March 2015 - Part 1 - Africa and the Middle East

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[Historically Important Letter and Account Book with Period Copies of Official Despatches, Lists of Vessels, Captives and Other Statistics Related to the British Expedition to Abyssinia in 1868].

Ca. 1868. Folio (ca. 32,5x20 cm). In all 52 leaves of text, brown ink on watermarked laid paper, legible hand writing. Filled from both ends. The watermarks are “Dorling & Gregory, London” and a rampant lion with the date “1867”. Original album with marbled boards and cloth spine, worn and damaged. A number of leaves loosely inserted, some with tears and corner loss. Overall a very good internally clean manuscript.
The journal contains the following documents:
1) Lists of Arrivals & Departure of Transports in and from Annesley Bay. From 3rd January 1868 to 20th June 1868. Alphabetically arranged (41 pp.); 2) List of “The Abyssinian Captives” (1 p.); 3) [Napier, R.] Copy of the letter of congratulation from His Excellency to the soldiers & sailors of the army of Abyssinia” (3 pp.); 4) A copy of the first letter sent from Theodore to General Sir R. Napier Commander-in Chief of the Forces Abyssinia; [with] A Copy of the 2nd letter sent to Sir R. Napier Lt. Genl. (4 pp.); 5) Dr. Blanc, to whom the public have been repeatedly indebted for interesting accounts from Magdala says... (3 pp.); 6) Arrival of His Excellency Sir Robert Napier at Toulla (2 pp.); 7) Statistics relating to the Transport Service... Supplied by Capt. Tryon R.N., the able Director of Transport (6 pp.).
From the reverse of the volume: 1) A List of Vessels Chartered in Bombay for the Abyssinian Expedition (14 pp.); 2) Transports Chartered at Calcutta; [with] Transports Chartered in England (10 pp.); 3) [List of departures and arrivals of vessels at the Bombay port, 19 Sept. - 3 Oct. 1867], including “Fort Saluted Genl. Sir Robert Napier with 15 Guns... Genl. Sir R. Napier & Suite came on board,” (3 pp.); 4) Date of Departure [and] Arrival of H.M.S. Octavia during the Commission [1865-1869] (6 pp.).
The compiler of the journal remains anonymous, but apparently was an eye-witness involved in the events. The fact that the lists are started from both ends suggests that this journal was in use at the time, and not compiled later from printed records.
“The British Expedition to Abyssinia was a rescue mission and punitive expedition carried out in 1868 by the armed forces of the British Empire against the Ethiopian Empire. Emperor Tewodros II of Ethiopia, also known as "Theodore," imprisoned several missionaries and two representatives of the British government in an attempt to get the attention of the British government, which had been ignoring his requests for military assistance. The punitive expedition launched by the British in response required the transportation of a sizable military force hundreds of miles across mountainous terrain lacking any road system. Harold G. Marcus described the action as "one of the most expensive affairs of honour in history"” (Wikipedia).


2. [ADEN]
[Large Panoramic Unsigned British School Watercolour of Aden].

[Aden], ca. 1845. Recently matted watercolour on thick paper ca. 26x77 cm (10 x 30 ½ in). Margins strengthened and with a couple of repaired tears and some old crease marks, but still an attractive and impressive watercolour.
An interesting and historically important early and large panoramic watercolour view of Aden including the port, British military installations and town from the early period of British control.
"In 1609 the Ascension was the first English ship to visit Aden, before sailing on to Mocha during the Fourth voyage of the East India Company. After Ottoman rule, Aden was ruled by the Sultanate of Lahej, under suzerainty of the Zaidi imams of Yemen. Aden was at this time a small village with a population of 600 Arabs, Somalis, Jews and Indians housed for the most part in huts of reed matting erected among ruins recalling a vanished era of wealth and prosperity. Haines stated that it could become a major trading centre and the latter part of the British period proved him correct with Aden growing to become one of the busiest ports in the world. In 1838, Sultan Muhsin bin Fadl of the nearby state of Lahej ceded 194 km² (75 sq. Miles) including Aden to the British. On 19 January 1839, the British East India Company landed Royal Marines at Aden to occupy the territory and stop attacks by pirates against British shipping to India.
The port lies about equidistant from the Suez Canal, Bombay (now Mumbai), and Zanzibar, which were all important British possessions. Aden had been an entrepôt and a way-station for seamen in the ancient world. There, supplies, particularly water, were replenished. So, in the mid-19th century, it became necessary to replenish coal and boiler water. Thus Aden acquired a coaling station at Steamer Point. Aden was to remain under British control until 1967" (Wikipedia).


3. [ADEN]
[Large Original Photograph Panorama of Steamer Point in Aden].

Ca. 1880. Albumen print panorama ca. 20x52 cm (7 ¾ x 20 ½ in), dissected in two parts and mounted on original card. With the photographer’s numbers (5, № 2, 6) written in negative on the lower margin. Pencil caption in German on the mount. A very good sharp panorama.
Interesting panoramic view of the Steamer Point (modern Tawahi) part of Aden, an important port of call and coaling station for the steamers following the routes to India or Africa through the Suez Canal. The photo shows the port with barracks and a coal station, and a number of vessels, including larger ships, in the harbour. A very good detailed panorama.
“On 19 January 1839, the British East India Company landed Royal Marines at Aden to occupy the territory and stop attacks by pirates against British shipping to India. The port lies about equidistant from the Suez Canal, Bombay (now Mumbai), and Zanzibar, which were all important British possessions. Aden had been an entrepôt and a way-station for seamen in the ancient world. There, supplies, particularly water, were replenished, so, in the mid-19th century, it became necessary to replenish coal and boiler water. Thus Aden acquired a coaling station at Steamer Point and Aden was to remain under British control until 1967” (Wikipedia).


BLANCKLEY, Henry Stanyford (1752-1820)
[Original Certificate on the Printed Form of the British Chancery Office in Algiers, Appointing Lewis Tonna as Blanckley’s Secretary].

Algiers, 9 October 1806. Oblong Folio (ca. 25x39 cm). Official printed form of the British Chancery Office in Algiers, with woodcut arms at head; finished in manuscript in secretarial hand and signed by Blanckley in the right lower corner. Brown ink on laid paper. With official red wax seal on the left margin. Overall a very good document.
“We, H. S. Blanckley Esquire, His Britannic Majesty’s agent and consul general in this City and Kingdom, certify that We do constitute and appoint Lewis Tonna Esqr. Our Secretary and do hereby Order that he is to be obeyed and acknowledged as such by all and every Person whom this may concern”.
Issued at the British Chancery Office at Algiers in 1806 and signed off by the then consul general Henry Stanyford Blanckley, this document appointed Lewis Tonna as his secretary. Blanckley, an army Mayor, had taken part in the siege of Gibraltar in 1782 before a nineteen year stint as consul in the Balearic Islands. He was the British Consul General in Algiers in 1806-1812 and went on to play a role in shaping British policy towards the Barbary Coast. Lewis Hippolytus Joseph Tonna (d. 1828) later became British vice-consul in Algiers and at Bona, vice-consul for Spain and consul for the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies in Liverpool. He married Blanckley’s daughter Maria, and their son Lewis Tonna (1812-1857) was a polyglot, fellow of the Society of Antiquaries, fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, and evangelical protestant campaigner.


[Collection of Seventy-Four Embossed Toy Cardboard Soldiers in the Original Publisher's Card Box, Titled:] The Recent War in the Soudan. La Guerra en el Sudan. Der Krieg im Sudan. La Guerre dans le Soudan.

Germany, ca. 1890s. 74 embossed toy cardboard soldiers, all hand coloured, height from ca. 10 cm (4 in) to ca. 7,5 cm (3 in). With eight cardboard cards from ca. 12,5x11,5 cm (4 ¾ x 4 ½ in) to ca. 10x7,5 cm (3 ¾ x 2 ¾ cm) with colouring guide sheets for the figures, and 61 metal stands. Housed in the original publisher's grey card box with compartments; the lid with a printed title and two mounted hand coloured figures of a British cavalry man and a Mahdist camel rider (the same as in the set). Printed monogram “W. & S. B.” on the lid. Minor losses of the figures on the lid (a horse’s ear and leg, the Mahdist rider’s left arm and a spear), eight cardboard soldiers with minor losses (e.g. tips of spears, tails of camels), the lid with a minor tear on the side, but overall a very good set with bright and sound cardboard soldiers.
A rare collection of toy cardboard soldiers inspired by the events of the Anglo-Sudan, or Mahdist War (1881-99). Most likely, the set was issued in Germany in the early 1890s, after the beginning of the British reconquest of Sudan (1895-1898), led by Lord Horatio Kitchener (1850-1916).
The collection includes 41 soldiers representing the united British-Egyptian forces, including 9 Cameron highlanders (red jackets, green kilts, white helmets, armed with rifles); 7 soldiers from the Naval Brigade (blue uniforms, sailor’s caps, armed with rifles), 6 mounted British cavalrymen (red jackets, blue pants, white cross-belts and helmets, armed with sables), 1 soldier of the Yorkshire regiment (red jacket, blue pants, white helmet, armed with a sable); 10 soldiers of the Egyptian infantry (brown uniform, red fez), led by a commander and a bugler with a trumpet; 6 mounted riders from the Egyptian camel troops (blue uniform, red fez, armed with rifles). The Mahdist forces are represented with a Mahdi military commander, mounted on a horse, with a spear, and a banner - probably, a portrait of the Mahdi himself or of his successor, “The Khalifa,” who was defeated in the battles of Atbara and Omdurman in 1898. The other Mahdist warriors include 12 riders from the camel troops, armed with spears, and 20 infantry soldiers with shields and spears (in two different positions, ten of each kind).
The collection is supplemented with 8 paper cards showing the colour patterns for specific types of troops (British cavalryman, soldiers from the Naval Brigade and Yorkshire regiment, Cameron highlander, Sudanese camel rider, Sudanese infantry commander and a bugler, Mahdist military leader and an infantry man). Overall an interesting collection in very good condition.
“The Mahdist War (1881-99) was a British colonial war of the late 19th century, which was fought between the Mahdist Sudanese, of the religious leader Muhammad Ahmad bin Abd Allah, the Mahdi (the “Guided One”), and the forces of the Khedivate of Egypt, initially, and later the forces of Britain. From 18 years of colonial war resulted the joint-rule state of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan (1899-1956), a condominium of the British Empire and the Kingdom of Egypt” (Wikipedia).


ZOUCHE, Lieutenant Lord Robert Nathaniel Cecil George Curzon (1851-1915)
[Diary kept During the Second Boer War, by Lieutenant Lord Zouche of the 'Rough Riders', serving under Captain H.W.M. Bonham's 78th Company (for whom Zouche has very little time, and dubs 'Napoleon')].

South Africa, in the field, 1899-1901. Octavo, 2 vols. More than 250 pages. With a loose photograph of a military parade. Two black oilcloth bound notebooks, hinges cracked and one with stain of upper margin of last quarter of the note book. But overall in very good condition and written in a legible hand.
The 20th Battalion of the Imperial Yeomanry, who took their name 'Rough Riders' from the US cavalry regiment in which Theodore Roosevelt famously served, was formed in early 1900, after the succession of defeats suffered by the British army under Redvers Buller early in the war. Lord Zouche, joined when he was nearly fifty years old, receiving a lieutenant's commission; his diary beginning on 18 October 1900 (rather confusingly he provides no information as to years, noting that Tuesday 1 January marks the start of the 20th century; by which he means 1901: a note on the fly-leaf in another hand stating that the diary runs from 1899 to 1901 being in this respect incorrect). Early entries of the diary are made in pencil, some inked-over, while most of the remainder are written in ink. The author describes skirmishes with the Boers and when 'sweeping' Boer farm houses: "...Speaking roughly there seems to be an average of about one man per farm who is or has been fighting where there are no grown up sons – where there are such sons then say 2 or 3 to each farm. The great majority of those whom I have hitherto visited have returned from the war. The following are the questions we ask... Then, Warn against moving off their farms to visit each other even next door neighbours the only moves allowed being to market towns... Warn against riding in any case, only carts allowed & same with Kaffir servants... All this of course to prevent as far as possible any assemblies..." The author was the son of Robert Curzon, fourteenth Baron Zouche of Harringworth (1810-1873) and a famous traveller and collector of manuscripts.


CAPEL, Pvte W.B.
[Second Boer War Journal kept in the Field, Inscribed:] Written by Pvte W.B. Capel/ Vol. Special Service in South Africa.

South Africa, 1900. Duodecimo (13x10 cm). Ca. 20 pages. Home-made notebook cut down from a larger provisioning ledger, each page of which is printed with a list of commodities to be ordered, some 20 pages, written in indelible pencil on perforated pages, some leaves loose, first page smudged, otherwise in a good legible condition. Covers with part of the original volume's morocco label pasted on back cover, covers worn and front cover with chip of lower corner, but overall in good condition.
Autograph journal kept in the field, inscribed on the inside cover: "Written by Pvte W.B. Capel/ Vol Special Service in South Africa/ If anything should happen to me will you kindly send this book to Mrs E.J. Capel/ my father and mother/ Gladstone Villa/ Wallingford/ Berks/ England/ Vol Co Royal Berks Regiment", beginning with his voyage out to the Cape in March 1900 and ending that July.
This vivid journal records Private Capel's experiences on his voyage to South Africa, where he disembarked at East London 9 April, and his company's march to join their regiment, the Berkshires, who they joined at Bloemfontein on 20 May, Capel keen to see active service ("...I feel as though I should like to smash into them to day Monday 16 [July] We marched off this morning at 7 o'clock with 2 days rations biscuits and beef whistling and singing. We marched to the kopjes where the Boers had been but we were disappointed they were gone bolted as usual..."). The last entry, dated Saturday 21 July 1900, breaks off abruptly: "we started from Camp about 7 am and had got fairly on the road when at 7x30 we heard guns fire and then the enemy started firing with big guns it was a row for about an hour ours against theres then the pom-poms started with their peculiar pop-pop there were also several sniping shots we lay under an hill just by one of our big guns. It was funny to hear the shells whistling through the air and then several seconds after you could hear the thud and a bang which shook the hills all round I am writing this while the shells are banging all round."


[Anonymous Very Large Photographic Panorama of Constantinople taken from the Tower of Galata, in Six Parts].

Ca. 1880. Albumen print panorama ca. 26x198,5 cm (10 ¼ x 78 in). The panorama is in six parts and mounted on recent board. Overall a very good strong image.
This panorama is very similar to larger ones of the same period by Joaillier & Sebah, so it's possible that the present panorama is a smaller six part verson of their regular ten part panoramas of Constantinople. This panorama offers "a sweeping view of the city walls and seven towers, the great mosques of Sultan Ahmed and Santa Sophia, the 'Green Mosque' and Mosque of Oulon, the Golden Horn, tower of Galatea and the Bosphorus" (Christies).


9. [EGYPT]
[Album with 82 Original Snapshot Photographs Taken during a Journey to Cairo and up the Nile by a Group of Three Women-Travellers].

Ca. 1920s. Octavo (ca. 24x15,5 cm). 24 card leaves. With 82 gelatin silver prints, ca. 7,5x10 cm (ca. 3x4 in). Many with period pencil notes in English on verso (not all images have been examined outside the mounts). Original brown cloth album with gilt stamp “Photographs” on the front board. Rear board with minor discoloration of the cloth, several images with minor silvering, but overall a very good album.
Interesting album compiled by women-travellers to Egypt in the 1920s. A group of three ladies, named on verso of several images “E.S.T.,” “B.T.” and “Dorothy” visited Cairo and went up the Nile on the river steamer “Arabia” as far as Aswan. The album begins with several views of Cairo, showing the streets of the old city, Cairo Citadel and the “Royal carriage outside ‘Semiramis’.” The snapshots taken during the Nile cruise include views of the river and its banks, numerous dahabiyas, portraits of Arab shawl vendors trying to sell their goods from shore, boatsmen, local peasants, weavers, water carriers, oxen moving “sakkia” water wheel (at Edfu) et al. A gallery of photos taken in the ancient Egyptian temples contains views of the Great Sphinx of Giza, complexes in Denderah (including a view of the bas-relief of Cleopatra and Caesarion), Luxor (Colossi of Memnon, the Ramesseum complex, the Medinet Habu temple), Karnak (the temple of Khonsu, the row of ram statues, columns et al.), Edfu, and the Philae Temple flooded after the completion of the Aswan Low Dam in 1902. There are also two nice images of the Cataract Hotel in Aswan, and the Aswan Low Dam. The travellers are portrayed in several snapshots: while posing outside their hotel in Cairo, with the Cairo Citadel in the background, while mounted on camels near the Great Sphinx, when being carried in a chair in Denderah, with “Dragoman “George” & party on Elephantine Island,” and others. Overall an unusual album giving a female prospective on classical tours around Egypt.


Emin Pasha Relief Expedition 1887-1889. [Doulton Lambeth Commemorative Stoneware Jug].

London: Doulton Lambeth, ca. 1890. Commemorative jug in fine condition; height ca. 20 cm (8 in), glazed in light and dark brown, front relief decorated with a portrait of Stanley within a wreath of leaves with the motto 'Out of Darkness into Light' below, vignettes to either side with the words 'Valour' and 'Enterprise' respectively, each vignette with the names of three officers (Valour: W. C. Stairs, R. H. Nelson, T. H. Parke; Enterprise: E.M. Barttelot, W. Bonny, A.J. Mounteney-Jephson) who accompanied Stanley below. Numbered and stamped by manufacturer on base, Stock No: 147521.
This well executed jug is an excellent example of a commemorative souvenir produced immediately after the return of Henry Stanley from the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition 1887-1889.
"Shortly before Stanley left for a lecture tour of the United States in November 1886, Mackinnon suggested that he might lead another expedition to relieve Emin Pasha, the beleaguered governor of equatorial Sudan. On receiving a telegram from Mackinnon on 11 December 1886, Stanley interrupted his tour to return to Britain. Eduard Schnitzer, generally known as Emin Pasha, had appealed for help following the Mahdist uprising which engulfed General Gordon in 1885. Mackinnon, chairman of the British India Steam Navigation Company, led a campaign to raise funds for a relief expedition, with the support of various missionary, commercial, and geographical societies, as well as the Egyptian khedive..,
Although Stanley was widely acclaimed as a hero on his return to Britain, the Emin Pasha relief expedition was far from a success. From the start, as even Sidney Low's sympathetic portrait in the Dictionary of National Biography records, ‘it was hampered by divided aims and inconsistent purposes’. Others went further in their criticism, Sir William Harcourt describing it as one of those ‘filibustering expeditions in the mixed guise of commerce, religion, geography and imperialism, under which names any and every guise of atrocity is regarded as permissible’ (A. G. Gardiner, Life of Sir William Harcourt, 1923, 2.94). In addition to the ‘relief’ of the unwilling Pasha, Stanley had a number of other objectives, including the enhancement of the authority of both Leopold's Congo state in the west and Mackinnon's newly formed Imperial British East Africa Company in the east. More immediately, he had hoped to obtain Emin's valuable cache of ivory. His imperious manner alienated even the most loyal of his men, and several of the surviving members of the expedition and their relatives publicly contested Stanley's account of their ordeal. The strikingly bitter controversy over the fate of the rear column, especially after the publication of Barttelot's diaries in October 1890, raised questions not only about Stanley's leadership, but also about the wider purposes of the expedition. Leading figures in the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society and Aborigines Protection Society charged him with using slaves as porters, and complained that the expedition had in fact opened up new routes for slave traders. These various challenges to Stanley's version of events were gleefully reported in the press, and resulted in numerous attacks, both sober and satirical, such as Henry Fox-Bourne's The other Side of the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition (1891) and Francis Burnand's A New Light Thrown across the Keep it Quite Darkest Africa (1891). While Stanley had many influential supporters, the multiplication of different accounts of the expedition undermined his reputation just at the moment he had hoped it would finally be secured" (Oxford DNB).


11. [FLAMENG, Leopold]
[Etching of Sir Richard Francis Burton (1821-1890) after a painting by Sir Frederick Leighton].

[1879]. Etching ca. 22x18 cm (8 ½ x 7 in). A near fine wide margined etching.
This rare etching is based on the portrait by "Frederic Leighton, Baron Leighton (1830-1896). This austere, ponderous and intense image of one of the great explorers of Victorian England captures his slightly brutal character very effectively. The artist Frederic Leighton met Burton in 1869 while they were taking a cure at Vichy and they formed a firm friendship which lasted until Burton's death. On 26 April 1872, Burton began sitting for his portrait. According to Lady Burton, he was extraordinarily difficult about it, anxious that his necktie and pin might be omitted and pleading with the artist, 'Don't make me ugly, there's a good fellow.' Apparently the portrait was left unfinished when Burton departed for Trieste in October 1872 and it was not completed until 1875. It was exhibited at the Royal Academy the following year, but it is possible that Burton did not like it, because Leighton kept it at his house in Kensington. He intended to leave it to the National Portrait Gallery, of which he was a Trustee, but forgot, so the then Director, Lionel Cust, arranged for it to be donated by Leighton's sisters" (National Portrait Gallery).
"Captain Sir Richard Francis Burton was a British geographer, explorer, translator, writer, soldier, orientalist, cartographer, ethnologist, spy, linguist, poet, fencer and diplomat. He was known for his travels and explorations within Asia, Africa and the Americas as well as his extraordinary knowledge of languages and cultures. According to one count, he spoke 29 European, Asian and African languages.
Burton's best-known achievements include travelling in disguise to Mecca, an unexpurgated translation of One Thousand and One Nights (also commonly called The Arabian Nights in English after Andrew Lang's abridgement), bringing the Kama Sutra to publication in English, and journeying with John Hanning Speke as the first Europeans led by Africa's greatest explorer guide, Sidi Mubarak Bombay, utilizing route information by Indian and Omani merchants who traded in the region, to visit the Great Lakes of Africa in search of the source of the Nile. Burton extensively criticized colonial policies (to the detriment of his career) in his works and letters. He was a prolific and erudite author and wrote numerous books and scholarly articles about subjects including human behaviour, travel, falconry, fencing, sexual practices and ethnography. A unique feature of his books is the copious footnotes and appendices containing remarkable observations and unexpurgated information" (Wikipedia).


[A Pair of Attractive Historically Important Watercolour Views, Titled:] Angra Pequena (Lüderitzbucht) von der Höhe der Nautilus Spitze gesehen" [Angra Pequena (Lüderitz) Viewed from the top of the Nautilus Peak]; [With:] Blick von den Höhen östlich von Angra Pequena auf das Flugsandgebiet und die Berge östlich desselben. [View from the Heights east of Angra Pequena…].

Ca. 1884. Two watercolours, each ca. 19,5x44 cm (7 ½ x 17 ½ in). Mounted on stiff card with manuscript titles on mounts. Mounts lightly dust soiled, otherwise two very good watercolours.
These two historically important views are most likely some of first views of the German occupation of Namibia. The first view shows the bay (Lüderitzbucht) with a cross (Magellan Cross) on the hill in the foreground with several barracks shown below which are most likely Fort Vogelsang. The second view shows the dune landscape of the area looking into the interior. "On 16 November 1882 a German merchant from Bremen, Adolf Lüderitz, requested protection for a station that he planned to build in South-West Africa, from Chancellor Bismarck. Once this was granted, his employee Heinrich Vogelsang purchased land from a native chief and established a city at Angra Pequena which was renamed Lüderitz. On 24 April 1884, he placed the area under the protection of Imperial Germany to deter British encroachment. In early 1884, the Kaiserliche Marine ship SMS Nautilus visited to review the situation. A favourable report from the government, and acquiescence from the British, resulted in a visit from the SMS Leipzig and SMS Elisabeth. The German flag was finally raised in South-West Africa on 7 August 1884. The German claims on this land were confirmed during the Conference of Berlin" (Wikipedia).


[British Military Memorandum Book with Manuscript Records of 18 Manoeuvres Performed during Field Days or Reviews in Gibraltar, with two Records from Devonport and Cork (Ireland); Referencing the 64th, 23rd, 43rd and 37th Regiments of Foot, Titled in Manuscript:] Memorandum Book of Captain Le Blanc’s Company. Belfast, 24th March 1819.

Ca. 1824-1827. Oblong Small Octavo (ca. 11,5x18,5 cm). Over 130 leaves, with [30]; [6], [3] filled in on both sides. Brown ink on laid paper. Manuscript title on the front pastedown. Original brown full calf album with a metal clasp; spine with two morocco labels, including a gilt lettered red label “Memorandum Book” and a gilt lettered green label numbered “1”. The album slightly rubbed on extremities, several leaves in the beginning removed, but overall a very good album.
Original manuscript military memorandum book with detailed descriptions of the manoeuvres performed by British regiments stationed in Gibraltar during 18 reviews in December 1824 – May 1825. The records document regular “field days,” reviews by the Earl of Chatham (December 1824, May 1825) and half yearly inspections by General Sir George Dow (December 1824, May and December 1825). Two later entries describe a “Field Day of the 43rd Rt. Infy. Depot, Commanding by Major [?]. Devonport, October 1826” and “A Field Day of the 37th Regt., half yearly inspection before Gen. Sir George Bingham, Cork, 5th May 1827.”
“Gibraltar is a heavily fortified British air and naval base that guards the Strait of Gibraltar, which is the only entrance to the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean. Since the 18th century, Gibraltar has been a symbol of British naval strength, and it is commonly known in that context as “the Rock.” <…> In 1704, during the War of the Spanish Succession, Sir George Rooke captured Gibraltar for the British, and Spain formally ceded it to Britain under the terms of the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. The Spanish nevertheless made several attempts to retake Gibraltar from Britain, most notably in a protracted but unsuccessful military siege that lasted from 1779 to 1783. In 1830 Gibraltar became a British crown colony. The opening of the Suez Canal (1869) heightened British determination to keep possession of Gibraltar, since the Mediterranean was the main route to Britain’s colonies in East Africa and southern Asia” (Encyclopaedia Britannica).


[Original Watercolour prepared for the “Graphic”, Titled in the Magazine Publication:] Combating the Difficulties of a new Route to Kumassi.

1 July 1899. Grisaille watercolour on cardboard, heightened in white, ca. 16x22 cm (ca. 6 ¼ x 8 ½ in), within hand drawn ink frame. Signed “F.C.D.” in watercolour in the left lower corner. Ink stamp “1 Jul 99” on verso. Mounted in a recent mat, overall a very good watercolour.
This captivating watercolour was published in “The Graphic” (# 1544, 1 July 1899, p. 8), as one of the four illustrations to "Railway enterprise in West Africa: With a surveying expedition to Kumassi”. The scene shows a European explorer on his way through the deep jungle of the “Dark” Africa, knee-deep in black mud and armed with a sword and a revolver. His white military uniform and pith helmet are shown in strong contrast with almost naked native porters, who are carrying heavy expedition supplies, including a surveyor's distance wheel.
The explorer shown was British railway engineer Frederic Shelford (1871-1943), who undertook the very difficult task of surveying the previously impenetrable jungle of the Gold Coast (Southern Ghana) for the prospective railroad from the gold mines of Tarkwa to Kumasi.
“The Graphic” described his expedition in these words: “We reproduce this week some sketches by Mr. Frederick Shelford, who has made many trips to some most outlandish parts of the African and American continents for the Colonial Office, seeking for desirable routes for the construction of light railways to open up and render accessible some of our beautiful and fertile, but very remote tropical possessions. <…> The sketches refer to Mr. Shelford’s latest exploration – namely, through the great West African forest belt to Kumassi, not by one of the well-known routes from the coast to the capital of Ashanti, but in a bee line from the Turkwa Gold Mines through unknown country, a journey involving a five weeks’ tramp of 360 miles. There being no road, and no native being found capable of guiding the expedition, Mr. Shelford had to pick his way through the forest by compass and such information as the few natives encountered were able to afford, and was compelled to follow bush hunters’ tracks densely overgrown and frequently knee deep in water and black, oozy mud.
Kumassi, so long a thorn in the side of Great Britain, was found now to be a smart up-to-date military station, with the only draw-back that a three-shilling bag of rice costs twenty-five shillings more to get there. There is a large fort, from which centre of the whole country for many scores of miles in every direction is administered by the British Resident, a post now ably filled by Captain Donald Stewart, C.M.G. <…> Mr. Shelford was accompanied during this trip by Dr. J.C. Matthews and sixty carriers” (# 1544, 1 July 1899, p. 7).


[Period Manuscript Copy of]: An Address from the [Principal] Inhabitants of Goree to Lieut. Colonel Chisholm.

Goree Island, 26 May 1816. Folio (ca. 32x20,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Legible handwriting in secretarial hand. Mild fold marks, otherwise a near fine document.
Farewell gratitude letter to Lieutenant-Colonel James Chrisholm (ca. 1765 - 1821) of the Royal African Corps who has been the Commandant of Goree for seven years. British garrison was quartered in Goree during the last British occupation of the island of 1800-1817 (French reoccupied the colony on 25 January 1817). The letter is signed by twelve citizens of Goree, mostly French (Reni Dupuy, Pierre Lapolicett, Cader Francio, Martin Terranjou, Armond Laport, James Bradley, Ja. Lanim, Nicolas Jonga, Jn. Baudin, Pierre Louis, Fs. Defontnoy, Pierre Jurpin, Mayor).
“It is with sincere regret we the undersigned being the principal inhabitants of Goree, learn that you are about leaving this island, we cannot in Justice to our feeling allow you to depart without offering our most grateful thanks for your fatherly care and constant attention to forward our welfare”. The letter praises “the great improvements you have made in this Island”, “the state of defence you put the garrison in when surrounded by the Enemy’s Ships of War”, “the impartiality and moderation of your decisions in the Administration of Justice” and notes that “the high state of discipline you have maintained over the Troops under your Command not only secured to us our Property, but kept the most perfect harmony between the Soldiers and all Classes of Inhabitants.”
“The Friends of the African Institution are greatly indebted to you for your in remitted Exertions in carrying their humane and liberal views into execution. As a token of our regard and gratitude we beg you to accept of few Gold Rings and wear them in remembrance of us.”
James Chisholm was a British army officer who served in the Guzerat and Upper Bengal provinces of India (since 1796). In 1807 he took part in the British attack on Buenos Aires. “In 1808 he was promoted to a majority in the Royal African Corps, with which he served on the coast of Africa, and, during a part of that time, as Commandant of Goree. While thus employed, he uniformly and determinedly opposed the abominable and inhuman traffic in slaves, many of whom he rescued from their oppressors, and restored to their families and to freedom. On his departure from the Island in 1816, the inhabitants of Goree, French as well as English, voted him a gold medal, and an affectionate address, as a flattering testimony of the sense they entertained of his services, and as a mark of gratitude for the zeal with which he watched over the safety and interests of the Settlement. The Reports of the Royal African Institution contain abundant proofs of his cordial exertions in favour of the unhappy natives of Africa…” (Obituary/ Gentleman’s Magazine. February 1822. P. 182).


MILLER, Abraham
[Autograph Letter Signed by Abraham Miller, a Black Presbyterian Missionary to Liberia, Addressed to Rev. Daniel Wells in the Mission Rooms, New York].

Bassa [Liberia], 31 March 1841. Quarto bifolium (ca. 25x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked paper. Addressed and stamped on the second blank leaf, with the red stamp of New York post office endorsed with inscription “pr. Brig Mentor”. Fold marks with some splitting along folds, some splits repaired with archival tape, two holes on the second blank leaf after opening, but overall a very good letter.
Rare early missionary letter from Bassa written by Abraham Miller, a member of the first Presbyterian mission to Liberia. He was a native prince of the Liberian Kru tribe and spent nearly a year at school in America and returned home with a strong and sincere desire to be useful to his native Liberians. The letter is addressed to Rev. Daniel Wells, the treasurer and member of the executive committee of the Board of Presbyterian Foreign Missions.
In his letter Miller mentions other members of the mission Rev. Oren K. Canfield and Rev. Jonathan P. Alward, and describes one of the first meetings with the Kru people: "Some of the Kroo men come on the board on the sabath day I ask them can the Kroo children learn and he answers yes the Kroo children very well, then I tell them about the good this missionaries will do among to them, there we remain the few days at Monrovia and the people there received this brethren very well... The climate here is not very hot because soon the rain will commence. I hope God will spare my life in this country that I may do good among my country people, and I think the people who love the African ignorent [sic!] people, if they see their lives [?] it will make them be sorry much because they all were heathen and ignorent [sic!] people of knowing nothing about God and Jesus."
The Presbyterian mission to Western Africa included Rev. Canfied and Rev. Alward with wives, Mr. Abraham Miller, “coloured native Teacher” and Miss Cecilia Van Tyne, “coloured teacher.” They were sent “to the Kroos, a large tribe residing on the coast, about half way from Monrovia to cape Palmas” with the centre in the town of Settra-Kroo. “Abraham Miller, the native African Prince, after being ten months at school in this country returned with the brethen. He will still continue his studies with them, and from his intelligence, hopeful piety, and unabated desire of improvement, he promises to be greatly useful to people” (Fourth Annual Report of the Board of Foreign Missions of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America. New York, 1841, p. 8-9).


17. [MALTA]
[Large Photograph Panorama of Valetta Harbour, Malta].

Ca. 1870. Albumen print panorama ca. 18x51 cm (7 ¼ x 20 in), Panorama dissected in two parts and mounted in a recent mat. A very good sharp panorama.
Valletta is the capital city of Malta. "The Crown Colony of Malta was part of the British Empire in the present-day Republic of Malta. It was established when Malta Protectorate was transformed into a British crown colony in 1813, and this was confirmed by the Treaty of Paris in 1814" (Wikipedia).


18. [MALTA]
AGIUS, H[oratio] (1844-1910)
[Album with Twenty-Two Original Photographs of Malta & One loose Image of the R.M.S. Himalaya; With Twelve Mounted Chromolithographic Bull Fighting Scenes].

Cospiqua-Malta, ca. 1884. Folio (38x28 cm). 30 leaves. Twenty-two albumen photographs mounted on twelve leaves. Most photos ca. 20.5x26 cm (8x10 in). With a loose photo ca. 15x28.5 cm (6x11 in) of the R.M.S. Himalaya with part of lower mount missing and twelve mounted chromolithographic bull fighting scenes, J. Arias, Sevilla. Period style gilt tooled half straight grained morocco with dark olive cloth boards. Mounts mildly foxed, otherwise a very good album.
Horatio Agius worked in Malta from ca. 1860 to 1900 and exhibited his photographs in London 1866. Eighteen of the photos are signed H. Agius and these generally strong unfaded images include views of: Maltese costumes, English, German and French Curtain, Armory, Governor's Palace, Auberge de Castille, General View Great Harbour, Royal Theatre, St. John's Church, Gate of Citta' Vecchia, General View of Floriana, Fort St. Angelo, Saluting Battery & Customs House, Entrance of the Great Harbour, Strada Reale, Landing Place Mar.


[A Collection of the 33 Ordinances Enacted by the Governor of Mauritius with the Advice and Consent of the Council of Government Port Louis, 1876. 211 pp.; With: A Collection of Proclamations and Government Notices Published at Mauritius during the Year 1876, iv + 49 pp.; With: Index of Government Notices of 1876, xxxiii + Government Notices + 343 pp.]

Mauritius: G.H. Griffiths, Government Printer, 1876. Firts Edition. Octavo. Period style brown gilt tooled half calf with marbled boards. With a few library markings on title page and in text. Overall a very good copy.
A very rare early Mauritius publication with no copies found in Worldcat. The ordinances cover topics such as railways, lotteries, customs duties, vacant estates, fisheries, paper currency, postal and telegraph service etc.., The regulations cover topics such as public markets, scholarships, long voyages, postal regulations, notices to mariners, Civil service in India, municipal regulations etc.
"Mauritius was captured on 3 December 1810 by the British under Commodore Josias Rowley. Their possession of the island was confirmed four years later by the Treaty of Paris (1814). French institutions, including the Napoleonic Code of law, were maintained. The French language was at that moment still used more widely than English. The British administration, which began with Robert Townsend Farquhar as governor, was followed by rapid social and economic changes. One of the most important events was the abolition of slavery on 1 February 1835. The planters received a compensation of two million pounds sterling for the loss of their slaves which had been imported from Africa and Madagascar during the French occupation" (Wikipedia).


[A Collection of the over 100 Bound-up Original Ordinances, issued by the Government of Mauritius during the years 1857-1867].

[Port Louis], 1857-1867. First Edition. Folio. The original ordinances are printed on beige and blue paper. Period brown gilt tooled half calf with marbled boards and a recent black gilt label. Recent rebacked in style, otherwise a very good collection of ordinances.
A collection of very rare early Mauritius printings. The collection includes ordinances which cover topics like Indian immigrants, rivers and canals, asylums, sugar exports, marriage, paper currency, public roads, vacant estates, taxes, police force, health care, postage and postal service, courts, royal college and schools, transfer of land, harbours and ports, railways, custom duties, warehouses, poor relief, banks, prisoners, tobacco, quarantine, vagrants, bankruptcy, hospitals, distilling liquor, opium, death sentences, introduction of dogs etc.
"Mauritius was captured on 3 December 1810 by the British under Commodore Josias Rowley. Their possession of the island was confirmed four years later by the Treaty of Paris (1814). French institutions, including the Napoleonic Code of law, were maintained. The French language was at that moment still used more widely than English. The British administration, which began with Robert Townsend Farquhar as governor, was followed by rapid social and economic changes. One of the most important events was the abolition of slavery on 1 February 1835. The planters received a compensation of two million pounds sterling for the loss of their slaves which had been imported from Africa and Madagascar during the French occupation" (Wikipedia).


RYAN, Rt. Rev. Vincent William (1816-1888)
[Autograph Letter Written when a Bishop of Mauritius to “The Lord Bishop of Carlisle”].

St. James’s [Cathedral?], Port Louis, 12 May 1856. Octavo (ca. 20,5x12,5 cm). 4 pp. Brown ink on blue laid paper, docketed on top of the first page. Fold marks, minor tears and loss of paper on top and bottom of the centrefold after removing from a stab, repaired on the bottom with tape. Overall a very good letter.
An interesting letter from the first Anglican bishop of Mauritius Vincent William Ryan, written about a year after the beginning of his service on the island. It is addressed to the “Bishop of Carlisle”, then Samuel Waldegrave (1817-1869) who held this rank from 1860 until his death.
The letter expresses Ryan’s “sympathy, encouragement & earnest interception <…> in the midst of much infirmity” and continues with the latest news of the Mauritius diocese: “Many things here continue to impress the need of spiritual help. 128,550 Indians form the chief subject of my thoughts - 800 Chinese are ready for a working Missionary. The descendants of Madagascar & Mozambique slaves are located all over the Island. Romanism here is very repressive. A Major honoured by the whole island buried without any Christian Rites because he was a Freemason; a large church building from the products of a lottery are [?] the old story of arrogance and meanness <…> The Tamil congregation in Town meets in our school room near the cathedral church <…> On Friday of last week I visited an inland missionary station where our small schools are succeeding admirably and the palisaded church was full of parents and friends, all creole or Malegashe & Mozambique <…> The cholera had been very severe amidst them <…> There are 1600 soldiers here. The general & the several colonels very ready to forward our wishes. Last year 15,000 sailors visited the port.”
In 1854 Ryan “was nominated bishop of Mauritius, a post for which his knowledge of French particularly suited him. He set sail for Mauritius on 15 March 1855, and landed at Port Louis on 12 June, accompanied by a catechist from the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel. Although the London Missionary Society was represented in other ports of Mauritius, Ryan found only two clergymen in Port Louis, along with one missionary in the country districts. Notwithstanding, he took full advantage of the awakening interest in evangelical Christianity there. On 8 January 1856 he consecrated a new church at Mahébourg. Later in the year (on 11 October) he made his first visit to the Seychelles, which were included in his diocese. In 1859 he visited the islands again, and consecrated the new church at Mahé. He was particularly interested in the schools in his diocese and in the Hindu population. <…> On 12 July 1862 he went with the special commissioner to Madagascar, to explore the possibility of establishing a new mission there. He visited the capital and the scene of the massacres of Christians, and returned to Mauritius in poor health. In October 1862 he revisited the Seychelles after the hurricane of that year. <…> In 1867 he finally left Mauritius” (Oxford DNB).
Ryan published and account of his service in Mauritius titled “Mauritius & Madagascar, Journals of an Eight Years’ Residence in the Diocese of Mauritius, and of a Visit to Madagascar” (London, 1864).


ESTCOURT, James Bucknall (1802-1855)
[Seven Watercolour and Ink Drawings of the Euphrates Valley and the Environs of Baghdad after the Plates from J. Buckingham’s “Travels in Mesopotamia” and R. Mignan’s “Travels in Chaldaea”].

1828-1830. Watercolour, ink and pencil on grey and white paper, from ca. 11,5x18,5 cm (ca. 4 ½ x 7 ¼ in) to ca. 10x10,5 cm (ca. 4 x 4 ¼ in). Five drawings mounted on two larger album leaves, each ca. 28x22,5 cm (11x8 ¾ in); two are loose, with the traces on the old mounts visible on verso. All drawings either signed, dated or captioned, in ink or in pencil, on the lower margins or on versos. One drawing slightly soiled, with the pencil captions faded, otherwise a very good collection.
Skillful watercolour and ink drawings after the plates from “Travels in Mesopotamia, including a Journey from Aleppo to Bagdad” by J.S. Buckingham (2 vols., London, 1827) and “Travels in Chaldaea” by R. Mignan (London, 1829). Made shortly after both books had been published, the sketches were produced by British military officer and MP James Bucknall Estcourt. He was second in command of Liet.-Colonel F.R. Chesney during famous Euphrates Valley Expedition 1834-37, an important survey of the navigability of the Euphrates River undertaken in order to ascertain a new overland route to India. The present drawings testify of Estcourt long interest in the subject which resulted in his senior position in the expedition several years later.
The drawings after the plates from Buckingham’s “Travels in Mesopotamia” include:
Halt of the Caravan and diversions of the guards by Moonlight – near Orfah (vol. 1, p. 68).
Approach to Mardin, a city seated on a Rock. Dated: Sept. 12th 1828, signed on verso: M.J.E. (vol. 1, p. 314).
Crossing the Tigris, and first approach to Drarbekr Dated: 20 Sept. 1828. Noted: “Horribly done, <…> try again” (vol. 1, p. 364).
Rocky Defile between Kara Tuppee and Delhi Abass, near Bagdad (vol. 2, p. 147).
Akkerkoof, or the Castle of Nimrod, 12 miles from Bagdad. Signed on verso: M.J.B. Estcourt. September (vol. 2, p. 217).
Tower of Babel & plain of Shinar near the banks of the Euphrates. Signed on verso: M.J. Estcourt, February 21st 1828 (vol. 2, p. 359).
The drawing after Mignan’s “Travels in Chaldaea” is: Birs Nemrood from the N.N.W. Signed on verso: M.J.E. April 30th 1830 (p. 202).
With a small pencil drawing of a pyramid, ca. 8,5x12,5 (3 ½ x 5 in) mounted on verso of one of the leaves. Ink caption on verso of the drawing: View from the top of the Piramid [sic!] from M. Wyld’s Travels. C.A.W. July 18, 1842.
Estcourt "purchased a commission as ensign in the 44th foot on 13 July 1820, exchanging on 7 June 1821 into the 43rd foot (Monmouthshire light infantry) before purchasing promotion to lieutenant (9 December 1824) and captain (5 November 1825). Estcourt served with the regiment, which formed part of Lieutenant-General Sir William Clinton's division sent to garrison towns in Portugal (1826-7) during disruption over the succession to the throne. He appears then to have returned with the 43rd to Gibraltar, before sailing for Plymouth and, in 1832, Ireland. From January 1835 until June 1837, he was second in command to Colonel F. R. Chesney during his expedition to the Euphrates valley, which sought to prove that the river was navigable from within overland reach of the Mediterranean to its mouth on the Persian Gulf, thus shortening the journey to India. Despite a torrid period, during which one steamer was wrecked and twenty lives lost at Basrah on 31 August 1836, Estcourt produced a detailed report for Chesney, anticipating ‘no difficulties’ in passage during the ‘season of high water’, provided that accurate knowledge of the deep channel and a vessel of suitable length were acquired. He was less sure about the ‘low season’, owing to lack of information, though he was confident that local Arabs would not be hostile, once they became used to the steamers" (Oxford DNB).


[Original Watercolour Panorama of Mombasa, Titled:] Mombasa through the Glass from the Anchorage.

Mombasa, ca. 1880. Watercolour and ink on paper, ca. 11,5x29,5 cm (5 ½ x11 ½ in). Mounted on period beige laid paper and recently matted. Captioned in ink in the left lower corner; additional ink caption on the laid paper "Mombasa - a town on the coast north from Zanzibar." Minor creases on the left corners, with a minor stain, otherwise a very good watercolour.
A tranquil view of Mombasa, likely just before the time when it came under the administration of the British East Africa Association.


Annaes Maritimos e Coloniaes. Publicação Mensal Redigida sob a Direcção da Associação Maritima e Colonial [Maritime and Colonial Annals: Monthly Publication Issued under the Direction of the Maritime and Colonial Association].

Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional, 1840-1846. First Edition. Octavo. Complete, with 103 issues in 6 vols. 533, [3], 12; 583, [5]; 346, [2], 641, [2]; [1 – t.p.], 409, [2], [1 – t.p.], 455, [2]; 235, [1], 512, [2]; 56, 135 pp. With a total of thirteen lithograph maps, plans and charts (twelve folding, three in color), nine lithograph plates (seven folding; one large), and one large folding table, plus many tables in the text. Handsome period maroon and brown gilt tooled quarter sheep with marbled and papered boards. Bound in a similar but not quite uniform style. Vol. 2 bound without a title page. A couple of plates with repairs and markings of removed old adhesive tape, a couple of places of mild foxing, two volumes with slight cracking of hinges but holding. Overall a clean very good set.
A complete set (103 issues) of the first and only edition of this important Portuguese periodical dedicated to navigation, geographical exploration and colonial issues, and published by the Associação Maritima e Colonial in Lisbon. The materials include important original articles on the Portuguese colonies in Africa (Angola and Mozambique), India (Goa), China (Macau), Indonesia (Timor and other islands, e.g. Solor); official documents by the Portuguese government regarding maritime and colonial issues, as well as current statistical information from the colonies; first publications of the accounts of Portuguese voyages of exploration (e.g. In the Central Africa); interesting archival documents regarding Portuguese voyages and discoveries from the XVth century onwards and many others.
The collection includes three lengthy articles serialized through many issues: one is on the Portuguese colonies in Asia, including Macau and Timor, one on Portuguese explorations in the interior of Africa (diary of Dr. Francisco Jose de Lacerda e Almeida), and one on Portuguese colonies on the west coast of Africa (Angola). Other articles are dedicated to the Solor Island (Indonesia), Mozambique, the trade with the Malay Archipelago, the priority of Portuguese explorations in the Northern and Central Africa; problems of Christianisation and public education of the population of the Portuguese colonies et al. There are also accounts of the most important international expeditions of the time, e.g. Dumont-Dourville’s travel to the Antarctic (1837-40), Dupetit-Thouars’ circumnavigation of the frigate Venus (1836-39), Canadian Arctic exploration by the Hudson’s Bay Company vessels, the US Exploring Expedition in the South Pacific in 1838-40 et al. The publications also include texts of international anti-slavery treaties, documents on exports and imports, articles on the latest navigation techniques and machines, e.g. steam ships, et al.
The charts are aimed at helping sailors to navigate in difficult ports, and show the harbors of Lisbon, Goa, Quellimane (Mozambique, hand coloured), Dilly (Timor), Mossamedes (modern Namibe, Angola) and Lobito (Benguela province of Angola); there are also folding plans of the city of Goa, a Portuguese fort in Pungo an Dongo (Angola); a topographical chart of the National Forest of Leiria (Portugal) and others. Plates include two views of the rapids de São Salvador da Pesqueira on the river Douro (Portugal) – before and after the works which removed the rapids and made the river navigable at this point; a nicely executed large folding view of the façade of the famous ruin of St. Paul’s Cathedral in Macau, a reprint of a document in Chinese, a draft of a vapour vessel, a statistical table of the population of the Portuguese Goa and others.
Volume I contains 11 issues and a supplement (pp. 529-33), followed by an index (3 pp.), as described in Fonseca, and "Estatutos da Associação Maritima" (12 pp., paginated separately), which is not mentioned in Fonseca. In volume II, there are 12 issues. Volumes III, IV and V each contain 24 issues: 12 in the "Parte Official," 12 more in the "Parte Não Official." In volume VI, only 4 issues each of the "Parte Official" and "Parte Não Official" were published. Fonseca calls for only 1 folding plate and 3 maps in the "Parte Não Official" of volume III, where this copy has 3 plates and 4 maps. Fonseca also fails to mention the single leaf preceding the text in both "Partes" of volume IV.
Innocêncio I, 72; Sabin 1577a.


[Collection of Two Official Reports Dedicated to the Development of Agricultural and Stock Farming in Rhodesia and Compiled for the British South Africa Company; With Typewritten Copies of Seven Articles on Rhodesia and its Economy:] Rhodesia, Report by Professor Wallace, October 1908; Travels in Rhodesia by London M. Douglas, F.R.S.E; The Progress of Rhodesia.

Ca. 1908-1911. Two Folio bound volumes of typewritten text (ca. 33x21 cm). Report by Wallace: [1], 3, 70, 4 leaves, period pencil corrections in text. Report by Douglas: [1], 100, [1], 43, [8], 30 leaves, with fourteen leaves of related newspaper clippings and ephemera bound in; period ink corrections in text; period ink note “London M. Douglas (personal copy)” on the first free endpaper. Two uniform red cloth bindings with gilt lettered titles on the front boards and spines. Collection of the typewritten articles: 10, 10, 10, 8, 9, 11, 9 = 67 leaves, put together with original staples. The articles numbered from 1 to VIII (article VII is apparently missing). Bindings of the reports slightly rubbed, with corners bumped, the leaves of the articles with minor creases, but overall a very good collection.
Interesting collection of original reports and essays on the perspectives of farming and agriculture in Rhodesia, compiled on special request of the British South Africa Company. The first report was made by Robert Wallace (1853-1939), professor of agriculture and rural economy in the University of Edinburgh, who toured Southern Rhodesia on 29 June – 2 September 1908. His main findings were that it was “essentially a live stock country,” and for future it was necessary to built a land bank, a hospital and fever camps, to introduce breeding programs for cattle, horses and pigs and to overhaul veterinary regulations. The report presents the statistics for the sheep and camel population and it seems that the “future of Rhodesia as a tame ostrich country still hangs in the balance.” One of the main problems for the industry is the native labour “not only of its irregularity, unreliability and inferior quality, but its short supply and its costliness on account of the competition of the mines.”
The second report by London M. Douglas, “Technical Advisor on Animal Industries” was made after a trip to Rhodesia in July-September 1911, undertaken with the goal to evaluate the present state and possible development of the swine, meat, and dairy industries, together with the building of a bacon curing plant. The volume, from Douglas’s personal collection, includes the report together with the detailed travel diary and related Rhodesia newspaper clippings and ephemera mounted on separate leaves. Although agriculture was progressing, Douglas reported that an agricultural college was sorely needed, together with an ice and creamery plant and a bacon factory.
The collection of articles titled “The Progress of Rhodesia” consists of 8 essays, dedicated to the country’s history, geography, population, agricultural produce, forestry, tobacco, live stock, fruit and vegetables, the author also gives recommendations to prospective farmers. The articles were most probably published in a newspaper titled “Country Life” (or in a column of the same name).
“British South Africa Company (BSAC, BSACO, or BSA Company), mercantile company based in London that was incorporated in October 1889 under a royal charter at the instigation of Cecil Rhodes, with the object of acquiring and exercising commercial and administrative rights in south-central Africa. The charter was initially granted for 25 years, and it was extended for a 10-year period in 1915. <…> After 1897 the BSAC administered the two Rhodesia's, encouraging the immigration of white settlers with exaggerated tales of gold deposits. When these claims were proved to be overstated, settlers were encouraged as farmers. Company rule ended in Southern Rhodesia in 1923, when the white settlers were granted responsible government, and in Northern Rhodesia in 1924, when the British Colonial Office assumed control” (Encyclopaedia Britannica).


[Manuscript Poetry Book of Frances Speke, an Aunt of the Famous African Explorer John Hanning Speke, Written Mostly in Jordans, Ilminster, the Ancestral Home of the Speke Family].

Ca. 1822-1834. Octavo (ca. 18,5 x12 cm). Brown ink on paper. Presentation inscription on the first leaf "Frances Speke from Her Papa, February 16th, 1822", many entries noting the place as Jordans (Ilminster, Somerset) and date. Period green gilt tooled half sheep notebook with marbled boards and endpapers. Binding slightly rubbed on extremities, otherwise a very good manuscript.
Nice manuscript book of poems and quotations which belonged to Frances Speke, an aunt of the famous African explorer John Hanning Speke (1827-1864). She was a daughter from the second marriage of John Speke’s grandfather, William Speke (1798-1886). The book contains a presentation inscription on the first leaf: “Frances Speke from Her Papa, February 16th, 1822.” There are over a hundred poems or sentences in the book, either written by Frances Speke and her acquaintances or copied from Byron, Thomas Moore and other poets, with occasional ink drawn vignettes. A number of entries was written in Jordans, Ilminster (Somerset) - the hereditary seat of the Speke family.
“The tiny village of Dowlish Wake lies in the heart of Somersetshire, some two miles south-east of Ilminster and about 45 miles from Bath: and here, in the presence of his old travelling companion Grant, of Dr. Livingstone (who had returned to England two months before) and of Sir Roderick Murchinson, Speke was buried. The parish church is the shrine of many generations of the Speke family, and a window and monument have been erected to the explorer’s memory. Jordans, the ancestral home and still in the hands of the Speke family, is in a neighbourhood parish, Ashill, lying about 2 miles to the north of Ilminster” (Thomas, H.B. Notes on the death of Speke in 1864// The Uganda Journal. Vol. 13, 1949. P. 106-107).


READE, Sir Thomas (1785-1849)
[Official Decree by the Bey of Tunis Appointing George William Crowe His Plenipotentiary in Order to Compile a Treaty of Friendship and Commerce with the City of Hamburg; With: Separate Document Containing the Italian Translation of the Decree Signed by Hassuna Morali, First Interpreter of the Court of Basha Bey of Tunis; Both Documents are Certified as Genuine by the British Consul General, Sir Thomas Reade (on verso of the leaf with the Italian text)].

Two documents, both Tunis, 1828. On two folded Elephant Folio leaves, each ca. 33x22 cm (when folded). Fold marks, paper aged and slightly soiled, otherwise very good documents. Each folded and consisting of two leaves. The documents are in good condition.
Official decree of the Bey of Tunis: 1 p. Brown ink on French paper watermarked “Louis XVIII, Roi de France”. Text in Arabic, with the official ink seal of the Bey of Tunis. Italian translation: 2 pp. Dated “9 Muharram, year 1244” [1828]. Brown ink on laid paper. Text in Italian and English (on verso), with the impressed seal of British Consul General in Tunis.
Rare and very interesting document from the time of establishment of diplomatic relations between Tunis and Germany. Original decree with the seal of the Bey of Tunis (Hussein II Bey, ruled in 1824-1835) authorising certain George William Crowe to negotiate with the “Regno de Amburgo” in establishing friendship and commerce. Crowe is supposed to compile a treaty which needs to be presented to the Bey for examination, and “if God will, to be granted”. In the English certificate written on verso of the Italian translation of the decree, British Consul General in Tunis Sir Thomas Reade (1785-1849) extends Crowe’s rights, which “are not restricted to the specific object therein set forth, but that he instructed to act on behalf of His Highness as Charge of Affaires in all such matters as may be for the service of His Highness & particularly to treat for a loan for his use". The certificate is dated 11 August, 1828.
George William Crowe was later mentioned as British consul general in Tripoli (The Royal Calendar and Court and City Register for England, Scotland, Ireland and the Colonies. London, 1852, p. 193). Sir Thomas Reade, British Consul in Tunis, played an important role in the abolition of slavery. Reade was Deputy Adjutant-General on St. Helena during Napoleon’s captivity, was present at Napoleon’s post-mortem and left a valuable account of it preserved in the Lowe Papers.


ARDEN, Edward H., Lieutenant, R.N. (1843-1879)
[Album with Forty-five Original Ink Drawings and Six Albumen Photographs from Arden’s Voyages aboard HMS Boxer and HMS Druid to West Africa and the Caribbean, Including Historically Important Drawings of the Niger Punitive Expedition of 1877].

Ca. 1874-1878. Folio (ca. 32,5x28 cm). 38 card leaves (11 blank). With 45 ink drawings, including over twenty large ones, ca. 16x20 cm (6 ¼ x 7 ¾ in) and larger. With twelve ink drawn charts indicating the ships’ tracks, from ca. 9x20,5 (3 ½ x 7 ¾ in) to ca. 20,5x26,5 cm (8 x 10 ¼ in). Also with six albumen prints from ca. 9x12 cm (3 ½ x 4 ½ in) to ca. 18x23,5 cm (7 x 9 ¼ in), and a paper silhouette of a naval officer mounted in the end. The vast majority of the drawings signed, dated and titled on the lower margins. Original green full roan album by Henningsham & Hollis with raised bands, moire endpapers and all edges gilt. Engraved bookplate of Edward Arden on the first pastedown. Minor foxing of the album leaves, album rubbed on extremities, three drawings apparently removed. Otherwise a very good album with beautiful drawings.
Beautiful album of ink drawings and original photos compiled by Royal Navy Lieutenant Edward H. Arden, with a firsthand visual account of the British Navy Niger Expedition of 1877. Arden was serving on HMS Boxer (A.H. Allington, Commander) which together with HMS Pioneer and HMS Avon carried out a punitive mission to the villages in the lower reaches of the Niger River in August 1877. The album contains five finely executed large panoramas of the Niger River villages Onitsha, Oko, Ndoni and the bombardment of the Emblana village by HMS Pioneer, Avon and Boxer on August 17, 1877 (two views). The other ink drawings related to HMS Boxer’s service on the coast of West Africa include large panoramas of the Banana Creek (River Congo), St. Paul de Loanda, Sierra Leone (taken from a photo), and Point William (Fernando Po); smaller views of the Tenerife Island, St. Vincent (Cape Verde), Cape Coast Castle, Kinsembo, Accra, Christiansburg Castle, St. Helena, and others. There are also twelve charts showing the track of HMS Boxer from Plymouth (March 1877) to Madeira, St. Vincent, Sierra Leone, Cape Coast Castle, Lagos, Fernando Po, the Congo, St. Paul de Loando, St. Helena, Ascension Island and the Cape of Good Hope (autumn 1878).
The first part of the album is dedicated to Arden’s service on board HMS Druid in 1874-77. Among the drawings are a large view of HMS Druid leaving Sheerness in August 1874, panoramas of Funchal in Madeira, English Harbour in Antigua, Macaripe Cove in Trinidad, St. Thomas, Carlisle Bay in Barbados, Martinique; six beautiful views of St. Kitts (Basseterre, Milliken and Spencer House Estates, a picnic scene), small views of Dominica, Saba Island et al. There are also four ink drawings of Spain, one of a country house in England, and six large albumen prints, depicting HMS Black Prince, HMS Druid, two groups of the ship’s company, one apparently including Arden (marked with a cross), the naval hospital at Port Royal, Jamaica, and a cemetery (apparently, also in Jamaica). Arden died of yellow fever in Kingston, Jamaica, on 9 August 1879, and is buried in the Old Naval Cemetery there (probably the last photograph shows his grave).
“Scarcely had affairs been settled with Dahomey here, in consequence of the refusal of some of the Niger natives to release prisoners whom they had taken from the Sultan of Sokoto, it became necessary to undertake a fresh expedition into the lower reaches of that pestilential river. <…> [HMS Pioneer, HMS Avon and HMS Boxer] proceeded up the stream on August 15th, 1877. <…> On the 17th the flotilla brought to off Emblana, and, after an unsatisfactory interview had been held with the head men, the people were ordered out of the village, which was promptly subjected to a fire of shell, case, and rockets. A landing party, under Lt. John Salwey Halifax, supported by another under Lt. Edward Henry Arden, then burnt the place, and a number of canoes. Off Osomari, on the evening of the 18th, the Avon piled up on a sandbank, delaying the advance for some hours. On the following day, Onitcha was reached, and on the 21st the local chief gave assurance of friendliness. The vessels next dropped down to Oko, on the other side of the river. The chief of that place, though contumacious and defiant, escaped punishment. On the 26th, when Emblana was repassed, the natives opened fire, whereupon a party landed, chastised them severely, and burnt more of their huts. A village on Stirling Island was subsequently destroyed, with but slight opposition. In these affairs the only loss suffered by the expedition was three men slightly wounded. The ships quitted the river on August 28th” (Cloves, W.L. Military History of the Royal Navy, 1857-1900// The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to 1900. Vol. VII. 1903. P. 284).


[Large Original Photograph Panorama of Stone Town, Zanzibar].

Ca. 1900. Gelatin silver print panorama ca. 14,5x67 cm (5 ¾ x 26 ¼ in), dissected in three parts and mounted in a recent mat. The prints are sharp impressions. With one small repaired tear and a couple of minor creases, otherwise a very good panorama.
Stone Town is the old part of Zanzibar City, the main city of Zanzibar.
"In 1890, with the Helgoland-Zanzibar Treaty, Zanzibar itself became a British protectorate. In 1896, a sudden rebellion of the Zanzibari Omanis against the British rule led to the Anglo-Zanzibar War, which is remembered as the shortest war in history: the Sultan surrendered after 45 minutes of naval bombardment of Stone Town by the Royal Navy. During the period of British protection, Stone Town remained a relatively important trading centre, although the British gave privileges to Mombasa and Dar es Salaam as their trading stations in East Africa. The slave trade was abolished in 1897" (Wikipedia).


[Photo Album with 82 Original Photographs of the Coal Mines in Zonguldak, Turkey].

Ca. 1909-1913. Oblong Folio (ca. 25x33,5 cm). 24 card leaves. 82 gelatin silver prints, including 34 large photos from ca. 23x28,5 cm (ca. 9 ¼ x 11 ¼ in) to ca. 16,5x23 cm (6 ¼ x 9 in), three large two-part panoramas ca. 24x58 cm (9 ¼ x 22 ¾ in), and one three-part panorama ca. 16,5x70 cm (6 ½ x 27 ½ in). The rest of the images are ca. 8x11 cm (3 ¼ x 4 ¼ in) or slightly smaller. The majority of photos with period ink and pencil captions in French on the mounts or on the images. Period beige cloth album with marbled endpapers. Corners slightly bumped, but overall a very good internally clean album with strong images.
Historically significant private photo album compiled by a French manager of the “Société Ottomane des Mines d’Héraclée,” a Turkish joint stock mining company with French capital, which developed the Eregli coalfields near the city of Zonguldak, on the Turkish Black Sea coast. The album depicts the pre-WW1 period of the “Société d’Heraclée’s” activity and opens with a large group portrait of its Turkish and French executives and engineers, featuring nineteen people, with the compiler of the album (“Ego”) in the centre. The other large photos include eleven excellent panoramas and views of the port and harbor facilities in Zonguldak, showing coal transportation ships, industrial piers and railroads; several photos show the Zonguldak port in winter or during a storm. There are also important images of the inauguration of the port dredger and foundry in Zonguldak, as well as of the industrial pier and railway in the nearby town of Kozlu (Cozlou); three great views of the interior of Zonguldak steel factory; group portrait of the local miners, and images of mines and other industrial facilities in Gelik (Guélik), Tchaï Damar, Asma (two-part panorama), and Kozlu. Executives and engineers of the “Société d’Heraclée” present on eight photos, posing for various group portraits; with several people identified in manuscript captions (e.g. Directeur des mines, Hamdi-bey, Docteur Dounias et al.). The smaller images depict Zonguldak city, its European quarter and the house of the compiler of the album, towns of Gelik, Kozlu and Eregli (Heraclea Pontica), picnic in the nearby Iliksu Valley, as well as daily life of the family in Boussan les Bains (Haute-Garonne region, France), also showing the family chateau (constructed in 1773). Overall a very interesting important album with excellent images of Turkish coal mining industry in the early 20th century.
“Société d’Heraclée was founded as an Ottoman joint stock company with French capital, using the 50-year concession previously given to S.E. Yanko Bey Johannides in 1896. This company, with the support of the Ottoman Bank, not only constructed mine installations, but also built a port in Zonguldak together with a railway line connecting them to the port. According to an estimate made in 1911, there were four large foreign capital firms which exploited coal mines. They extracted two million tons of coal annually, and two-thirds of that was produced by the Société d’Heraclée.” (Geyikdagi, H. Foreign Investment in the Ottoman Empire: International Trade and Relations, 1854-1914. London-New York, 2011, p. 120). During the WW1 the majority of Turkish military and civil coal needs was satisfied by the “Société d’Heraclée’s” produce.


31. ARTHY, E.
[Original Manuscript, Titled:] List of Death Among the Late African Company Officers in the Settlements on the Gold Coast from the 1st of January 1812, to 1st of January 1822, Being a Period of Ten Years.

Gold Coast, 1822. Folio (ca. 34x21 cm or 13x8 in). 4 pp. Manuscript with tears but no loss of text housed in a blue cloth custom made portfolio with a red gilt morocco cover label. In very good condition.
The author was Assistant Surgeon in the late African Company. The manuscript gives an annual account of the deaths of the officers of the company including their names and then a 1 1/2 page remarks section comparing the mortality of Europeans in the Gold coast and other colonies. "The African Company Establishment when fully appointed consisted of forty-five commissioned and non commissioned European officers but during the period of time stated above, there was not more than thirty-five residing in the Settlements on a yearly average & the deaths among them being five annually on an average..,"
"The African Company of Merchants was a Chartered Company in the Gold Coast area of modern Ghana, in the coastal area where the Fante people lived. It was founded in 1752 and replaced the Royal African Company which was dissolved in that year. In 1817 the Company had signed a treaty of friendship that recognized Asante claims to sovereignty over large areas of the coast, including areas claimed by the Fante. The Company was abolished in 1821, as the slave trade had not been suppressed in these privately held areas. Authority over the area was given to Governor Charles MacCarthy, the governor of Sierra Leone, who was subsequently killed in the First Anglo-Asante War" (Wikipedia).


32. BAUDIN, Lieutenant de Vaisseau, Commander of the Warship “Vulcain”
[Official Certificate Given to Michel Lastrén, 2nd maitre cannonier, who served on the Warship “Vulcain” in 1829-1830, and in particular during the French Invasion of Algiers; the Certificate is Signed “Baudin”].

Toulon, 1 December 1830. Folio (ca. 29x18 cm). 1 p. Black ink on watermarked laid paper. A very good document.
The certificate was given to one Michel Lastrén, “2nd maitre cannonier,” who “served under my command in 1829-30 and acted with the greatest zeal, the function of his grade. <…> Apart from the indispensable knowledge of his profession, he set an example of obedience, submission, zeal, courage and devotion”. The commander recalls of an incident on the 18th of July 1829, when a sailor fell off board the “Vulcain”, and “Lastrén was the first one to rush to his rescue. <…> [he] launched a small boat, grabbed the hurt man who was about to sink, and brought him on board. <…> The expeditions to Algeria and Tripoli de Barbarie have not allowed our mariners to show their courage and the devotion. Lastrén would have been the first one to show it. I’ve mentioned that officer in my report of advancement as extraordinary, and I give him this certificate as a proof of my esteem wishing that it will be useful one day” (in translation).
The “Vulcain” under command of lieutenant Baudin was a part of the reserve squadron of the French naval forces during the Invasion of Algiers (14 June – 7 July 1830).
“The Invasion of Algiers in 1830 was a large-scale military operation by which the Kingdom of France, ruled by Charles X, invaded and conquered the Ottoman Regency of Algiers. The invasion of Algiers began on 5 July 1830 with a naval bombardment by a fleet under Admiral Duperré, and a landing by troops under Louis Auguste Victor de Ghaisne, comte de Bourmont. The French quickly defeated the troops of Hussein Dey, the Ottoman ruler, but native resistance was widespread. This resulted in a protracted military campaign, lasting more than 45 years, to root out popular opposition to the colonisation. The so-called "pacification" was marked by resistance of figures such as Ahmed Bey, Abd El-Kader and Lalla Fatma N'Soumer. The invasion marked the end of several centuries of Ottoman rule in Algeria and the beginning of French Algeria. In 1848, the territories conquered around Algiers were organized into three départements, defining the territories of modern Algeria” (Wikipedia).


33. BINGER, Louis Gustave (1856-1936)
[Autograph Letter Signed “L. Binger” to “Mon cher compatriot” Regarding a Portrait of General Dobbs Ordered by the Governor of French Senegal].

Paris, 19 July 1902. Octavo (ca. 21x13,5 cm). 1 p. Black ink on paper on the printed letterhead of the “Ministére des Colonies”. Paper mildly soiled and worn on folds, with very small holes on the centrefold not affecting the text. Overall a very good letter.
In his letter to a French artist or art dealer, Louis Binger, then the director of the French Ministry of the Colonies, informs his correspondent, that “Monsieur General Governor Roume wanted to acquire the portrait of General Dodds at the price of 1000 francs. The portrait has been delivered to the framer and to the Magazin Central du Colonie which will send it off to Senegal. As soon as it arrives to the colony, the bill will be paid, and you’ll be able to get the money in three weeks or in about a month” (in translation).
“Louis Gustave Binger was a French officer and explorer who claimed the Côte d'Ivoire for France. In 1887 he travelled from Senegal up to the Niger River, arriving at Grand Bassam in 1889. During this expedition he discovered that the Mountains of Kong did not exist. He described this journey in his work Du Niger au golfe de Guinée par le pays de Kong et le Mossi (From the Niger to the Gulf of Guinea through the land of the Kong and the Mossi) (1891). In 1892 he returned to the Guinea Coast to superintend the forming of the boundaries between the British and French colonies. In 1893-1898 Binger was a governor of the Côte d'Ivoire. Louis Gustave Binger died at L'Isle-Adam, Île-de-France, France and was buried in the Cimetière du Montparnasse in Paris. The city of Bingerville is named after him” (Wikipedia).
Ernest Nestor Roume (1858-1941) was a French colonial administrator, a governor of French West Africa in 1902, and a governor of French Indochina in 1914-1917.
“Alfred-Amédée Dodds (1842-1922) was a French General, commander of French forces in Sénégal from 1890, commander of French forces in the second expeditionary force to suppress The Boxer Rebellion, and commander of French forces during the Second Franco-Dahomean War. As both an octoroon and a metis, he was famed in the African Diaspora at the beginning of the Twentieth century as an example of African leadership, despite the fact that he led the destruction of one of West Africa's most powerful pre-colonial states” (Wikipedia).


34. BURTON, I[nger] M[aria] (1828-1897)
[Two Signed Stone Town, Zanzibar Watercolours Created at around the Time when David Livingstone was there Preparing for his Last Expedition].

[Zanzibar], ca. 1865. Two matted watercolours each ca. 14x37 cm (5 ½ x 14 ½ in). The upper watercolour with some mild foxing, otherwise very good watercolours.
The two well executed and scenic watercolours show port scenes in Stone Town, Zanzibar.

"In 1840, Sultan Said bin Sultan moved his seat from Muscat, Oman, to Stone Town, which thus entered an era of quick development as the new capital of the Sultanate of Oman and Zanzibar. In 1861, as a consequence of a war of succession within the Omani royal family, Zanzibar and Oman were separated, with Zanzibar becoming an independent sultanate under Sultan Majid bin Said. In the 19th century Stone Town also flourished as a trading centre. It was especially renowned for the commerce of spices (mostly cloves) and slaves. Around middle of the century, the sultanate had a close relationship with the British; David Livingstone, for example, is known to have stayed in Stone Town in 1866 while he was preparing his final expedition into the interior of East Africa. In the same period, several immigrant communities from Oman, Persia and India formed as a consequence of the town's intense commercial activity" (Wikipedia).


35. CARTER, George
A Narrative of the Loss of the Grosvenor East Indiaman, Which was unfortunately wrecked upon the coast of Caffraria, somewhere between the 27th and 32d Degrees of Southern latitude, on the 4th of August, 1782. Compiled from the examination of John Hynes, one of the Unfortunate Survivors. By Mr. George Carter, Historical Portrait Painter upon his passage outward bound to India. Containing a Variety of Matter respecting the Sufferers, Never before made Public; With Copper Plates descriptive of the Catastrophe, engraved from Mr. Carter's designs.

London: Minerva Press for J. Murray, 1791. First Edition. Octavo. iv, 174 pp. With a folding copper engraved frontispiece and 3 full page copper engravings. Handsome later brown gilt tooled half calf with a maroon gilt label and marbled boards. Housed in a custom-made black cloth slipcase. Some very mild foxing of plates but overall a near fine copy.
"The ill-fated vessel sailed from "Trincomale" on the 13th of June 1782, and struck on the coast of Kaffraria a few weeks after. The passengers agreed to accompany Captain Coxon in an attempt to reach the Dutch settlements in the Cape..., One by one, however, the doomed sufferers succumbed or were left behind, and when, after 117 days of fearful hardships, a remote Dutch farm was reached, only six men arrived out of a whole ship's company" (Mendelssohn I, p.651); Cox II, p 465; "On 4.8.82, in bad weather, the Grosvenor struck rocks in Tezani Bay (to the north of Port St. Johns) and broke in two. Some 123 of the 138 crew managed to clamber to the beach" (Howgego G105).


36. CELLA, Paolo della & PEZANT, Adolphe [Translator]
[TRAVELS FROM TRIPOLI TO EGYPT] Voyage en Afrique au Royaume de Barcah et dans la Cyrénaique à travers le désert. Traduit et augmenté de notes historiques, géographiques et botaniques, et d'une notice sur l'ancienne et moderne Cyrénaique, sur le royaume de Fezzan, sur Temboctou, sur l'Oasis de Syouah, l'antique Oasis d'Ammon et le temple de Jupiter, sur le vent du Désert, sur l'Ibis sacré, sur le Lotus, sur le Papyrus égyptien, et sur le Silphium si recherché des Anciens. [Narrative of an Expedition from Tripoli in Barbary to the Western Frontier of Egypt in 1817 by the Bey of Tripoli]

Paris: Armand-Aubrée, 1840. First Edition. Octavo. xvi, 432 pp. With a lithographed frontispiece and seven other lithographs on plates and a large folding engraved map. Handsome period style red gilt tooled half straight-grained morocco with marbled boards. A very good uncut copy.
This rare work, originally published in Italian and then translated into German and English before this current French edition, was written by the physician attendant to the Bey. "The author gives an animated description of what he saw" (Playfair, Tripoli 146).These coastal travels in what is present day Libya, took the author from Tripoli via Misrata, Ajdabiya, Benghazi, Derna to Bombah near the border with Egypt. The most valuable scientific contribution of the work is on Libyan flora, some of which is illustrated on the plates, as three hundred botanical specimens were collected, including twenty-six species new to science.


37. CHARNAY, Claude-Joseph Désiré (1828-1915)
[Autograph Letter Signed “Désiré Charnay” to “Mon cher ami” with the Latest News after his Arrival to Algiers for the Winter Season, the Letter is Decorated with a Printed Vignette Depicting Arab Camel Riders in a Desert].

Algiers, 25 October 1891. Octavo (ca. 18x11,5 cm). 2 pp. Violet ink on thick paper with a printed vignette depicting travellers on camels in a desert. Centrefold mark, otherwise a very good letter.
In a letter to his friend, noted French traveller and archaeologist D. Charnay describes his voyage to Algiers from France and his place of stay in the city: “Our place is 17 Rue Flatters, Alger, Belcourt, 20 minutes from town by train <….> The weather has been very good, 24 to 28 degrees, also my wife is all right, although coughing always a little bit. I’m expecting rain and cold which will be a hardship for her” (in translation). The letter is decorated with an attractive printed vignette reproducing a photo of two Arab camel riders in a desert.
“Claude-Joseph Désiré Charnay was a French traveller and archaeologist notable both for his explorations of Mexico and Central America, and for the pioneering use of photography to document his discoveries. In 1850, he became a teacher in New Orleans, Louisiana, and there became acquainted with John Lloyd Stephens's books of travel in Yucatan. He travelled in Mexico, under a commission from the French ministry of education, in 1857-1861; in Madagascar in 1863; in South America, particularly Chile and Argentina, in 1875; and in Java and Australia in 1878. In 1880-1883, he again visited the ruined cities of Mexico. Pierre Lorillard IV of New York City contributed to defray the expense of this expedition, and Charnay named a great ruined city near the Guatemalan boundary line "Ville Lorillard" in his honor; the name did not stick and the site is more commonly known as Yaxchilan. Charnay went to Yucatan in 1886” (Wikipedia)


38. CORDEYRO, Antonio S.J. (1641-1722)
[History of Portugal's Atlantic Islands..,] Historia Insulana das Ilhas a Portugal Sugeytas no Oceano Occidental.., Para a confirmaçam dos bons costumes, assim moraes, como sobrenaturaes, dos nobres antepassados Insulanos, nos presentes, e futuros Descendentes seus, & só para a salvação de suas almas, & mayor gloria de Deos.

Lisboa: Antonio Pedrozo Galram, 1717. First Edition. Folio. [xvi], 528 pp. With woodcut vignette on title-page, woodcut headpieces, tailpieces and initials. Handsome period brown elaborately gilt tooled full sheep. Title page with repaired upper right corner, not affecting text, rear cover with some repaired cut marks, otherwise a very good copy in very original condition.
Important history of Portugal's Atlantic islands, covering the prehistory and ancient history (including rumors that they were Atlantis) of the Canary Islands, Cabo Verde, Madeira (including Porto Santo), the Azores (sections on Santa Maria, São Miguel, Ilha Terceira, São Jorge, Graciosa, Fayal, Pico, Flores, and Corvo).
The author, a Jesuit, was a native of Angra on the island of Terceira in the Azores. He died at the Collegio de Sancto Antão in Lisbon."This work is an important source for the history and description of the Azores, Terceira in particular. Much of the material is derived from the Saudades da terra of Caspar Frutuoso. There are also chapters describing the Canaries, Cape Verde islands and Madeira, as well as some references to Brazil and the Americas. The section on Madeira includes an account of the introduction of sugarcane from Sicily, and the development of the industry. This declined with the gradual depletion of wood-fuel stocks and then moved first to Sao Tom, and then to Brazil" (Sotheby's); "A history of Portuguese exploration, colonization, and colonial administration in the islands of the Canary, Madeira, Azores, and Cape Verde groups" (Bell C619); Innocêncio I, 114; Sabin 16759.


39. CROOKENDEN, John, Captain (d. 1959)
[Field Sketchbook Signed and Dated on Front Pastedown:"J Crookenden 2nd June 1911" with Pencil Sketches Drawn at Onitsha, Lagos and Environs, Including of the "Munshi" (Tivi) Tribe, Hausa Men, African Mercenaries in the British Colonial Infantry and Cavalry].

Northern Nigeria Protectorate, 1911-1913. Octavo (21x13 cm). Ca. 100 leaves. With 27 leaves of pencil drawings, a few with colour pencil highlights. Period style recent maroon half morocco with red cloth sides. Overall a very good sketchbook.
The captioned and dated sketches include: Sgt Ganna; Njami 13/11/11; Munchi Chief Beypele 16/11/11; Beypele 16/11/11; Tseve 19/11/11; the unconcern of his prisoner; J.V.R.J. At Onitsha 14/7/12; K.G.F. Collins Lagos 1913; Putting off to the Salamis. With approx. 40 other pencil sketches (some heightened with colour) of tribes people and colonial soldiers, etc.
John Crookenden, was a Captain in the Northern Nigeria Regiment, then Captain in the 1st Battalion of the Nigeria Regiment (NR), part of the West African Frontier Force (WAFF) formed in 1914, and in 1915 commanded the Cross River Column. He spent most of his military career in Africa, reaching the rank of Lieutenant Colonel in South Africa, and further participating in operations in Eastern Transvaal. "Northern Nigeria was a British protectorate which lasted from 1900 until 1914 and covered the northern part of what is now Nigeria. The protectorate spanned 660,000 square kilometres (255,000 sq mi) and included the states of the Sokoto Caliphate and the Kano Emirate and parts of the former Bornu Empire, conquered in 1902. The first High Commissioner of the protectorate was Frederick Lugard, who actively suppressed revolutions and created a system of administration built around native authorities. The Protectorate was ended in 1914, when its area was unified with the Southern Nigeria Protectorate and the Lagos Colony, becoming the Northern Province of the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria" (Wikipedia).


40. DAPPER, Olfert (1636-1689)
[AFRICA: MOST COMPLETE 17TH CENTURY DESCRIPTION] Umbständliche und eigentliche Beschreibung von Africa und denen darzu gehörigen Königreichen und Landschaften als Egypten, Barbarien, Libyen, Biledulgerid, dem Lande der Negros, Guinea, Ethiopien, Abyssina und den Africanischen Insulen zusamt deren verscheidenen Nahmen, Grentzen, Städten, Flüssen ... : aus unterschiedlichen neuen Land- und Reise-Beschreibungen mit Fleiss zusammengebracht.

[Africa: Being an Accurate Description of the Regions of Aegypt, Barbary, Lybia, and Billedulgerid, the Land of Negroes, Guinee, Aethiopia, and the Abyssines, with all the Adjacent islands, either in the Mediterranean, Atlantick, Southern, or Oriental Sea, belonging thereunto ; with the several Denominations of their Coasts, Harbors, Creeks, Rivers, Lakes, Cities, Towns, Castles, and Villages ; Their Customs, Modes, and Manners, Languages, Religions, and Inexhaustible Treasure].
Amsterdam: Jacob van Meurs, 1670-1671. First German Edition. Folio, 2 parts in one. [viii], 695, [13] [i], 101, [3] pp. Title to part one printed in red and black, engraved additional title, engraved portrait, forty-three engraved folding maps and plates and fifty-six engraved illustrations in text. Beautiful period style crimson very elaborately gilt tooled full morocco with a black gilt label. A near fine copy.
Beautifully and vividly illustrated, this "work is one of the most authoritative 17th-century accounts on Africa published in German. Dapper never travelled to Africa but used reports by Jesuit missionaries and other explorers. The fine plates include views of Algiers, Benin, Cairo, Cap Town, La Valetta, Marrakech, St. Helena, Tangier, Tripoli, Tunis, as well as, animals and plants"(Christies). Translated into German by F. von Zesen. This copy has the engraved title, dedication and portrait leaves lacking in most copies. "An important early work on Africa in general, which was translated into several European languages.., "it was carefully compiled from the best sources of information""(Mendelssohn I, p. 414). Dapper "wrote a book on the history of Amsterdam. Later he also wrote about Africa, China, India, Persia, Georgia, and Arabia, although he had not visited these exotic destinations himself. In fact, he never travelled outside Holland. His books became well-known in his own time.., To this day, Dapper's book Description of Africa Naukeurige Beschrijvinge van Africa gewesten (1668) is a key text for Africanists" (Wikipedia); Cox I, p. 361; Gay 219.


41. FORBIN, Louis-Nicolas-Philippe-Auguste, de (1777-1841)
[Egypt] Ruines du Temple de Carnak à Thébes. Egypte.

[Paris: Imprimerie Royale], 1819. Uncoloured aquatint, printed image ca. 46 x 53,5 cm (18 ½ x 21 ½ in). Engraved by M. Debucourt. Aquatint slightly waved, descriptive text closely trimmed, otherwise a very good aquatint.
Plate 62 from the Atlas to Forbin’s "Voyage dans Le Levant en 1817 et 1818" (Paris, 1819; two editions were published the same year, our plate is from one of them). This was "one of the first important French books to use lithography on a grand scale, with the scarce first edition, of which Brunet states that only 325 copies were printed. Most of the plates, after Lecomte, Deseynes, Castellan, Carle and Horace Vernet, Fragonard, Thienon, Legros, Isabey and others, illustrate views in Egypt and Syria, including the famous view of Drovetti, French consul in Egypt, measuring a giant head" (PBA Galleries).
"In 1816 Forbin replaced Denon as Director of Museums, and in August 1817 he undertook a semi-official year-long voyage to the Levant, having been authorized to purchase antiquities for the Louvre. He travelled to Milos, where his son-in-law Marcellus had negotiated the purchase of the recently discovered Venus de Milo, and from there to Athens, Constantinople, Asia Minor, Syria and Palestine, from Jaffa he travelled overland to Alexandria and visited Egypt" (Blackmer 614).


42. GRANDJEAN, J. S., Adjutant-General
[Signed Manuscript Regarding French Possessions in Africa]: Note Sur Les Possessions Francaises En Afrique.

Paris, 19 Pluviôse, 3rd Year of the Republic [1795]. Folio (ca. 31,5x20 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Manuscript in fine condition and housed in a custom made red gilt tooled quarter morocco portfolio.
Manuscript signed by the Adjutant-General J.S. Grandjean is a summary of the main points of the report submitted by him in 1766, on his return from Gorée, to minister Choiseul. The report discusses the gold mines at Galam (Senegal), gum arabic that should be shared with the Dutch, and special water resistant wood found on the Island of Boulam.
"The island of Gorée was one of the first places in Africa to be settled by Europeans.., After the French gained control in 1677, the island remained continuously French until 1960.., Gorée was principally a trading post, administratively attached to Saint-Louis, capital of the Colony of Senegal. Apart from slaves, beeswax, hides and grain were also traded..., Étienne-François, comte de Stainville, duc de Choiseul (1719-1785) was a French military officer, diplomat and statesman. Between 1758 and 1761, and 1766 and 1770, he was Foreign Minister of France and had a strong influence on France's global strategy throughout the period. He is closely associated with France's defeat in the Seven Years War and subsequent efforts to rebuild French prestige" (Wikipedia).


43. GREENE, Captain Dominick Sarsfield (1826-1892), Royal Artillery and Aide-de-Camp
[Original Mounted Watercolour Signed "DSG" and Titled in ink on Mount:] The Galleries / Gibraltar / Europa Point / 24.8.57.

1857. Pencil, watercolour and bodycolour on paper ca. 24,5x36 cm (10x14 in). Some minor creasing of corners but overall a very good watercolour.
Original attractive watercolour sketch from a series of sketches made by Captain Dominick Sarsfield Greene for his "Views in India, from drawing taken during the Seapoy Mutiny," Thos. Maclean: London, 1859. The Galleries are the Great Siege Tunnels and Europa Point is the southernmost point of Gibraltar. Provenance: Sir Alexander Moncrieff (1829–1906) and thence by descent.


44. GREENE, Captain Dominick Sarsfield (1826-1892), Royal Artillery and Aide-de-Camp
[Original Mounted Watercolour Signed "DSG" and Titled in ink on Mount:] From Sandy Bay Ridge, St. Helena / 3.6.58.

1858. Pencil, watercolour and bodycolour on paper ca. 17x25 cm (7x10 in). A very good watercolour.
Original attractive watercolour sketch of Sandy Bay, which is a bay on the island of Saint Helena and a district of the island, from a series of sketches made by Captain Dominick Sarsfield Greene for his "Views in India, from drawing taken during the Seapoy Mutiny," Thos. Maclean: London, 1859. Provenance: Sir Alexander Moncrieff (1829–1906) and thence by descent.


45. GREENE, Captain Dominick Sarsfield (1826-1892), Royal Artillery and Aide-de-Camp
[Original Mounted Watercolour Signed "DSG" and Titled in ink on Mount:] The Harbour, St. Vincent, Cape Verde / 19.6.58.

1858. Pencil, watercolour and bodycolour on paper ca. 17x25 cm (7x10 in). A very good watercolour.
Original attractive watercolour sketch of Cova de Inglesa, the harbour of Sao Vincente capital Mindelo, from a series of sketches made by Captain Dominick Sarsfield Greene for his "Views in India, from drawing taken during the Seapoy Mutiny," Thos. Maclean: London, 1859. Provenance: Sir Alexander Moncrieff (1829–1906) and thence by descent.


46. GREENE, Captain Dominick Sarsfield (1826-1892), Royal Artillery and Aide-de-Camp
[Original Mounted Watercolour Signed "DSG" and Titled in ink on Mount:] The Mans Head Rock, St. Vincent.

Ca. 1858. Pencil, watercolour and bodycolour on paper ca. 16,5x24,5 cm (6 ½ x 9 ½ in). A very good watercolour.
Original attractive watercolour sketch of Monte Cara (Washington's Head) across the bay from Sao Vincente's capital Mindelo, from a series of sketches made by Captain Dominick Sarsfield Greene for his "Views in India, from drawing taken during the Seapoy Mutiny," Thos. Maclean: London, 1859. Provenance: Sir Alexander Moncrieff (1829–1906) and thence by descent.


47. GREENE, Captain Dominick Sarsfield (1826-1892), Royal Artillery and Aide-de-Camp
[Original Mounted Watercolour Signed "DSG" and Titled in ink on Mount:] Bird Island, St. Vincent, St Antonia in the distance / 20.6.58.

1858. Pencil, watercolour and bodycolour on paper ca. 16,5x25 cm (6 ½ x 10 in). A very good watercolour.
Original attractive watercolour sketch of the Cape Verde Island Ilhéu dos Pássaros with the Island of Santo Antão in the background from a series of sketches made by Captain Dominick Sarsfield Greene for his "Views in India, from drawing taken during the Seapoy Mutiny," Thos. Maclean: London, 1859. Provenance: Sir Alexander Moncrieff (1829–1906) and thence by descent.


48. GREENE, Captain Dominick Sarsfield (1826-1892), Royal Artillery and Aide-de-Camp
[Original Watercolour Titled in Pencil:] From Funchal.

Ca. 1857. Pencil, watercolour and bodycolour on paper ca. 20x35 cm (8x14 in). Watercolour recently matted. Some very minor foxing in the upper margin but overall a very good watercolour.
Original attractive watercolour sketch looking along the coastline from Funchal, the largest city and capital of Madeira, from a series of sketches made by Captain Dominick Sarsfield Greene for his "Views in India, from drawing taken during the Seapoy Mutiny," Thos. Maclean: London, 1859. Provenance: Sir Alexander Moncrieff (1829–1906) and thence by descent.


49. GREENE, Captain Dominick Sarsfield (1826-1892), Royal Artillery and Aide-de-Camp
[Original Mounted Watercolour Signed "DSG" and Titled in ink and Pencil on Mount:] Peak of Tenerife / Height 12,500 ft. Above the sea / Jutland 11 miles from Orotava / Early Morning.

Ca. 1857. Pencil, watercolour and bodycolour on paper ca. 32x25 cm (12 ½ x 10 in). Mount with a mild crease of bottom blank margin, but overall a very good watercolour.
Original attractive watercolour sketch of Mount Teide (3,718 m) seen from the ocean with a sailing ship in the foreground, from a series of sketches made by Captain Dominick Sarsfield Greene for his "Views in India, from drawing taken during the Seapoy Mutiny," Thos. Maclean: London, 1859. Provenance: Sir Alexander Moncrieff (1829–1906) and thence by descent.


50. GREENE, Captain Dominick Sarsfield (1826-1892), Royal Artillery and Aide-de-Camp
[Original Mounted Watercolour Signed "DSG" and Titled in ink on Mount:] On the road to Constantia / 12.5.58.

1858. Pencil, watercolour and bodycolour on paper ca. 17x25 cm (7x10 in). A very good watercolour.
Original attractive watercolour sketch from a series of sketches made by Captain Dominick Sarsfield Greene for his "Views in India, from drawing taken during the Seapoy Mutiny," Thos. Maclean: London, 1859. "Constantia is a suburb of Cape Town, South Africa, situated about 15 kilometres south of the centre of Cape Town. The Constantia Valley lies to the east of and at the foot of the Constantiaberg mountain. Constantia Nek is a low pass linking to Hout Bay in the west" (Wikipedia).
Provenance: Sir Alexander Moncrieff (1829–1906) and thence by descent.


51. GUILLAIN, [Charles] (1808-1875)
[Tinted Lithograph Panorama of the City of Mogadishu (Somalia), Titled:] Vue de la Ville de Moguedchou, Prise de Moullage en Dehors du Recif.

Paris: Arthus Bertrand, [1856-1857]. Tinted lithograph ca. 22x42 cm (9 x 16 ½ in). With a library blind stamp in blank margin, but overall a very good lithograph.
"Mogadishu, known locally as Xamar (English: Hamar), is the largest city in Somalia and the nation's capital" (Wikipedia). Plate #22 from Voyage à la côte orientale d'Afrique exécuté pendant les années 1846, 1847 et 1848 par le brick Le Ducouëdic sous le commandement de M. Guillain.
"Charles Guillain visited the Indian Ocean coasts of Africa and the Portuguese settlements in India aboard the Du Couedic between January 1846 and May 1849. He was appointed member of a commission in 1858 to investigate new possibilities of French emigration to the colonies, and governor of New Caledonia in 1861"(Sothebys); Guillain's Documents sur l'Histoire is also one of the only sources for the travels of Eugene Maizan (1819-1845), "Possibly the first European to penetrate East Africa.., Maizan proceeded as far as the district of Deje-la-Mhora, on the Uzaramo plateau about 80-150 kilometers from the coast, when he was set upon by Mazangera tribesmen under sub-chief Hembe, and bound to a calabash tree and savagely murdered.., [Guillain's Documents sur l'Histoire is] considered the finest account of East Africa for the period"(Howgego 1800-1850, M6); Guillain "sailed down the Indian Ocean coast and went ashore at Mogadishu, Marca, and Baraawe, penetrating some distance inland and collecting valuable geographic and ethnographic information"( Encyclopaedia Britannica Online); Gay 236; Hess & Coger 272; Ibrahim-Hilmy I, 280.


52. HAMMER-PURGSTALL, Joseph Freiherr von (1774-1856)
[Autograph Letter in Secretarial Hand Signed by Hammer-Purgstall to “Charles Fellows, Esquire” Regarding the Latter’s Book].

Vienna, 12 January 1841. Quarto (ca. 25x20,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Clear and complete text in secretarial hand, signed by “Your obedient much servant J. Hammer-Purgstall”. Addressed, sealed and with the postal stamps on the 4th page. Paper soiled and slightly worn on folds, a hole on the 4th page after opening, not affecting the text, overall a very good letter.
Interesting scientific correspondence between two European Orientalists: Joseph Freiherr von Hammer-Purgstall, founder and the first president of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (1847-1849) and British archaeologist and traveller in Asia Minor Sir Charles Fellows (1799-1860). In the letter Hammer-Purgstall informs his correspondent, that Mr Arneth, director of the Vienna Imperial Cabinet of Antics “has just transmitted to me in a small box sealed with the seal of the cabinet, the cast of all the coins which you desire and which the cabinet is possessed of. I’ll deliver this small box immediately at our Secretary of State’s office, to be forwarded with the next messenger.” He advices Fellows about the fastest way of the parcel’s delivery to London and later notes: “If you mention in our work the Vienna coins, be so good as to record Mr. Arneth’s name in order to encourage him to further communications of this kind. I am myself eager for the appearance of your work, of which I promise myself much pleasure and information.”
The letter most likely relates to one of the Fellows’ works about the archaeology of ancient Lycia: “An Account of Discoveries in Lycia, being a Journal kept during a Second Excursion in Asia Minor”, published later that year, or “Coins of Ancient Lycia before the Reign of Alexander; with an Essay on the Relative Dates of the Lycian Monuments in the British Museum” (1855).


53. JANSSONIUS, Johannes (1588-1664)
Mar di Aethiopia Vulgo Oceanus Aethiopicus [Map of the South Atlantic with Africa, South America and Antarctica].

Amsterdam, 1647. Outline hand coloured copper engraved map ca. 44x56 cm. (17x22 in). A strong impression. With some very mild foxing, otherwise the map is in very good condition.
"The sea chart of the Atlantic Ocean featured here first appeared in Jansson's Atlantis Majoris and includes almost the whole of South America and the western and southern coastlines of Africa.., An elongated landmass along the lower border is labelled Terra Australis Incognita..," (Norwich 240). Janssonius "formed a partnership with his brother in law Henricus Hondius, and together they published atlases as Mercator/Hondius/Janssonius. Under the leadership of Janssonius the Hondius Atlas was steadily enlarged. Renamed Atlas Novus, it had three volumes in 1638" (Wikipedia).


54. KUPFERBERG, Chr. Adt. & Co.
[German Colonies in Africa] Deutsch-Südwest (German South-West Africa], Deutsch-Ost-Afrika (German East Africa), Kamerun und Togo (Cameroon & Togo). [Each with 12 mounted Chromolithographed Views].

Karlsruhe: Kunstdruckerei Kuenstlerbund, 1907-9. First Edition. With a total of 36 chromolithographed views and two maps (German East Africa & Cameroon & Togo) Housed in slightly defective original decorative printed card portfolios, but with original covers present. Overall a very good set of views.
The attractive chromolithographs include views of: German South-West Africa: the Namib Railway, Waterberg, Swakopmund, Windhuk, Gibeon, Rehoboth, Hohewarte, etc; German East Africa: Lake Victoria, Kilimanjaro, Harbour of Tanga, Usambara Railway, Harbour of Dar-es-Salem, etc; Cameroon & Togo: Governor's Haus in Buea, Longji Factory, Mouth of the Kribi River, Manenguba mountain range, Jaunde Station, European Quarter in Lome, etc.


55. LEAKE, Lieutenant Colonel W[illiam] M[artin] Royal Engineers (1777-1860)
Map of Egypt; [With Inset:] Supplement to the Map of Egypt or Course of the Nile from Essouan to the Confines of Dongola.

London: J. Arrowsmith, 1840. A very large outline hand coloured copper engraved map ca. 130x76 cm (51x30 in). The map is dissected into 40 sections and backed on linen. The map is in very good condition.
"This extremely detailed map of the course of the Nile was produced by William Martin Leake, a leading British authority on the topography of the region. In March 1802, Leake was employed to make a general survey of Egypt together with W.R. Hamilton and Charles Hayes. On his return to England, his ship sank and all Leake's valuable notes on the Egyptian survey perished. His chart was subsequently published in 1818 after his retirement, incorporating additional material from Sir Alexander Bryce, M. Nouet, and others. The map provides extensive information on the Nile, ancient ruins, the Suez Canal, roads and railways, and is filled with voluminous notations. It extends south to Aswan, and beyond in an inset, as far as Dongola" (Old World Auctions).
"A journey through Asia Minor in 1800 to join the British fleet at Cyprus inspired [Leake] with an interest in antiquarian topography. In 1801, after travelling across the desert with the Turkish army to Egypt, he was, on the expulsion of the French, employed in surveying the valley of the Nile as far as the cataracts; but having sailed with the ship engaged to convey the Elgin marbles from Athens to England, he lost all his maps and observations when the vessel foundered off Cerigo in Greece.
Shortly after his arrival in England he was sent out to survey the coast of Albania and the Morea, with the view of assisting the Turks against attacks of the French from Italy, and of this he took advantage to form a valuable collection of coins and inscriptions and to explore ancient sites. In 1807, war having broken out between Turkey and England, he was made prisoner at Salonica; but, obtaining his release the same year, he was sent on a diplomatic mission to Ali Pasha of Ioannina, whose confidence he completely won, and with whom he remained for more than a year as British representative.
In 1810 he was granted a yearly sum of £600 for his services in Turkey. In 1815 he retired from the army, in which he held the rank of colonel, devoting the remainder of his life to topographical and antiquarian studies. He was admitted a Fellow of the Royal Society on 13 April 1815. He died at Brighton on the 6 January 1860. The marbles collected by him in Greece were presented to the British Museum; his bronzes, vases, gems and coins were purchased by the University of Cambridge after his death, and are now in the Fitzwilliam Museum. He was also elected a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society, received the honorary DCL at Oxford (1816), and was a member of the Berlin Academy of Sciences and correspondent of the Institute of France" (Wikipedia); Tooley K-P, p.104.


56. LIVINGSTONE, David (1813-1873)
[Bronze Commemorative Wood Framed Bust Plaque of David Livingstone].

Ca. 1873. 10 cm (4 inch) diameter bronze commemorative bust plaque of David Livingstone with a 2,5 cm (1 inch) period black wooden frame. David Livingstone 1813-1873 written in ink on verso. Frame with a crack, otherwise the plaque is in very good condition.
This well executed plaque is an excellent example of a commemorative souvenir produced immediately after Livingstone's death. "In death Livingstone became once more a national hero.., He was acclaimed once again as a great abolitionist: his numerous reports on the slavers' advance across Africa from the east coast were seen to have led to the treaty against the trade enforced on the sultan of Zanzibar in 1873.., Stanley had, of course, taken the lead in reviving Livingstone's celebrity and his book, How I Found Livingstone (1872), presented the traveller as a genial saint. Horace Waller, who had been with the UMCA at Magomero, fastidiously edited Livingstone's Last Journals (1874), a poignant testimony to soul-searching, suffering, forbearance, and tenacity. These books, and their derivatives, contributed to a Livingstone legend which had begun with Missionary Travels. There was a peculiar romance about the lone missionary ever pressing into new country, concerned not to convert but to bear Christian witness by preaching the gospel, giving magic-lantern shows, and speaking against slavery. Livingstone became a symbol of what the British—and other Europeans—wished to believe about their motives as they took over tropical Africa in the late nineteenth century: in effect he redeemed the colonial project" (Oxford DNB).


57. LUGARD, Frederick John Dealtry, Baron (1858-1945)
[Two Autograph Letters Signed "F.J.D. Lugard" to "Thomas" and "Fagan" (of Natural History Museum) Dated 1 Sept. 1895 and 15 Feb. 1896 Respectively].

[South Africa], 1895-6. Octavo letters each ca. 18x11 cm (7 x 4 ½ in). 3 pages each. The letters are written in a legible hand and are in near fine condition.
The two interesting letters are full of content and in the 1895 letter Lugard discusses what "Thomas" has in his collections (especially the horns and skin of a hartebeest) and asks for a spare Kobus Kob skin. He has immature Kobus Kob horns if he wants them from "South of Lokoja on Niger bank." Perhaps he is discussing the results of his expedition to Borgu.
In the 1896 letter Lugard describes in detail the sort of man he wishes to employ looking after stores and doing "miscellaneous work", a taxidermist or collector. Presumably he is preparing for the expedition to Lake Ngami (1896-7).
"West Africa, 1894-1895:
Despite any disenchantment over his experience of two companies and his longed for but dwindling hope of returning to east Africa in senior government service, Lugard now embarked, however hesitatingly, on another roving company expedition. An offer of service came from Sir George Goldie, who had obtained a charter for his Royal Niger Company and in 1894 was busily concluding treaties with local chiefs so as to strengthen the company's capacity to repel the encroachments of the French in the Niger region. Aware that they were preparing an expedition to Borgu, Goldie wanted Lugard to proceed to Nikki, its chief town, and to forestall the French and Germans by securing a treaty from the ruler. In a rapid and remarkable march through unexplored country, Lugard won the so-called ‘steeplechase to Nikki’, to the dismay of the French, who had no doubt about the motives of one whom they stigmatized as ‘the conqueror of Uganda’.
Southern Africa, 1896-1897:
A brief interlude in southern Africa followed. Lugard left the Niger in April 1895, still hoping that the government would ask for his services in Africa. Agonizingly, his appointment as CB brought nothing more with it, so he accepted an offer from yet another African company, the new British West Charterland Company, and set off to explore a mineral commission near Lake Ngami in Bechuanaland. Here the main problem was not fighting but transport. The journey involved 700 miles across the Kalahari Desert, and a rinderpest epidemic had emptied the country of trek cattle. Nevertheless, the journey was accomplished by September 1896. In the following August, Lugard received an urgent and surprise message from the new colonial secretary, Joseph Chamberlain, inviting him to take up work in west Africa. It was an imperial appointment at last. What Lugard called his ‘destiny to Africa’ entered its third phase: after central and east Africa, henceforth it was to be west Africa. It turned out to be the longest connection of them all" (Oxford DNB).


South African Souvenir.

Durban & Kimberley: The "Premier" Studio, [1897]. First Edition de Luxe. [ii] pp. Sixty "photoplatino" photographs (each ca. 14 x 20 cm or 5 ½ x 8 in) mounted on thirty leaves. Original publishers dark brown full "handsome Morocco-Roan," gilt tooled and titled. Mildly rubbed at head and tail of spine, otherwise a very good copy.
The attractive images produced in a photogravure manner show the urban centers of southern Africa just before the start of the Second Boer War (1899-1902) and include views of Cape Town, Bloomfontein, Kimberley, portrait of Cecil Rhodes, Buluwayo, Johannesburg, Pretoria, Lorenzc Marques, Durban, Pietermaritzburg, Umgeni Falls, East London, Kind William's Town, Grahamstown, Graaf-Reinet, Port Elizabeth, and several South Africans in their native costumes.


59. MILBERT, Jacques Gerard (1766-1840)
Voyage Pittoresque a l'Ile de France, au Cap de Bonne Esperance et a l'Ile de Teneriffe [Picturesque Voyage to Mauritius, the Cape of Good Hope and the Island of Tenerife].

Paris: Le Normant pour A. Nepveu, 1812. First Edition. Octavo Text 2 vols. & Oblong Folio Atlas. Xiv, 392, [1], [1]; [iii], 390, [1]; [iii] pp. With 45 copper engraved views, plans and maps, many folding. Text in handsome period brown gilt tooled mottled full calf. Atlas in period blue quarter cloth with pebbled papered boards. Text in near fine condition and atlas mildly rubbed at extremities and a few plates with some mild dust soiling. Overall a very good set.
"Jacques-Gérard Milbert was a French naturalist and artist. In 1800, Milbert embarked on Nicolas Baudin's voyage to Australia. During the voyage, Milbert and several other artists became ill, and the artists and the captain came into conflict. This caused several artists, including Milbert, to leave the voyage at Mauritius, leaving Charles-Alexandre Lesueur to produce the voyage's scientific drawings. Milbert returned to France, where in 1812 he published a series of views of Mauritius, the Cape Colony and Tenerife, titled "Voyage pittoresque à l'Ile de France, au Cap de Bonne Espérence et à l'Ile de Ténériffe"" (Wikipedia). Milbert was invited on the expedition by M. Bory de Vincent. Gay 266; Mendelssohn II, p.13.


60. MOFFAT, John Smith, Reverend (1835-1918)
[Autograph Letter Signed “John Smith Moffat” to “Master Alfred William Gough” about Latter’s Desire to Become a Missionary in Africa].

Kuruman, [?] Hopetown, Cape of Good Hope, 25 January 1876. Quarto (ca. 27x21,5 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on blue laid paper. Paper aged, weak on folds and with minor tears neatly repaired, otherwise a very good letter, written in a very legible hand.
Historically interesting letter from Reverend John Smith Moffat, a noted British missionary in South Africa and a brother-in-law of David Livingstone. The letter written in a very personal manner, is addressed to a young boy and reveals Moffat’s thoughts on the essence and purpose of Christian missions. The letter was most likely addressed to Alfred William Gough (1862-1931), who was 14 at the time, and later became a renowned Christian activist and author, Prebendary of St. Paul’s Cathedral.
“My dear young Friend, I was glad to have your note, and to hear that you would like to be a missionary. It is much better to be missionary than to be anything else. A man who lives for himself may get rich and powerful and have a great many things that a missionary cannot have, but he can never have such happiness; and when the world has passed away he will have nothing to show for all the time he lived and enjoyed the world. But every act of love & kindness will then live; like the seeds which we bury and see no more for a time, and then we come back to find them beautiful fragrant flowers. <…> If you ever become missionary you must be prepared for a good many things that you are hardly like I think about now. Indeed I do not address you to become a missionary unless you are quite sure that God calls you <…> [when you are sure] that the Lord will be with you & that you will make a good missionary.”
“We are getting on very slowly here, but Africa is a slow country & patience is necessary for everything. It is a good thing however that when one set of missionaries dies, another is ready to take its place. <…> It is a pleasant thought to me that when I am gone there will be plenty of strong young fellows to come into my place. Perhaps this is not just the sort of letter you might have expected from me, but it does us all good, even jolly young cubs at school, sometimes to sit down and think about these things, which are just as real & true as the life you are now living & will all have to come to pass, so let us meet them bravely & pass away like heroes. Remember me to any of your schoolfellows who may know me. Perhaps someday I may be also to give you another letter like the last about the Bechuana or the Matebele”.
The letter was written in the famous Kuruman station of the London Missionary Society (modern Northern Cape, South Africa). Known as “the fountain of Christianity," it was founded in 1821 by Robert Moffat, the father of the author of this letter; and it was at Kuruman where David Livingstone arrived for his first position as a missionary in 1841. John Smith Moffat took over running the Kuruman station from his father in 1865 and worked there until 1879 when he joined the British Bechuanaland colonial service. An Interesting personal account on the Christian missionary activities in the 19th century Southern Africa by one its leading figures.


61. OLIVEIRA, Guilherme Couvreur de (1889-1978)
[Original Manuscript Account of a Voyage from Lisbon to West Africa, with Sixteen Ink Drawings in Text; Titled:] Ao mea pae offerece estes “Apontamentos” o seu filho muito amigo. G.C. Oliveira, 23 Setembro de 1906; [Additional Title on the First Page:] Uma viagem a Africa Occidental.

Ca. 1906. Octavo (ca. 20,5x16 cm). T.p., 94 pp., 1 blank leaf, [2] pp. of text. Black ink on watermarked bluish paper, legible handwriting in Portuguese. With 16 ink drawings in text. Original notebook with brown cloth spine and red card borders; paper label with a manuscript title “Guilherme Couvreur d’Oliveira. Apontamentos” on the front board. Spine worn and cracked, but the binding is still holding, cover title label with a minor damage, but overall a very good internally fine manuscript.
Vivid manuscript account of a voyage to West Africa and back written by Guilherme Couvreur de Oliveira, then a 17-year old pilot apprentice, and later a Portuguese merchant navy captain, publicist and writer. The voyage on packet boat “Ambaca” lasted from 22 June to 23 September 1906; Cape Verde, Sao Thome and Principe, Luanda, Novo Redondo, Benguela and Mossamedes were visited. The ink sketches in the text include several coastal views drawn from the ship (Ponta Temeroza of the Cape Verde Islands, a rock near the Principe Island, the Ilheu das Cabras Island near Sao Thome, Ponta do Zaire, a full-page sketch of “Um boccado de Mossamedes” et al), as well as drawings of native African sailboats and spears, and a sketch of an albacore tuna caught near the Cape Verde Islands. Two pages at the rear are occupied with the account of Oliveira expenses, dated 15 August 1906 and naming among others payments for a servant, postcards and stamps, cigars, side trips and pipes.
Guilherme Couvreur de Oliveira was a son of Rear Admiral João Brás de Oliveira. He started his career at sea in 1905 as an apprentice aboard the steamship “Funchal;” later that year he took training as a pilot aboard the “Pero de Alenquer.” Oliveira obtained his pilot license in 1908, becoming a captain in 1916, and commander in 1919. He was decorated by both the British and Dutch governments for his efforts to rescue shipwrecked seamen during WWII. He is the author of four books, and published prose and poetry in newspapers and reviews.


62. OWEN, Captain W[illiam]. F[itzwilliam]. W[entworth] (1774-1857)
Narrative of Voyages to Explore the Shores of Africa, Arabia, and Madagascar; Performed in H. M. Ships Leven and Barracouta, Under the Direction of Captain W. F. W. Owen, R.N. By Command of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty.

London: Richard Bentley, 1833. First Edition. Octavo, 2 vols. xxiii, 434; viii, 420 pp. With five lithographed plates, four large folding engraved charts and five wood-engraved illustrations in text. Period brown gilt tooled half calf with brown patterned cloth boards and brown gilt morocco labels. Plates mildly foxed, otherwise a very good set.
"In 1822 [Owen] was appointed by the Admiralty to command an expedition to survey the coast of East Africa. Remarkably, because no particular European nation had until that time felt a necessity for accurate charts, none existed. The survey team, with their flagship HMS Leven and support vessel Barracouta, started out in January 1822 and worked their way eastwards from Cape Town, then along the coast of Mozambique and the western coast of Madagascar.., Owen's charts remained in use for nearly a century and his remarks were still being reproduced in the Africa Pilot as late as 1893" (Howgego 1800-1850, O11). This voyage "is chiefly known for [its] highly accurate surveys, many of which formed the basis of the charts that were used well into the twentieth century" (Christies). "Owen was appointed in 1821 to the sloop Leven, in which, with the brig Barracouta also under his command, he was instructed to survey the east coast of Africa from the boundary of Cape Colony to Cape Gardafui. The squadron arrived at Simonstown in July 1822, and returned there from their last surveying season in September 1825, having surveyed some 20,000 miles of coast, depicted in almost 300 charts" (Oxford DNB). "The journals of Captain Owen and his officers.., contain a large amount of varied information respecting many portions of Africa in the first quarter of the nineteenth century" (Mendelssohn II, p. 133); NMMC 221.


63. PARRY, William Edward, Sir (1790-1855)
[Autograph Letter Signed “W. Parry” to “My dear Buxton” regarding the Ale Supply for the Niger Expedition 1841-42; With: Lithographed Portrait of William Parry].

Admiralty, 8 December 4[1]. Small Octavo (ca. 17,5x10,5 cm). 1 p. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Written on verso of the official note from the Controller of Victualling Department of the Royal Navy, dated “Admiralty, Somerset House, 6 December 1841”. Paper aged toned, mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter. Portrait: lithograph on paper, ca. 1830-s, ca. 9,5x7,5 cm; lithographed titled and printer’s address on the lower margin.
An interesting item of the Niger Expedition 1841-1842, this letter from the famous Arctic explorer Sir Edward Parry, was written when he was a high ranking Admiralty official. The letter is addressed to Charles Buxton (1823-1871), English brewer, philanthropist, and Member of Parliament, the letter concerns the ale supplies for the participating steamers. It was Charles’ father, Sir Thomas Fowell Buxton (1786–1845), a noted British politician and abolitionist, who was the initiator of the expedition.
Parry forwards Buxton the official answer from the Royal Navy “Controller of Victualling” which says that “the Ale required for the Niger Expedition has been ordered from the Parties who supplied it on the last occasion, namely Mr.s Hodgson & Abbott, Captain Trotter having written favorably respecting the former supplies made by the same parties” [Henry Dundas Trotter (1802-1859) – the commander of the Niger Expedition]. Parry further notes “I have great hopes of receiving better accounts from the Niger, when we next hear <…> I hope to write to your father today”.
“The Niger expedition of 1841 was a largely unsuccessful journey in 1841 and 1842 of three British iron steam vessels to Lokoja, at the confluence of the Niger River and Benue River, in what is now Nigeria. It was mounted by British missionary and activist groups, with the backing of the British government. The crews of the boats suffered a high mortality from disease” (Wikipedia).
“In mid-August 1841 the expedition entered one of the mouths of the Niger. Early in October the last of its ships was limping back, its commander prostrated by fever, the cabins crammed with sick and dying, the geologist working the engines with the aid of a textbook. Those seven weeks cost forty-one European lives” (Dictionary of African Christian Biography on-line).


64. RAFFENEL, Anne (1809-58)
Voyage dans l'Afrique occidentale comprenant l'exploration du Senegal, depuis Saint-Louis jusqu'a la Faleme, au-dela de Bakel; de la Faleme, depuis son embouchure jusqu'a Sansandig; des mines d'or de Kenieba, dans le Bambouk; des pays de Galam, Bondou et Woolli; et de la Gambie, depuis Baracounda jusqu'a l'Ocean; execute, en 1843 et 1844, par une commission composee de MM. Huard-Bessinieres, Jamin, Raffenel, Peyre-Ferry et Pottin-Patterson. [Travels in West Africa Including the Exploration of Senegal ..,].

Paris: Arthus Bertrand, 1846. First Edition. Small Quarto Text & Folio Atlas. vii, 512 pp. With two lithographed folding maps and twenty-two hand coloured illustrations on eleven lithographed plates. Text in period brown gilt tooled quarter calf with marbled boards. Atlas in period-style green gilt tooled quarter calf with marbled boards. One map with expertly repaired tears, text with some very minor foxing and rubbed on extremities but overall still a very good set.
Text with the bookplate of John Ralph Willis. "In 1843-4 the marine officer Anne Raffenel explored Bambouk, and in 1846-48 made his way into Kaarta. Raffenel. Born at Versailles, had joined the navy in 1826 and for the next sixteen years voyaged to different parts of the world. He was appointed governor of Madagascar in 1855 and died there in June 1858"(Howgego 1800-1850, W23); "Explorations made in 1843 on the upper [Faleme] river by Raffenel carried him to Bambouk and the gold-bearing regions of the Faleme; he then traveled into Kaarta, the country of the Bambara, where he was held prisoner for eight months, but the ministry quietly avoided acting on the proposal to stop native razzias on the posts by direct annexation" (Priestley, France Overseas, 52); Gay, 2915.


65. RITCHIE, Joseph (ca. 1788-1819)
[Interesting Autograph Letter to John Whishaw, Secretary of the African Institution, Written at the Beginning of Ritchie's Ill-Fated Expedition to Africa, to Introduce Sidi Hassuna D'Ghies, who was a son of the Prime Minister of the Pasha of Tripoli, and Later Would Become the Pasha’s Foreign Minister, and Additionally he was Later also Connected to the Fate of Alexander Laing].

Marseilles, 28 August 1818. Quarto (ca. 25,5x19,5 cm). 1 pp. Brown ink on watermarked laid paper. Mild fold marks and light chipping of the top margin, ink slightly faded, but overall a very good legible letter.
Rare historically important letter by Joseph Ritchie, an English surgeon and African explorer, written during his ill-fated expedition to Northern Africa in 1818-1819, which tried to ascertain the course of the Niger and the location of the fabled Timbuktu. Ritchie and George Lyon followed the route of Frederick Hornemann’s expedition of 1797, crossing the Sahara via Murzuq. “The expedition was underfunded, lacked support and because of the ideas of Barrow departed from Tripoli and thus had to cross the Sahara as part of their journey. A year later, due to much officialdom they had only got as far as Murzuk, the capital of Fezzan, where they both fell ill. Ritchie never recovered and died there” (Wikipedia).
The letter, written in Marseille shortly before Ritchie's departure for Malta was addressed to John Whisham (1764-1840), the secretary of the African Institution and the biographer of Mungo Park. Ritchie introduced to him 'Sidi Hassuna D'Ghies, a Tripolitan who has passed some time in this Town - & son of the present Minister of the Pacha. I am anxious in some measure to repay the Services which he has rendered me during a tedious detention here (waiting for a passage to Malta) by giving me much useful information respecting Africa; the interest which has been so kindly taken in the Attempt I am about to make, emboldens me to hope that his liberality & goodness will be well-appreciated in England'.
Hassuna D’Ghies was appointed the foreign minister of the Pasha of Tripoli in 1825. He “came from a wealthy merchant family with commercial interests in Ghadamis, Fazzan, and various European countries. Having spent seven years in London and Paris on business and diplomatic missions, he was familiar with European ways. [British consul in Tripoli] Warrington, who had most to lose from Hassuna D’Ghies insistence on conducting business with the consuls in a way which prevented their intervention in local affairs, used the death near Timbuktu in 1826 of the English explorer Major Laing as an occasion to force the pasha to dismiss his foreign minister. <…> Warrington claimed, without any substantial evidence, that Laing’s assassination had been plotted by the Pasha and D’Ghies, that the latter had given Laing’s papers to the French consul in return for a forty per cent reduction of a debt which he owed him and that Caillie had never set foot in Timbuktu and the diary he had published under his name was compiled from Laing’s papers.” As a result in 1829 D’Ghies was announced by the pasha responsible for Laing’s death and replaced as foreign minister by his brother Muhammed (Abun-Nasr, Jamil M. A history of the Maghrib in the Islamic period. Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 202).
Ritchie was involved into scientific and literary circles of London. He foretold the exceptional literary future of John Keats, and “possibly from some association of ‘Endymion’ with the Mountains of the Moon, promised to carry a copy of the poem with him to Africa and fling it into the midst of the Sahara” (Oxford DNB).


66. ROBERTS, David (1796-1864)
[Tinted Lithograph Panorama Titled:] Suez, Febry. 11th 1839.

London: F.G. Moon, 1841. Tinted lithograph ca. 33,5x50 cm (13 ½ x 19 ½ in.) Some mild foxing otherwise a very good lithograph.
Suez is a seaport located near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal.
Robert's left "London in August 1838 for Paris and thence travelling via Alexandria to Cairo, before visiting the pyramids at Giza. Hiring a cangia, he sailed up the Nile as far as Abu Simbel, stopping on his return north to sketch temples and ancient sites such as Philae, Karnak, Luxor, and Dendera. Back in Cairo he drew its streets and mosques before departing for Syria and Palestine in February 1839. He travelled through Sinai to Petra and thence north, via Hebron and Jaffa, to Jerusalem. From there he made an excursion to the Jordan, the Dead Sea, and Bethlehem and, after spending a further week in Jerusalem, he continued north, visiting many places associated with the Bible, before exploring Baalbek. He sailed for England from Beirut in May 1839, was quarantined in Malta, and returned to London in July. He was the first independent, professional British artist to travel so extensively in the Near East, and brought back 272 sketches, a panorama of Cairo, and three full sketchbooks, enough material to ‘serve me for the rest of my life’ (Roberts, eastern journal, 28 Jan 1839).
Over the next decade Roberts made ‘a serries of intire new drawings’ for the 247 large coloured lithographs executed by Louis Haghe for The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia (1842–9). No publication before this had presented so comprehensive a series of views of the monuments, landscape, and people of the Near East. Roberts was to paint more oils of the East than of any other region he visited, exhibiting thirty-one at the Royal Academy alone. These received critical acclaim and sold for high prices: for example, Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives (Holloway Collection at Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham) was commissioned for £330 in 1841 and his Ruins of Baalbec sold for £440 the same year, while The Island of Philae (1843; priv. Coll.) bought by a friend for £100, rapidly sold for £200, and in 1858 fetched 400 guineas. The works remain keenly sought after to this day" (Oxford DNB).


67. ROBERTS, David (1796-1864)
[Tinted Lithograph Panorama Titled:] Bethlehem, April 6th 1839.

London: F.G. Moon, 1842. Tinted lithograph ca. 35,5x51 cm (14x20 in). Some mild foxing otherwise a very good lithograph.
Bethlehem is a Palestinian city located in the central West Bank, about 10 kilometers south of Jerusalem.
Robert's left "London in August 1838 for Paris and thence travelling via Alexandria to Cairo, before visiting the pyramids at Giza. Hiring a cangia, he sailed up the Nile as far as Abu Simbel, stopping on his return north to sketch temples and ancient sites such as Philae, Karnak, Luxor, and Dendera. Back in Cairo he drew its streets and mosques before departing for Syria and Palestine in February 1839. He travelled through Sinai to Petra and thence north, via Hebron and Jaffa, to Jerusalem. From there he made an excursion to the Jordan, the Dead Sea, and Bethlehem and, after spending a further week in Jerusalem, he continued north, visiting many places associated with the Bible, before exploring Baalbek. He sailed for England from Beirut in May 1839, was quarantined in Malta, and returned to London in July. He was the first independent, professional British artist to travel so extensively in the Near East, and brought back 272 sketches, a panorama of Cairo, and three full sketchbooks, enough material to ‘serve me for the rest of my life’ (Roberts, eastern journal, 28 Jan 1839).
Over the next decade Roberts made ‘a serries of intire new drawings’ for the 247 large coloured lithographs executed by Louis Haghe for The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia (1842–9). No publication before this had presented so comprehensive a series of views of the monuments, landscape, and people of the Near East. Roberts was to paint more oils of the East than of any other region he visited, exhibiting thirty-one at the Royal Academy alone. These received critical acclaim and sold for high prices: for example, Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives (Holloway Collection at Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham) was commissioned for £330 in 1841 and his Ruins of Baalbec sold for £440 the same year, while The Island of Philae (1843; priv. Coll.) bought by a friend for £100, rapidly sold for £200, and in 1858 fetched 400 guineas. The works remain keenly sought after to this day" (Oxford DNB).


68. ROBERTS, David (1796-1864)
[Tinted Lithograph Panorama Titled:] Petra, Looking South, March 9th 1839.

London: F.G. Moon, 1842. Tinted lithograph ca. 36x52 cm (14 ½ x 20 ½ in). Some mild foxing otherwise a very good lithograph.
Petra, "established possibly as early as 312 BC as the capital city of the Nabataeans" (Wikipedia).
Robert's left "London in August 1838 for Paris and thence travelling via Alexandria to Cairo, before visiting the pyramids at Giza. Hiring a cangia, he sailed up the Nile as far as Abu Simbel, stopping on his return north to sketch temples and ancient sites such as Philae, Karnak, Luxor, and Dendera. Back in Cairo he drew its streets and mosques before departing for Syria and Palestine in February 1839. He travelled through Sinai to Petra and thence north, via Hebron and Jaffa, to Jerusalem. From there he made an excursion to the Jordan, the Dead Sea, and Bethlehem and, after spending a further week in Jerusalem, he continued north, visiting many places associated with the Bible, before exploring Baalbek. He sailed for England from Beirut in May 1839, was quarantined in Malta, and returned to London in July. He was the first independent, professional British artist to travel so extensively in the Near East, and brought back 272 sketches, a panorama of Cairo, and three full sketchbooks, enough material to ‘serve me for the rest of my life’ (Roberts, eastern journal, 28 Jan 1839).
Over the next decade Roberts made ‘a serries of intire new drawings’ for the 247 large coloured lithographs executed by Louis Haghe for The Holy Land, Syria, Idumea, Arabia, Egypt & Nubia (1842–9). No publication before this had presented so comprehensive a series of views of the monuments, landscape, and people of the Near East. Roberts was to paint more oils of the East than of any other region he visited, exhibiting thirty-one at the Royal Academy alone. These received critical acclaim and sold for high prices: for example, Jerusalem from the Mount of Olives (Holloway Collection at Royal Holloway and Bedford New College, Egham) was commissioned for £330 in 1841 and his Ruins of Baalbec sold for £440 the same year, while The Island of Philae (1843; priv. Coll.) bought by a friend for £100, rapidly sold for £200, and in 1858 fetched 400 guineas. The works remain keenly sought after to this day" (Oxford DNB).


69. ROCHET D'HÉRICOURT, Charles-Xavier (1801-1854)
[Autograph Letter Signed ‘Rochet d’Héricourt’ to a Magazine Editor].

Paris, 18 February 1846. On a folded Octavo leaf (ca. 19,5x12 cm). 2 pp. Brown ink on white paper. Mild fold marks, otherwise a very good letter.
Autograph letter by renowned French explorer of the East Africa, the leader of two expeditions to Ethiopia in 1839-40 and 1842-43, which resulted in his books, “Voyage sur la côte orientale de la Mer rouge dans le pays d'Adel et le royaume de Choa” (Paris, 1841) and “Second voyage sur les deux rives de la mer Rouge, dans le pays des Adels et le Royaume de Choa” (Paris, 1846).
In a letter to a magazine editor, Rochet d'Héricourt denies a proposal to publish his biography with the detailed description of his travels: “The relation of my travel has been published in the ‘Revue Novelle’ and I don’t have anything to add; regarding my biography the only event of my life which could be included are my travel adventures, and I don’t have anything to add to what I’ve published” [translated from French]. However he will send the editor a copy of the report to the French Academy of Sciences which will be printed soon, and is ready to give “verbal explanations” (“explications verbales“) which could be useful for the correspondent.
Interesting letter revealing the process of publication of the results of Rochet d'Héricourt’s second travel to Abyssinia (1842-43). He mentions the official account of the expedition (Arthus-Bertrand, 1846) and the extensive report prepared for to the French Academy of Sciences (see: La Revue Novelle. Tome 9. 2-me année. Paris, 1846, p. 147-165) which were both published that year.


70. SALT, Henry (1780-1827)
[Large Hand Coloured Aquatint, Titled]: The Town of Abha in Abyssinia.

London: William Miller, 1 May 1809. Hand coloured aquatint on thick wove paper, ca. 46x60 cm (ca. 18x23 ¾ in). Engraved by L. Bluck. With a very small minor tear on the lower margin neatly repaired, margins trimmed, otherwise a very good aquatint.
Plate XVIII from Salt's "Twenty-four views in St. Helena, the Cape, India, Ceylon, the Red Sea, Abyssinia and Egypt." "On 20 June 1802 Salt left England on an eastern tour, as secretary and draughtsman to Viscount Valentia (later the earl of Mountnorris). He visited India, Ceylon, and the Red Sea, and in 1805 was sent by Valentia on a mission into Abyssinia, to the ras of Tigré, whose affection and respect he gained, and with whom he left one of his party, Nathaniel Pearce. The return to England in 1806 was made by way of Egypt, where he first met the pasha, Mehmet Ali. Lord Valentia's Travels in India (1809) was partly written and completely illustrated by Salt, who published his own 24 Views in St Helena, India and Egypt in the same year" (Oxford DNB); Abbey Travel: 515


71. SCHWEINFURTH, G[eorg August] (1836-1925)
[Autographed Signed Note on a Mounted Decorative Pictorial Card with Egyptian Motiv Giving Happy New Year's Wishes for 1898, Signed “G. Schweinfurth;” With: A Cabinet Photograph Portrait (Karl Wahl Berlin) of Schweinfurth Signed “G. Schweinfurth” and Dated 1914. Additionally Inscribed with a Signed Presentation to Prof. Dr. A. Wiedemann and Signed “G. Schweinfurth” and Dated 24th July 1916].

The autographed note on card ca. 11x16,5 cm (4 x 6 ½ in). Cabinet photograph portrait ca. 16x10,5 cm (6 ½ x 4 in). Photograph with a small scratch, otherwise the photograph and New Year's card are in very good condition.
Schweinfurth "returned to Germany with a most valuable accumulation of geographical and ethnographic data for regions never before visited by Europeans. He had made extensive observations of the flora and fauna of Central Africa and had delineated for the first time much of the watershed of the Bahr el Ghazal. His discovery of the pygmy Akka settled conclusively the question of the existence of dwarf races in tropical Africa. His important narrative, "Im Herzen vin Afrika," was published at Leipzig in 1874. Schweinfurth returned to Africa in 1873 to accompany Friedrich Gerhard Rohlfs in his exploration of the Western Desert of Egypt, during which he visited the oases of Farafra, Dakhla, El Kharga and Siwa. Schweinfurth settled at Cairo in 1875 and the following year under the auspices of Khedive Ismail, founded the Societe Khedivale de Geographie. He devoted himself to African studies, in 1876, in the company of Richard Paul Guessfeldt, exploring into the Arabian Desert and carrying out geological and botanical investigations in the El Faiyum region of lower Egypt. He removed to Berlin in 1889 but returned to Africa in 1891, 1892 and 1894 to explore Eritrea. Schweinfurth died at Berlin in September 1925 and was buried in a botanical garden created in his honour" (Howgego, Continental Exploration, 1850-1940, S14).


72. SEUTTER, George Matthaus (1678-1757)
[Map of Africa] Africa Juxta Navigationes et Observationes Recentissimas Aucta, Correcta et in Sua Regna et Status Divisa in Lucem Edita.

Augsburg: Engraved by Gottfried Rogg, 1728. Copper engraved map, full hand colour ca. 49x57 cm (19 ½ x 23 in). Original centre fold. A near fine map.
"This map of Africa was published by George Matthaus Seutter, a German cartographer and publisher of Augsburg. In the lower left corner is a large decorative title cartouche engraved by Gottfried Rogg, with natives, pyramids, animals, lighthouses and ships. Although all the decorative animals have disappeared from the mainland the enormous lakes are shown in Central Africa and the information about the southern extremity of the continent is largely fictitious. The Nile is shown not only originating in the south at lakes Zaire and Zaflan, but also continuing further south, and the Abyssinian province of Amhara is shown in the kingdom of Monomotapa. This map is in fact crowded with erroneous detail" (Norwich 80).


73. SHARPE, Alfred, Sir (1853-1935)
[Collection of 25 Autograph Letters and Notes Signed “Alfred Sharpe” to “Dear Colles” – his Literary Agent William Morris Colles, with a number of topics touched, including Sharpe’s prospective book about his travels in Central Africa, polemics with the Labour Party’s idea of Postwar International Administration of Equatorial Africa, and politics in the Balkans during WWI].

Various places in Britain (the majority – Elmhurst, Lancaster), 1915-1918. Various sizes, from Small Octavo (ca. 17,5x11 cm) to Quarto (ca. 23x19,5 cm). 39 pp. In total. Brown ink on various paper (blue laid paper, blue San Remo linen paper, white “Basildon Bond” paper et al.). Eighteen letters with blind stamped address “Elmhurst, Lancaster” on the upper margin, and two with the “Plâs Nantyr, Glyn” ink stamp; one letter on the printed form of “Euston Hotel, London”, and one – on the form of the “Royal Societies Club, St. James’s Street, London”. All but one letters with the ink stamp “Received” on the first page, specifying the date of reception; all letters with blue pencil numbers apparently put by Colles. Mild fold marks, holes in one of the corners after the letters having been stapled together, some letters with minor creases and tears on the margins, but overall a very good archive of interesting letters written in a legible hand.
Very interesting historically important archive of Sir Alfred Sharpe, British traveller and colonial administrator in Central Africa, who was actively engaged in the formation of the British Central Africa Protectorate (after 1964 - Malawi), became its High Commissioner (1896-1907) and later, when the colony was renamed to Nyasaland – its first governor (1907-1910). Sharpe was also a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society (RGS) since 1891, received its Cuthbert Peak Award in 1898 and became a member of the Society’s Council in 1913-1917. Much of the collection relates to the history of writing and publication of Sharpe’s memoirs about his travels in Africa. The first documents regarding this date from the end of 1916 (Nov 24 and Dec 11) when Sharpe had the diaries of his journey to South Africa retyped and sent to Colles “together with 100 photos from which a choice – or all – can be taken”. After that Sharpe went on another trip, writing to Colles: “I leave for Africa on Friday” (11 Dec, 1916), and already in July 1917 he sent to the agent “notes on my last journey” (9 Jul, 1917). From this time starts long correspondence about different aspects of the prospective book: what stories should be included, what should be edited or revised; whether it is possible to find paper to print a book (in wartime) et al.
Some examples of the correspondence about “the Book:” Sharpe is talking about his travel to the German East Africa in 1904 – “to the magnificent high district immediately north of Lake Nyasa”. He encloses the diary he kept at the time saying that he can “complete a running narrative out of it” (5 March, 1918). “I can make out say 2000 or 3000 words on the German Kondeland – with a general description of that nice country, and the notes of the journey I sent you. Let me know if you want it” (6 March, 1918), “You said I owe a paper – Here is one of the Cape to Cairo fetish [?] <…> Would it do also to incorporate as a chapter in the book?” (9 March, 1918). Several letters reveal the negotiation process with prospective publisher Edward Arnold: he is first mentioned in a letter from 9 July 1917. Almost a year after, on 1 May 1918 Sharpe writes to Colles that Arnold wants him to rewrite the manuscript and make “a fresh book”. Throughout the next five letters continues the discussion about Sharpe’s royalty: the author wanted “20 % and £200 down” and then was ready “to go down to the South coast & shut myself up for 2 to 3 months & make the thing to work”. The outcome on 21 May was unfavourable, Sharpe writing: “It is not sufficiently attractive for me to go in for four months hard work. Moreover it is a form of agreement which would bend me to write, but leaves A. Open to publish or not according to when he likes, and if paper goes to his price. Will you kindly inform him that I can not consider his offer”. Note: Sharpe’s book was eventually published in 1921 by H.F. & G. Witherby under the title “The Backbone of Africa: A record of Travel During the Great War, with Some Suggestions for Administrative Reform."
Other letters from the collection reveal a number of different interesting subjects: Four letters touch on the idea of post-war international administration of the Equatorial Africa suggested by the Labour Party, the idea which Sharpe was a passionate opponent of: “What on earth the Labour Gentlemen have to do with our African possessions <…>”; Their idea of a mixed up Africa governed by a mixed up international Govt is of course a farce. Does anyone really looks on it seriously?” (2 Jan, 1918). The other letters are dedicated to the article by H.G. Wells which supported the Labour’s idea and was published in the Daily Mail (30 Jan 1918) under the title “The African Riddle”. Sharpe wrote a reply article for the Daily Mail for 1000 words, and another one for 3500 words – and is asking Colles to find a magazine to publish it (5 Feb, 1918). From the next letter we get to know that it went to the “Land and Water” magazine (10 Feb, 1918).
Six letters dated October-December 1917 contain some interesting contemporary observations on the events in the Balkans theatre of WW1, e.g. Extensive notes on the “present German actions in Greece” also discusses Greek Prime-Minister Eleftherios Venizelos (31 Oct); letter about the British politics regarding Bulgaria and its desire to ally with the Entente (2 Nov); description of Sharpe’s private meeting with Venizelos when the conditions of Bulgaria’s alliance with the Entente were discussed (15 Nov); or thoughts about the future of the Balkan and Mediterranean fronts: “It is now sticking out for anyone to see that Germany, after she has done what she can in Italy, will send her spare army down to the Balkans, & make a big effort to force us out to the sea. After that she will go for Mesopotamia & Gaza. And how can we do anything there to stand up to her? – These many fronts are our weakness” (6 Nov).
William Morris Colles (1865-1926) was English literary agent, the founder and managing director of The Authors' Syndicate, Ltd. (1890); a Member of the Council of the Society of Authors, and of the Copyright Association. His extensive correspondence with numerous writers is held in several depositories, including the library of UCLA (correspondence with James Barrie, Arnold Bennett, E. F. Benson, R. Haggard, and S. Maugham), and the University of Columbia (Thomas Hardy, Alfred Ollivant, John Pendleton, William H. Rideing, Peter Kropotkin and others).


74. SPARRMAN, Anders (1748-1820)
Resa till Goda Hopps-Udden, Södra Pol-kretsen och Omkring Jordklotet, samt till Hottentott- och Caffer-landen, åren 1772-76 [A Voyage to the Cape of Good Hope, towards the Antarctic Polar Circle and Round the World: But Chiefly into the Country of the Hottentots and Caffres, from the year 1772, to 1776].

Stockholm: Anders J. Nordstrom, 1783. First Edition. Octavo. xv, 766 pp. With nine folding copper engraved plates and one copper engraved folding map. Period brown gilt tooled half sheep with marbled boards. Covers and spine mildly worn, otherwise a very good copy.
This is the first volume of Sparrman's account of his travels in South Africa and of his voyage with Cook in the Resolution 1772-5. "It is the most interesting and most trustworthy account of the Cape Colony and the various races then residing in it, that was published before the beginning of the 19th century" (G. M. Theal). This volume deals mainly with South Africa, but a resume of the voyage with Cook is inserted on pp. 86-108.., The second volume (in two parts) was not published until 1802 and 1818"(Du Rietz Cook 10). Sparrman "sailed for the Cape of Good Hope in January 1772 to take up a post as a tutor. When James Cook arrived there later in the year at the start of his second voyage, Sparrman was taken on as assistant naturalist to Johann and Georg Forster. After the voyage he returned to Cape Town in July 1775 and practiced medicine, earning enough to finance a journey into the interior"(Wikipedia). Sparrman "frequently draws attention to the inaccuracies to be met with in Kolbe's account of the Cape, and throws considerable doubt on the veracity of many of his statements"(Mendelssohn II, p.414-5); Hill 1615; Howgego S154.


75. TEMPLER, Charles Bertram, Major (1860-1931)
[Collection of Six Original Watercolours of South Africa, with two Watercolour Views taken at the coast of Normandy, France].

Ca. 1923. Oblong Folio (27,5x37,5 cm). 4 card leaves. Eight watercolours mounted on recto and verso of the card album leaves, each ca. 17,5x25 cm (7x10 in). All watercolours captioned in ink on lower margins of the album leaves, signed “CBT” and dated in the lower left or right corners of the drawings. Period style black half sheep with brown cloth boards. Card mounts slightly age toned, otherwise a very good album.
An album of interesting watercolours of South Africa created by Major C.B. Templer of the Indian Army, 19th Regiment of Bengal Lancers (Fane’s Horse). He served in India in 1880-1893 and took part in the second Mirazai Expedition of 1891. During his service with the 19th Lancers Templer participated in the horse races and was the first holder of the Indian Grand National Trophy (Some reminiscences of Indian Sport// The Field, The Country Gentleman's Newspaper, Christmas 1922, p. 5). After the end of his career Templer lived in Execliff (Exmouth), actively travelled around Europe and also visited South Africa.
The watercolours, dated December 1922-March 1923 include two views of Cape Town’s Sea Point area showing the Lion’s Head Mountain, Camps Bay and Twelve Apostles mountain range. Three watercolours taken near George (Western Cape Province) show the George Peak (Outeniqua Mountains), historic Montagu Pass and a pine plantation in the town’s vicinity. There is also a humorous portrait of a rickshaw in Johannesburg with the commentary: “A Conveyance much used by the Dutch in Jo'burg, something after the style of the Indian Jin-Rickoshaw! The men with them wear fantastic costumes!!!” The album additionally contains two later watercolours (dated July 1923) depicting an island commune of Mont Saint Michel in Normandy and a coastal view, apparently also in France. Overall a very good album with unusual views of South Africa.


76. TROTTER, A[lexander] M[ason] (Scotland 1891-1946)
[Original Watercolour, Apparently Used as an Illustration in 'The Graphic,' Titled on Verso:] Death of Livingstone.

London, 1917. Matted watercolour on Whatman board ca. 27x38 cm (11x15 in). With an old fold (cracked at margins) on lower margin not affecting the main image, otherwise a very striking watercolour in very good condition.
This striking watercolour is a latter reworking of the famous scene of the death of David Livingstone. "David Livingstone died in that area in Chief Chitambo's village at Ilala southeast of Lake Bangweulu in present-day Zambia on 1 May 1873 from malaria and internal bleeding caused by dysentery. He took his final breaths while kneeling in prayer at his bedside. (His journal indicates that the date of his death would have been 1 May, but his attendants noted the date as 4 May, which they carved on a tree and later reported; this is the date on his grave.) Britain wanted the body to give it a proper ceremony, but the tribe would not give his body to them. Finally they relented, but cut the heart out and put a note on the body that said, "You can have his body, but his heart belongs in Africa!". Livingstone's heart was buried under a Mvula tree near the spot where he died, now the site of the Livingstone Memorial. His body together with his journal was carried over a thousand miles by his loyal attendants Chuma and Susi to the coast to Bagamoyo, and was returned to Britain for burial. After lying in repose at No.1 Savile Row "then the headquarters of the Royal Geographical Society, now the home of bespoke tailors Gieves & Hawkes" his remains were interred at Westminster Abbey" (Wikipedia).


[Photo Album with Twelve Original Photographs Titled:] Album du Canal de Suez. H. Arnoux Phot. Port Said.

Port Said, ca. 1870. Oblong Folio (27x37 cm). 12 card leaves. Twelve mounted albumen photographs each ca. 21,5x27 cm (8 ½ x 11 in). Original red gilt titled pebbled cloth covers. Covers slightly bumped and faded, front hinge with cracks, book block loose, a few images very mildly faded, mount leaves slightly waved, but overall a very good collection of photographs.
The attractive images include: Port Said; a ferry with camel traders going across the canal; the canal entrance at Ismailia with a ship; ships in the canal; Kantara; Palais du Chantier; the canal entrance at Jimsah; canal dredges; Suez etc.
"The Zangaki brothers were born on the island of Milos. It is not known where they learned photography but soon after their arrival in Egypt they became established photographers. The Greek brothers’ photographs are very commonly found in tourists’ albums assembled in the Middle East in the latter part of the 19th century. From their Port Said studio, they were in an ideal position to sell to those on the Grand Tour" (Jacobson, K. Odalisques & Arabesques: Orientalist Photography, 1839-1925. London, 2007, p. 277).
"The Suez Canal is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Opened in November 1869 after 10 years of construction, it allows ships to travel between Europe and South Asia without navigating around Africa thereby reducing the sea voyage distance between Europe and India by about 7,000 kilometres (4,300 mi). The northern terminus is Port Said; the southern terminus is Port Tewfik at the city of Suez. Ismailia is on its west bank, 3 km (1.9 mi) from the half-way point" (Wikipedia).


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