May 2019 Exploration, Travels and Voyages:
Fifty Unique Items - Manuscripts, Photographs & Watercolours

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May 2019 Exploration, Travels and Voyages - Fifty Unique Items - Manuscripts, Photographs & Watercolours.
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[Album with Fifty-Eight Early Original Albumen Photographs of French Algeria, Showing Algiers, Constantine, Bone, El Kantara, Katara Gorge, Roman Ruins in Timgad, Portraits of Native Algerians, Views of Smaller French Settlements and Country Houses, Algerian Villages etc.]

Ca. 1878. Oblong Folio album ca. 36x48 cm (14 x 18 ¾ in). 54 card stock leaves. Total of 58 original albumen photographs including forty-three large photos from ca. 19,5x25,5 cm (7 ½ x 10 in) to ca. 14,5x20,5 cm (5 ¾ x 8 in), ten panoramic views ca. 12x28,5 cm (4 ¾ x 11 ¼ in) and five smaller photos, ca. 10x13,5 cm (4 x 5 ¼ in). Six photos numbered and/or captioned in French in negative. Period maroon half morocco album with gilt tooled spine and pink pebbled cloth boards; gilt lettered title “Algérie, 1878” on the front cover; marbled endpapers. Mild wear at the album’s spine and extremities, first leaf slightly soiled, a couple of images mildly faded, but overall a very good album of early photographs.
Interesting collection of early photos of French Algeria most likely taken by a visiting professional photographer who didn’t sign or caption his works in negative (there are also no marks of the professional photo studios of the time). The album starts with nineteen views of Algiers, including two panoramas of the city and the port taken from sea and from the hill above the Kasbah of Algiers, views of Place du Gouvernement with Djama’a al-Djedid Mosque and the equestrian statue of Henry d’Orleans (1822-1897, a hero of the conquest of Algeria in the 1840s), several street views in the old town (Rue de Sabat, Rue de la Abarine among the identified), Summer Palace of the Governor General, an Arab cemetery, interiors and court yards of the city mansions, etc. There are also several views of the ancient road and the Roman bridge in the Katara Gorge, a distant view of mud-brick walls of El Kantara, several excellent panoramas of Constantine featuring the Great Bridge and the railway station far back (as well as three views of the interior of the Ahmed Bay Palace), views of Bone (Annaba), salt pans (apparently in the basin of the Chott Melrhir Lake), an interesting view of a French estate in the countryside, a photo of the Roman Forum in Timgad, three large studio portraits of native Algerians, and several interesting photos of smaller French settlements and Arab villages in the interior. Overall a very good album with early well-executed photos of French Algeria.


HARENC, Archibald Kempt, Lt. R.N. (1848-1878)
[Collection of Three Autograph Letters Signed to His Mother Emily Harenc, Describing His Service on Board HMS “Columbine” in the Western Indian Ocean, Cruises to Capture Slave Dhows, Heat and Cramped Living Conditions, and an Accident when Three Members of His Boat’s Crew were Killed During the Pursuit of a Slave Dhow, and a Slave Trader’s Spear “passed between my legs”].

All written on board HMS “Columbine:” Seychelles, 2 July 1871; Mayotte (the Comoros), 24 November 1871; & At Sea, Xmas Day [1872]. Three Octavos (ca. 20,5x13 cm). In all 11 pp. of text. Brown ink on laid paper, one letter written on the printed form of HMS “Columbine.” Fold marks, otherwise very good letters.
A historically interesting collection of three original letters giving a fascinating account of the suppression of the slave trade in East Africa and western Indian Ocean by the British navy in the 1870s. The letters were written by a young RN Sub-Lieutenant Archibald Harenc, who then served on his first ship HMS “Columbine” (appointed in 1870, promoted Lieutenant in 1873) and traversed the Indian Ocean between Sri Lanka, the Seychelles, the Comoros, and Zanzibar. Writing to his mother, Emily-Letitia Harenc (nee Rooke, 1821-1899), Archibald complains about heat, poverty, tiny and crowded berths, and a lack of shoes and clothes, but also reports the latest captures of slave dhows and provides a detailed story of him barely escaping a slave trader’s spear. Archibald was the second son of Rev. Edward Alexander Frederic Harenc (1814-1853), a first-class cricketer and member of the Cambridge University team in 1840-1841, so one of the letters contains a curious note about a “cricket match” Archibald had played “in Trincomalee against the “Cossacks,” [when he] beat them by 8 wickets.” Overall a captivating first-hand account of the life and service conditions of British navy officers during the suppression of East African slave trade.
Seychelles, 2 July 1871: “we arrived here <…> on the 27 June, we found the flagship here and he has sent us down to the coast again to go on with the slave cruising, he was very pleased with the ship and says he will send us to India at the end of this year if he can get a ship to relieve us. This I should think is the worst station in the world as I have only received two letters in the last 9 months… we are having our winter now and Ther[momether] stands at 80 in the shade… We had a cricket match at Trincomalee against the “Cossacks” and beat them by 8 wickets. The highest score I made was 31 in the second innings…”
Mayotte, 24 November 1871: “We have orders to cruise south of Zanzibar for 2 months or more to look out for slave dhows. We caught one as we came down and landed the slaves at Johanna [Anjouan] Island and then came on here to coal. We then go to sea again and I suppose shall get back to Seychelles at the end of December. When we were at Zanzibar I drew a bill to £5 to pay off some depts. You must not think these are tears on the paper as it is raining hard and everything is [..?] up and the heat down here is like going into a Turkish bath…”
At sea, Xmas day [1872]: “A week before Xmas Day we had rather a melancholy affair happen to us. I was sent away in a boat to board a Dhow almost four miles from the ship and she would not lower her sail, so I fired into her and then she lowered her sail about half way down, and I pulled alongside. The moment we went alongside, we boarded and they commenced firing and throwing spears at us. I was lucky and did not get hit, but I am sorry to say that out of a boat’s crew of 5 men, one midshipman and myself three were killed and the midshipman and another man were severely wounded. One spear passed between my legs as I was helping one of the men into the boat that had been knocked overboard.
I do not know how long we are to be kept down on the coast, but we have been over a year here now and the Admiral ought to send us up to India to get a little civilized again and get some things that we are sadly in want of, as one can’t even get a pair boots or anything else out here. It is lucky that it is never cold down here as we have nothing to wear, but this continuous heat is almost unbearable, especially as we get very indifferent food and drink <…> I commenced this letter on deck writing on the back of a book, I now come down to our small berth (10 ft by 6 & 6 high)…”
The letter also mentions Herenc’s numerous relatives and siblings, including his brothers “Charlie” (Charles Edward Harenc, Lieut.-Col. of the 5th Lancers and 4th Bengal Cavalry, 1842-1903), “Herbert” (Herbert Benjamin Harenc, 1849-1878), and “Alex” (Alexander Henry Berens Harenc, d. 1918), sisters “Freddy” (Emily Frederica Louisa Harenc, d. 1937) and Lucy. The family house in 12 Strathmore Gardens, (Kensington, London) is mentioned in the letter from 24 November 1871. In 1874 Archibald Harenc was transferred to HMS “Harcissus” stationed in China; he died “from illness contracted on board HMS Narcissus” in 1878.


BERTIN, Charles
[Historically Important Content Rich Album with 100 Original Gelatin Silver Photographs of Northern Madagascar in and Around Diego-Suarez (Antisiranana) and Including Cap Diego and Sakaramy and some Photos Showing Travels Around Madagascar Taken and Compiled by a Senior French Military Administrator (Colonel?) Charles Bertin (who calls himself “Majesty Charles 1st Bertin” in the caption beneath his portrait at the front of the album). The Album Shows the French Military Establishments During the Final Years of the Pacification of Madagascar, but also is very rich in Images of the Malagasy People, Their Everyday Activities, Their Villages and Habitations and Includes Different Ethnic Groups such as the Bourjanes, Betsileo, Hora, and Antaimoros. Additionally Shown is the Damage and Rebuilding After the 1904 Cyclone in Northern Madagascar.]

Ca. 1904. Thick Oblong Quarto album ca. 19,5x29,5 cm (7 ½ x 11 ½ in). 100 original glossy gelatin silver photographs each ca. 11,5x16,5 cm (4 ½ x 6 ½ in) mounted on recto and verso of 50 stiff card leaves ca. 18x23 cm (7x9 in). All with period manuscript brown ink captions in French on the mounts. Period red full morocco with moiré endpapers and gilt-tooled decorations on spine and covers. The album is mildly worn at extremities and has a tear at the top of the hinge of the front cover, but otherwise very good and is full of sharp interesting photographs.
Historically Important album of interesting photographs of the mainly the northern part of Madagascar but also includes the photographers travels around Madagascar during the later years of French pacification. A large portion of the album shows different ethnic groups, such as Betsileo military men with their families (highland ethnic group), Antaimoros men in front of their houses (ethnic group on the southeast coast), Bourjanes men carrying goods, a Hora woman on her way to mass, and portraits showing the hairstyles and dress of women in Sainte Marie and Tomatave [Toamasina]. The photographs capture domestic and village scenes such as markets, local people building houses, fishing, piling rice, playing music, transporting water and bathing. One photograph shows Senegalese soldiers in service of the French washing their laundry in the river. Several images show groups of local and French people at Kabarys (improvised conference between two groups from different cultures), including a celebration of July 14th, a gathering “in honour of the district chief” and the collection of taxes (locals stand in a circle as a French officer walks around). There are also numerous photographs showing the French establishment and colonial activities on the island, including the Sakaramy train station under construction, colonial houses, views of Diego-Suarez and Cap Diego showing military huts, and views of Antisiranana showing the French quarter and the Malagasy quarter. Five photographs are captioned “after the cyclone of December 15th 1904” and show the destruction of buildings at the northern tip of the island, including the hospital of Diego [Antisiranana], military buildings in Sakaramy, and French and Malagasy men salvaging provisions from the debris. Also included are several photographs of natural landscapes including hunting excursions in the forest, the Besoka river, the Sakaramy waterfall and lakes near Foret d’Ambre [Alan Ambohitra]. Overall a very interesting overview of Malagasy people and landscapes in the late pacification efforts.
Madagascar was annexed by France in 1896, after which General Gallieni (1849-1916) became the civil and military commander of the colony, abolishing the monarchy and exiling Queen Ranavalona III in 1897. From 1900 à 1902, Colonel Lyautey was responsible for the “pacification” of the southern region and worked towards the area’s economic development. Two insurrections, in the northwest (1898) and in the southeast (1904), were quickly put down, and, when Galieni left the island in 1905, unification had been achieved.


[Album of over 300 Original Gelatin Silver Photographs Documenting the Zaïan and Rif Wars in Morocco].

Ca. 1917-1925. Oblong Folio ca. 29x42,5 cm. twenty-five purple album leaves. Over 300 original gelatin silver prints, two are ca. 17,5x23 cm (6 ¾ x 9 in), over 45 prints are ca. 12x17 cm (4 ¾ x 6 ¾ in) and the rest are ca. 9x11,5 cm (3 ¼ x 4 ½ in) or smaller. Photographs are mounted, and the majority with period manuscript black ink captions in French. Additionally with over 20 French newspaper clippings and magazine articles mounted on album leaves. Period maroon pebbled cloth album. Overall a very good album of interesting strong photographs.
This collection documents in detail the success of French conquest in Morocco between 1917 and 1925. It focuses on the submission of several Berber villages to French rule during and following the Zaian war (which took place 1914-1921, as France extended its influence in Morocco eastwards through the Middle Atlas, met with resistance from Berber tribes). These include Ksiba (captioned “newly won”), Aguelmame Aziza, Tsiwant (village stormed in 1923), Aït Bazza (photos include Colonel de Chambrun explaining the manœuvre on the eve of the attack and the submission of the village), an exchange between the Maréchal Lyautey and Zayan Pasha (1922), and the submission of Tribes from North of the Ouergha River to Aïn Aïcha in 1924. The album also documents a portion of the Rif War, a colonial war between Riffain tribes and the French and Spanish troops in the Rif mountains (1921-1926), including a visit from Damaso Berenguer, High Commissioner of Spanish Morocco, aerial photographs marking posts and villages, and several images of Riffain prisoners. Also included are over 15 photos of Almis du Guigou, including Armistice Day (November 11 1918), a visit from Alexandre Millerand ( President of France from 1920-1924) in 1922
The photographs are likely taken by Lieutenant de Séroux from the 1st Spahi Regiment, whose accomplishments are highlighted in newspaper clippings included in the album. A photograph shows his decoration by Maréchal Lyautey (the first French Resident-General in Morocco from 1912 to 1925) in June 1918. Also photographed is General Poeymiraum, one of Maréchal Lyautey’s collaborators; both are known for playing crucial roles in the submission of the Zaïans.
The photograph include (with the original French captions):
Fes; Campements; Premier avion atterit à Almis, 10-1918; Le Maréchal Lyautey me décore (june 1918); Almis du Guigou; Tazouta 1920; Sefrou 1920; General Poeymirau; Visite du Président de la République Millerand au Maroc; Khenifra; Le Maréchal et le Pasha des Zaïans; Ksiba nouvellement conquis; Rabat: Défilé du 14 Juillet 1922; Le roi et la reine des Belges s’embarquant sur le «Diana»; La reine des Belges à Casablanca; Dans le Moyen Atlas; Aguelmame Aziza; Le village de Tsiouant Foukani pris d’assaut en 1923; Aït Bazza: veille d’opération, Le Colonel de Chambrun explique la manœuvre; Visite du Général Berenguer, Haut Commissaire Espagnole à Fez, 1923; Le Pasha Baghdadi de Fes; Voyage des Attachés Militaires Etrangers au Maroc 1923; Soumission des Tribus du Nord de l’Ouergh à Aïn Aïcha (1924); Ma decoration à Aïn-Aïcha Janvier 1925; Taounate 1924-1925; Aerial photographs; Prisoniers Riffains Juillet 1925.


[Album with 230 Original Gelatin Silver Photographs, Including Over 180 Photos Showing German South-West Africa and the Events of the Herero and Namaqua Uprising: Swakopmund, Windhoek, Okahanja, Franzfontein, Okenyenya Mountain, Okawayo, Erongo Mountains, Spitzkoppe Mountain, German Military Camps and Posts, Drills, Portraits of Herero Leaders Samuel Mahaero and Hendrik Witbooi, the Family of a Herero Chief Zacharias Zeraua, An Executed Herero Man, German Military Officers, Herero Families, Children, etc.]

Ca. 1904-1906. Oblong Folio (ca. 40x51,5 cm). 28 card stock album leaves. With 230 mounted photos, the majority - gelatin silver photos, including twenty larger photos ca. 16,5x22 cm (6x10 in), the rest are from ca. 11,5x17 cm (4 ½ x 6 ¾ in) to ca. 7,5x10 cm (3x4 in); with five albumen photos ca. 10x15,5 cm (4x6 in) and six photochromic studio views of Frankfurt ca. 16x22,5 cm (6 ½ x 8 ¾ in). About 140 photos with pencil manuscript captions in German on the opposite back of the previous photos mounts, six photos captioned in negative. Period brown soft cover album with leaves fastened with a string. Cover with water stains and minor tears on extremities, several images faded, several mounts with minor tears not affecting the photos, but overall a very good album of interesting photos.
Historically significant extensive collection of original photographs taken by a German officer while on service in German South-West Africa (modern-day Namibia) which includes some vivid scenes and portraits illustrating the ill-fated Herero and Namaqua uprising and its suppression by the Imperial Schutztruppe. The album opens with a dozen photos of Frankfurt and other parts of Germany and is followed by about thirty portraits and views taken on board the German steamer “Lucie Woermann” which took the album’s compiler to Swakopmund (portraits of German officers and settlers going to the colony – with many names and military ranks captioned, views of Las Palmas, scene of the Equator crossing celebration etc.) Over thirty photos taken in Swakopmund show the unloading of the cargo, horses and artillery guns on the pier, office of the Woermann Line in the port (clear sign “Wormann Linie”), black port workers, a German officer with a photo camera, the compiler of the album with his German and native subordinates; six group portraits taken in the military camp near Swakopmund show soldier in the open-air canteen, a blacksmith’s shop, a music band, officers drinking beer etc.
Over a hundred the photos in the album depict German military camps and settlements, and native villages in modern-day north-central Namibia: Windhoek (Kaiser Wilhem Berg, Catholic mission, post office, hospital), German military cemeteries in Otjimbinde, Okahanja and Otjosondu (with clearly seen signs on the graves of Richard Max von Rosenberg (1878-1904) and Volkmar von Wurmb (d. 1904) and more graves identified in pencil on verso of the leaf); Khan railway station; Franzfontein (farm, German post); Okonjeje (Okenyenya) Mountain; Okawayo (German station in the bush, barracks, officers’ quarters, hoisting of German imperial flag on Kaiser’s birthday); Mounted Schutztruppe members in the Erongo Mountains; Spitzkoppe Mountain; railway station in Kalkfontein (?) etc. Very interesting is a photo of the house of a German settler Margarethe von Eckenbrecher near Okombahe, an Italian-style mansion abandoned by the family during the Herero uprising, with a painted (?) line from Horace but still seen above the main entrance “Caelum non animum mutant qui trans mare currunt” (“For those who cross the sea, the sky above changes but the heart does not”; more about the house and its history see in: Eckenbrecher, M. Von. Africa: What in Gave Me, What It Took from Me: Remembrances from My Life as a German Settler in South West Africa. Lenigh University Press, 2015).
The album includes several large portraits of the Herero people, including those of the uprising leaders Samuel Mahaero and Hendrik Witbooi, and the family of Herero chief Zacharias Zeraua who “was a firm Christian believer who attempted to remain neutral during the Herero-German war. He was the sole pre-war chief to survive the war in Namibia” (Gewald, J.-B. Herero Heroes: A Socio-Political History of the Herero of Namibia, 1890-1923. James Curry & others, 1999, p. 33). There are also portraits of “Franzfontein Hottentoten,” native children, “Das Alte Jakob Hottentot,” a German nurse “Schwester Selma,” photographs of a hanged Herero man and another one being beaten, scenes of military drills, portraits of numerous German military officers with many names written down on verso, portrait of an Englishman wearing a uniform Shutztruppe hat, views of military camps with tents and horses, including the tent of the album compiler etc. Overall an interesting content-rich original album giving an eye-witness account of the events of the Herero-Namaqua uprising and its suppression which became the first case of genocide in the 20th century.
“On January 12, 1904, the Herero people, led by Samuel Maharero, rebelled against German colonial rule. In August, German general Lothar von Trotha defeated the Herero in the Battle of Waterberg and drove them into the desert of Omaheke, where most of them died of thirst. In October, the Nama people also rebelled against the Germans only to suffer a similar fate" (Wikipedia).


LANDER, John (1807-1839)
[Autograph Letter Signed "John Lander" to William Jerdan, the Editor of the “Literary Gazette,” Talking about his Dream to go to Timbuktu, and that his “heart is in Africa & has been for years, & until I get there such is my taste, I don't think I shall enjoy a day's happenings”].

[London], Customs, 15 August 1838. Bifolium manuscript letter ca 17,5x11 cm (7 x 4 ½ in), one page of text in brown ink on white wove paper, addressed and docketed on verso of the second leaf, with original black wax seal. Letter housed in a recent blue cloth custom portfolio with red gilt lettered morocco title label. The letter is in very good condition and in written in a legible hand.
An interesting letter by notable African explorer John Lander, who together with his elder brother Richard Lander became the first European to determine the course of the lower Niger River – a tantalizing question for the European scientific and trade communities since Mungo Park’s first attempts in the late 18th century. Lander is writing to the famous editor of “The Literary Gazette” William Jerdan (1782-1869) – his Scottish countryman whom Lander obviously knew closely. In August 1834, after Richard Lander’s death during his third expedition to the Niger River (he was killed in a skirmish in the Niger delta on February 6, 1834), “The Literary Gazette” wrote about a meeting of the council in the Lander’s hometown of Truro where it was decided to erect a column in the memory of the perished explorer (Tribute to the Landers// The Literary Gazette and Journal of Belles Lettres. No. 915. Saturday, August 2, 1834, p. 532). Although John Lander hoped he would return to Africa, he never did and died a year later after this letter had been written, allegedly from a illness contracted in Africa.
"My Dear Sir, I have to thank you which I do with unaffected sincerity, for the kindness you shewed my wee wife during my unfortunate absence from London. I have just returned from Cornwall, where I followed the "last of my brothers" to the grave. For my part had it not been for the sake of my better half, I should now be on my way to Timbuctoo. As it is, were the government to provide for her in case of my death, I should not hesitate a moment about taking this step. My heart is in Africa & has been for years, & until I get there such is my taste, I don't think I shall enjoy a day's happenings. With my best wishes, I am dear Sir, Yours very faithfully, John Lander."
"John Lander was the younger brother of Cornish explorer Richard Lemon Lander and accompanied him on his first expedition to western Africa. The Lander brothers were sons of a Truro innkeeper. While Richard went to sea at a young age, John learned the printing trade. In 1830 the brothers went on an expedition to determine the course of the Niger River. They landed at Badagry in present-day Nigeria, took Clapperton's route to Bussa, then ascended the river for 160 kilometres before descending to explore the Benue River and the Niger Delta. They returned to Britain in 1831. Richard returned to the Niger in 1832, but John took a job in a London customs house instead. He died some years later, of a disease he had contracted in Africa" (Wikipedia).


PICARD, Charles (1769-1819)
[Autograph Manuscript Signed by Charles Picard Detailing Opportunities and Advice for Trade in Senegal, Including a Proposal of a Slave Trade Strategy, Titled:] Renseignements sur le Commerce du Senegal.

Paris, 5 September. 1814. Manusript ca. 31x20 cm (12 ¼ x 7 ¾ in). 8 pp. Brown ink on beige wove paper watermarked “Napoleon Empereur des Francais Roi D’Italie” with page numbers [1], 2-7, [8]. Faint fold marks and a small very mild stain on the first page, otherwise a very good legible manuscript.
This detailed account of trade opportunities and business advice was written in 1814 by Charles Picard, a merchant and clerk involved in the Senegalese colony, prior to his infamous 1816 voyage to Senegal, during which he and his family escaped a shipwreck. Picard seems to be proposing his services as a business agent. He begins the letter by outlining the risks of trade in Senegal, where commodity prices can fluctuate greatly: “It is therefore important for a French business that wants to take part in commerce in this region to have an Agent or Correspondent in Senegal […] It is of the utmost importance that the Agent be perfectly acclimatized to Africa and that he be familiar with all the commercial resources of this country.” Picard describes the merits of trading in Senegal: "Commerce in Senegal is without a doubt more advantageous than any of the other colonies. Its main commodities are Slaves and Gum, to which we can add secondary objects such as ivory, wax and gold.” However, the most profitable enterprise is the slave trade, and Picard describes an elaborate commercial venture involving slaves, to be completed before the trade becomes illegal: "Supposing a business wishes to spend 50,000 fr for trade in Senegal, and following the terms of the treaty of May 30th, the trade of Black people will be allowed for five years. We can assign this trade 40,000 fr and reserve 10,000 for the cost of sabotage. By dealing with the slaves ourselves, we can procure them for an average price of 300 fr per head […]; this way, we can trade 200 slaves in the only river of Senegal. We know that the average price of Black people in America is 1500 fr. Two hundred slaves would therefore give us a return of 300,000 fr but by reducing this price by 2/3 for fees and accidents, we would have a net return of 200,000 fr that, converted in sugar, cotton, indigo or coffee, would produce 250000 fr at least." At the end of the letter, an entire page is dedicated to a description of Picard’s experience travelling in this region of Africa and discussing the commercial opportunities he found there. On the final page of the manuscript, a note written in a different handwriting, possibly by the recipient of the document, summarizes key aspects of Picard’s profile, and is titled “Note sur le S. Pxxxxx, Proprietaire au Senegal.” A very interesting document that provides insight into the economic activities and business strategies in Senegal during the early 1800s.
Born in Paris in 1769, Charles Alphonse Marie Cesaire Picard carried out his first voyage to Senegal in 1799-1800. From 1802 to 1809, he carried out a second voyage during which he took on the role of clerk for the colony. In 1816, he returned to Senegal on board the Meduse, which famously shipwrecked. However, Picard escaped by embarking with his family on one of the lifeboats that reached the Mauritanian coast. He died in 1819 at Saint-Louis, on the island of Safal, which he owned. His family’s adventures were shared by his daughter Charlotte Dard under the title La Chaumiere africaine (Dijon, 1824, in-12).
During the Napoleonic Wars, Great Britain captured Gorée in 1803 and Saint-Louis in 1809, and proclaimed the abolition of the slave trade in 1807, to which the new French monarchy had to agree upon recovering the two posts. The 19th century thus saw a decline in slave trade, and the rise of commodity production instead. The trade of acacia gum, used for dyes for high-quality textiles and for medicine production, became paramount. Peanut cultivation also proved to be a valuable commodity for the area.


[Album of Thirty-One Original Gelatin Silver Photographs Showing Important Places and Indigenous People in Sudan with an Emphasis on Locations Along Sudan Government Railways].

Ca. 1925. Oblong Folio album ca. 30x37 cm (11 ½ x 14 ½ in). 31 original gelatin silver photographs each ca. 15x20 cm (5 ¾ x 8 in) including one photographic map ca. 20,5x27,5 cm (8 x 10 ¾ in) mounted on recto of 32 leaves. All are captioned and numbered in period manuscript white ink. Period grey full cloth album with a maroon gilt stamped leather label titled “SUDAN,” and maroon cloth corners. Album cover mildly worn at extremities, some mild staining of covers and back cover with a minor chip, but overall a very good album of strong photographs.
This album of interesting photographs of Sudan includes views of Halfa, Kassala, Sennar (Sannar), Khartoum, Omdurman, Suakin, and Port Sudan, which are all located along the Sudan government railways. Also, several images show the Al Gezira agricultural region which is known for its extensive irrigation scheme. “The Gezira scheme was introduced by the British in 1925, and distributes the waters of the Blue Nile through a 2,700-mile (4,300-km) network of canals and ditches to irrigate fields growing cotton and other cash crops” (Encyclopedia Britannica). The album contains images of native people picking cotton and harvesting wheat, a cotton ginning factory, and the main Gezira canal. It also shows views of the Sennar irrigation Dam during and after its construction, which was completed in 1925. Additionally, there are six photographs of Khartoum, including government buildings, Gordon College, Kitchener Memorial Medical School, people sitting in the garden of the Grand Hotel Khartoum and a group of Sudanese soldiers standing at the Khartoum Palace, captioned “The Governor General’s escort” (likely members of the Sudan Defense Force which was formed in 1925). There are also several photographs of southern Sudan along the White Nile, including images of a post boat near Rejaf and people in dugout canoes and on a Nile boat near Taufikia. Several interesting ethnographic photographs show native people, including portraits of a Hadendoa, an Azande, and a Shilluk, and there are photographs of local vendors at the grain market in Omdurman, women sitting outside a straw hut in Kassala, and people holding a camel outside “Arab Houses” in Suakin (once the region’s chief trading port that fell into disrepair in the 1920s). Many of the locations shown in the album are along the railway network in Northern and Central Sudan. A photo of a map at the beginning of the album shows existing and proposed Sudan Government railway routes: the latest one recorded is the Hayya – Kassala route completed in 1924. Also included is one photograph of a government railway express train. Overall, an excellent album with strong interesting photographs.
Captioned Photos:
N°1287 Mail Boat at Halfa; N°1289 Roman Fort at Halfa Reach (?); N° 1220 Sudan Gov’ Railways Express Train; N° 1292 The Palace Khartoum; N°803 The Governor Generals Escort at the Palace Khartoum; N°1295 Grand Hotel Khartoum; N°1278 Government Buildings Khartoum; N°849 Khartoum. Gordon College; N°1219 Kitchener Memorial Medical School; N°1209 Omdurman. The Grain Market; N°990 Port Sudan Quays; N°1312 Suakin. Arab Houses; N°680 A Hadendoa; N°1284 Kassala Mountain; N°1290 A scene in Kassala; N°1294 A scene in Kassala; N°1254 Sennar Dam looking East. Upstream side under construction; N°1269 Sennar Dam. View below the Dam Completed; N°1291 Main Gezira Canal; N°847 Cotton Picking; N°2028 Cotton Ginning Factory; N°848 Harvesting Wheat; N°1293 Police Camel Race; N°1217 Rejaf Post Boat; N°1205 A boat at Taufikia; N°908 Azande on Trek; N°1213 Dugout canoes on the White Nile near Taufikia; N°826 A Shilluk; N°907 Grinding Telebun; N°987 Herd of Elephant.


BARTH, Heinrich (1821-1865)
[Two Historically Important Expedition Autograph Letters Signed "Yours Most Truely Dr. Barth" from Tejerri and Murzuk (Libya) to British Consul in Murzuk Frederic Warrington and Richard Reade (British Acting Consul in Tripoli) Describing Barth’s Experiences and Impressions on His Expedition to Timbuktu; With: A Mounted Carte-de-Visite Photograph of Heinrich Barth.]

Tejerri 5 July 1855 and Mourzuk 19 July 1855. Two bifolia manuscript letters each ca. 21,5x13 cm (8 ½ x 5 in), respectively four & two pp. of text in English, in brown ink on white wove paper. The second letter docketed on verso of the second leaf “1855, 19 July. Dr. Barth to R. Reade Private.” With a carte-de-visite albumen photograph ca. 8,5x5,5 cm (3 ¼ x 2 in) mounted on original cardstock by “Hermann Guenther, Hof-Photograph, Berlin.” Letters housed in two blue custom-made cloth portfolios with red gilt morocco cover labels titled “DR. H. BARTH AFRICA EXPLORER A.L.S. 1855” and “DR. H. BARTH AFRICA EXPLORER A.L.S. MOURZUK 1855.” One letter with minor holes from ink slightly affecting one word, otherwise a very good pair of letters.
Two extensive content rich, rare “expedition” letters authored by the famous explorer of Sahara and Central Africa. Heinrich Barth. The letters written within a two-week period describe the last leg of his epic expedition to the Sahara Desert, Lake Chad and Timbuktu in 1850-1855. The first letter was written in Tejerry (an oasis south of modern-day Quatrun village, Murzuk district, southern Fezzan province of Libya, on the main road to Chad and Niger) and addressed to Frederic Warrington, British Consul in Murzuk in 1854-55. The second letter was written two weeks later in Murzuk (oasis and a major city in the Sahara Desert, southwestern Libya) and addressed to Richard Reade, long-time British diplomat in Tripoli who served as acting consul at the time (1855-56). The letters talk about Barth’s 48-day journey to Tejerry from Kuka, the capital of the Kanem-Bornu Empire near Lake Chad (now Kukawa, northeastern Nigeria) – it was Barth to became the first European to visit Kukawa in 1851; they also mention his travel companion Adolf Overweg (a German geologist who circumnavigated Lake Chad and died from an illness near the lake in 1852), G.W. Crowe (British Agent and Consul General in Tripoli), Osman F. Warrington, vice-consul in Misurata in 1854-57, and others. Very evocative are Barth’s repeated notes on his desire of a bottle of wine – at first, he pleads with Frederic Warrington to get one, and then mentions to Richard Reade that he hopes to get one in Misurata, since Warrington could not find it. Large parts of both letters share the news of the travel plans and achievements of Edward Vogel, a leader of the subsidiary party sent by the British government after the death of James Richardson and include recommendations on how to arrange delivery of letters and supplies to Vogel. Barth mentions Vogel’s travel to Yakoba (the capital of the Bauchi kingdom), and his plans to go to the Waday Empire (Ouaddai, modern-day eastern Chad) where Vogel would be killed in 1856. The letters are supplemented with a rare studio photo portrait of Barth. Overall a historically important collection shedding light on the final days of Barth’s expedition to Central Africa.
The Central African Mission of 1850 led by James Richardson (1809-1851), a “Malta-based agent of the British and Foreign Anti-Slavery Society” aimed to “open ‘regular and secure’ communications between the Mediterranean and the River Niger. Accompanying Richardson was a young German professor, Dr. Heinrich Barth, and another German, Dr. Adolph Overweg, both of them travelling in the service of the British government. The party left Tripoli in March 1850, explored the Garian hills, crossed the Hammadah al-Hamra to Murzuk, and then went down to Ghat. After passing through the district of Air to Agades, the party split up. While Barth went on to Kano, Richardson marched eastwards, but died of fever before he could reach his destination. Barth and Overweg then explored the country to the north, west, and south of Lake Chad but in August 1852 Overweg died. Barth turned westwards and travelled through Sokoto to Timbuctu, which he reached in September the following year. He stayed there six months and returned to Tripoli in September 1855. His magnificent achievement is described in methodical detail in his monumental five-volume Travels and Discoveries in North and Central Africa which covers the geography, ethnology, history and languages of the Sahara and the western Sudan. On his return from Timbuctu he had net a subsidiary British mission led by Dr. Edward Vogel, at Kukawa, west of Lake Chad. Vogel, also German, had left Tripoli in 1853 and had travelled via Murzuk, making botanical and zoological studies on the way. He was killed in Wadai on the orders of the Sultan in 1856” (Wright, J. A History of Libya. London, 2012, p. 90).


[Album of Fifty-Six Original Gelatin Silver and Platinum Photographs Showing Ethnographic Views and Colonial Buildings and Infrastructure in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania Following the Construction of the Uganda Railway in 1896-1901.]

Ca. 1907. Large Oblong Folio album ca. 26x33,5 cm (10 ¼ x 13 in). 13 light green stiff card album leaves. 56 gelatin silver and platinum photographs including 15 photographs ca. 15x21 cm (5 x 8 ½ in), 8 each ca. 10,5x15 cm (4x6 in), and the rest ca. 6,5x10 cm (2 ½ x 4 in) and slightly smaller, mounted recto and verso. All but 10 captioned in period manuscript blue ink or pencil. Period dark brown quarter sheep with gilt bands, brown pebbled cloth boards and moiré endpapers. Album and photographs in very good condition.
This album contains photographs of local people and colonial establishments in British East Africa (present-day Kenya), Uganda (protectorate established in 1896) and German East Africa (present-day Tanzania). A large portion of the photographs are taken along the Uganda Railway from Mombasa, where the Railway began in 1896, to the terminus at Kisumu on the eastern shore of Lake Victoria, where it was completed in 1901. One image shows local people standing near a railway station, and another shows railway worker gangers gathering near a cart. Several photographs show an Indian Bazaar in Nairobi, likely started by a community of British Indian labourers who were brought to Kenya to complete the railway in the late 1890s. "Built during the Scramble for Africa, the Uganda Railway was the one genuinely strategic railway to be constructed in tropical Africa at that time. 2,498 workers died during its construction"(Wikipedia). Many of the images are ethnographic studies of the local peoples including portraits, groups standing in a row with women holding their young children, people working, native settlements and market scenes. One photograph shows Kikuyu Natives in Nairobi sorting coffee beans on the ground as a European supervisor watches. Several images show colonial buildings, including the Memorial Cathedral in Mombasa (the administrative centre of British East Africa until 1905), and a Missionary Society School in Uganda which was founded in 1895 to educate native chiefs’ sons. Also included are images of a Government House, and a U.M.C.A. (Universities' Mission to Central Africa?) House and Chapel in Tanga, Tanzania, which was the first establishment and administrative center of German East Africa. Overall, an excellent album showing local peoples and colonial establishments in British East Africa, Uganda and German East Africa.
List of photographs:
Wakamba Women, B.E.A.; Kikuyu Natives B.E.A.; Kisumu Beef Market; Kikuyu boy outside hut, Nairobi 1907; Uganda Railway Co. Steamers on Lake Victoria, Nyanza, 1907, Kisumu; Ripon Falls, Source of the Nile, Jinja, Uganda; Exterior of Mombasa Memorial Cathedral; River View, Magda, G.E. Africa; Indian Bazaar, Nairobi, B.E.A.; Indian Bazaar, Natives Shopping, Nairobi, B.E.A.; Namirembe Markey, Uganda; Kampala Fort, Uganda; Ripon Falls, Jinja, Uganda; Queen Victoria’s Statue, Nairobi B.E.A.; Canoe, Lake Victoria Nyanza; Mengo, Uganda, C.M.S. School for sons of chiefs in foreground; Scenery, French Mission, Nairobi, B.E.A.; Kikuyu Natives sorting coffee beans, French Mission, Nairobi B.E.A.; Kibwezi Natives, B.E. Africa; Kavirondo Native; Kikuyu Women going to market, B.E.A.; Kikuyu Group, B.E.A.; Kavirondo Native; Watching the train pan, Kibos, B.E.A.; Kisumu Market; Gangers, Uganda Railway, B.E.A.; Interior of Mombasa Memorial Cathedral; King’s Lake, Mengo, Uganda; Waterfall near Magila, G.E.A. (2 views); Bagamoyo Village, Magila, G.E.A.; Tanga Bay, G.E.A.; Street in Tanga, G.E.A.; U.M.C.A. Mission House and Chapel, Tanga, G.E.A.; Government House, Tanga G.E.A.; Bridge built by the late Padre Harrison, Magila, G.E.A.; Village, Magila, G.E.A.; River, Magila, G.E.A.; View, Magila, G.E.A.; Public Gardens, Tanga, G.E.A.; Native Street, Tanga, G.E.A. (2 views); Bismarck’s Monument, Tanga, G.E.A.; Kisumu Market, B.E.A. (2 views); Station on the Uganda Railway, B.E.A.


[De La MOTTE, Edward]
[Typewritten Manuscript Account of the Fifth Ascent of Aconcagua, by British Climber Edward de la Motte and American Mountaineer James Ramsey Ullman, Being also the First American Ascent of Aconcagua, Titled:] Horcones Valley and Aconcagua. February/March 1928
Ca. 1928. Quarto (ca. 28,5x22 cm). 25 numbered leaves of typewritten text. Occasional period ink corrections in text. Vertical centrefold, first and last leaves with mild creases and traces of old staples removed, otherwise a very good manuscript.
Original typescript of the diary of Edward de la Motte, one of the participants of the fifth ascent of Aconcagua, the highest peak in the Americas, with his manuscript corrections in text. De la Motte’s climbing partner was a famous American mountaineer and writer James Ramsey Ullman (1907-1971), thus the expedition became the first American ascent of Aconcagua. The expedition party included two other members, named in the manuscript “Bromley” and “Mrs.” (a female). De la Motte gives a detailed description of the whole expedition from arrival to Retiro (Buenos Aires) on 25 February to the final arrival to Buenos Aires (on the way back) on 12 March 1828. The manuscript describes the mountaineers’ arrival in Mendoza, preparation and supplying of the expedition, trip to the Uspallata town and Puente del Inca, the long hike up the Horcones Valley, and all proceedings in the high camps on the mountain, including an acclimatization hike to the Buena Vista ridge and the summit day. The entries note the altitudes gained, pulse levels, experienced symptoms of mountain sickness, weight of loads carried, menus and preparations of the meals, frostbites et al. There are also several mentions of previous British expeditions to Aconcagua – by E. Fitzgerald and S. Vines (1897) and by J. Cochrane and M.F. Ryan (1925).
Some entries: “February 27th. Mrs. Togs up a la “complete mountaineer” in heavy boots and breeches, but fearing the populace slips out by a back entrance and gets nearly eaten by a yard full of dogs.” (p. 3).
“March 3rd. Base, night min. 28° 18,000 max. Pulse before starting: Ram 68, me 100. This is being written in Ryan’s tent with a snow storm outside, luckily the tent in perfectly sound, and apart from a little fine driven snow, all is snug inside. There is enough food for a week and between us we have 7 blankets, and eiderdown and a Jaeger sleeping bag. <…> Ram and I are comfortable with our feet tied in rucksacks and are able to laugh at the weather” (pp. 9-10).
“March 4th. Up at 8.30, rising consisting of putting on boots and balaclava and extricating oneself from the sleeping bag – in itself a laborious process and only to be performed with much gasping. This gasping is an altitude effect which neither of us can get over – headaches are things of the past, our appetites are tremendous, but the least exertion such as tightening a rope, leaving or entering the tent, opening a tin of sausages and even eating makes us gasp for breath” (p. 12).
“March 5th. [Summit Day]. Up 5 a.m. <…> Ram wearing his Ventana boots could only get on two pairs of socks – same as myself, so that to avoid frostbite we both tried to keep out toes moving inside our boots as far as possible. <…> Both of us were fairly near the limits of our endurance but the top was in view and at 4.30 we stepped out on the summit, very glad at being finished with the hard work of climbing. Driving snow clouds prevented the view to the South and what was worse, Ram could not find Ryan’s thermometers – the only object visible being an empty beer bottle. The top is of triangular shape with the Northern apex at the highest point. Photos were taken from the West tower which should identify the summit alright, at any rate, so far as Ryan and other climbers are concerned.
Ram got busy with a self timer – which like the meta cooker failed to work, the resulting messing about with which gave Ram four frostbitten fingers (unnoticed until considerably later). An ice axe with E.M. And A.R. Carved on the shaft was left, also a card with our names on was left in a small Yerma tin with one plasmon biscuit (sustenance for the next party that reaches the top)” (pp. 14-15).
James Ramsey Ullman was a noted American writer and mountaineer, official historian of the American Mount Everest Expedition 1963, the author of “The White Tower” (1945), “Banner in the Sky” (1954), “The Age of Mountaineering” (1954), “Tiger of the Snows” (together with Tenzing Norgay, 1955), “Americans on Everest” (1964), and others. Most of Ullman’s papers are now deposited in the Princeton University Library.
“The Andean career of Edward de la Motte apparently began in 1928 with Aconcagua, highest of all Andean peaks, and ended probably in 1946 with Sajama, highest of Bolivian mountains. With the well-known American novelist James Ramsey Ullman (author of the White Tower), he accomplished on 5 March 1928 the fifth ascent of Aconcagua” (Echevarria, E. Early British Ascents in the Andes, 1831-1946 // The Alpine Journal. 1987. Vol. 92. P. 63).


[Historically Important Autograph Letter Signed from Early Prospector, Joe A.Y. to his friend Harry, Dated Skagway, Alaska Aug. 3rd 1897. This Very Content Rich Letter Describes The Very Earliest Days of Skagway as the Gateway Town to the Klondike Gold Rush. The steamer Queen brought the first boat load of prospectors to Skagway on July 29th, 1897 and it seems highly likely that Joe A.Y. had been a passenger on that voyage as he gives his first impressions of Skagway four days later: "Skagway consists of a store, 10 x 25 built of lumber, a saloon in a tent - beer 20c, whiskey 50c - and about 200 tents it has a beautiful flat site with great mountains towering up from every side. This town - now mark my prophecy - is going to be a very important town, and where a fellow can have a lot now by merely staking it out and claiming it he will have to pay from $500 to $5000 for it in a year. The town is located at the extreme limit of deep water and is at the mouth of the easiest pass, by 500% that cuts [to] the gold fields. It has all the chances in the world to become another San Francisco."

Octavo (ca. 20x12,5 cm). 5 leaves written recto and verso so 10 pp. Pencil written in a legible hand on thin beige wove paper. Original fold marks, pages fastened on top with a small nail. Overall a very good letter.
In this extensive historically important letter Joe A.Y. additionally gives his thoughts on how Skagway will develop and what business opportunities might arise in the future, as well as describing what he sees in terms of current conditions and events as well as the morale of the other prospectors starting for the Klondike. He opens the letter by saying: "Dear Harry, I promised I would write to you and tell you the conditions here. You know the people here at the mouth of the Skag-pass had not heard the news that the Portland brought down for all the people to go out of the Klondiak(sic.) region, float down the river and go out the easier way, that is by St., Michaels. Therefore, they - Skagway folks - were unprepared to handle the business..., [continuing his description and predictions of the possible development of Skagway] There will be a rail road through the pass in another year, the stakes are set now. Now of course the conditions as far as business are at the present, with this great crowd, different from what they will be in a few weeks but I think the same thing will be repeated in the spring. There are three teams and wagons here now and they charge $20 a ton for hauling stuff to the foot of the hill, this you see means $100 per day for them. An ordinary laborer gets for ax work or shovel work $5 per day. Flour is $1.50 per sack only.., A fellow who we tried to buy 7 horses offered Chehalis $10. Animals are $200 each. The fellows with the teams and wagons work early and late and still have to disappoint many in keeping them back two or three days.
I don't know how it would be for you to come up here, but I think if a fellow came in here bringing two or three teams and plenty of feed to last till spring, or better than that wait until say, January of 98 and then come up with lots of hay and oats and as many teams as he can, could clear up a few thousand next year. I would advise you to come this year but the winters are so hard and I don't think you would do enough this year to pay expenses through the winter for the fall rush will be over by the time you could get here. I know very well I could make money perhaps a fortune by giving up my trip across the pass, getting right on the boat that brings this letter and buy a stock of goods, come up here and get into business, for this town will be a city in one or two years. However, while my judgement tells me that this is the best thing to do I am not going to do it for the mining fun is in me and I enjoy the rough camp life so much, though when you are under 50 or a 100 pounds and sweating like a butcher you are inclined to wonder whether it was the intention when you were made that you wise to work like a mule, but a rest of 3 minutes drives this feeling away though there have been about 50 to 100 men who came up on the last three boats have lost nerve and are turning back.
All our men are in good spirit with the exception of one man, who we have to jolly up a good deal in order to keep him going. He is the Seattle man we picked up and is a real good fellow but easily discouraged. The country for 5 miles back from the beach is nice and level with the river flowing down one side. This valley is about one mile wide and the snow capped mountains starting from the very valley's edge and going up through the clouds. It is a wonderful country and even if I leave my carcass here I will not regret having come for it is just as good a country to be buried in as there is on the globe .., All our boys seem well satisfied. I will write you more later and finally I will say that I don't believe you had better make any move this winter more than to shape yourself so that you can come up early in the spring though if you wish you can spend the winter here or in Juno(sic.) though I don't believe you'd do nearly so well as to wait until spring. In the meantime I will try to keep you posted. Mail to me at: Dawson City. North West Territory C/o U.S. Mail Carrier Juno, Alaska. Yours truly Joe A.Y.
I have no time to read over or number the pages.
It cost $9 per ton to land mass here from Seattle.
Best to Owen & Kids."
Overall a very important content rich letter.


LA ROCHE, Frank (1853-1936)
[Interesting Collection of Twenty-four Original Photographs of Alaska].

Ca. 1895. 14 grey thick card leaves. 24 gelatin silver prints from ca. 18x23,5 cm (7 x 9 ½ in) to 11x18,5 cm (4 ½ x 7 ½ in). All mounted on original thick grey card leaves, most captioned in negative. Overall a very good collection of strong, sharp and interesting images.
This interesting collection of photographs includes twenty-three by La Roche (Seattle) including images of: Juneau: from the water, from steamer, log cabin, Pres. Church; Sitka: Indian Avenue (x2), Indian merchants, driveway, Indian River Rapids, bridge on Indian River Trail; Wrangell: from steamer, evening, Wrangell Narrows; Skagway: from bridge, Broadway; Metlakahtla (BC): group of Indian children, Indian brass band; White Pass Railroad: from the mouth of the tunnel; Lynn Canal (x2); Steamer "Queen" taking on ice; Muir Glacier: Steamer "Queen" in the Ice Takou Inlet: Grenville Channel (BC); WITH one by Winter & Pond: Old Tlingit Indian. La Roche "made numerous trips to southeastern Alaska and the Yukon Territory photographing among others, scenes during the Klondike gold rush, ca. 1897-1899. These included views of his experiences traveling from Dyea, Alaska over the Chilkoot Pass into British Columbia to reach the gold fields" (University of Washington Libraries).


MOXHAM, Edgar Coleman (1858-1913)
[Album with Sixty Original Gelatin Silver Photograph Portraits Taken on a Voyage from St. John’s in Newfoundland to Rowsell Harbour Located North of Saglek Bay in Northern Labrador, Including Views of the Rowsell Harbour and Camp Headquarters, Moravian Missionary Station in Hebron, Bays and Inlets of Labrador, Icebergs and Packed Ice, St. John’s, Brigus, Portraits of Inuit, Missionaries, “liveyere Old Tom Evans and His Dogs” Edgar Moxham Himself, etc.]

Ca. 1905. Oblong Folio (ca. 28,5x40 cm). 18 gray card stock album leaves. With sixty mounted gelatin silver prints, including one large photo ca. 15,5x25,5 cm (6 x 10 in); the majority of the photos are ca. 8x13,5 cm (3 x 5 ½ in), four smaller photos are ca. 7,5x9,5 cm (3 x 3 ¾ in). All photos with detailed white ink manuscript captions on the mounts, the first and the last leaves with extensive handwritten passages by Moxham describing the expedition and listing its most notable members. Period black cloth album with leaves fastened with a string and a gilt lettered title “Photographs” on the front board. Cover with some minor water staining, several images slightly faded, but overall a very good album.
Historically important first-hand visual account of this early 20th century sea voyage along the western coast of Newfoundland and Labrador from St. John’s to Rowsell Harbour, a fjord about 50 kilometers north of Saglek Bay in northern Labrador. The album was compiled by the expedition leader Edgar C. Moxham, an American mining engineer and a brother of Arthur J. Moxham (1854-1931), one of the founders of the “Dominion Iron & Steel Company” in Nova Scotia and an executive of the DuPont Company for over 10 years (1902-1914). The expedition sailed on board the sealer steamship “Kite” (which was used by Robert Peary during his Second Greenland Expedition in 1891) and aimed to pick up a party of 107 miners who were developing a pyrite deposit near Rowsell Harbour. The “Kite” left St. John’s on the 24th of June 1905, “expecting to traverse the distance of but 1000 miles in 6 to 8 days,” but “met with Arctic ice soon after its departure & as a result it was not until 3rd August that the ship was able to penetrate to its destination, after a voyage of 40 days. All hands were immediately embarked and the expedition returned in safety, to St. John’s 10th August 1905.”
The album contains over forty photos taken in Labrador, including a large excellent view of Rowsell Harbour with the “Kite” near the shore and five smaller views of the Rowsell Harbour showing the “Camp Headquarters,” “The Harbour from Camp” and the rocky cliffs surrounding the fjord. Very interesting are the four photos of the Moravian missionary station in Hebron where the “Kite” had to stay for several weeks, waiting for the sea to clear from the ice (the mission was closed and the site was abandoned in 1959, it was designated a National Historic Site of Canada in 1976). The photos include a general view of the mission buildings and three portraits, showing missionaries Paul Schmidt (1870-1912), Ernst Bohlmann (1864-1945), “Revd. Asboe [?]” “Native servants of the Mission & Capt. Collins,” and “Children of the Moravian Missionaries.” The other photos of Labrador show the Battle Harbour, whaling station at Cape Charles (four views, including that of a “cargo of whalebone”), Okak Islands, crew members waiting for the ice to loose at Turnovik, Black Islands where “fog and ice held us for 2 days,” “Kiq-la-Paix we were again held for 36 hours”, heavy ice in the Saglek Bay, two photos of a pack of huskies “pulling water wagon,” several views of the sea covered with “the crush ice” which “had forced itself more than half way up & over the mountainous coast… a moving, cracking, groaning mass,” etc. There are also several interesting portraits showing an Inuit in his kayak at sea, a “liveyere” “Old Tom Evans and his dogs,” and two groups of Inuit on board the “Kite,” captioned “Our good little friends and constant visitors, especially at scoffin (meal) time,” and “Sweethearts and wives.” A dozen views of Newfoundland show St. John’s Harbour, the pier at Brigus (two photos taken on the “Kite’s” departure and return), the western coast (Bay of Islands, Twillingate, Little Bay, Bay of Roberts), coastal schooners met on the way, the deck of the “Kite” with a crewmember “Joe Morgan,” and the Cabot Tower in St. John’s with signal flags “Welcome Home.”
The first leaf of the album contains a detailed description of the expedition’s proceedings, the last leaf has a touching dedication to the expedition members: “With gratitude and thanks beyond words to you, my comrades & friends, tried and true, to whose grit, skill, and steadfast purpose alone is due the safe return of the expedition: John Bartlett, Mangr. – Robt. A. Bartlett Capt. s/s “Algerine,” John Bonzain, mine Foreman; George Bartlett – Doctor; Geo. Collins, Capt. Of s/s “Kite,” to our faithful Mickmack Indian hunter John Stevenson who lost his life in our service and to One more dear at home I dedicate this record of our venture into the frozen North, Edgar C. Moxham, Mining Engineer in charge of both expeditions.”
Many photographs are supplemented with extensive manuscript passages, describing particular events of the voyage or Moxham’s thoughts about them, i.e.: “The weeks dragged by, the situation becoming acute. This is 3rd August. On the 24th of last August the snow storm, such as no ship can expect to live against, had commenced. Only 3 weeks could therefore be counted upon to reach our men. Failing this we must return South with the ice flow for our own preservation, thus abandoning our expedition at Rowsell’s “in extremis.” An attempt was made by one of the party to cross the intervening 50 miles overland, but even this was found to be quite impossible for any white man to accomplish.”
The album opens with a portrait of Edgar Moxham and a photo of a wolf who according to the caption, are “two of a kind;” on the verso of the first leaf Moxham qoted several lines from Rudyard Kipling’s romantic poem “The Explorer” (1898):
"There's no sense in going further - it's the edge of cultivation,"
So they said, and I believed it…
Till a voice, as bad as Conscience, rang interminable changes
On one everlasting Whisper day and night repeated -- so:
"Something hidden. Go and find it. Go and look behind the Ranges --
"Something lost behind the Ranges. Lost and waiting for you. Go!"
Overall a rare content rich photo album, giving a vivid account of the life in Canadian Arctic and the difficulties of an Arctic voyage in the early 20th century.


VAUDRY, Jean-Baptiste (1875-1938)
[Historically Important Album with Fifty Original Gelatin Silver Photograph Portraits of Indigenous Peoples from the Chaco Boreal and Nearby Regions of Eastern Bolivia, including Chiriguano & Tembeta (Eastern Guarani), Mataco & Noctene, Chorote, Toba & Topiete People, Quechua from the Potosi Department and Aymara from Western Bolivia, Showing Chiefs, Missionary Schools, Family Groups, Villages, Musicians, French Expedition Members and Vaudry Himself; With Detailed Manuscript Captions by Vaudry, the Album is Titled:] Souvenir d’un voyage au Chaco Boreal. Potosi. 4 Juillet 1904.

Ca. 1903-1904. Oblong Quarto (ca. 21x30 cm). 24 card stock album leaves. With fifty gelatin silver prints, including 48 mounted photos ca. 12x17 cm (4 ¾ x 6 ¾ in), and two smaller photos loosely inserted, ca. 8,5x12 cm (3 ½ x 4 ½ in). All mounted photos are placed within ink-drawn frames and supplemented with detailed captions in Spanish by Vaudry. His presentation inscription in French: “Souvenir d’un voyage au Chaco boreal. Potosi. 4 Juillet 1904. J.B. Vaudry. Ingénieur.” in black ink is written on the front free endpaper of the album. Period green cloth album with blind stamped decorative borders and a gilt lettered title “Album” on the front board; all edges gilt. Album mildly rubbed and with some mild wear of extremities, several mounts with mild wear on blank margins, several images mildly faded with a couple moderately faded, a larger and smaller photo with small corners missing, but overall a very good important album of interesting photos.
Historically important album of large well-executed ethnographical portraits of people from several tribes of southern and eastern Bolivia, most from the remote region of Chaco Boreal. All photos are annotated in detail by the photographer – a French engineer Jean-Baptiste Vaudry who took them while in the service of the Bolivian-Argentinean Boundary Commission (1902-1904). Vaudry also collaborated with the French scientific mission to South America led by Georges de Créqui-Monfort and Eugène Sénéchal de Lagrange (1903-1904) which carried out a comprehensive ethnographical research of the Bolivian people. Vaudry issued an account of his travels in 1908 (Dans l’Orient bolivien. Notes sur provinces de Chiquitos y Velasco// Annales de géographie, tome XVII, 1908, 71-80) and became a corresponding member of the Geographical Society of Sucre the same year. He prepared several maps of Bolivia, including “Mapa de la region Uncia-Colquechaca” (1924). Vaudry’s photograph portraits of native Bolivians, including many included in this album, were used as illustrations in Arthur Chervin’s “Anthropologie Bolivienne” (Paris, 1908, 3 vols.) which summarized the results of the ethnographic research of Georges de Créqui-Monfort and Eugène Sénéchal de Lagrange’s expedition.
The album opens with thirteen portraits of the Quechua people photographed in towns and villages of the Potosi Department in southwestern Bolivia, including Potosi; Samasa (east of Potosi), Chaqui, Siporo, Caiza, and Bartolo (all in Linares Province); Tomare, Porco, and Yura (Porco Province); and two towns of Chuquisaca Department (south-central Bolivia) - Sopachuy (Tomina Province), and Tarabuco (Yamparaez Province). Twelve photos portray Chiriguanos & Tembetas (Eastern Bolivian Guarani people) from villages and Catholic missions across southeastern Bolivia - Acero Province of the Chuquisaca Department (Mision de Santa Rosa de Cuevo and Mision de Machareti); and Gran Chaco Province of the Tarija Department (Tatarenda, Caiza, Mision de San Francisco Solano, Mision de Tareiri, and Fortin Murillo). The following twenty-two portraits are solely dedicated to the people of the Chaco Boreal. There are eight portraits of Mataco and Noctenes people from the basin of the Pilcomayo River and Gran Chaco Province of the Tarija Department (Fortin Murillo, Los Puentes, Colonia Crevaux nueva); one photo portrays Achicoria, a son of Cacique Sirome from Puesto del Hito (Argentina). Five portraits show the Chorotes from Caiza and El Galpon, and nine photos show the Tobas people from Fortin Murillo, Tayasunanca, Colonia Crevaux, and Teyu (all in the Gran Chaco Province, Tarija Department). The last photo in the album shows a group of the Tapiete people (Acero Province of the Chuquisaca Department). Two smaller loosely inserted photos portray the Aymara people from the Andes in western Bolivia.
The portraits show individuals and family groups, children with teachers and priests in missionary schools, tribal chiefs and their children, musicians, smokers, a man in a hunting outfit with a bow and arrows, et al., with details of national costumes, footwear and decorations clearly visible; several photos show native villages with huts made of grass. European or non-native settlers, missionaries or officers present on several photos, including Vaudry himself who poses with the cacique and several Mataco men in Los Puentes, and with Toba boys in Fortin Murillo (both Gran Chaco Province). All mounted photos are supplemented with the captions giving details about the tribes of the photographed people, the locality, province and department where they were taken; just over a dozen include interesting additions of peoples’ names, professions or social status – “El Cacique Bairahua y familia,” “Marcelina,” “Juana,” “Napoleon Taco ó Yaguaraco (hijo del Cacique Grande Mandeporrai) y Senora,” “El Cacique;” Vaudry also marks teachers and missionaries on the group portraits and provides their names - “Maestra Tarijena,” “Maestra Crucena,” “R.P. Ficorecco (franciscano italiano)” et al. Overall a historically significant and valuable content rich visual source on the traditional culture and life in the Chaco Boreal and nearby regions of Bolivia at the turn of the 20th century.


[Historically Important Album with 190 Original Gelatin Silver Photographs Taken by a French Prospector Travelling to the Cariboo Region in British Columbia, Documenting in Detail the Last Years of the Cariboo Gold Rush, Including Gold Exploration and Mining Along the Quesnel River, Life of Indigenous People on Quesnel Reserve, Views of the Prospector's Travels to the Cariboo Gold Region in British Columbia Including the Cariboo Wagon Road, Travels Across Canada on the Canadian Pacific Railway, and Photographs of the Buildings and Streets Scenes From the Towns on the way Including Vancouver, Victoria, Ottawa and New York.]

Ca. 1896. Oblong Folio album ca. 25x34 cm (9 ¾ x 13 ¼ in). 190 original gelatin silver photographs each ca. 5,5x8 cm (2x3 in) mounted in windows 4 per page on recto and verso of 24 stiff card leaves each ca. 23,5x29 cm (9 ¼ x 11 ½ in), including 16 matte photographs and the rest glossy, all captioned in French in period manuscript pencil on the beneath the photos on the mounts. Period red half morocco album with red pebbled cloth covers, with small period manuscript black ink label “Ile de Vancouver et Colombie Britannique” and marbled endpapers. Mild wear at album extremities, a few minor chips on covers, one leaf with small tear, and very mild foxing at leaf extremities but otherwise a very good album with historically interesting strong sharp photographs.
This historically significant album documents the travels of a French prospectors to British Columbia during the last years of gold exploration in the Cariboo region, and just prior to the Klondike gold rush (1896-1899). The travellers arrived in New York, visited Ottawa and took the Canadian Pacific Railway to the West Coast, where they visited Vancouver and Victoria, then travelled on the CPR to Ashcroft. From Ashcroft, they travelled north along the Cariboo Wagon Road (a project initiated in 1860 to provide safer access to the Interior during the Gold Rush) until Soda Creek. There they boarded the Charlotte steamer (built in 1896 and the only steamer on the upper Fraser until 1909) and travelled north along the Fraser River to “Quesnel Mouth” [Quesnel]. From Quesnel they travelled east and then south along the Quesnel River to the Quesnel Forks area.
Over 80 photographs show activities at various mines along the Quesnel River and views of hillsides that had been washed away due to hydraulic mining. These include ca. 50 photographs of the “French Claims” mining camp across the river from the Johnson and Sullivan claims, which show workers taking samples from the riverbed, gold panning using a sluice box and a rocker box, and digging trenches, the Chinese cook for the camp, the tents and a log house captioned “House of French Claims.” There are also views of Fader’s dredging camp (1895 – 1899), a trench at Sullivan claim, and views of the Johnson Claim and the Columbia claim (1895 -1899). Several photographs show mines near Quesnel Forks including Gold Point mine, Morehead Lake camp and Little Lake camp, one of which shows a group of Japanese workers eating lunch at the work site.
The photographs of Indigenous people are particularly interesting as they show communities taking part in traditional customs with evidence of the European influence in their attire. The photos capture a transitional phase for the local people, who were moved onto the reserve and who were increasingly affected by European influence (the closest residential school, Saint Joseph’s mission, opened in 1890). Fifteen photographs show a “rancherie” in Quesnel (colloquial term for residential cluster on a reserve), including a group of women sitting with their children in front of a wooden “summer house,” a man chopping wood, salmon hanging to dry, a “cache” where provisions are stored, the chief and his wife, an elder, and a view of the cemetery. There is a photograph of a family, including two women wearing headscarves, one of which is carrying a baby on her back. One photograph is captioned “young Shilkotin man” [Tsilhqot'in (Chilcotin)]. Another photograph shows three men dressed in European clothing returning from salmon fishing; one of them is holding a knife and a freshly cleaned fish.
The album includes ten photographs of Quesnel Mouth [Quesnel] including a group photo of Chinese people in front of a house with a sign that reads “Wa Lee Co.” and captioned “House of Qua Li, Chinese negotiator,” a street in Quesnel showing the “James Reid General Merchant” store (established in 1873), and a photo of a Hudson’s Bay Company boat arriving with a dozen people paddling and sitting with their legs dangling over the edge.
Also included are 10 views from the CPR on the way to Vancouver (The British Columbia (BC) portion of the railway was constructed between 1881 and 1885) including Nepigon, Fort William; Russian peasants (mujiks) employed in agricultural export in Manitoba and Assiniboia; Port Arthur; Winnipeg; Brandon (debris from a train crash); Laggan; a CPR snow plow. Ca. 20 photographs of places in Vancouver including the new CPR station; Granville Street; Stanley Park; Hotel Vancouver; Georgia Street; Methodist Temple; Cordova Circus; Anglican Church; Cordova Street; Bank of Montreal; Hudson’s Bay Company store; Railway street; the Courts; and the Velodrome. 4 photos of Ashcroft, showing the CPR station, a main road; a Chinese street and a Thompson river bridge. Stops along Cariboo Wagon Road: Begin at Ashcroft (became the southern end of wagon road when it was revised in 1885), Clinton; 83 miles house; 150 miles house; indigenous house. Additionally, there are four photographs of New York and one view of the Ottawa. Overall a very historically interesting album which documents French prospectors travelling to British Columbia on the newly constructed CPR to take part in the final days of the Cariboo Gold Rush, just before the Klondike Gold Rush.


[Historically Interesting Autograph Letter Signed from Seth Smith Jr. to his father Seth Smith Sr. in Baltimore, MD Dated San Francisco, May 13th 1850. Smith Jr. Gives Historically Important Details Regarding the San Francisco Second Great Fire of May 4th 1850. Additionally he Describes his Voyage up the Sacramento River to Marysville and his Failed Attempts at Getting Jobs in Construction.]

Quarto bifolium (ca. 25x20 cm). 3 pp. Black ink written in a legible hand on bluish wove paper. Addressed to Mr. Seth Smith, Baltimore, MD. Postmarked with a red ink stamped San Francisco June 1. Original fold marks, red wax seal, letter with a couple of small old repairs using old paper. Overall a very good letter.
This content rich letter describes in detail Smith Jr.'s Voyage up the Sacramento River to Marysville near the Sierra Gold Fields, where he tried to find work in construction. "We left on the 17th of April & went up to Sacramento in 30 hours, the distance is 130 miles, we passed several places on the river. Benicia is the most beautiful place on the river..., the land .., is high and hilly & covered with wild oats.., the hills looked green & beautiful.., [Further he describes the difficulties of river navigation past Sacramento] were two weeks on the way to Marysville. The river is very crooked & the current very strong." He also mentions a "Yankie who had squatted & was raising garden stuff, it pays very well." However, Smith Jr. Isn't happy with his own business which was "very dull at Marys. They only use 4 boards to the make the frame of a house & cover it with cotton cloth. I done a little work up there but got scarcely anything for it." Smith Jr. also describes the second of four great San Francisco fires which occurred in 1849-50. "They had a large fire here while we were away, burnt three squares but they have built a greater part of it again. They make contracts to build houses in eight days here." The Second Great Fire broke out on May 4, 1850 in the United States Exchange, a saloon and gambling house, built on the same site as Dennison’s Exchange. This fire burned about 300 buildings. Smith Jr. Has trouble getting work and states: "Charley has got work at Reynold's at 8$'s per day but I could get nothing to do. I am sick of this country & I wish I was home. This is no place for me unless I try the mines..., carpenter's wages have raised 2$'s a day since the fire but they only want good hands, I could get nothing." Historically interesting letter detailing some of the events of the early part of the California Gold Rush.


[Historically Significant and Important Period Manuscript Report of the Naval and Military Actions in Chile and Peru]: Estado que en el dia de la fecha tiene el Vireinato de Lima; Provincias del de Buenos Ayres recuperadas y concervadas por el Ejercito del alto Peru; y finalmente en el que ce halla el Reyno de Chile [The State at this date of the Viceroyalty of Lima, the Provinces of Buenos Aires, taken back by the Army of Alto Peru; and finally the State of the Kingdom of Chile].

Lima, 1 November 1818. Small folio (ca. 31x21 cm). 6 pp. Brown ink on laid paper with watermarks ‘A’ and ‘PLA’. Text in Spanish in legible hand writing. Later marbled paper wrappers. Manuscript in very good condition.
Historically significant and important period report of the final stage of the Chilean (1810-1826) and Peruvian (1811-1824) Wars of Independence, compiled by Spanish colonial authorities. Our copy apparently belonged to Joaquín de la Pezuela, 1st Marquis of Viluma (1761–1830) who was a viceroy of Peru during the War of Independence: there is a handwritten remark “Es copia Pezuela” in the end of the text.
The document is divided into three parts (“Vireinato de Lima”, “Egéreito del Perú”, and “Reyno de Chile”) and starts with the report of advance of the Royalist forces (3400 men under command of General Mariano de Osorio) from Callao to Talcahuano in order to regain Chile. Then follow the descriptions of Battle of Cancha Rayada (18 March 1818), Battle of Maipú (5 April 1818), San Martín’s famous Crossing of the Andes (January-February 1817) et al. A large part of the text is dedicated to the actions of the Royalists’ army in Alto Peru under command of José de la Serna e Hinojosa (1770-1832). The author reports on the numbers of armed forces in different provinces of the Vireinato de Lima and gives a picture of the wartime Peru from north to south.
Very important is the extensive material on the naval war near the coast of Chile and Peru, and the actions of the First Chilean Navy Squadron which was formed in 1817-1818 and eventually “terminated Spanish colonial rule on the south-west coast of South America” (Wikipedia). The report lists 12 vessels of the Royalists’ naval forces (Las fuerzas de mar): frigates Esmeralda, Cleopatra, Presidenta and Venganza, brigantines Pezuela and Potrillo, corvet Sebastiano et al. There are notes on the condition and amount of guns of each vessel. A separate list is dedicated to the enemy vessels and also details their artillery: Lautaro and Cumberland (bought from the British East India Company); corvette Coquimbo (bought from the US), four brigantines, and seven corsairs (Anglo-American and French).
The document reports on the blockade of Valparaiso in March-April 1818, and naval actions, e.g. The attack on Spanish corvette Resolution near Callao by the corsair force consisting of the British, American, Portuguese and Irish sailors (19 October). The text is concluding with the news that the naval reinforcement for the Royalists has departed from Spain: frigate Especulation left Cadiz on the 21st of May with 6 officials and 200 men from the Regiment of Cantabria, a part of a larger force which will embark in Callao and will go immediately to reinforce the army of Alto Peru. Frigate Maria Isabel will increase the maritime forces destined to blockade Valparaiso. The author has no doubt that “Our maritime force should succeed in destroying the rebels and will give us advantage in the reconquista de Chile”.


[Original Autograph Signed Manuscript in French on the Maroons (Escaped Slaves) of Suriname in French Guiana Including their Customs, Society, and their Relations with the French Colonial Administration, Titled (In French):] Renseignemens sur les Nègres marrons de Surinam [Information on the Maroons of Suriname].

Signed Barthelemy, Cayenne, October 5th, 1837. Manuscript ca. 28,5x19 cm (11 ¼ x 7 ¼ in). 9 pp. Brown ink on beige wove paper. Disbound, with remnants of binding. Very good letter written in a legible hand.
This document was written by attorney Charles Barthelemy to evaluate the responsibility of the French government with regards to an incident in 1837, during which four “Boni” [Aluku] people were shot under the orders of a French commander. By examining the situation, Barthelemy concludes that an injustice has been committed and that the French government owes reparations to the Aluku Maroons. To reach this conclusion, Barthelemy summarizes some key interactions between the French colonial administration in French Guiana and Maroon communities over the last fifty years, leading up to the year of this incident.
The Aluku Maroons are one of six ethnic groups descended from African slaves who fled Surinamese plantations in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, many of which settled along the Maroni river and formed a community of over three thousand people. In 1783, the governor of French Guiana, Baron Alexandre Ferdinand de Bessner, decided to make contact with this group and propose an alliance in exchange for land along the Maroni: "The two officers [sent on this mission] were sirs Jacquet and Duplant, accompanied by a guide and an interpreter […] Officer Duplant explained that they had come on behalf of a French governor to speak with general Albony, leader of this group of Maroons. […] What are you doing here? Asked Albony. Are you spies? Where is the proof that you were sent by your government? The officers showed him their papers. Are you kidding me, said Albony, don’t you know that I can’t read? Why didn’t your governor send something that speaks to the eyes? The flag of your nation, for example.” Upon their return in Cayenne, the two officers reported back to their governor, who agreed to give Albony all the arms and provisions he had requested, and sent them with the next mission. “Seeing the gifts they had brought, We must, said the general Abony, announce this alliance in an official way. […] The general Jacquet was cut (bled), the black general was also cut (bled), a certain powder was added to the vase and it was given to the officer to drink. He brought it to his lips and pretended to drink it, then the black general took the vase of blood and drank from it for real.”
Around this time, the Dutch government signed a treaty with the Maroons, however for years afterwards the Maroons preferred to trade with the French: "They say that the Suriname government does not offer them enough benefits. […] They excel at the art of sawing […] they cultivate rice and various colonial foods. They are organized into tribes with each their own chief; their policing is perfectly maintained.”
The second half of the manuscript details the incident at hand: "In 1836, Mr. Leprieur was travelling in the interior […] when he discovered a population of 700 black people living upstream of the Oyapock river, that had separated themselves from the large community of 6000 in Suriname. In the name of the government, M. Leprieur made them promises. They asked to come cultivate our land.” However, the author explains that a letter from the governor of Suriname asked the French colony not to associate with people from this tribe. “Last April [1837], eight of these black people presented themselves at the Oyapock poste without any hostility […] they were immediately arrested, four managed to escape and four were killed on the spot.” The author concludes: "The laws of hospitality and national honor impose on us the duty [of reparations] and no consideration can prevent us from accepting the offer of 700 refugees to participate in our agriculture, and that Guiana needs hands to cultivate its lands and that the circumstances are favourable to quickly accept the offer of the Boni people.”
"The Aluku are distinguished from the others in that they are the only group to have established most of their traditional villages in French Guiana and to have chosen allegiance, as a group, to the French government, while the rest tied their futures to neighboring Suriname."
Charles Barthelemy was born in Cayenne, and served as mayoral secretary and court clerk at Sinnamary. He was also a correspondent for the “Société des sciences, agriculture et arts du Bas-Rhin,” and the “Académie des sciences, belles-lettres et arts de Rouen.”


GIRON, Manuel Maria & URIBE, Alberto
[Collection of Sixteen Large Original Gelatin Silver Photographs of Guatemala City, Showing the Historic City Centre, including the Now Non-Existent Castillo de San Jose, First Building of El Calvario Church, and Central Penitentiary].

1891. Sixteen original gelatin silver prints, each ca. 18x23 cm (7x9 in), mounted on original card stock leaves, unbound. Each photo with an ink stamp “Uribe y Giron, Guatemala, Dic. 21, 1891” and a period pencil caption in Spanish on verso. Overall a very good collection of strong images.
Interesting collection of large views of Guatemala City, taken by the local photo studio of Manuel Maria Giron and Alberto Uribe. The photos give an excellent picture of the Guatemala City’s historic centre, then still sparsely built up, with detailed views of several buildings which were severely damaged during a series of earthquakes in 1917-18 and later demolished. Among them is Fort of Saint Jose (Fuerte de San Jose, destroyed during the earthquakes and later rebuilt, now a site of Guatemala Military Museum), shown from the distance and close, with the two “lagunas” (ponds) clearly seen in the foreground. There are also interesting pictures of the first building of the Church of Our Lady of the Remedies (El Calvario), which was originally built in 1784-87, and after being damaged in earthquakes, was demolished to extend the Guatemala City’s road network; a new church of the Cavalry was constructed a few meters away in 1926-32. Several pictures show the Central Penitentiary (demolished in 1968), including a view of the garden at its entrance. There are also several impressive panoramas of Guatemala City taken from the top of the Fort of Saint Jose or El Calvario in all directions, showing the “Mercadito,” and recently constructed railway line. Overall a very interesting collection of early photos of the capital of Guatemala.


[Album of 174 Original Gelatin Silver Photographs of the Voyage of German Naval Officer Fritz Standke to the Iguazu Falls and Asuncion on a Streamer via the Rio de la Plata, Uruguay, Parana, Paraguay Rivers with Stops in Uruguay, Argentina and Paraguay].

1918. Oblong Folio (ca. 24,5x33 cm). 30 brown album leaves. With 174 original gelatin silver photographs ca. 17,5x23,5 cm (7 x 9 ½ in) and smaller, the smallest ones ca. 4,5x6,5 cm (2 x 2 ½ in). Images mounted on recto and verso of album leaves most captioned in German in manuscript white ink and some with printed paper labels on mounts. Additionally included are two manuscript maps in white ink and mount mounted printed text describing details of the journey. Original blue patterned full cloth album. Overall a very good album of interesting strong photographs.
The interesting photographs in this very extensively annotated album include views of Argentina (Darsena Norte in Buenos Aires), Isla Martin Garcia with interior and exterior photos of barracks, Colon, Concordia, Posadas including a series of photographs documenting the harvest of Yerba Mate, San Ignacio including ruins of the old mission, riding through the Amazon Jungle; Uruguay (Paysandu, Salto); a series of over 70 photos of the Iguazu falls with hotel and surroundings; Paraguay (Asuncion - panorama and port; San Bernardino). Included in the photographs are two-part panoramas of Darsena Norte, Garganta del Diablo, Asuncion, San Bernadino, Iguazu Falls.


WILLIAMS, Montgomery (ca.1885-1916)
[Two Albums with 199 Original Gelatin Silver Photographs Showing Ascension Island, Including the Laying of Cable for the Western Telegraph Company in 1910, Military Presence, Local Life, Buildings and Landscapes].

1910-13. Two albums with a total of 199 gelatin silver photographs including one panorama ca. 7 x 18,5 cm (2 ¾ x 7 ¼ in), twenty photographs between ca. 14x9 cm (5 ½ x 3 ½ in) and ca. 12x16,5 cm (5 ¾ x 6 ½ in), and the rest ca. 8x11 cm (3 ¼ x 4 ¼ in) and smaller, loosely mounted in windows or on leaves, the majority with period blue ink manuscript captions on the leaves. Also included is one drawing in period black ink ca. 13x20 cm (5x8 in) titled “Repairing Land Lines, Long Beach Ascension.” One oblong quarto album ca. 25x29,5 cm (9 ¾ x 11 ½ in) with 52 white album leaves. Period manuscript blue ink label on endpaper: “H. M. Island of Ascension 1910-1913.” Includes a newspaper clipping ca. 4,5x8,5 cm (1 ¾ x 3 ¼ in) titled “Gold Ring On an Atlantic Isle” with manuscript note “Daily Mail 10th Oct./25.” Period gilt tooled blue half sheep with pebbled cloth boards. Some minor rubbing of extremities. Second album quarto ca. 24x16 cm (9 ½ x 6 ¼ in) with twelve brown stiff card leaves. White typescript label pasted on inside of front cover: “Ascension Island / 1910-1913 / Montgomery Williams / Royal Marines.” Period brown cloth boards with gilt title “PHOTOGRAPHS” on front cover. Overall, two very good albums with strong, sharp photographs.
These interesting albums contain nearly 200 photographs showing activities, buildings, people and landscapes of Ascension Island, and the laying of the island’s third telegraph cable. The photographs were taken and compiled by Montgomery Williams, a member of the British Royal Marines in the Royal Military Academy who documented his three years living on Ascension with his wife and young daughter. Particularly interesting are two photographs that show the laying of a telegraph cable in Comfortless Cove: men are pulling a long cable onto shore and placing it along a dugout trench on land. This occurred “in 1910 when CS Colonia laid 3145 nm of cable from St. Vincent - Ascension - Buenos Aires, Argentina, with CS Cambria assisting and CS Cormorant (2) laying the cable up the River Plate. This cable was the second longest telegraph cable to be laid.” Also visible is the small cabin which served as the cable hut, from which the lines went to Georgetown, buried along Long Beach (History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications). Additionally, the album contains some photographs of the military presence on the island, including views of the Admiralty College and a photograph of “Admiral Sir William Kennedy and some New Zealand officers ashore.” The photographs also show the everyday activities of people on the island, including hiking excursions, horseback riding, hunting and fishing, the arrival of the mail boat, as well as a sports event on Ascension Day. There are images showing the roads and horse-drawn carts, as well as natural landscape photographs including a large plain where numerous seabirds are seen nesting. There is also a photograph labeled “S.S. Norse Prince burning off Ascension Jan 1910,” showing a British steamship that caught fire just off the coast. Overall, a very good album showing the life of a Royal Marine Officer and his family living on Ascension Island during the early 1910s.
“Ascension Island is an isolated volcanic island in the equatorial waters of the South Atlantic Ocean. It was garrisoned by the British Admiralty from 22 October 1815 to 1922.” (Wikipedia)
Captain Montgomery Williams, R.M.A., was educated at Dulwich College and the Naval College, Greenwich, and entered the Royal Marines at the age of 17. He died while fighting in France during the first World War, in August 1916.
"At the outbreak of the Boer War in 1899 the only way to get a telegraph message from the UK to Cape Town was either via the west coast or the east coast of Africa, a slow and tedious journey. A quicker and more direct route was urgently required. The Eastern Telegraph Company contracted the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company to manufacture and lay the necessary cables, which were to link Cape Town - St. Helena - Ascension - St. Vincent, Cape Verde Islands. Messages were then routed over the Western Telegraph Company cables, St Vincent - Madeira - Carcavelos, Portugal, from there to Porthcurno they again travelled over the Eastern network.
In 1901 the Eastern Telegraph Company contracted the same company to manufacture and lay cables from St Vincent to Madeira, 1130 nm, and from there a 1375 nm cable to Porthcurno. CS Anglia and CS Britannia (2) carried out the work. Another cable laid by CS Anglia in the same year was that from Ascension to Freetown, Sierra Leone, a distance of 1125 nm. This was to provide an alternative route in case of cable failure.” The cable shown in this album is the third telegraph cable reaching Ascension Island. (History of the Atlantic Cable & Undersea Communications)


MARESCAUX, [Alfred Edward Hay, midshipman] (1866-1942)
[Collection of Several Original Logbooks of 1882-1886, Kept by a Young Midshipman on Board of Several Royal Navy Ships, Bound Together with Information on Hong Kong, Singapore, Geomundo Islands, Battle of Fuzhou, French Blockade of Taiwan, Bombardment of Alexandria and Titled:] Logs of Her Majesty’s Ships “Achilles” Commanded by Captain Edward Kelly from Jany/ 21st 1882 to Sept. 23rd 1883, “Orontes” (for passage), “Champion,” Commanded by Captain A.T. Powett from Decr. 16th, 1883 to… Written & Kept by A.E.H. Marescaux, Midn.

[Various places at sea], 21 January 1882 - 12 October 1886. Folio (ca. 32x20,5 cm). Ca. 295 leaves (20 blank) with lined forms, filled in brown ink on rectos and versos. Legible manuscript in English, occasional ink sketches in text, some hand coloured. With an ink and wash drawn title page. Ink note on the first leaf “This is to certify that Mr. A.E.H. Marescaux has joined this his first sea going ship January 21st, 1882. Edward Kelly, Captain.” Original dark green cloth boards with gilt lettered title on the front board; neatly rebacked with black morocco. Paper slightly age toned, several leaves apparently removed from the journal by the author, but overall a very good internally clean journal.
Interesting historically significant collection of altogether eight logbooks (written one after another in the same thick journal) kept by a young British navy midshipman Alfred Marescaux during his service on HMS “Achilles” in the Mediterranean (1882-1883) and several British naval ships at the China Station in 1883-1886. Marescaux was just 16 years old when he started his naval career as a midshipman on board the HMS “Achilles,” and about 20 years old when he finished his service in the China Station, but his thoroughly kept logbooks supplemented with several amateur sketches contain much interesting data about the events he witnessed or took part in, including the Bombardment of Alexandria by the British Mediterranean fleet (11-13 July 1882, during the Anglo-Egyptian War), the Battle of Fuzhou and French blockade of Formosa (August 1884 – April 1885, during the Sino-French War); there are also valuable accounts of the British naval bases in Port Hamilton (existed only in 1885-1887 on the Geomun-do Islands, Korea Strait) and Labuan Island (off the coast of Borneo, Malaysia).
The journal opens with a logbook of Marescaux’s 9-month long service on board HMS “Achilles” in the Mediterranean and Atlantic (21 January-30 September 1883, his first appointment); followed by a logbook of the voyage of HMS “Orontes” from Portsmouth to Hong Kong (1 October – 13 December 1883); five logbooks kept during his three-and-a-half year service on the British naval ships at the China Station in December 1883 - August 1886 (service on HMS “Champion” and “Audacious” and short stays or passages on H.M.S. “Victor Emmanuel” and “Constance”), and a logbook kept during his return trip from Hong Kong to Portsmouth on board HMS “Tamar” in August-October 1886. The logbooks include all the typical data recorded – astronomical observations, ship’s course and distances passed, wind directions and operations with the sails, geographical objects and vessels sighted or ships arrived/departed a port (with coloured sketches of the vessels’ flags), Marescaux’s employment, main events on board (including naval drills, punishments, court martial, deaths of the crew members – entries marked by black borders, delivery and unloads of cargo, visits by commanding officers and officials etc).
Overall a valuable detailed source on the history of naval operations in the Mediterranean and South-East Asia in the 1880s.
Alfred Edward Hay Marescaux became a naval cadet on 15 July 1879 and was promoted to midshipman in 1882, Lieutenant in 1890, retired Commander in 1909 and retired Captain in 1918 for war service. He served in the Mediterranean, China and Home Stations, after retirement - in the Hydrographic Service, and in the Naval Transport Staff at Le Havre during WW1. Marescaux was awarded with the Egyptian Medal (1883) and the Legion of Honour (Officer, 1918), several times mentioned in the Despatches (1917, 1919) and was invited to the Buckingham Palace in 1919.
The list of logbooks in the journal:
1) H.M.S. “Achilles:” 21 January 1882 - 30 September 1883 (9 months). 193 pp. Ports visited: Plymouth, Portland, Vigo Bay (Spain), Gibraltar, Port Mahon (Menorca), Cagliari (Sardinia), Malta, Syracuse (Sicily), Alexandria and Aboukir Bay (Egypt), Arosa and Corcubion Bays (Spain), Lisbon, Madeira, Porto Praya & Sao Vicente (Cape Verde), Berehaven (Ireland) etc.
About the Anglo-Egyptian War and Bombardment of Alexandria (HMS “Achilles” stayed in Alexandria and Aboukir Bay from July 12 to September 28, 1882):
July 13, Alexandria. Cleared for action. Weighed and proceeded with squadron to take up position for bombarding fort Pharos. Hoisted out pinnace. Sent to HMS Bittern marines for passage ashore…
July 14, Alexandria. Sent 1st lieutenant in 1st cutter to fort Marabout with flag of truce. Fort hauled down Egyptian flag. Cutter returned…
August 27, Alexandria. HMS “Minotaur” opened fire toward Ramleh.
August 28, Alexandria. Received on board from transport “Palmyra” three Egyptian officers of war…
September 14, Alexandria. Sent working party and escort under Lt. Lindley to Fort Marabout to destroy powder…

2) H.M.S. “Orontes:” 1 October – 13 December 1883 (2,5 months transfer). 35 pp. From Portsmouth to Hong Kong via Plymouth, St. Vincent, Table Bay, Mauritius and Singapore (29 November – 1 December).

3) H.M.S. “Victor Emmanuel:” 14-17 December 1883 (4 days). 1 p. Hong Kong.

4) H.M.S. “Champion:” 18 December 1883 - 21 January 1885 (13 months). 112 pp. Cruised along the coasts of China and Taiwan, ports and anchorages visited: Hong Kong, Side Saddle Island (East China Sea, near Shanghai), Woosung (Wusong, a district of Shanghai), Shanghai, Amoy (Xiamen), Pagoda Anchorage on the Min River near Foochow (Fuzhou), Tai-wan-fu & Amping (Tainan, Taiwan), Tamsui (Taiwan).
16 February 1884, Shanghai. Chinese admiral visited United States ship “Richmond,” ditto saluted him on leaving with 14 guns.
About Sino-French War & the blockade of Formosa (August 1884 – April 1885):
23 July, Pagoda anchorage, Foochow (Fuzhou). [First mention of French naval cruisers “cleared for action”].
24 July, Pagoda anchorage. Arrived French torpedo boat.
23 August, Pagoda anchorage. French squadron opened fire on Chinese squadron and forts. Ditto returned. Observed two Chinese gunboats go down. Violent explosion in direction of Arsenal <…> French squadron ceased fire having destroyed Chinese gun boats and silenced forts. French opened fire on Chinese burning ship. 10 ships sunk.
24 August, Pagoda anchorage. French flagship Volta and 3 gunboats proceeded up river above Arsenal and opened fire, a French landing party from remainder of ship went up creek by Customs house.
25 August, Pagoda anchorage. French ships opened fire on boat floating down the River with machine guns. French ships opened fine on forts and landing small arm companies on Pagoda Island… French squadron weighed and took up position in Mingau Pass and commenced firing.
22 October, at sea from Pagoda anchorage to Tamsui. Received from French ship official notification of the Blockade of Formosa.
23 October, at sea from Pagoda anchorage to Tamsui. Passed French cruiser “D’Estang” blockading port of Taiwanfu.
21 December, at sea from Amping to Tamsui. Observed French ships “La Galissonniere,” “La Triomphante,” corvettes “Neilly» and «Rigauet de Genouilly». Stopped and communicated with French flagship “La Galissonniere.”

5) H.M.S. “Audacious:” 21 January 1885 – 15 July 1886 (18 months). 162 pp. Ports & anchorages visited: Hong Kong, Nagasaki, Port Hamilton (British naval base in 1885-87 on the Geomun-do Islands, Korea Strait), Amoy, Hong Kong, Tamsui (Taiwan), Shimonoseki, Yokohama, Kobe, Fusan (Busan, South Korea), Bangkok, Singapore, Sarawak, Kudat & Labuan Island (Malaysia), Manila, Chefoo (Yantai, China), Port Arthur.
24 February 1886, Singapore. The governor of the Straits Settlement visited ship. Saluted do. With 14 guns.
19 March, Sarawak. Native chief from Sarawak visited ship.
15 July 1886, Port Hamilton. Employed getting boats ready for regatta. 1:10. Regatta commenced. 5:15. Regatta boats returned to their respective ships.

6) H.M.S. “Constance:” 16-22 July 1886 (a week). 2 pp. Passage from Port Hamilton to Nagasaki.

7) H.M.S. “Victor Emmanuel:” 23 July – 2 August 1886 (1,5 weeks). 3 pp. Hong Kong harbour.

8) H.M.S. “Tamar:” 3 August - 12 October 1886 (2,5 months transfer). 34 pp. Return voyage from Hong Kong to Portsmouth via Singapore (9-12 August), Bangka and Sunda Straits, Mauritius (24-26 August), Simon’s Bay (Cape of Good Hope, 5-12 September), Saint Vincent (28-30 September), and Madeira (5-6 October).


24. [ASIA - CHINA]
[Album with 111 Original Gelatin Silver Photos of Beijing and Environs, Apparently Taken by an American after the Boxer Rebellion, Including 86 Interesting and Unusual Portraits of Chinese Beggars, Street Sellers, Elders, Peasants, Construction Workers, Families, Monks, Noble Women, Camel Riders; Market and Street Scenes, Views of Beijing Historical Sites etc.]

Ca. 1900s. Oblong Quarto album (ca. 21x29,5 cm). 28 black card stock leaves. With 111 mounted gelatin silver photos, ca. 8,5x14 cm (3 ¼ x 5 ½ in), no captions, seven photos numbered in negative. Original black cloth “Badger” album by “The Henn Co., Milwaukee” (a white ink stamp on the inner side of the rear cover) fastened with a string. Overall a very good album with strong interesting photos.
Historically interesting album of original gelatin silver photos taken in Beijing and environs, by an American photographer, in the timeframe between the end of the Boxer Rebellion (1899-1901) and the Xinhai Revolution of 1911. China rapidly moved into the sphere of American interests in the 1900s when the the US became its close neighbour with the annexation of the Philippines. After the Battle of Beijing (14-15 August 1900) when the troops of the Eight-Nation Alliance, including Americans, stormed and occupied Beijing, the interest in America for China and the Chinese grew.
The album is distinguished by its collection of 86 vivid and unusual portraits of Chinese people of different classes and lively street scenes, apparently taken in Beijing. Very interesting are eleven portraits of street beggars and homeless people (three – with young children), group portraits of street passers-by, water carriers, construction workers, elders drinking tea and smoking (opium?), young women, numerous street sellers (pottery, food, baskets, there is even a photo of a Chinese dealer of curio and antiques), peasants working on the fields, kids, portrait of a young noble Manchu woman in traditional costume and headdress, a Buddhist monk, a street barber attending his client, a camel rider, two photos of bound “lotus feet;” a scene of a Buddhist ceremony featuring monks (one wearing a deer mask) and Chinese officials, several market scenes, etc.
The album also includes ten photos of the sculptures of Buddha and Chinese deities (including a stone sculpture of laughing Buddha half-buried in the ground) and fifteen views of Beijing, including an interesting panoramic view with a residential quarter in the foreground and the towers of the Old Beijing city wall in the horizon, photos of the Emperor’s Throne in the Forbidden city, Summer Palace (the Tower of Buddhist Incense and the Kunming Lake, the Long Corridor, Jade Belt Bridge), ruins of the Old Summer Palace, the Ancient Observatory, Dongbianmen (Southeast) watch tower (showing the damage after the bombardment during the Battle of Beijing), the roof of a Five-Dragon Pavilion and the Nine-Dragon Wall in the modern-day Beihai Park (former Imperial Gardens) etc. Overall an excellent collection of early vivid and unusual portraits and street scenes in Beijing and environs taken in the last years of the Qing dynasty.


[HAYASHI, Shihei] (1738-1793)
[Early 19th Century Manuscript Hand Coloured Copy of a Map from Hayashi’s Prohibited Book “Sangoku tsûran zusetsu”, or "Illustrated Outline of the Three Countries” (1785), Depicting Ezo (Hokkaido), Sakhalin Island, the Kurile Islands, Coasts of Kamchatka Peninsula, Russian Tartary and Manchuria, Titled:] Ezo Chi No Zu [Map of the Country of Ezo].

Bunka 4 (1807). Ca. 92x58,5 cm (36 ¼ x 23 ¼ in). Black ink on rice paper, hand coloured in yellow, red, and grey. Extensive captions in Japanese on the body of the map, as well as right and left margins. Brown owner’s stamp on the lower margin reading “Momen Bunko”. Minor tears on extremities neatly repaired, expertly mounted on Japanese paper otherwise a very good map.
Early 19th century “underground” or illegal manuscript copy of a map of Hokkaido, Sakhalin, Manchuria, Russian Tartary and Kamchatka from the prohibited book by a Sendai-based Confucian scholar Hayashi Shihei. Titled “Sangoku tsûran zusetsu”, or "Illustrated Outline of the Three Countries” (Edo, 1785), the book described the three “countries” bordering Tokugawa-era Japan – Joseon Dynasty (Korea), Yezo or Ezo (present day Hokkaido), and Ryükyü (present day Okinawa). The book attempted to present a comprehensive picture of the neighbours of Japan in order to enhance its coastal defense and became "the first attempt to define Japan's position in relation to its neighbors" (Morris-Suzuki, Tessa. Re-Inventing Japan: Time, Space, Nation. M.E. Sharpe, 1998. p. 23). The book was banned shortly after publication, with the woodblocks used for printing the text and maps being broken, and Hayashi Shihei was arrested and died in prison. The Tokugawa government didn’t tolerate the attempts of private individuals to get involved into the matters of national defense or to violate the sakoku policy of isolation from the outside world. Nevertheless, the pressure on Japan in terms of opening its borders slowly increased with the Russian exploration of the North Pacific and Alaska in the late 18th – early 19th century, and the maps from Hayashi’s “Sangoku tsûran zusetsu” started to be copied by hand and studied in secret.
Our copy dated Bunka 4 (1807) was drawn “for protection from the foreign forces” - most likely, after the unsuccessful Russian diplomatic mission of Nikolay Rezanov in 1804-1805 and subsequent raids of Japanese settlements and bread stores on the Sakhalin and the Kuriles by Russian naval sloops under command of N. Khvostov and G. Davydov in 1806-1807. The map is oriented from west to east and shows the northern tip of the Honshu Island, the whole Island of Hokkaido or Ezo (the distances between main settlements show in red lines), Sakhalin Island (southern part is shown as a peninsula named “Karafuto,” connected to the coast of Manchuria, and northern part – as a separate island named “Sagariin”), the Kurile Archipelago (with all islands named and the inhabited ones marked with red dots), a part of Manchuria (with a note about China and the Great Wall), and the coast of Kamchatka (“Kamushikatsutoka”) separated from Manchuria with the wide mouth of the “Big River” (Amur River). The text written on the body of the Kamchatkan peninsula repeats the text from the original map, reading “Since, in recent years, men of Orosha [Russians] have taken possession of the territory east of Tartary, this land is called Orosha, or Kamushikatsutoka... Also since the Russians all wear red coats, the residents of Ezo call it Red Ezo in their dialect." The map still shows the territories of Ezo, Sakhalin and the Kuriles coloured in yellow, and not as a part of Japan, but it was exactly in 1807 when western Ezo and southern Sakhalin were proclaimed the shogunate territory, and shortly before the Mamiya Rinzo’s exploratory expedition to Sakhalin (1808) which discovered that it was an island (European discoverers acting independently proved this point only in 1849). Overall a beautiful early copy of the important Japanese map of the Hokkaido Island and Russian territories in the Far East.
“Local samurai power-holders in Ezo began receiving tribute from (some of) the Ainu of Sakhalin as early as 1475. No Japanese trading post or other formal presence on the island would be established until 1790, however. By 1805, a second trading post had been established. Shortly prior to that, Hayashi Shihei's1785 Sangoku tsûran zusetsu includes a map which is likely the first in Japan to use color to distinguish Tokugawa Japan from other countries. On this map, Sakhalin is represented in yellow, along with the Kurils and most of Ezo, in contrast to Japanese territory in blue, and Russia in red. The arrival of Russian ships at Sakhalin and some of the Kuril Islands in 1806 again inspired the shogunate to take action against Russian encroachment; they declared western Ezo and southern Sakhalin to be shogunal territory (tenryô). Mamiya Rinzô explored and surveyed the island in 1808 to an extent no Japanese had ever done before, and in the process discovered (or confirmed) that it is in fact an island, and not a peninsula of the Asian mainland (Sakhalin/ Samurai Wiki archive online).


CANNING, Earl (Governor General 1856-1858, First Viceroy 1858-1862)
[The Historically Significant Canning Sunnad of 1862 Concerning the Bhopal Succession].

1862. A Folio (ca. 60x24,5 cm) single large sheet of parchment headed by the large inked seal of the Supreme Government of British India, written in fine palace script. Bound by stab stitching into a half cloth with patterned papered boards folder together with some dozen related pages of letters and documents in Persian script. One of these has some gold leaf additions and is additionally signed by the Political Agent A R E Hutchinson. A covering document is a true copy of a circular from Major R I Meade, Agent to the Governor General at Indore, to Major Hutchinson which accompanied the Sunnad as it was sent from the Viceroy. Some of the other documents are counter signed by Major Hutchinson.
The document sets out the British policy to secure the succession of Princely Houses ruling in the various states: “in failure of natural heirs any succession to the Government of your State which may be legitimate according to Mahomedan Law will be upheld. Be assured that nothing shall disturb this agreement here made to you so long as your House remains loyal to the Crown, and faithful to the conditions of the treaties, grants and agreements which record its obligations to the British Government.” The Sunnad is signed “Canning” at the foot.
In the light of future problems over disputed succession this document proved to be highly important and equally contentious, especially in the 1920’s when Nawab Sultan Begum named her only surviving son Hamidullah as her successor in conflict with accepted laws of primogeniture. The reference to remaining faithful, as Bhopal always had been, is particularly important in this early post Mutiny period when the Crown had just taken over all the East India Company’s powers. This document is one example of the close British attention to matters of succession in Indian states. In Bhopal the British wished to maintain the succession within the Orakzai tribe which had been so loyal to the Company and the Crown. Marriage and succession were to loom large in the relations between the Viceroy and the rulers of Bhopal during the rest of the century.The "Bhopal State was an independent state of 18th century India, a princely salute state in a subsidiary alliance with British India from 1818 to 1947, and an independent state from 1947 to 1949. Islamnagar served as the State's first capital, which was later shifted to the city of Bhopal. The state was founded by Dost Mohammad Khan, an Afghan soldier in the Mughal army who became a mercenary after the Emperor Aurangzeb's death and annexed several territories to his feudal territory" (Wikipedia).


MEYNELL, Francis, RN, Lieutenant (1821-1870)
[Original Watercolour View, Titled:] Calcutta from Garden Reach. HMS Calliope Saluting.

1841. Watercolour on paper, ca. 31x54 cm (12 x 21 ¼ in). Signed in ink "G. Meynell" in the left lower corner. Captioned and dated in pencil on verso by the artist. Recently mounted and matted. A very good watercolour.
The watercolour shows the British warship HMS Calliope going through the Garden Reach - the entrance to the port of Kolkata on the Hooghly River. "The port of Kolkata is the oldest operational port in India, having originally been constructed by the British East India Company, and it was the premier port in British India in the 19th century" (Wikipedia). The port’s buildings and a grand residence on the bank to the left, as well as a boat carrying two Europeans being rowed by Indians, are shown in the watercolour.
The time of the event shown by the artist is known to be August-September 1841 when HMS Calliope arrived to Kolkata from Canton with $6 million of ransom money taken during the marine operations of the First Opium War (1839-1842). HMS Calliope (28 guns, built in 1837) participated in the blockade of the mouth of the Pearl River and operations at Canton in 1841. Circa Aug 1841 it departed for Calcutta with the bulk of the Canton ransom money (See: Clowes, W.L. The Royal Navy: A History from the Earliest Times to the Present. In 7 vols. Vol. 6. London, 1901. P. 294).
The artist, Francis Meynell, was a midshipman on Calliope (See: Allen, J. The New Navy List and General Record of the Service of Officers of the Royal Navy and Royal Marines. London, 1853. P. 146).
"Meynell entered the navy as midshipman during the campaign in China, on board the Calliope. He was mentioned for the assistance rendered at the capture on 13 March 1841 of the last fort protecting the approaches of the city of Canton" (National Maritime Museum (Greenwich) on-line). [Later he served as] mate in the Penelope during anti-slavery operations off the west coast of Africa, [and was promoted Lieutenant in 1846]. During the Crimean War 1853-55 he served on HMS Royal George. His illustrated journal mostly dedicated to the Baltic campaign of the Crimean War (1853-55) is now in the collection of the National Maritime Museum (Greenwich).


[Anonymous Historically Interesting Manuscript Documenting the Indian Caste System and Observations of Social Norms and Practices in French India, Titled:] Des Castes Indiennes.

Karaikal, 11 April 1743 [?]. Quarto Ca. 24x18,5 cm (9 ¼ x 7 ¼ in). 22 pp. Legible dark brown manuscript ink on beige laid paper. Period blue mottled paper stiff card wrappers. Mild wear at extremities, mild foxing of the front paste down, some dust soiling on first page, otherwise a very good legible manuscript.
This historically interesting document details the Indian caste system, using anecdotes, comparisons with French social classes, and parallels to biblical stories to illustrate the author's ethnographic observations. The manuscript was written in Karaikal, a town acquired by the French East India Company in 1739 and located about 140 km south of Puducherry, likely by a missionary tasked with reporting on the challenges facing Christianity in India, as he answers two main questions: “If Indian peoples’ ways are frivolous and childish,” and “Whether Indian peoples’ customs are superstitious.” The author begins by explaining that, having lived in India for several years and knowing several local languages, he is elucidating the mysteries of the caste system on which French people are ill-informed.
After describing the details of the four castes, Brahmin, Raj, Vaisya and Sudra, including their hierarchy, advantages, the purpose of this social structure, and the experience of those who lose their caste, the author observes: “We would not be surprised therefore that Indians are as much if not more attached to their caste that makes up their nobility as our gentlemen are to their own […] the fear of losing their caste is capable of making them sacrifice their own lives to maintain it, we saw a striking example a few months ago in the presence of a young stranger whose hunger had made terribly thin […] his appearance inspired the pity of several French people who gathered around him. One of them had rice and meat fetched for him, we were surprised by his refusal to eat […] but dying seemed to him less frightful than losing his honour by eating something that he knew had been prepared by Pariahs.”
To his first question “If Indian peoples’ ways are frivolous and childish,” the author responds that “all nations criticize each other in this way […] if Indian people asked us […] why we salute each other by uncovering our head […] what would we have to answer other than it is our custom and we must conform to not appear uncivil and ridiculous, this is also what would happen to Indians, and what ties them to their ways, for which (for the most part) we could find good reasons […] they leave their shoes at the front door of their home to avoid bringing indoors filth that they picked up outside.”
To his second question of “Whether Indian peoples’ customs are superstitious,” he observes that they have superstitious practices, but not all Indian customs are superstitious. He explores in detail whether or not customs and beliefs surrounding Pariahs and Cows are superstitious. In his conclusion, the author questions whether it is necessary to abolish the caste system in order to enable the spread of Christianity. A very interesting record of social practices in India and the interaction between Christianity and Indian social structures and beliefs.
French India, formally the Établissements Français dans l'Inde ("French establishments in India"), was a French colony comprising geographically separate enclaves on the Indian subcontinent. The possessions were originally acquired by the French East India Company beginning in the second half of the 17th century and included Pondichéry, Karikal and Yanaon on the Coromandel Coast, Mahé on the Malabar Coast and Chandernagor in Bengal.


TOYOTOMI, Kikkawa & TAIRA Moritora
[Original Illustrated Japanese Manuscript Account of Commodore Matthew Perry’s Second Visit to Japan and Landing at Kanagawa in March 1854, Written by the Noblemen of the Toyotomi and Taira Clans, with the Mark “Unauthorized to Show to Public,” Titled:] Amerika Torai Ki [Record of the Arrival of the Americans].

Ca. 1854. Quarto (ca. 24x16,5 cm). 51 double-ply leaves, text eight vertical lines. With three double-page and three single-page hand coloured ink sketches, and two additional uncoloured ink sketches in text. Original blue Japanese fukuro toji binding with leaves sewn together with a string. Ink stamps on the first and the last leaves. Housed in a later Japanese cloth folder. Leaves with mild creases, occasional water stains on the upper margins, a few minor worm holes, otherwise a very good copy.
Historically important contemporary Japanese account of Matthew Perry’s famous naval expeditionary mission to Japan (1853-1854) which lead to the end of the country’s 220-year-old policy of isolation and the establishment of diplomatic relations the United States and other western “Great Powers”. The first lines mention the authors of the manuscript who belonged to the ancient Japanese noble clans of Toyotomi and Taira and most likely witnessed the negotiations between the Americans and the Japanese. Very interesting is the second line of the manuscript, placed after the “title,” which prohibits its disclosure to public. The document records Perry’s landing in Kanagawa in March 1854, the negotiations in the specially erected “Treaty House,” the funeral of Robert Williams (1830-1854), a young marine who had died aboard the USS Mississippi shortly after the arrival of Perry’s fleet the Edo Bay - his grave on the grounds of the Zotokuin temple near Yokohama village started what later became known as Yokohama Foreign General Cemetery, one of the biggest in Japan. The manuscript ends with a detailed list of presents from the American president to the Japanese emperor (steam train, electric telegraph, a map of the United States, tea, perfume, swords, guns, “American white liquor” etc.) The text is illustrated with three beautiful double-page drawings showing a “Black Ship” (possibly, USS “Mississippi”) sailing in the Edo Bay near the Kanazawa Kinryuin temple and Otsumoto village, a close-up drawing of a “Black Ship” with the crew changing sails on board, and a steam train presented to the Japanese Emperor from the American president; there are also three hand-coloured single-page drawings of American naval officers and details of their uniform, and two ink drawings showing the scheme of the “Treaty House” and the tomb stone of Robert Williams. Overall a historically important attractively made manuscript containing important details of Perry’s landing in Kanagawa in March 1854.
Perry first arrived to the Edo Bay in July 1853 and then returned in February 1854. He was allowed to land at Kanagawa, the site of modern-day Yokohama on March 8, 1854, where a special “Treaty House” was erected on shore. The negotiations lasted for almost a month, accompanied with the presentation of the gifts from the American President to the Japanese Emperor and vice versa, contests by sumo wrestlers, drills of American marines, banquets and many other activities between the Americans and the Japanese. After the Treaty was signed, Perry and his ships cruised in the Edo Bay and departed for Simoda on April 11-18, 1854.


[Attractive Lacquered Album with 112 Original Photographs of Japan, China, Singapore, Samoa, and Hawaii, Including Interesting Images of Nikko Temples and Processions, Tea Houses, Villages and Hotels around Lake Hakone, Streets of Tokyo, and Nara, Panoramas of Penang and Hong Kong, Scenes of Execution in Canton, Portraits of “Maoris” and Samoans, etc., Titled]: Around the World, 1900.

20 March- 31 August 1900. Oblong Folio (ca. 32,5x41 cm). With 112 gelatin silver prints of various size mounted on 21 stiff card leaves, including 10 large images, ca. 25,5x29 cm (ca. 10 x 11 ½ in), and three large colour photos, ca. 20x26 cm (ca. 8x10 ¼ in). Manuscript ink captions on the mounts. Original lacquered Japanese album with leather spine, marbled paper endpapers, all edges gilt. Rebacked in style, boards slightly rubbed and neatly repaired on the corners, minor foxing of the endpapers, otherwise a very good album.
Interesting album with lively original views and portraits of the locals from Japan, China, Singapore, Samoa and Hawaii, taken by a British traveller during a trip around the world, in March-August 1900, and supplemented with several evocative studio photos. The album starts with seven photos of Port Said and Colombo where the compiler of the album arrived on board the P.& O. Steamer “Arcadia” (“Arab Coal Raft,” streets of Port Said and Colombo, “Singhalese boys at Mount Lavinia” etc.) and is followed by seven views of Penang and Singapore, including an attractive two-part panorama of Penang taken from R.M.S. “Chusan.” A dozen of interesting original snapshots of China include a view of the Hong Kong harbour with the building of the Club, “the Queen’s road” and monument to the Queen Victoria in Hong Kong, a view of Macao taken from “Boa Vista” hotel, three dreadful images of execution of pirates in Canton (with dismembered bodies and “the crucifix on which the prisoner is fastened for the death by a thousand bats”), views of a crowd of native boats on the Canton river, a portrait of the travelling party at the balcony of “Li Hung Chang palace” (Li Hongzhang, 1823-1901, noted Chinese politician) etc.
More than half of the album are photos of Japan (over 60 images), where the traveller stayed from May 4 to June 20, 1900. Interesting views show Yokohama harbour taken from the bedroom window of the Grand Hotel, Tokyo (Kameido shrine, street views, private house owned by an Englishman named “Milne”), Nikko and environs (about twenty photos, including three large views of a “tea house at the entrance to the Temple of Iemitsu,” a “garden at Dainichi-do,” and the Daiya River; and smaller views of the Tosho-gu Temple, “celebrated Red Lacquer Bridge”, Karamon gate, bronze Torii, “Avenue of criptomenia trees”, street views, botanical garden, Lake Chuzenji, “fish flags at the Boys Festival;” and three photos of a temple procession, with a picture of “3 gold shrines, 75 men to carry each. These are not allowed to be photographed”). There are also over a dozen interesting photos taken around Lake Hakone and nearby resort towns, showing streets of Miyanoshita, Sengaku village, Hayakawa River, servant girls from tea houses at Dogashima, Miyanishita and Fujiya Hotel; a portrait of the compiler with his guide Hirakata, at the Otome Toge pass where “one gets a magnificent view of Fujiyama,” three coloured studio photos of Lake Hakone and Mount Fuji, etc. Other images show Nagoya Castle, Nara, and Kyoto (Golden Pavilion, Katsura River, a group of geishas). The album closes with eight views of Samoa, including two studio portraits and six snapshots of “Maoris,” “Cricket at Apia,” “Samoan natives,” “Annie” etc.; and six studio photos of Hawaii, including four views of Honolulu by a local photographer Frank Davey (harbour, Main road, Royal Palms, rice field). Overall an interesting album with a large collection of high quality lively original photos (some quite large) of tourist sites and lesser-known areas of Japan.


[Album with Eighty-one Original Gelatin Silver Photographs of Kashmir, Titled:] Kashmir Views. By Diwan Alim Chand, G.C.

Ca. 1895. Oblong Large Folio (ca. 33x46 cm or 13x18 in). 30 stiff card leaves. With 81 mounted gelatin silver prints, including 41 large photos 20,5x28 cm (8 x 11 in), the rest are from ca. 10,5x15,5 cm (4 ¼ x 6 in) to ca. 13,5x20 cm (5 ¼ x 8 in). All photos with printed captions on the paper labels mounted under the images. Luxurious Handsome period black full morocco album with elaborate gold tooled borders on both boards and the spine; front board with gilt lettered title and gilt tooled coat of arms of the Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir; moiré endpapers, all edges gilt. Binder’s label attached to the upper corner of the front pastedown endpaper (“Bound at the Caxton Works, Bombay”). Front cover with minor scratches, some leaves with very minor chipping, a couple of photos with mild silvering, but overall a very good album.
A beautiful album in a period custom made presentation binding with unusual and interesting views of Kashmir taken by the official photographer of the Princely State Dewan Alim Chand. The album opens with ten views of Kashmir’s capital Jammu showing the suspension bridge across the Tawi River, the Prince of Wales College, the Raghunath Temple, public library and museum, Amar Mahal Palace, the town from the Fortress of Bahu, the Maharaja’s palaces, army headquarters, arcade round the octagonal spring at Verinag, and others. There is also a group of twenty-five views of Jhelum River, Srinagar and environs, showing Sri Pratap Sindh museum, the Residency, several city panoramas taken from the river, Sher Garhi Palace, Raja Hari Singh’s villa, Shah Hamdan Mosque, the barrage below Srinagar, Takht-e-Sulaiman Mountain, Hari Parbat Hill with the Durrani Fort, water reservoir at Harwan, silk factory (with the photos of the exterior, workmen boiling cocoons, dying silk fibres, reeling in silk, and a warehouse with the twisted bundles of silk ready for dispatch), Nishat Bagh garden, Shalamar Bagh, Nasim Bagh, and others. Very interesting is a group of 12 photos taken on the route to the Hindu Amarnath Cave Temple, including several pilgrims’ camps (at Aishmuqam village, Pahalgam, Chandanwari and Panj Tarni), Lidder River valley near Pahalgam, “the mountainous track leading to the cave of Amarnath,” Sheshnag Lake, entrance to the cave, the main object of worship – the Ice Lingam inside the cave, and Hatyara Talao Lake on the way back.
Other photos show the ruins of Awanti Swami Temple in Awantipora, Achhabal village, the chinar tree at Shadipur which is believed to be the confluence of rivers Indus (Sind) and Jhelum (Vitasta), Kheer Bhawani temple erected over a sacred spring in the Tul Mul village, Lake Manasbal, Wular Lake, Jhelum River at Baramulla, hydroelectric plant in Mohra (built in 1907), six views of Gulmarg (Kashmir Residency, palace of the Maharaja, the club, the bazaar, Raja Hari Singh’s quarters, the church and Nedou Hotel, Taru mountain at Ahal Parti); several views of Gandarbal (banks of the Sindh River with the ruins of the old bridge, the new bridge, and others), images of the upper Sindh River Valley, one of the ancient Vangata Temples, Lolab Valley, local artisans’ production (wood carving, silver & copper ware, papier-mâché), and others; the album closes with a well-known Alim Chand’s photo of “the stag in solitude.”
Dewan Alim Chand had a publishing house in Jammu, the capital of Kashmir (several publications can be found in Worldcat, dating 1876-1924), and in the 1890s took a series of views of Kashmir and portraits of its royalty in the capacity of the Princely State’s official photographer. He was mentioned in the list of the attendants of the 1911 Coronation Delhi Durbar as a “State photographer” of Kashmir (Coronation Durbar, Delhi 1911. Official Directory with Maps. Calcutta, 1911. Part 2. Civil and Central Camps, p. 215). This album with specially prepared printed captions and a luxurious decorative binding was most likely produced in a small copy run and given as a present to a high-ranking state official or British colonial administrator. An album with similar description (the same photographer, topic, and number of photos) was found in the collection of the National Army Museum (Chelsea, London).


[Album with 100 Original Gelatin Silver Photographs of the Philippines (78) and China (22) almost certainly complied by an American Military Officer Stationed in the Philippines. These Photos Document the American Military Presence in the Philippines after the Philippine - American War (1899-1902) and show Manila, Baguio, Fort Mills and the Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines. Additionally with Twenty-two Photos of a Visit to China (Peking (Beijing), Tientsin (Tianjin), Great Wall and Shanghai on the Voyage over to the Philippines].

Ca. 1915. Oblong Quarto album (ca. 16x24,5 cm). With 24 black card leaves. With 100 original gelatin silver mounted photos, with 88 real photo postcards each ca. 9x14 cm (3 ½ x 5 ½ in) all captioned and most numbered in negative, 4 larger studio photos each ca. 13x17,5 cm (5x7 in) all captioned in negative and eight smaller vernacular ones each ca. 6,5x4,5 cm (2 ½ x1 ½ in). Original blue felt boards with "album" stamped on front cover in silver gilt and album fastened with a cord. Overall a very good album of strong and sharp interesting photographs.
Historically interesting album documenting the early American military presence in the Philippines after the Philippine - American War (1899-1902) just after the hostilities with Philippine resistance groups had ended in 1913. The photos American military establishments including Camp John Hay which was established in 1903 in Baguio, Fort Mills which was built to protect Manila Bay and was completed in 1915 and the Mansion (in Baguio), built in 1908, to serve as the official residence of the American Governor-General during the summer in order to escape the heat in Manila. Additionally, this album includes 25 images of the indigenous peoples of the Philippines including the Ifugao tribe which is from the landlocked province in the centre of Luzon and the Igorots, a tribe who originate from the Northern provinces of the Philippine archipelago. The individual images this interesting album of photos includes are:
Manila: Plaza Cervantes; Cock fighting; Luneta; Pottery, basket and hat market; Filipino boy scouts; Plaza Goiti; Colegio de Asuncion; Old canons Ft. Santiago; Public market, Paco; Walled city; Army and Navy Club; Rizal Day; Old and new Manila; Residence on Plaza Militar; Manila Hotel Calle Real, W.C.; Walled City; Binondo Canal; Ft. Santiago; U.S. Transport ships Thomas & Merritt; Sto. Domingo Church; San Sebastian. Indigenous peoples: Negrito girl; Ifugao girl; Ifugao belle; Igorrote soldier and wife; Ifugao marriage dress; Igorot house; G-string Igorots; Igorot warriors Mountain Province; Igorots; Ifugao women; Igorot girls in costume; Igorot Head Hunter with Knife; Igorrote strong man; An Igorrote Family Mountain Province; Igorot maidens; Igorots in Costume; Igorot dance; Igorot Dog Feast; Bontoc Igorots - a tribal dance; Kalinga in full dress; Igorot head; Weaving Igorot g-string. Baguio: Camp John Hay(4); Villa Carmen; To Haights Place; Sawmill at Haights; Mansion House (2); Gorge and river along Benguet Road (3); Sunset; Gardens; Mess Hall Government Center; Igorot Village; Igorot Dog: Camp 30; Panorama; Dogs for Igorot market; trail to Haights. Fort Mills: Review; Barrio, New Barrio; Barrio street. Eight smaller images showing most likely the album compiler and his friends.
Peking: Entrance to Forbidden City; American Pagoda; Camel train; Temple of Heaven; Temple of Passion; Entrance to Josh House; Pagoda; Camel Back Bridge, Summer Palace; Wedding procession(3); Altar of Heaven. Tientsin: Firebell; Street scene; Water supply; Chinese funeral; Street of Manufactures; Panorama; Chinese Sampans. Great Wall: near Hankou; End of Great Wall. Shanghai: Chinese cart.
Overall a historically valuable visual documentation of the early American military presence in the Philippines.


TISSANDIER, Albert (1839-1906)
[Twenty-One Original Drawings by Albert Tissandier Showing Buddhist Temples, Sculptures, Ruins, Local People and Landscapes in Sri Lanka and India, Several of Which were Published in the French Scientific Journal “La Nature” and Tissandier’s 1892 Book “Voyage Autour du Monde”].

1887-1890. Collection of twenty-one original drawings including ten large pencil drawings ca. 26x32,5 cm (10 ¼ x 12 ¾ in), six smaller pencil drawings between ca. 12,5x20,5 cm (4 ¾ x 8 in) and ca. 24.5 x 17 cm (9 ½ x 6 ¾ in), several heightened in white, and five pencil, ink and/or watercolour sketches each ca. 24 x 26,5 cm (9 ½ x 10 ¼ in) and smaller. All are mounted on 14 stiff card leaves each ca. 34,5x42,5 (13 ½ x 16 ¾ in), all dated and captioned in French in period manuscript ink, one drawing is outlined with a gold frame. Housed in a custom made oblong folio green cloth box ca. 44x35,5 cm with a green gilt tooled morocco label titled «Ile de Ceylan / Voyages de M.A. Tissandier / En 1887 et en 1890 / Dessins d’Après Nature» with the original paper manuscript title page included. Drawings and mounts in very good condition.
This historically important collection includes views of Ceylon (present-day Sri Lanka) and India, drawn by Albert Tissandier, a talented architect and artist who travelled around the world and drew illustrations for a French scientific journal called “La Nature.” The drawings show sights during his voyage to Sri Lanka and India in 1887 and 1890, including Buddhist temples, a vatadage (a Buddhist structure unique to Sri Lanka), sculptures, ruins, scenes of local people and landscape views. The majority of the images depict Sri Lanka, including Matale, Maskeliya, Dambulla, Kalutura, Anuradhapura, Polonnaruwa, Kalami and Sigiriya. However, three images show India, including an animal hospice in Mumbai, women walking to the water source in Ajmer and the Bhaja temple. Three of the drawings in this collection were featured in Tissandier’s book « Voyage autour du monde: Inde et Ceylan, Chine et Japon, 1887-1890-1891 » published in 1892, including the Bhaja Temple, the animal hospice and the very tall Buddha made of granite in Vikara Aukana near lake Kalewewa. Also included are several plans of ruins and sketches of sculptures with notes indicating the measurements as well as detailed and explanatory captions. Overall, a collection of interesting and artistically gifted drawings showing sights in Sri Lanka and India during the late 19th century.
Temples boudhists à Matelé; Degrés de granit pour monter au tombeau de Mahindo; Pierre sculptée représentant un petit palais Cynghalais; Passage d’un Torrent sur le dos de mon guide Cynghalais près de Maskeliya; temple de Bhaja et son monastère (Vihara); Intérieur de Maha Dewa Dewal, Dumballa village; Maison de pêcheur au bord de la mer à Kolatura; Les cocotiers et la mer à Kalatura; Ruines d’un ancien aqueduc Cynghalais à Mnimithale; Lac de Pollonarua; Plan des ruines d’un pavillon d’été à Anuradhapura; Hospice des animaux à Bombay; Ornement en pierre sculptée; Ruines du Wata Dagé à Pollonarua; Ajmère – les femmes allant chercher le matin leurs provisions d’eau aux sources de la montagne; Le lac à Colombo; Grand Buddha de granit situé près du Vikara Aukana Kalewewa; Grand rocher de la forteresse Cynghalaise de Sigiri; Grand temple de Kalami.
Albert Tissandier was a French architect, aviator, illustrator, editor and archaeologist. He was the brother of adventurer Gaston Tissandier with whom he collaborated in writing the magazine La Nature, a French language scientific journal aimed at the popularization of science. He was heavily involved in it from the very first issue in 1873 until his retirement in 1905, less than a year before his death. In 1881, the brothers Tissandier demonstrated the world's first electric powered flight at an electricity exposition by attaching an electric motor to a dirigible. They then developed the Tissandier air ship, the first electric powered dirigible (for which Albert drew the blueprints), which departed from Auteuil, Paris, on October 8th, 1883 (This Day in Aviation).


34. [ASIA - TIBET]
FILCHNER, Wilhelm (1877-1957)
[A Collection of Seven Original Ink Drawings (Three initialed "C.A.") Used as Illustrations in Wilhelm Filchner's Book "Das Kloster Kumbum in Tibet. Ein Beitrag zu Seiner Geschichte” (The Monastery Kumbum in Tibet. A Contribution to its History), Berlin: Mittler & Sohn, 1906].

Ca. 1905. Seven ink drawings on thick paper ca. 27x23 cm (11x9 in) and slightly smaller. The original ink drawings are recently matted together with the corresponding printed text illustration leaves from the book. Housed in a custom made black cloth portfolio with a printed paper title page label and silk ties. One drawing with an expertly repaired corner chip, but overall the ink drawings are in very good condition.
This historically important collection of ink drawings show: 1. A Tibetan Rosary (p. 47); 2. Lama d Ge ss Long with yellow hat and cloak etc. (p. 48); 3. A travelling lama (p. 63); 4. Illustration of an Indian legend (p. 85); 5. A prayer drum partially made with human skull parts (p. 103); 6. A water-powered prayer wheel (p. 104); 7. Tibetan cairn with prayer flags on mountain top (p. 128). The illustrations are supplemented with the matted title page and map of the monastery from the book. The preface states that the ink drawings were created by an artist under Filchner's direction based on photographs made by Filchner. The purpose of Filchner's 1903-5 "expedition to Tibet [was] to carry out geomagnetic and topographical surveys on the high plateau. In addition to its scientific work the expedition carried out a significant intelligence-gathering role and was contemporaneous with similar missions by Francis Younghusband and others" (Howgego, 1850-1940 Polar Regions etc., F6). "Kumbum Monastery is a Buddhist monastery in present day Qinghai, China. Kumbum was founded in 1583 in a narrow valley close to the village of Lusar in the Tibetan cultural region of Amdo. Its superior monastery is Drepung Monastery, immediately to the west of Lhasa. It was ranked in importance as second only to Lhasa" (Wikipedia).


CASPARI, Chrétien Edouard (1840-1918)
[Album of Ten Original Watercolour Views of Saigon and Environs].

1877-1878. Watercolour and ink on paper; six larger sketches, ca. 13x21 cm (5x8 in), and four smaller ones, ca. 10,5x14 cm (4 x 5 ½ in). All captioned and dated in ink in the lower margins of the images, with additional pencil captions or notes on the mounts. Period style maroon gilt tooled half morocco with cloth sides. Watercolours mounted laid paper leaves. Album overall in very good condition.
Beautiful sketches taken from life by a French colonial engineer, while serving in Indochina. The collection includes several interesting views of Saigon showing the La Sainte Enfance School, St. Joseph Seminary (‘Seminaire annamite’), the house of the director of the French arsenal, a horse-driven carriage or ‘Malabar’ et al. The watercolours include some nice portraits of the locals, including a sketch of a Chinese merchant followed by a servant carrying his goods, portraits of Vietnamese women with children, people driving oxen carts, villagers et al. There is also a great view of Dong Nai River near Bien Hoa city (32 km east from Saigon) – a peaceful picture of a river with two people paddling in a boat and several village houses amidst lush tropical greenery on shore. One sketch shows local plants – mango tree, bamboo and an Erythrina tree covered with bright red flowers.
Chrétien Édouard Caspari was a French hydrographer and astronomer. He graduated from École polytechnique in 1860, and in 1862-1902 he worked as a hydrographer and engineer in France, the Caribbean and French Indochina (the Gulf of Siam, Annam and Tonkin). Caspari was the author of an astronomy textbook for the Service Hydrographique de la Marine, and of numerous scientific papers, some relating to Indochina. He was awarded with the Prix Montijon of the French Academy of Sciences (1878), and in 1905 he became President of the Astronomical Society of France.


FRUTEAU, Charles
[Autograph Manuscript Notes on Vietnamese Law Written and Dated by Professor and Legal Expert Charles Fruteau, Including 26 Lessons on Ritual, Administrative, Civil, Family, and Property Law, Titled:] Droit civil annamite.

Hanoi, 1914-1915. Period manuscript black ink on lined paper with annotations in the margins and in the text. Quarto, ca. 24,5x19 cm (9 ¾ x 7 ½ in). T.p., 95 pp. of text & 22 blank pages. Original beige covers with manuscript title "Droit Vietnamein" in red ink and embossed design on the front cover. Some mild staining and soiling of the covers, otherwise a very good manuscript.
This document contains comprehensive notes from a course on Annamite civil law written by magistrate Charles Fruteau in Hanoi in 1914-1915. It provides a detailed overview of laws that governed Annam, a French protectorate formed in 1887 where the Nguyễn dynasty still ruled, and insight into the social and administrative organization of the population. The manuscript contains 26 lessons, including descriptions of ritual law (such as spiritual and ancestral worship, sacrifices and mourning), administrative law (sovereign power, ministries, tribunals, civil servants), and civil law (describing the position of children, wives, slaves, the elderly, eunuchs and foreigners). Interestingly, the text gives detailed insight into the position and treatment of different social classes. In one passage, slaves are described as "all boys and girls who have been incriminated and confiscated by the state to complete lowly tasks […]. The law prohibits legal slaves but in Annam there is a trade of slaves abducted from the Moï country.” Also included are descriptions of family law (the structure of families, parenting rules, the authority of fathers, marriage and adoption), property law (acquisition and confiscation), inheritance and wills, and civil duties (contracts, leases, rent, loans, exchanges, and deposits). Some notes, usually in manuscript pencil, indicate that the manuscript belongs to the author of the course: at the end of the 5th lesson is written "continue until page 58, then return to the 4th lesson", and at the beginning of the 25th lesson : "for March 29th." In addition, the many notes in the margins are of the same writing as the manuscript and complement the text. Also included are seven documents relating to the purchase of land near Thaibinh, next to the Route des Ambassadeurs, and to the logging of the property (1927, 15 pp. In-8 and in-folio, including bill of sale, a map, a contract in Vietnamese with a translation, two letters et two receipts). Overall, an interesting and detailed documentation of Annamite society and French influence on the protectorate.
Magistrate Charles Fruteau was counsellor at the Court of Appeal in Guadeloupe (1879), substitute judge for the High Court at Pondicherry (1884), prosecutor for Republic at Karikal (1891), professor at the Pondicherry law school (1899), president of the Pondicherry Court of Appeal (1902), vice-president of the Tribunal of first instance in Saigon (1910), president of that same Tribunal (1913), counsellor at the Court of Appeal of Indochina (1917) then chamber president for the Court of Appeal of Hanoi (1921). That same year, he was named knight of the Legion of Honor, having 41 years of service, of which 34 years and 9 months were spent in the colonies (sources : et
France assumed control over the whole of Vietnam after the Tonkin Campaign (1883–1886). French Indochina was formed in October 1887 from Annam (Trung Kỳ, central Vietnam), Tonkin (Bắc Kỳ, northern Vietnam), Cochinchina (Nam Kỳ, southern Vietnam, and Cambodia, with Laos added in 1893). Within French Indochina, Annam was nominally a protectorate where the Nguyễn dynasty still ruled.


GSELL, Émile (1838-1879); DIEULEFILS, Pierre (1862-1937)
[Album with 113 Original Albumen Photos of French Cochinchina and Tonkin, Including Two Large folding Panoramas of Saigon Harbour, Views of the Norodom Palace, Ben Nghe Creek, “Chinese Pagoda” in the Cholon Quarter, Eiffels Pont des Messageries, Central Post Office, Saigon Theatre, Ky Cung River in the Lang Son province, port of Haiphong, Halong Bay, Portraits of Grand Councillor Phan Thanh Gian, Vietnamese Noblewomen, Actors, Female Dancers, Prisoners, Street Sellers, French Military Officers etc.]

Ca. 1860-1870s-1880s. Folio (ca. 48x31,5 cm). 39 green card leaves (3 blank). With 113 mounted original albumen photographs, including two three-part panoramas, ca. 19,5x81 cm (7 ¾ x 32 in) and 18x72 cm (7 x 28 ½ in), four large photos from ca. 26x34,5 cm (10 ¼ x 13 ½ in) to ca. 20x28,5 cm (7 ¾ x 11 ¼ in), and 28 carte-de-visite size portraits ca. 9,5x5,5 cm (3 ¾ x 2 ¼ in); the rest of the photos are middle-sized, from ca. 16,5x22 cm (6 ½ x 8 ¾ in) to ca. 11,5x16,5 cm (4 ½ x 6 ½ in). No one photo signed, about a dozen numbered or captioned in negative. The three parts of one of the panoramas are with period pencil captions in French on versos. Original black buckram album, slightly rubbed on extremities. A couple photos with small tears on the corners, several images mildly faded, but overall a very good album of strong sharp interesting images.
Excellent album housing over thirty rare early images of Saigon (Ho Chi Mihn City) and environs taken by Émile Gsell, the first commercial photographer based in Saigon, and a large group of the 1880s photos of Saigon and Tonkin (northern Vietnam) by Pierre Dieulefils. Very interesting are Émile Gsell’s two large folding panoramas of the Saigon harbour dating back to the 1860s and showing French naval ships on the Saigon River, “Chinese” or Ben Nghe Creek leading to the Chinese quarter of Cholon, and several French buildings on the banks, including the Customs House and the Headquarters of the Messageries Maritimes (it is noteworthy that one of the panoramas which is obviously earlier than the other one, doesn’t show the Messageries Maritimes building, and its site is occupied by a small one-storey building). Other photographs attributed to Émile Gsell include three large views showing the Governor-General’s or Norodom Palace in Saigon (completed in 1873), a native quarter of Saigon on the river bank, and a French mansion in Saigon; middle-sized photos of the “Pha-Kien Pagoda in the Cholon quarter,” “Arroyo Chinois” (“Chinese” or Ben Nghe Creek), French buildings on the banks of a canal in Saigon, etc. The album also houses twenty-eight Gsell’s carte-de-visite size photos, mostly portraits of Vietnamese people, including Phan Thanh Gian (1796-1867), the Grand Councillor at the Nguyen court of the Cochinchina Kingdom, and the Ambassador to France who committed suicide when France invaded Cochinchina in 1867. One portrait shows Phan Thanh Gian alone, and the other one – with eleven members of the Cochinchina embassy to France. The other portraits show Vietnamese actress, “Femme annamite riche,” soldier, a group of actors in masks, musicians at al.
The album also houses a large group of views of Saigon and Tonkin province which date back to the 1880s. Although unsigned, many of them are captioned or numbered in negative and were attributed to a noted Saigon-based photographer Pierre Dieulefils, like a view of the Ky Cung River captioned “400. Le Song Ki Kong à Langson”. Other photos include large views of Saigon, showing the Governor’s palace, the main entrance to the Military Hospital (building completed in the late 1870s), Central Post Office (built in 1886-1891, the photos show the exterior and the interior of the building), the “Arroyo Chinois” (“Chinese” or Ben Nghe Creek), the second building of the Saigon Theatre (built in 1882 and was replaced by the current building in 1900), the Eiffels Pont des Messageries Maritimes (built in 1882, now called the “Rainbow Bridge”), the monument to Leon Gambetta on the Boulevard Norodom (opened in 1889 and moved in 1914), and others. There are also about a dozen large expressive portraits of Vietnamese families, upper-class women, Buddhist priests, actors, bare-breasted female dancers, prisoners in wooden cangues, street fruit sellers, peasants planting and harvesting rice, launderesses and children bathing in a canal, rickshaw carts on a boulevard in Saigon etc. Over twenty photos at rear were apparently taken during the Tonkin Campaign (1883-1886) and include views of the “Baie d’Allong” (Halong Bay), Haiphong docks and port, villages and countryside of northern Vietnam, French naval ships, military camps, a scene of public execution, portraits of French military officers, a view of the French monument to the soldiers fallen at the Battle of Hoa Moc etc. Overall an excellent collection of large early images of people and places of French Cochinchina and Tonkin.
Eight pictures by Émile Gsell, found in the e-collections of the National Library of France:
Pagode de Phâ-Kien, à Cho-Len [Cholon]; Arroyo chinois; [A small portrait of:] Femme annamite riche (from the “Souvenir de Cochinchine” album with 35 albumen photos, ca. 1865-1875,
[A small portrait of:] Actree Chinois; [A Panorama of Saigon in three parts:] 1. Vue generale de Saigon. Port militaire. Maison Wong-tai. Mort de Pavillon. Entrée de l’Arroyo de Cholon; 2. Suite de la vue de Saigon. Arroyo de Cholon vu a travers les bambous des messageries; 3. Suite de la vue de Saigon; [A small portrait of:] Phan Thanh Giang. Dernier viceroi des trois provinces Occidentales du Nam Ky [Yinb long. Chan doc. Ha tien] (from the «Voyage de l'Égypte à l'Indochine” album with 184 albumen photos, ca. 1880, see link).


ARNOUX, Hippolyte (active 1859-1888)
[Album with Twenty-three Large Original Albumen Photographs Including Two Panoramas by Hippolyte Arnoux Showing the Newly Completed Suez Canal (1869) with Views of Port Said and Ismaïlia].

Ca. 1869. Oblong Folio album ca. 36x46 cm (14x18 in) with 23 large original albumen photographs including two panoramas ca. 18,5 x 81 cm (7 ¼ x 32 in) and ca. 18,5x 78 cm (7 ¼ x 30 ¾ in), one very large photograph ca. 32 x 43,5 cm (12 ¾ x 17 in), and the rest each ca. 22 x 26,5 cm (8 ½ x 10 ½ in), mounted on recto of stiff white card leaves, all but three captioned in French and nine signed in negative by the studio. Original publishers red quarter morocco with pebbled cloth boards gilt titled “Album du Canal de Suez / H. Arnoux Phot. / Port – Said” with marbled endpapers. Some wear at extremities and spine and slight discoloration of album boards around edges, but overall a very good album with strong, clear photographs.
This album contains twenty-three original albumen photographs of sights along the Suez Canal and views of Port Saïd and Ismaïlia. There are two large, fully mounted panoramic views, including one showing the Canal and Port Said. Also included is one portrait of Ferdinand Lesseps (1805 – 1894), the French diplomat who developed and led the construction of the Suez Canal, and one photographic map of the canal. Overall, an excellent album with large views along the Suez Canal, as well as Port Saïd and Ismaïlia.
Photograph captions: Pirée à jetée Ouest (Port Said); Place de Lessepa; El Kantara (Choute de Syrie); Gare d’El Ferdanne; Courbe d’El Girsh; Chalet du Vice-Roi à l’entrée du Lac de Timsak; Fonction du Canal au Lac Timsak; Quai Mehemet Ali (Ismaïlia); Palais du Khedive; Lac Timsak; Chalet de Ferdinand de Lesseps (Ismaïlia); Kabut el Souek, Lacs Amers; Gare Guillaumet; Courbe du Canal à Chalouf; Panorama de Suez; Embouchure du Canal de Suez; Rade de Suez; Bassin de Chadoub Suez; Buste du Lieutenant Waghoui au terre-plein de Suez; Fontaine de Moïse (Suez); Canal Maritime de Suez.
Hippolyte Arnoux (active ca. 1860 - ca. 1890) was a French photographer and publisher. During the 1860s, he documented the excavation of the Suez Canal and published the resulting photographs as Album du Canal de Suez. (Wikipedia)
“The Suez Canal, is a large, artificial maritime canal in Egypt west of the Sinai Peninsula. It is 101 miles long and 984 feet wide at its narrowest point, running between Port Said on the Mediterranean Sea, and Suez (al-Suways) on the far northern shore of the Red Sea… In 1854 and 1856, Ferdinand de Lesseps, a former French diplomat with friendly connections with Egyptian authorities, obtained a concession from Said Pasha, the Ottoman viceroy of Egypt, to create a company to construct a maritime canal open to ships of all nations, according to plans created by Austrian engineer Alois Negrelli. The company was to operate the canal by leasing the relevant land for 99 years from its opening, for navigation purposes only. The Suez Canal Company came into being on December 15, 1858.” (Revolvy)


[Album with Eighty-six Large Albumen Studio Photographs and Three Photogravures Showing Egyptians at work and Domestic Scenes, Views of Buildings and Street Scenes in Cairo, Great Pyramids of Giza, Main Sites of the Upper Egypt Including Dendera, Karnak, Thebes, Philae and about Twenty-five Detailed Views of Hieroglyphic Reliefs of the Main Temples of the Upper Egypt].

Ca. 1880. With Eighty-six large mounted albumen photographs each ca. 20x26 cm (8 x 10 ¼ in), many signed, numbered and captioned in negative by the studios of Bonfils, Beato and Zangaki. The photographs mounted recto on period grey thin card leaves. Handsome maroon period style gilt tooled and titled half morocco with cloth boards. Several photographs mildly faded but overall a very good collection of strong interesting photos.
This interesting collection of strong photographs by the studios of Bonfils, Beato and Zangaki include images of Water carriers, locals working a well, a young farmer, praying in the desert, papyrus market, Mehmet Ali Mosque, Tombs of the Caliphs and the Citadel, interior of Al Azhar Mosque, Minaret of the Al Azhar, Heliopolis Obelisk, Koubr-el-Aâma Avenue, Pyramids and Sphinx, Feluccas on the Nile, Bedrechen, Sakkara Pyramid, Dendera temple complex Including the Temple of Hathor, Karnak and Thebes temple complex Including the Great Hall etc..., Additionally with over 60 archaeological views including 25 rare detailed views of various temple Hieroglyphic reliefs.
Maison Bonfils was started by Paul-Felix Bonfils (1831-1885) in Beirut in 1867 and was "to become one of the most successful photographic businesses in the world. They photographed most of the important sights in the Middle East and their views were widely distributed"(Jacobsen p. 216). Bonfils' "stock had variety enough to please all and ranged from classical landscapes and biblical scenes to ethnographic portraits and subtly erotic images of Oriental men and women. A close examination of Bonfils photographs reveals quite clearly that Felix had a different eye than the others, and at least in the beginning, a more naive and less commercial approach to image making" (Perez p. 141).
"Established first in Cairo in 1862, at the Rue du Muski, and from 1870 on in Luxor, Antoine Beato was one of Egypt's most prolific photographers. His photographs appear in most of the composite travel albums of the period through the turn of the century and cover all aspects of Egypt: landscapes, architecture, ethnographic images, and genre scenes" (Perez, N. Focus East: Early photography in the Near East, 1839-1885. New York-Jerusalem, 1988, p. 131).
"The Zangaki brothers were born on the island of Milos. It is not known where they learned photography but soon after their arrival in Egypt they became established photographers. The Greek brothers' photographs are very commonly found in tourists' albums assembled in the Middle East in the latter part of the 19th century. From their Port Said studio, they were in an ideal position to sell to those on the Grand Tour" (Jacobson, K. Odalisques & Arabesques: Orientalist Photography, 1839-1925. London, 2007, p. 277).


[Collection of Twenty-eight Very Attractive Original Watercolour Views of the Holy Land; [With:] Two Watercolours from the Same Travel Showing Surghaya village in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains (Syria) and the Acropolis in Smyrna/Izmir (Turkey)].

March-May 1893. Thirty original watercolours on paper, from ca. 8,5x17,5 cm (3 ¼ x 7 in) to ca. 8,5x12,5 cm (3 ¼ x 4 ¾ in), mounted within ink-drawn frames on the original white, greyish and greenish album leaves ca. 21x27,5 cm (8 ¼ x 11 in). All but one captioned and dated in period ink on the mounts. Several leaves with minor stains on the lower right corners of the mounts, not affecting the watercolours, otherwise a very good collection of bright watercolours.
Attractive collection of bright watercolour views drawn by a British traveller to the Holy Land in the spring of 1893. Dated between March 4th – April 27th, 1893, the watercolours include two views of Jaffa (city waterfront and the house of Simon the Tanner where St. Peter stayed during his missionary voyages), a street in Lydda (Lod), a distant view of the Mizpah of Benjamin (often identified with the modern-day Tell en-Nasbeh, 8 miles north of Jerusalem), Jerusalem Gate in Ramleh (Ramla), four views of Jerusalem (Jaffa Gate, Tomb of David, Garden of Gethsemane, and hospital of the Knights of S. John), two views of Bethlehem (Church of the Nativity, Rachel’s Tomb), Mountain of the Temptation near Jericho (usually identified with Mount Quarantania near Jericho, West Bank), Jordan River, Dead Sea, St. George Greek Orthodox Monastery near Wadi Qelt, mosque at Mizpeh, the site of the Biblical Bethel, Mount Gerizim near Nablus (West Bank), ruins of ancient Samaria and Jezreel, views of Mary’s Well in Nazareth, the bay of Acre, a well in the Cana of Galilee, two views of the Sea of Galilee, and two views of Mount Hermon on Lebanese-Syrian border. Two last watercolours drawn in May 1893 depict a Syrian village of Surghaya in the Anti-Lebanon Mountains, and a Greek Acropolis in Smyrna (Izmir, Turkey). Overall a beautiful collection giving a picturesque overview of some of the iconic sites of the Holy Land through the eyes of a 19th-century English traveller.
Captions: Jaffa. The Holy Land. March 4th 1893; House of Simon the Tanner. Jaffa. March 4th 1893; Lydda. March 7th 1893; Mizpeh of Benjamin. March 8th 1893; Jerusalem Gate. Ramleh. March 8th 1893; Jaffa Gate. Jerusalem March 15th 1893; Church of the Nativity. Bethlehem. March 16th 1893; Rachel’s Tomb. Bethlehem. March 16th 1893; Tomb of David. Jerusalem. March 17th 1893; Mountain of the Temptation near Jericho. March 20th 1893; Fords of the Jordan. March 21st 1893; The Dead Sea. March 21st 1893; Greek Monastery. Brook Cherith. March 22nd 1893; Garden of Gethsemane. Jerusalem. April 4th 1893; Mosque at Mizpeh. April 7th 1893; Hospital of the Knights of S. John Jerusalem. April 11th 1893; Bethel. April 12th 1893; Mount Gerizim. April 14th 1893; Samaria. April 16th 1893; Jezreel. April 18th 1893; The Virgin’s Well. Nazareth. April 19th 1893; Bay of Acre. April 20th 1893; Well at Cana of Galilee. April 22nd 1893; Sea of Galilee. April 23rd 1893 (2 different views with the same title); Mount Hermon. April 24th 1893; Mount Hermon. From road to Damascus. April 27th 1893; Village of Surghaya. Anti-Lebanon. May 2nd 1893; The Acropolis. Smyrna. May 10th 1893; [Untitled view].


[Album with Fifty Large Original Albumen Photographs Showing Religious & Civic Sites of Jerusalem, Bethlehem, and Jaffa.]

Ca. 1867-81. Large Folio album ca. 46x33 cm (18x13 in) with 50 large original albumen photographs, each ca. 28x22 cm (11 x 8 ½ in), mounted loosely one per leaf on brown paper leaves. All captioned in French and/or English, and signed and/or numbered in negative by the studio “Bonfils.” Period red quarter morocco with marbled boards. Mild wear at album’s extremities and spine, one hinge with a crack at tail of the spine, two photographs with a very small tear (ca. 0.5 cm), and one photograph mildly faded, but overall a very good album with strong, sharp photographs.
This interesting album contains 50 large photographs by Maison Bonfils (active 1867-81, studio in Beirut) showing important religious sites in the Holy Land of Israel and Palestine. The majority of the photographs show Jerusalem, including detailed images of the interior and exterior of buildings, views of biblical sites and general views of the city. There are also a few photographs of Bethlehem and Jaffa and one photograph showing a group of people resting with their camels in the desert. Maison Bonfils was started by Paul-Felix Bonfils (1831-1885) in Beirut in 1867 and was "to become one of the most successful photographic businesses in the world. They photographed most of the important sights in the Middle East and their views were widely distributed" (Jacobsen p. 216). Bonfils' "stock had variety enough to please all and ranged from classical landscapes and biblical scenes to ethnographic portraits” (Perez, p. 141).
The photographs included in this album are: Couvent du Mont Garmet, Palestine; Jaffa, la passe; Vasquez de Salomon; Halte de Chameaux dans le Desert; Grotte de la Nativité; Bethléem, Grotte de la Nativité, la Crêche; La Vallée du Tiropeon, Jerusalem; Vue de Jerusalem; Vue de Jerusalem et Eglise Russe; Panorama of Jerusalem, taken from the North; Porte dorée extérieure, Jerusalem; Tomb of David on Mt Zion; Mount of Olives; Ancient Church of the Ascension; Tomb of the Virgin and Cave of the Agony; Cave of the Agony, interior; The garden of Gethsemane, general view; The Valley of Tombs of Jehoshaphat; Vue generale de Siloé; Piscine de Siloé; Jerusalem, fontaine de de la vierge; Jerusalem, Tour Antonia; Couvent Cophte, Ixe station; Interior of the “Ecce Homo”; Stables of Salomon; General view of the site of Salomon’s temple; Foundations of Antonia’s Tower; General view of the mosque of Omar; Details intérieurs de la Mosque d’Omar; Jerusalem, Chaire de la mosque; The Jaffa gate, outside; The tower of David; The Damascus Gate; St Stephen’s gate; Tomb of Lazarus at Bethany; Field of Aceldama; Jerusalem, Tombeau des rois; Tomb of the kings, inner court; Façade of the Holy Sepulchre; Xe et Xie stations, le Calvaire Autel des Latins; Chapel of the Apparition of the Virgin; Chapel of St Helena in the Basilica; Grotte de St Helene, interieur; Interior of the Holy Sepulchre; Inside of the Holy Sepulchre, the Angel’s stone; XIV station, Interior of Holy Sepulchre, the tomb.


[Historically Important Collection of Thirteen Large Platinum Print Photographs of some of the Main Sites at Petra, Jordan].

Ca. 1900. Thirteen large studio platinum print photographs, each ca. 24x29,5 cm (9 ½ x 11 ½ in), many captioned "American Colony, Jerusalem" in negative, some numbered and with title captions in negative, the rest with manuscript title captions in French in brown ink. Overall a very good collection of interesting strong sharp photos.
Rare historically important collection of large views of the rock-cut archeological remains at Petra, Jordan, showing the archeological sites before restoration. The interesting strong images include: Siq (narrow passage)(4) (including one of the entrance with a Bedouin on a horse and one of the exit with a Bedouin on foot and the El Khazneh seen in the background); El Khazneh (Treasury); The Theatre (with Bedouin tents); High Place for Sacrificing (3) including detail views and one photo with a sitting Bedouin; Tombs (4), including the Urn Tomb, an interior view and the tombs on the path to the High Place of Sacrifice. Petra (Raqmu), was likely established in the 4th century BC as the capital city of the Nabataean Kingdom. The Nabataeans were a nomadic tribe of Arab traders who utilized Petra proximity to major trading routes to establish it as a major regional trading centre. Today it is considered one of the seven wonders of the world. "The American Colony was established in Jerusalem in 1881 as a Christian utopian society engaged in philanthropic work under the leadership of Anna and Horatio Spafford, in what is now East Jerusalem. The sale of photographs was one method of augmenting their funds" (Bonhams).


BARTLETT, William Henry (1809 -1854)
[Original Unsigned Watercolour With Faint Title in Pencil:] Petra.

30 October 1845. Watercolour ca. 23x36,5 cm (9 x 14 ½ in). Very faintly titled "Petra" in manuscript pencil on right bottom edge and with (later?) manuscript pencil notation "by W. H. Bartlett" on verso. Verso with a few signs of removal from old mount, outer upper left edge with a mild crease, a couple of small very mild water stains, but overall a very attractive watercolour.
This watercolour is from Bartlett's 1845 journey from Cairo to Mount Sinai and Petra. The watercolour is a slight variation of the engraving titled "Approach to Petra from Mount Hor," which was used as the title-vignette for Bartlett's book, "Forty Days in the Desert on the Track of the Israelites," London 1849, which describes his journey. The scene that Bartlett sketched is described in the book as: "I was hurrying along the rocky road towards Petra. From a solitary group of tombs, the outskirts of its vast necropolis, I obtained my first view of the rock bound city --- a broken down camel, one of a passing caravan, protesting against an insupportable load, which at the expense of his last remaining strength he had dragged up the long ascent, was a characteristic object in the foreground. (See title-page.) This narrow pass was probably guarded in the palmy days of Petra, and blocked up when an attack was expected. Hence begins a long descent by the side of a ravine, leading to the vacant site of the old city, of which one solitary column appears like the ghost of its past splendour, girdled round by rocks of the most rugged and fantastic outline, and pierced with innumerable excavations, their colouring, as it were, run mad with a blending of all hues. No idea can be given of the first impression of such a place, --- its strangeness and remoteness, the utter desolation, the silence, broken only by the groans of the distressed, overburdened camels, and the fierce yells of their savage conductors." (p.124). "Bartlett travelled widely in the Middle East, Europe and America, making hundreds of sketches for engravings in more than 40 books, 13 of which he wrote and illustrated himself. His popularity owed much to his architectural training which, when combined with his penchant for the picturesque and the sublime, guaranteed that the reader saw scenes he could recognize as charming, impressive and representational" (


DU BOUZET, Marquis Joseph Fidèle Eugène (1805-1867)
[Historically Important Archive of Sixty-Two Autograph Letters Signed by Marquis Du Bouzet to his Mother, Written While on Service in the French Navy in the Mediterranean and Describing the Events of the Greek War of Independence Including the Battle of Navarino (1827), the Morea Expedition (1828-1831), the Mediation of Turkey-Greece Negotiations, a Meeting with Egyptian Commander Pasha Ibrahim, and others; With Mentions of the Circumnavigation on the Frigate “Thétis” in 1824-26 under Command of Hyacinthe de Bougainville, which Du Bouzet Took Part in].

1826-1831. Toulon, Brest, Paris, Smyrna [Izmir], Milos, Navarino [Pylos], Alexandria, Aegina, Candia [Heraklion], and Nauplia [Nafplio], 23 June 1826 – 28 March 1831. Sixty-two ALS, ranging from ca. 16x10,5 cm (6 ½ x 4 ¼ in) to ca. 25,5x20 cm (10x8 in). Brown ink on white laid or wove paper, each letter two to six pages, in all over 200 pages of text; over thirty letters are addressed on verso of the second leaf, most of them additionally with postal stamps and remnants of the original seal. With a 20th century typescript with du Bouzet’s biography and his family genealogy (3 loose leaves), and a recent handwritten list of letters (three leaves). Letters housed in a 20th century maroon quarter cloth folder with marbled papered boards and maroon full cloth slipcase with gilt lettered title on the spine. Original fold marks, several letters with minor tears on extremities or minor holes after opening, a few letters with mildly faded ink, but overall a very good collection.
Very interesting historically important archive of letters written by a notable French naval officer, explorer and an important figure in the history of French Oceania Marquis Joseph Fidèle Eugène du Bouzet, with an eye-witness account of several major events of the Greek War of Independence (1821-32). The letters were written by du Bouzet in his twenties, as a young naval cadet and later enseigne de vaisseau (since October 29, 1826) serving on several ships of the French Mediterranean fleet (the letters mention brigs Loiret and la Flèche, and frigate la Bellone); the letters were addressed to his mother Marie Marguerite De Chazot. The first six letters were actually written in Brest right after du Bouzet’s return from the circumnavigation on board the frigate “Thétis” in 1824-26 under command of Hyacinthe de Bougainville, with the first excited letter dated “23 June 1826, Brest” being written on the day of the arrival from Rio de Janeiro; there are some interesting notes there on the last leg of the expedition.
The letters from the Mediterranean give interesting accounts of the unfolding events of the Greek War of Independence (1821-1832) during the early years of French involvement in the conflict - before and after the Navarino Battle (October 20, 1827). A letter from Smyrna, dated August 27, 1827 describes the Ottoman fleet heading to Morea (Peloponnese Peninsula): “We are looking for our Admiral to announce the departure of the Turkish fleet. […] It is made up of 85 sails and is headed to Morea but I believe that the intervention of the European powers in Greece’s affairs will foil its plans” (here and further in translation). In another letter on December 12, 1827 from Milos, he describes the situation in Aegina, the seat of the revolutionary Greek government: “I am arriving today from Aegina, where I had the opportunity to see the administrative center of the Greek government established until this point on very fragile foundations; by travelling through the current state of Greece, you can see the sad effects of the revolution, and how many tragic events occurred before it was able to establish a stable and content regime […] we traversed an entirely deserted country […] everything showing traces of devastation; houses entirely torn down, burnt forests, open graves, we had been warned that the Turkish army had come through this area and scared off all the inhabitants.”
In a letter from December 29, 1827 du Bouzet recounts a meeting with the Ibrahim Pasha (commander of the Ottoman Empire’s Egyptian forces who invaded Morea in 1825-28).: “I have been to Modon [Methoni] and Navarino and I did not have the chance to participate in the glorious exploits of our navy in the latter port; I at least had the consolation of seeing its Theatre as well as the remains of the Turkish fleet; I also had the consolation of seeing the famous Ibrahim Pasha to whom our captain was kind enough to introduce us. The devastator of Morea, the right hand to the king, is a man quite superior to all the other grand defenders (?) of Turkey, without however having transcending virtues. […] he has unfortunately not received any education; brave to the point of intrepidity, with a fiery temper, he has committed […] acts with a seal of ferocity, for which he has often had to repent himself because his immoderate self-esteem makes him fear reproach from civilized nations. […] Our captain has had several meetings with him and in the one that I assisted to […] the questions and objections that he presented were always very fair and showed in him knowledge and a mind that is missing only some cultivation.”
After a short time back in France, in August 1828 du Bouzet announces his departure for the Morea Expedition (a land intervention of the French Army in the Peloponnese in 1828-33): “I announced to you in my last letter dear mother that I was to embark on the frigate “Bellone”, ordered by Mr. de St. Picot […]. But today I announce that I have already embarked since yesterday and that I leave tomorrow with the expedition to Morea. […] I don’t really know what we will do in Morea, for eight days we have been working day and night, the troops are embarking as soon as they arrive […] I assure you that I will be happy to leave and finish it as quickly as possible, for we have three hundred infantries on board and around twenty officers…” In his next letter, he adds: “Until now it appears that we will follow the operations of the military, that will chase Pasha Ibrahim from Morea with force if he will not respond to anything else. The army will start towards Navarino in two days, the Egyptian fleet has already arrived to take Ibrahim and his troops but since he is not in a hurry we want to show him that we have bayonets and convoys to execute our will […]. Since our arrival, the Greeks […] celebrate and call us their liberators and are happy like gods. Some ambassadors […] are going to openly recognize and inaugurate the Greek government, Greece will therefore exist definitively as an independent state and all that is missing for this beautiful republic is citizens to populate its territory, now half deserted.” On October 26, 1828, he describes the departure of Egyptians from Alexandria: “All the Egyptians have evacuated Morea and every day troops and Muslim inhabitants pass through as they leave the country, and what is surprising is that most of the Greek women who were enslaved by the Turkish have preferred to follow them to Egypt rather than stay […]. They were given the freedom to choose, and they chose this option, either because they preferred the Turkish or because they feared the hatred and eventual mistreatment by their compatriots.”
In the final years of the Morea Expedition, the French attempted to moderate Greek-Ottoman negotiations of sovereignty, and advanced towards Ottoman strongholds. On June 11, 1830 du Bouzet writes from Candia (Heraklion) about the difficulties of the negotiation between two violent camps: “We have tried in vain to establish an armistice between the Greeks and the Turks on this island, they have been fighting an extermination war for a long time; it is one half of the population armed against the other over the rights to the land […] and in all this the victims are the poor civilians. We had almost established an accord between the belligerent parties when at the exact moment when we were going to sign the armistice a violation of all the conventions on behalf of the Greeks came to break all the negotiations.” Du Bouzet’s last few letters are written in August 1830 from Nafplio, which was a major Ottoman stronghold throughout the conflict: “The Turkish, who viewed this city as unattainable are starting to open their eyes to their state of weakness […] and the advantage of our institutions over theirs […] we have been in charge of watching and hurrying along the evacuation of the island, and preventing the Turkish from bringing slaves with them…” Overall, an important original fact-rich eye-witness account of the Greek War of Independence.
Marquis Eugène du Bouzet was a prominent French naval officer, explorer and colonial administrator; he took part in two circumnavigations - the 1824-26 expedition of “Thétis” and “Espérance” under command of Hyacinthe de Bougainville; and Jules Dumont-Durville’s expedition on “Astrolabe” and “Zélée” in 1838-40. Do Bouzet was the second in command on the “Zélée” and was in the first boat which landed on the newly discovered Adelie Land (Antarctica). For over ten years he served in the South Pacific on several occasions: in 1841-43 as the captain of the “Allier” and later “Aube,” visiting New Zealand and Tahiti, and solving diplomatic issues on the Wallis and Futuna Islands; in 1847-49 as the captain of corvette “Brillante” he protected French missionaries in New Caledonia, New Hebrides, Tonga, Samoa, Tahiti and the Marquesas. In 1854-58 he was the Governor of French Polynesia and the commander of the Naval subdivision, making a great input in the development of Noumea (New Caledonia). In the rank of Rear Admiral he returned to France and later commanded French naval forces in Algeria and Brazil.
The Greek War of Independence (1821-32) “involved the rebellion of Greeks within the Ottoman Empire. After a second civil war (1824), the new government and the entire revolution were threatened by the arrival of Egyptian forces, led by Ibrāhīm Pasha, which had been sent to aid the Turks (1825). The Greek guerrilla bands harassed his army, and in revenge he desolated the country and sent thousands of the inhabitants into slavery in Egypt” (Wikipedia). “Favouring the formation of an autonomous Greek state, European powers offered to mediate between the Turks and the Greeks (1826 and 1827). When the Turks refused, Great Britain, France, and Russia sent their naval fleets to Navarino, where, on Oct. 20, 1827, they destroyed the Egyptian fleet. Although this severely crippled the Ottoman forces, the war continued, complicated by the Russo-Turkish War (1828-29)” (Encyclopedia Britannica). “In August 1828, a French expeditionary corps (The Morea Expedition) disembarked at Koroni in the southern Peloponnese. The soldiers were stationed on the peninsula until the evacuation of Egyptian troops in October, then taking control of the principal strongholds still held by Turkish troops” (Wikipedia). “A Greco-Turkish settlement was finally determined by the European powers at a conference in London; they adopted a London protocol (Feb. 3, 1830), declaring Greece an independent monarchical state under their protection.” (Encyclopedia Britannica).


[BUCHAN-HEPBURN OF SMEATON, Sir Archibald Banister] (1852-1929)
[Album with Nine Original Watercolours, and Sixty-Four Original Gelatin Silver Photographs Made on a Mountaineering Trip to Montenegro and Albania, with Interesting Views of the Komovi Mountains of the Dinaric Alps (Andrijevica Village, Kucki Kom Peak, Tara River), Durmitor Mountain Range, Podgorica, Kolasin, Niksic, Zabljak, Cetinje; Lake Skatar, Kir River and Shkodër City in Albania, and Others; With: Seven Watercolour Views of Rural France at Rear].

1908. Large Oblong Folio ca. 37,5x47,5 cm (14 ¾ x 18 ¾ in) with 20 stiff black card leaves. Sixteen mounted watercolours of various size, from ca. 25x35,5 cm (10x14 in) to ca. 10,5x19 cm (4 ¼ x 7 ¼ in). 64 mounted gelatin silver prints, including one large image ca. 29x40 cm (11 ½ x 16 in), the rest are ca. 12x17 cm (4 ¾ x 6 ¾ in) or slightly smaller. Most images captioned and some dated in manuscript white ink on the mounts. Inscription on verso of the front free endpaper: “Albania, Montenegro, France.” Period black full morocco with a printed name of the binder on top of the front pastedown endpaper “W. & J. Milne” (Edinburgh). Album mildly worn at extremities and spine, with faint scratches on the boards, four watercolours apparently previously removed, but overall a very good album with strong photographs and vibrant watercolours.
Interesting album with large original photos and watercolours from a mountaineering trip to northern Montenegro and Albania in 1908. The album is from the estate of Buchan-Hepburn baronets, and the photos and watercolours were most likely created by Sir Archibald Buchan-Hepburn, a member of the Botanical Society of Edinburgh since 1894 and its president in 1912-1913. The majority of images (about fifty, including four large watercolours) depict the trip to the Komovi Range of the Dinaric Alps in northern Montenegro, showing Podgorica village, landscapes on the route to Andrijevica and the village itself, local guides, mountain hamlets, Kucki Kom Peak (2487 m.), Tara River, Kolasin village and its inhabitants, the traverse over the mountains from Kolasin to Niksic and thence to Zabljak (showing local pilgrims and a shepherdess with her flock), a street in Zabljak and a distant view of the Durmitor Mountain Range (with a note “7818 ft.”); several photos also show Montenegrin towns of Kotor and Cetinje. Very interesting is a large panorama of the Albanian town of Shkodër on the shore of Lake Skatar with the old bridge over the Bojana River in the foreground. There are also eight smaller street views of Shkodër and five stunning watercolours of the city and nearby Kir River. The album concludes with seven uncaptioned watercolours that likely depict a small town in France, showing people in the streets, butcher produce on an outdoor stand, and a woman washing clothes. Overall, a very interesting album of sharp photographs and attractive watercolours of Montenegro, Albania and France.
Photographs: Cattaro; Road from Cattaro to Cetingue; Near Cetingue; Native of Cetingue; Cetingue March 1908; Road from Cetingue to Arenetsa [?]; Lake Scutari. Lesendra near Virpazar; Lake Scutari; Near Arenetsa [?]; Lake Scutari; Scutari, Albania; Scutari; On the way from Podgarica to Andrijevica, Three days ride, March 1908; Podgarica to Andrijevica; High country near Andrijevica (5000 ft.); Andrijevica; Drizha river; Beech forest; Kucki Kom; Kolasin; Kolasin to Nicsick; Niksick to Sabjak; Sabjak near Dormitor; Dormitor 7818 ft; Skutari.
Watercolours: River Kir outside Scutari; Scutari; Outside Scutari Kir. R.; Near Scutari Kir. R.; Near Scutari; Podgarica, Montenegro; Kirch. Near Andrijevica; Kucki Kom from Kirch, April 1908; Tara River.


[Album of Thirty-six Early Albumen Photographs of Various Cities and Towns in the Australian State of Victoria Titled in Gilt on Front Cover:] Photographic Views of Victoria.

Ca. 1880. Quarto (ca. 27x22,5 cm). Thirty-six stiff card leaves. With thirty-six mounted albumen photographs each ca. 16x22 cm (6 ½ x 8 ½ in). All captioned in pencil on mounts. With a presentation inscription on front free fly leaf: "A Souvenir of Victoria to Mrs. Rose from A. & S. Th. Melbourne, 4th of January 1882”. Period black decoratively gilt tooled full sheep album. Rebacked in style. A few photographs mildly faded but overall a very good collection of interesting early photographs.
The Victorian Gold Rush of the 1850s and 60s led to a significant economic and population expansion in Victoria and the rivalry with New South Wales resulted in the Melbourne International Exhibition in 1880 which was the first official World's Fair in the Southern Hemisphere. This interesting collection of early photographs of the towns and cities in post gold rush Victoria documents the development of the state at that time and includes images of: the Melbourne International Exhibition; Interior Opening Day; West Melbourne from Exhibition Dome; Independent Church Collins St.; Sailor's Home Spencer St.; Bourke St. East; Melbourne Town Hall; Bourke St. West; Scot's Church Collins St.; New Eastern Market; Museum; St. Kilda's Road; Government House; Kew Lunatic Asylum from Studley Park; Punt - Simpson Road; Melbourne from South Yarra; Melbourne from the Domain; Mountain Tree Ferns Dandenung State Forest; Coranderrk Aboriginal Station; Lower Falls on Creek Scene; Moorabool River Railway Viaduct; Clunes; Ferns; Geelong Railway Station; Scene on the Yarra; Stawell Mining Township; Aqueduct over River Plenty; Ballarat Mines; Castlemaine; Geelong West; Echuca Punt; Castlemain State Quarries; Falls Lower Campaspe; Hesket; Bush Sawmills (near Stawell); River Scene (with presumably the photographer by the river bank).


[Journal of H.M.S. Lily on her Homeward Voyage to England, from Melbourne Around Cape Horn via Rio de Janeiro just After the Eureka Rebellion in Ballarat, Victoria].

18th Jan. - 7th May 1855. Quarto ca. 25,5x22 cm (10 x 8 ½ in). 15 pp, each page numbered in pencil. Brown ink on blue laid paper. With three folding manuscript charts drawn in ink each ca. 25x74 cm (9 ¾ x 29 in), ca. 52x36 cm (18 ¾ x 14 ¼ in), and ca. 40x30,5 cm (15 ¾ x 12 in) and two black and white wash watercolours ca. 12,5x17,5 cm (4 ¾ x 6 ¾ in) and ca. 19,5x25 cm (7 ¾ x 9 ¾ in), one mounted on a leaf and both captioned in period manuscript black ink. Period style brown gilt tooled full polished calf with a maroon gilt title label “JOURNAL H.M.S. LILY JAN-MAY 1855.” Journal, maps and watercolours in very good condition.
This Journal was kept from January to May 1855 by Midshipman W. Howorth on the H.M.S. Lily, a 16-gun Racer-class brig-sloop built for the British Royal Navy in 1838. It documents geographical coordinates, daily activity, wind and weather conditions along the route, as well as detailed accounts of meteorological conditions during the passage around Cape Horn, including unusual animal sightings [“Observed two strange birds unlike any seabirds with which I am acquainted – plumage dark brown with two white marks on the wing – shaped like a hawk but with the regular seabird’s beak – about the size of a small eagle and flying like one. They were about the ship the whole day and frequently attacked the Albatross…all the other birds seemed afraid of them” p. 3] and icebergs [“I was much struck at beautifully delicate transparent blue of the ice never having seen any so close before, after looking for any lengths of time at it, it makes the eyes very sore” p. 5]. The manuscript charts show the voyage in three segments: Track of HMS Lily from Melbourne round Cape Horn, Cape Horn to Rio Janeiro, and Rio Janeiro to England. Lines trace the precise route of the ship on each day of the journey, arrows are drawn to show the wind direction, and geographical coordinates are also noted. Additionally, the watercolours show views of the H.M.S. Lily between icebergs off the Diego-Ramírez Islands (southwest of Cape Horn) and the coastal profile of the Azorean islands of Flores and Corvo. Howorth apparently joined the HMS Lily from the HMS Electra. Six weeks before the departure of HMS Lily, in late November 1854, HMS Electra was involved in the suppression of the armed gold miner Eureka Rebellion (also referred to as the Eureka Stockade) against the colonial authority of the United Kingdom at Ballarat, Victoria. HMS Electra sent officers, seamen as well as artillery pieces to Ballarat. An interesting manuscript documenting the H.M.S. Lily’s voyage from the Australian gold fields back to England around Cape Horn.
“Cape Horn island […] is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of southern Chile. Cape Horn is widely considered to be the most southerly point of South America, and marks the northern boundary of the Drake Passage; for centuries it has been regarded as a major milestone by which sailing ships carrying trade goods around the world marked their passage. Cape Horn was noted as the halfway point from England to Australia during the nineteenth century clipper route. The waters around the cape are particularly hazardous, owing to strong winds, large waves, strong currents and icebergs. These dangers have made Cape Horn notorious as a sailors' graveyard. […] From the 1700s to the early 1900s, Cape Horn was a part of the clipper routes which carried much of the world's trade. Clipper ships sailed round the Horn carrying wool, grain, and gold from Australia back to Europe.” (New World Encyclopedia)


[Historically Interesting Collection of Twenty-four Gelatin Silver Photographs of Views of French Polynesia Including Views from the Islands of Moorea, Raiatea and Tahiti, Showing the Native People, Their Daily Activities, Habitations and Villages, Important Landmarks and Colonial Buildings].

Ca. 1895. 24 original mounted gelatin silver photographs, Including 8 large ones each ca. 19x24 cm (7 ½ x 9 ½ in) and 16 smaller ones each ca. 11x17 cm (5 x 6 ½ in) all captioned in English in manuscript black ink below images on mounts. Overall a very good collection of interesting strong photos.
Rare collection of large vernacular views from less documented places on the Islands of Moorea, Raiatea, Tahiti in French Polynesia. The present historically interesting photos of French Polynesia include images from the Island of Tahiti: Pension Lorina (with proprietors), Papeete; Faa (with native boy in front of hut); View of Moorea from Faa; Hut in Paea (with locals outside a large native hut); Fautaua Avenue; Locals in Fautaua Valley; Fautaua Waterfall; Pont Bourgoin, (Fashoda Bridge) Fautaua; Locals scraping coconuts, Locals in front of native oven; Locals drying copra; Large gathering of locals singing Himene, July 14th (Bastille Day); Maraa Grotto; Tautira River (with native canoe); Tautira Road; Locals in a pandanus - Tautira. Moorea: Haapiti with locals(2); Locals fish spearing; (Portrait) Maata + Titi, Moorea. Raiatea: Village; Locals carrying wild bananas; Vanilla plant; Locals climbing coconut palm.
Overall an historically interesting collection showing unusual views and documenting the native people and their daily activities on the islands of Moorea, Raiatea, and Tahiti after the end of the Leewards War when local resistance to French rule had been pacified after France had annexed and made the islands a colony in 1888.


[Album of Twenty Early Original Albumen Photographs, showing Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod (1), Titled:] Moskva. Avgust 1871 goda [Moscow, August 1871].

Ca. 1871. Oblong Folio (ca. 28x34,5 cm). 21 thick stock album leaves. With 20 mounted albumen prints, including twelve large images ca. 19x25 cm (7 1/2 x 9 ¾ in), the rest are ca. 12x16 cm (4 ½ x 6 ½ in). All but two captioned in English or French in black ink on the mounts, seven photos hand coloured. Period brown full morocco album with large gilt lettered title in Russian on the front board; moiré endpapers, all edges gilt; remains of a brass clasp on the front board. Album rubbed on extremities, weak on hinges, spine with a minor tear on top, minor spotting to first and last leaves, several photos with occasional light foxing, but overall a very good album.
Attractive custom-made photo album with twenty original studio photos of Moscow and Nizhny Novgorod, collected during a visit to Moscow in August 1871. Among the photos are large hand coloured views of the Grand Kremlin Palace, the Tsar Bell, a panorama of Moscow taken from the top of the Ivan the Great Bell Tower (showing the Cathedral of Christ of the Savior, consecrated in 1883), Saint Basil’s Cathedral, close-up view of the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour with the Bolshoy Kamenny Bridge in the foreground; Russian telega or horse-driven cart, and a portrait of a “Moscow friend” (“muzhik”, or peasant). Other photos include portraits of Emperor Alexander II and his wife, Empress Maria Alexandrovna; four views of the Kremlin and the Red Square: Spasskaya Tower, St. Catherine Church of Ascension Convent (demolished by the Soviet authorities in 1929), monument to Minin and Pozharsky, a view of the Kremlin taken from the Moscow River embankment; and six photos of other Moscow sites: Sukharev Tower on the modern-day Sadovoye Ring road (demolished in 1934), Bolshoi Theatre; a view of the Moscow River, the Orphanage and Zamoskvorechye district, taken from the Kremlin; church of Holy Trinity in Ostankino; Red Gate triumphal arch (demolished in 1927); and Petrovsky Palace (then on the outskirts of Moscow, now within the city border). There is also a nice view of the territory of the famous Fair in Nizhny Novgorod, showing the fair pavilions (the one on the right has a sign indicating that it belongs to the well-known Russian merchant Savva Morozov), the Transfiguration or old-fair Cathedral, and the bridge over the Oka River. Overall an interesting collection of large early photos of Moscow, with an attractive view of the Nizhny Novgorod fair grounds.


[REMARKABLE PRIMARY SOURCE ON 17TH CENTURY RUSSIAN-WESTERN EUROPEAN RELATIONS]. Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi de’Sig.i Ambasc. Moscoviti, che ora si trovano in Livorno per passare all’Ambasciata di Venezia [Autograph Letter by an Anonymous Author from Livorno Witnessing the Muscovite Embassy to Venice (1656-1657) and Containing Vivid Observations and Remarks About the Russians].

Livorno, ca. 1656. Quarto, ca. 27x19,5 cm (10 ½ x 7 ¾ in). Four pages; brown ink on cream laid paper with fleur-de-lis watermark, written in a legible hand. Paper aged and slightly faded, with fold marks, but the text is still bright and easy distinguishable. Beautiful period style crimson elaborately gilt tooled custom made full morocco clamshell box with cloth chemise. The letter in very good condition.
Remarkable and very important primary source for Russian-western European relations in the 17th century, a period copy of the letter, titled "Curiosissimi Costumi de’Sig.i Ambasciatori Moscoviti, che ora si trovano in Livorno per passare all’Ambasciata di Venezia." According to the historians who worked with two other known copies of the letter (see below: Attribution of "Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi") it was written by a witness of the embassy, somehow involved with it, most likely between the 19th and 23rd of December, 1656. The written dialect of the letter’s language indicates that the author was a common person from Livorno, possibly of Sicilian origin.
The letter vividly describes the Muscovite diplomatic delegation, staying in Livorno on its way to Venice in the winter of 1656. It was an official embassy to the Doge of Venice from the Russian Tsar Alexey Mikhailovich (1629-1676) sent in 1656-57 and headed by the Pereyaslavl governor Ivan Ivanovich Chemodanov (before 1618 - after 1657) and Deacon A. Postnikov. The goal of the embassy was to strengthen political and commercial relations with Venice, to negotiate the joint struggle against the Turks, to give Venetians the permission to trade in Archangelsk, and to borrow money from the Doge. A small "side task" was to: "to sell a hundred poods (1600kgs) of rhubarb and some sable furs for a thousand roubles." Overall the embassy didn’t achieve its goals as it didn’t manage to get the money from the Doge and to successfully sell the stale rhubarb and the sable furs (some of which were damaged during the voyage to Italy and some were sold to feed the embassy itself). The embassy left Venice in March 1657 and went back to Russia through Switzerland, Germany and Holland.
In spite of a lack of diplomatic skills, Chemodanov’s embassy left its trace in history. Its members became the first Russians to travel to Italy by sea, around northern Europe. They left Archangelsk on the 12th of September, 1656; passed the "Northern Nose" (North Cape), the "land of the Danish king," "Icelant, or Icy island (Iceland)," "the lands of Hamburg and Bremen," Scotland, Holland, "possessions of the English King," French and Spanish lands - "all those countries we passed from the left," and arrived in Livorno on the 24th of November the same year. During the voyage they suffered from storms in the Atlantic, when most of the state goods were damaged.
The embassy’s appearance in Italy was met with great interest and curiosity; the official relations from both the Russian and Italian sides noted crowds of people accompanying the Muscovites wherever they went. Our letter "Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi" reveals what impression the Russian diplomats made on the Italians, e.g. "they are dressed in cloth of cotton wool as they are afraid of cold, which is very common in their country"; "they beat their servants with their own hands, and so brutally that four of five of them was on the verge of death, and one ran away and is still not found"; "they have sable skins for 100 thousand skudi and also a big amount of rhubarb, caviar and salted fish, and it stinks so much, that people get sick, and where they were for one hour it stinks afterwards for twelve hours."
The Muscovites often seemed barbaric to the inhabitants of Livorno, as they all slept together, "and the Ambassador with them too, as he was afraid to fall off the bed"; they liked wine, but "put it all in one barrel, not distinguishing whether it is white or red or any sort of wine"; when the Governor took them around the city in a carriage, local people were astonished to see that the Muscovites didn’t open the doors, but climbed over them. There are also descriptions of their table manners which indicate that the Muscovites didn’t know how to use forks, also descriptions of how balls and festivities amused them, how "all small houses seemed to them as Gran Palazzos." Amusing also is the note that the Muscovites liked "Belle Donne" a lot, and spent many sable furs on them. Another note describes how the chief Ambassador got attracted to the wife of a local doctor and tried to get her attention. The letter concludes with a note of the embassy’s coming departure to Florence, where they will be met as Royal ambassadors, and "comedia redecolosa" and that a big feast will be given in their honour, as "they like it more than anything else."
Attribution of "Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi":
There are two other known copies of "Curiosissimi Costumi," the older one is found in the Vatican Library (Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana) as a part of "Codex Vaticanus Latinus" № 8891. It was first published in printed form in 1890 as a part of "Spicilegio Vaticano di Documenti Inediti e Rari, Estratti Dagli Archivi e Dalla Biblioteca della Sede Apostolica (Roma 1890, p. 381-383). The editor of the book, Monsignor I. Carini attributed that the Vatican letter was written in the middle of the 17th century by a first-hand witness of the Muscovite Embassy. Based on the written dialect of the letter’s language, Carini attributed the author as one of Livorno’s common people, a Sicilian by origin.
The second of the two other known copies of "Curiosissimi Costumi" is deposited in Russia, in the archive of the Saint Petersburg Institute of History of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The text of the letter is included in the Italian manuscript collection titled "Storie Diverse." Soviet historians also published a printed version of their copy of the letter and thoroughly analysed it (see special articles by S. Anninskii, 1934, and I. Sharkova, 1972); The Saint Petersburg copy was attributed to be written slightly later than the Vatican copy, at the end of the 17th or in the very beginning of the 18th century.
A thorough analysis of the texts of our letter and the Vatican and Saint Petersburg copies reveal several minor differences between all three, but also show a strong resemblance between our "Relatione d’Alcuni Costumi" and the Vatican copy. They are very similar in regards to the completeness and spelling of the text, whereas the Saint Petersburg copy often has some words replaced or removed, and also has spelling patterns different from the Vatican and our copies. This allows us the to state, that our copy was written at the same time with the Vatican copy or close to it. It’s remarkable, on the other hand, that the text of our copy is more extensive, than the Vatican one: there are additional lines in several places supplementing the contents of the Vatican copy. It could mean either that our copy is earlier - making it the earliest known copy of "Curiosissimi Costumi," or that the author of our copy knew more about the events described in the letter, and decided to enrich it with more details.
[Ambasceria Russa in Italia] / [Ed. By I. Carini] // Spicilegio Vaticano di Documenti Inediti e Rari, Estratti Dagli Archivi e Dalla Biblioteca della Sede Apostolica. – Roma 1890. – P. 376-383.
[Anninskii] Аннинский, С.А. Пребывание в Ливорно Царского посольства в 1656 г. (Впечатления иностранца) // ИРЛИ. Сборник статей, посвященных академику А.С. Орлову. – 1934. – С. 201-207.
[Kazakova] Казакова, Н.А. Статейные списки русских послов в Италию как памятники литературы путешествий (середина XVII века) // Труды Отдела древнерусской литературы. — Л.: Наука. Ленингр. Отд-ние, 1988. – T. XLI. – С. 268-288.
[Liubopytneishie nravy…] Любопытнейшие нравы господ послов московских, которые находятся теперь в Ливорно, проездом в Венецию / Публ. И перевод К. Шварсалон // Русская старина, 1894. – Т. 81. - № 1. – С. 197-203.
[Sharkova] Шаркова, И.С. Посольство И.И. Чемоданова и отклики на него в Италии // Проблемы истории международных отношений. – Л., 1972. – С. 207-223.


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