt on the veracity of many of his statements" (Mendelssohn II, p.414-5); Hill 1615; Howgego S154.


105. SPENCE, Percy Frederick Seaton (1868-1933)
[Original Watercolour prepared for the “Graphic”, Titled]: "Soldiers Making Friends with Lascars on a P. & O. Transport. “One touch of Nature”."

2 Nov 99. Grisaille watercolour on cardboard, heightened in white, ca. 16x21 cm (ca. 6 ¼ x 8 ¼ in), within hand drawn ink frame. Signed in watercolour on the lower margin, printed title (cut out of the magazine) tipped to the lower edge. From a sketch by F.C. Dickinson. Ink stamp “2 Nov 99” on verso. A very good watercolour.
The watercolour was prepared for publication in “The Graphic” and shows a scene from the early period of the Second Boer War (11 October 1899 – 31 May 1902). A British soldier offers a cigarette to an East Indian sailor while on a P. & O. (The Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company) ship bound for South Africa, where the war had started a month before.
Percy Frederick Seaton Spence was an Australian artist, famous for his graphic works made for several noted Australian and British magazines (Sydney Daily Telegraph, Illustrated Sydney News, Punch, Black and White, The Graphic, et al.). He exhibited in the Royal Art Society of New South Wales, and the Royal Academy of Arts (RA); his works are held by the National Gallery (London), State Library of New South Wales, the University of Sydney and the High Court of Australia, Canberra (Wikipedia).


106. STANLEY, Henry Morton (1841-1904)
Autographed Signed Note to Louis Rockafellar (Member of the famous Rockefeller Family?) Signed "Henry M Stanley" Perhaps About a copy of Stanley's Recently Published "In Darkest Africa," Dated April 13th 1891. [With]: Original Cabinet Photo ca. 1890 by Stromeyer & Heyman, Caire of H.M.Stanley From Stanley`s Estate.

1890-1. Autograph note ca. 17x11 cm (7 x 4 ½ in). Cabinet photo ca. 17x11 cm (7 x 4 ½ in). Both the note and the cabinet photo are in fine condition.
An attractive pair of Stanley items from the period of his life directly after his return from the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition. 1890-1 were eventful years in Stanley's life as "on 12 July 1890 Stanley was married in Westminster Abbey to the artist Dorothy Tennant (1855–1926).., They spent their honeymoon in Hampshire and then Switzerland and northern Italy, and soon after travelled together to the United States where Stanley conducted a lecture tour. In 1891 they left England for another demanding tour of Australia and New Zealand, returning in April 1892.., [Also in 1891Stanley's leadership of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition was questioned and this resulted in "numerous attacks, both sober and satirical, such as Henry Fox-Bourne's The other Side of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition (1891) and Francis Burnand's A New Light Thrown across the Keep it Quite Darkest Africa (1891). While Stanley had many influential supporters, the multiplication of different accounts of the expedition undermined his reputation just at the moment he had hoped it would finally be secured" (Oxford DNB).


107. TOURNEFORT, Joseph Pitton de (1656-1708)
Relation d’un voyage du Levant, fair par ordre du Roy. Contenant l’histoire ancienne et moderne de plusieurs isles de l’archipel, de Constantinople, des côtes de la Mer Noire, de l’Armenie, de la Georgie, des frontières de Perse, & de l’Asie Mineure [A Voyage into the Levant: The State of the Islands, Constantinople, Armenia, Georgia, the Frontiers of Persia..,].

Lyons: Anisson et Posuel, 1717. First Octavo Edition. Thick Octavo, 3 vols. in one. (22), 379, 448, 404, (60) pp. With 153 engraved plates, plans and maps (6 folding). Period full vellum. A very good copy.
"Volume I is devoted mainly to the Greek archipelago and the eastern Mediterranean; Volume II to Asia Minor, the Black Sea, the Caucasus and Persia. Joseph Pitton de Tournefort (1656-1708) was one of the greatest botanists of his time, discovering many new plant species during his travels in the Levant" (Blackmer Sotheby's Catalogue 329); Cox I p.221.
"In 1700, under a commission from the Comte de Pontchartrain, Tournefort left Paris for the East to collect plants and undertake other types of observations. He was accompanied by the German botanist Gundelsheimer and the artist Aubrier. He spent two years travelling through the islands of Greece and visited Constantinople, the borders of the Black Sea, Armenia and Georgia. He was preparing to go to Egypt, but news of the plague that was ravaging the country forced his early return to Paris. On his travels he is said to have collected 1356 specimens" (Howgego T58).


108. TROTTER, A[lexander] M[ason] (1891-1946)
[On Verso:] "Death of Livingstone." [Watercolour, Apparently Used as an Illustration in 'The Graphic'].

London, 1917. Matted watercolour on Whatman board ca. 27x38 cm (11x15 in). With an old fold (cracked at margins) on lower margin not affecting the main image, otherwise a very striking watercolour in very good condition.
This striking watercolour is a latter reworking of the famous scene of the death of David Livingstone. "David Livingstone died in that area in Chief Chitambo's village at Ilala southeast of Lake Bangweulu in present-day Zambia on 1 May 1873 from malaria and internal bleeding caused by dysentery. He took his final breaths while kneeling in prayer at his bedside. (His journal indicates that the date of his death would have been 1 May, but his attendants noted the date as 4 May, which they carved on a tree and later reported; this is the date on his grave.) Britain wanted the body to give it a proper ceremony, but the tribe would not give his body to them. Finally they relented, but cut the heart out and put a note on the body that said, "You can have his body, but his heart belongs in Africa!". Livingstone's heart was buried under a Mvula tree near the spot where he died, now the site of the Livingstone Memorial. His body together with his journal was carried over a thousand miles by his loyal attendants Chuma and Susi to the coast to Bagamoyo, and was returned to Britain for burial. After lying in repose at No.1 Savile Row "then the headquarters of the Royal Geographical Society, now the home of bespoke tailors Gieves & Hawkes" his remains were interred at Westminster Abbey" (Wikipedia).


109. WINGATE, Francis Reginald, Sir (1861-1953)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Reginald Wingate” to Edward Arnold Regarding the Opening of his New Publishing House].

Stafford House, Dunbar, 14 July 1904. On a folded Octavo leaf (ca. 20,5x12,5 cm). 3 pp. Black ink on watermarked “The Buckingham note” laid paper with the printed address on top of the first page. Mild fold marks, paper slightly soiled on extremities, otherwise a very good letter.
Interesting letter from Sir Reginald Wingate, a noted British General of the Egyptian Army, Governor-General of the Sudan (1899-1916), and High Commissioner in Egypt (1917-1919), which shows the social interaction between the world of books and politics. In the letter Wingate congratulates Edward Augustus Arnold (1857-1942), a major British publisher of the time, with the finishing of construction of his new publishing house, and apologises for not being able to be present at the opening ceremony. “Lady Wingate & I <…> will wish you & Mr. Mumm all possible success and hope the house warming [?] will bring you the best of good luck. I shall be in town in the latter half of September & shall hope to give myself the pleasure of calling on you in your new quarters”.
Edward Arnold began his publisher’s and bookseller’s career in 1883 when he joined the company of Richard Bentley, and set up his own business in 1890. In the early years his firm moved twice, in 1891 and 1904, the latter move being the reason of Sir Wingate’s congratulation letter: “During 1903-4 he personally supervised the design and building of a new office and warehouse - probably the first in London built as a publishing house. The firm moved into 41-3 Maddox Street, Mayfair, in 1904” (Oxford DNB).
Sir Wingate and Edward Arnold’s connection was either based on or solidified by Arnold’s specialisation as a publisher: “mainly travel, memoirs, politics, and a number of notable works of fiction” (Oxford DNB); among his publications are Viscount Milner's England in Egypt (1892), “his most influential book in that period, the thirteenth and last edition being published in 1920”; “many important exploration and mountaineering books, from D. W. Freshfield's The Exploration of the Caucasus (1896) to The Epic of Everest by Sir Francis Younghusband (1926); best-seller - Mary Cholmondley's Red Pottage (1899), which had thirteen impressions in two years” and others (see: Oxford DNB).


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